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saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministro

saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis gaerTianebuli Stabi


J7 samxedro ganaTlebisa da sabrZolo momzadebis
departamenti

ssip iv. javaxiSvilis istoriisa da


eTnologiis instituti

beJan Javaxia

raindoba Sua saukuneebis


evropaSi
meomris biblioTeka #18

Tbilisi
2008

Tqvens winaSea axali seriis ,,meomris biblioTekis~ meTvramete wigni; seria


iTvaliswinebs wignebis mTel wyebas, romlebSic popularulad iqneba gadmocemuli
saqarTvelosa da msoflio istoriis yvelaze saintereso da mniSvnelovani movlenebi.
seriis mizania qarTveli meomris da imedia, ara marto misi, patriotuli
aRzrda da codnis miwodeba misaReb formebSi. seriaSi gaTvaliswinebulia
popularuli, magram maRal profesionalur doneze dawerili saxelmZRvaneloebi; es
patara, magram tevadi da kargad gaformebuli broSurebi mieZRvneba qarTvelTa
udides mefe daviTs, Tamars, giorgi brwyinvales, bagrat III-s, saqarTveloSi
warmoebul mTavar da gadamwyvet brZolebs, XIX_XX ss-is gamoCenil qarTvel
oficrebs, saqarTvelosa da msoflio samxedro istoriis calkeul sakiTxebsa da
a.S.
seriis gamocemis iniciatorebi arian iv. javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis
instituti da saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministro.
didi survili da imedi gvaqvs, rom meomarTa da oficerTa garda, saqarTvelos
yoveli moqalaqe siamovnebiT miiRebs am seriis yovel axal wigns.
seriis garekanze moTavsebuli warwera da didi daviTi yvelas Seaxsenebs, rom
brZola saqarTvelosTvis dResac grZeldeba.

vaJa kiknaZe

seriis saredaqcio kolegia:

recenzenti:

istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, profesori

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doqtori, profesori

Tamaz beraZe

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doqtori, profesori
vaJa kiknaZe

kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa: Lnino gigani


ydis dizaini: giorgi kiknaZe
redaqtori: nargiz xarabaZe
teqnikuri redaqtori: mari WoniSvili
damtkicebuli da samoqmedod SemoRebulia saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis
gaerTianebuli Stabis J7 samxedro ganaTlebisa da sabrZolo
departamentis ufrosis _ polkovnik nodar qviliTaias mier
saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis gaerTianebuli
topografiuli sammarTvelos stamba. 2008 w.
q. Tbilisi, general kvinitaZis q. #20
tel.: +995 32 91-19-83
faqsi: +995 32 91-19-83
2

Stabis

jvarosani raindi, maTe parizelis qronikidan, miniatura

raindobis warmoSoba
evropaSi warCinebulTa wridan warmoiSva raindTa wodeba. raindi
warmoadgenda
keTilSobil
meomarTa
sazogadoebas,
romlisTvisac
upirvelesi iyo RvTis samsaxuri da Rirsebis dacva. raindi _ es iyo
SeiaraRebuli mxedari, warCinebuli warmoSobis, an warCinebulis
samsaxurSi myofi.
sityva raindi dResac JRers Cvens sinamdvileSi da is keTilSobil
da mamac adamians aRniSnavs. dRemde evropis qveynebSi adamianebi didi
pativiT atareben raindis wodebas. didi britaneTis monarqi raindis
wodebas
aniWebs
sazogadoebriv
asparezze
gansakuTrebuli
warmatebebisaTvis da es erT-erT udides pativad iTvleba am qveyanaSi.
raindebs hqondaT TavianTi ideali keTilSobili mebrZoli unda
daxmareboda sustsa da Raribebs, yofiliyo sityvis patroni, mamaci da
uSiSari, Tavisi senioris erTguli, daxmareboda eklesias. raindoba iyo
cxovrebis forma, romelSic erTmaneTs erwymoda sami ZiriTadi
komponenti _ religiuri, socialuri (aristokratuli) da sabrZolo.
raindoba gavrcelebuli iyo mTels evropaSi, aseve mis gareT.
avtorTa didi nawili raindobis warmoSobas XI saukuneSi
varaudobda, Tumca dReisaTvis sadavoKaraa, rom raindis ideali ufro
adre gaCnda.
radgan raindi, upirveles yovlisa, iyo mebrZoli mxedari, misi
safuZvlebi ufro adreul xanaSi unda veZeboT. mxedris aRmniSvneli
terminebi gvxvdeba antikur xanaSic, Zvel berZnul da laTinur
wyaroebSi, Tumca orive SemTxvevaSi es terminebi ar aRniSnavdnen
3

raindebs, rogorc mebrZolTa fenas, aramed ufro erT-erTi samomsaxureo


socialuri fenis aRmniSvnelad gamoiyeneboda.
rac Seexeba mebrZolTa fenas da brZolisadmi gansakuTrebul
interess, es kargad Cans evropis uZvelesi mosaxleobis miTebsa da
legendebSi, romael avtorTa cnobebSi Zveli germanelebis Sesaxeb. Zveli
germanelebis warmarTul warmodgenebSi gansakuTrebuli adgili ekava
omis RmerTs vodins. brZola maTi saqmianobis yvelaze mniSvnelovani
asparezi iyo, Tumca am xalxebSi mebrZolTa socialur fenaze saubari
naadrevi iqneboda.
ramdenadac raindoba feodaluri sazogadoebis warmonaqmnia, CvenTvis
mniSvnelovania im safuZvlebis moZebna, Tu rogor yalibdeboda
mebrZolTa instituti, rogorc wodeba Sua saukuneebis sazogadoebaSi,
sadac mTavari ideologia qristianoba iyo.
istorikosTa erTi nawilis azriT, raindTa institutis warmoSobas
safuZveli Caeyara xalxTa didi gadasaxlebis xanaSi, rodesac
qristianuli romi iZulebuli iyo barbarosebs gamklaveboda.
saerTod, barbarosebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi TanTadan yalibdeba
samxedro
qristianuli
msoflmxedveloba;
pirveli
qristianebi
Tavdapirvelad, uars ambobdnen brZolaSi monawileobaze, qristiani
avtorebi ki kicxavdnen kidec qristianebs omSi monawileobisaTvis. RvTis
samsaxurSi yofna avaldebulebs morwmune adamians, emsaxuros RmerTs,
ise rogorc jariskaci emsaxureba saxelmwifos. amdenad, qristiani xdeba
RvTis
jariskaci
(miles
Dei),
romelic,
gansxvavebiT
sxva
jariskacebisagan, ar ibrZvis. mogvianebiT, aseTi saxeliT _ `milites dei ~
da `milites qristi~ _ moixsniebian samxedro sasuliero ordenis
wevrebi.
dasavleTis RvTismetyvelTagan erT-erTi pirveli, vis SromebSic
Cndeba samarTliani omis sarwmuneobisa da RmerTisaTvis brZolis
Teoria, netari avgustinea. Tavis TxzulebaSi `RvTis qalaqis Sesaxeb~
netari avgustine wuxs omis arsebobis gamo da aRniSnavs, rom mas, visac
SeuZlia miiRos omi sulieri tkivilis gareSe, dakarguli aqvs
adamianuri grZnobebi. amave dros, is xazgasmiT miuTiTebs: vinc mters
klavs, is aris kanonis msaxuri, romelic Zaladobas ZaliTve pasuxobs.
am droidan (ax. w. Vs.), netari avgustines mier Camoyalibebuli Teoriis
Sesabamisad, yalibdeba koncefcia _ omi SeiZleba iyos samarTliani da
qristianebs yovelgvari sindisis qenjnis gareSe SeuZliaT masSi
monawileoba. ase rom, Tu qristianebi Tavdapirvelad Tvlidnen, rom
unda yofiliyvnen morCilni da `aramoZaladeni~, netari avgustines mier
wamoyenebuli Teoria gaxda safuZveli im ideologiisa, romlis
mixedviTac, qristianebSi funqciebi gaiyo. erTni ibrZvian demonebisa da
borotebis winaaRmdeg locviT, maSin rodesac danarCeni ibrZvis
barbarosebis winaaRmdeg iaraRiT.
4

Tu raindobas ganvixilavT, rogorc Cveulebas, romlis Tanaxmadac


samxedro samsaxurSi myofi axalgazrdebi iRebdnen iaraRis tarebis
uflebas, maSin es karlos didis epoqas an kidev ufro adrindel xanas
unda mivakuTvnoT. karlos didma Tavisi vaJi lui gamoiwvia aqvitaniidan*
da sazeimod Semoartya mas xmali. magram Tu raindobas ganvixilavT,
rogorc wodebas, romelsac pirveli adgili ekava samxedro fenaSi da
romelic mas eZleoda investituris* saSualebiT, romelsac Tan axlda
religiuri da samxedro rituali da sazeimo fici, maSin aseTi saxiT is
warmoiSva ara uadres XI saukunisa.
XI saukunis damdegs lionis* episkoposi adalberoni werda: RvTis
saxli sam nawilad iyofa. erTni loculoben, meoreni ibrZvian da
mesameni muSaoben. es sami erTad mcxovrebi fenebi ar unda iyvnen
gaTiSulni. erTi maTganis saqmianoba aris piroba danarCeni oris
moRvaweobisaTvis.
netari avgustines moZRvreba, mogvianebiT omTan damokidebulebis
Sesaxeb, gaxda safuZveli, romelmac farTo gavrceleba hpova kluniuri*
ideebis damkvidrebis Semdeg. Tumca ufro adre, jer kidev VIII saukunis
saistorio wyaroebSi aSkaraa miniSneba wminda omis Sesaxeb, es exeba
gansakuTrebiT evropelTa brZolebs arabebis winaaRmdeg. adre Sua
saukuneebSi mkvidrdeba mxedarTa mfarveli angelozebisa da wmindanTa
kulti. VIII saukunis damdegidan barbarosTa axali talRis saSiSroebam
evropaSi gamoiwvia samxedro Tematikis ufro Rrmad gaazreba.
qristianuli omi da qristiani memomari mowodebuli iyvnen rjulis
SesanarCuneblad. am periodSive Cndeba garkveuli sxvaoba _ erTi mxriv,
qristianebs Soris warmoebul omebsa da, meore mxriv, qristianebsa da
sxva rjulis meomrebs Soris warmoebul brZolebs Soris. codva,
Cadenili ZmaTa Soris omSi, gamoisyideba egreTwodebul saRvTo omSi.
swored amis Sesaxeb werda papi stefan II 753 wels, rodesac frankebs
mouwodebda arabebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad: `codvebi Tqveni
mitevebuli iqneba, Tu SeiaraRebuli brZoliT daicavT saRvTo eklesias,
amisaTvis Tqven moipovebT samudamo sicocxles~. am azrs aviTarebda
SemdgomSi papi leo IV: `yvela omSi daRupulis winaSe gaixsneba
samoTxis kari. Tqven gascemT sicocxles WeSmariti rwmenisaTvis. es icis
RmerTma da mogizRvavT sikeTiT sikeTisaTvis~.
TandaTan mkvidrdeba meomarTa mfarveli angelozebis kulti.
mTavarangeloz miqaelis
mniSvneloba izrdeba. mas, SeiZleba, mTavari
zeciuri meomaric ki vuwodoT. miqael mTavarangelozi _ israelisa da
bizantiis mfarveli _ otonebis* mfarveladac iqceva. unda aRiniSnos,
rom rainduli epoqis mwvervalze Camoyalibda raindTa mfarveli didi
sameuli deda RvTisa mariam RvTismSobeli, mTavaragelozi miqaeli da
wmida giorgi kapadokieli.
5

omisadmi
damokidebulebis
axleburi
qristianuli
motivi
warmodgenilia 796 wels karlos didis mier pap leo III-dmi gagzavnil
werilSi, sadac naTlad aris Camoyalibebuli frankTa mefis pozicia
papebis mimarT da, aseve, frankTa saxelmwifos ideologia omTan
dakavSirebiT: `Cveni amocanaa, RvTis SemweobiT davicvaT iaraRiT wminda
eklesia yvelgan warmarTTa Tavdasxmisagan da garedan urwmunoTa
aoxrebisagan, kaTolikuri rwmenis aRiarebiT ganvmtkicdeT. Cveni
movaleoba sapirispiroa, roca mose aRmarTuli xelebiT loculobda
israelTa gamarjvebisaTvis, Tqvenc iloceT da locviT SegvewieT
brZolaSi. Tqveni locviTa da uflis winamZRolobiT da qristiani
xalxis SemweobiT, qristes saxeliT, yvelgan movipovebT gamarjvebas da
Cveni RmerTis qristes saxeli gabrwyindeba mTels msoflioSi~.
azri imis Sesaxeb, rom raindi qristiani meomaria, aSkarad Cans Sua
saukuneebis erT-erT ritualSi, roca `raindebi fsalmunis kiTxvisas
qarqaSidan iRebdnen xmals da eWiraT locvis bolomde. es, TiTqos,
niSnavda saRvTo sityvisa da werilebis, e. i. rjulis dacvas. Sua
saukuneebi Rrma rwmenis periodia, rodesac adamians ar stanjavs eWvebi
da filosofiuri kiTxvebi. mas samyaro warmoudgenia farTo Teatrad,
sadac cremlebiTa da sixaruliT aRsavse dramebi TamaSdeba, am dramis
mTavari moqmedi gmirebi ki iRvwian da cxovelqmedeben miwaze, samoTxesa
da jojoxeTs Soris, RvTiuri pirovnebebi ki _ angelozebi da wmindanebi
_ exmarebian kacobriobas satanis bneli legionebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi.
raindis institutis mniSvnelobis zrdaSi eklesiis mniSvnelovan
rolze miuTiTebs liturgikuli teqstebi, sadac Sua saukuneebidan
arsebobs locvebi da kurTxevebi omis warmoebasTan dakavSirebiT. X
saukunis wirvebis wignSi gvxvdeba specialuri locvebi da kurTxevebi
droSebisa, romelebic
mihqondaT warmarTTa winaaRmdeg brZolebSi.
germaniis mefeebs warmarTTa winaaRmdeg brZolebSi gamohqonaT droSebi,
romlebzec gamosaxuli iyo wmindanebi. germanel mefeebs hainrix
frinvelmWersa* da oto I-s* brZolaSi ungrelebis winaaRmdeg
wamZRvarebuli hqondaT droSa miqael mTavarangelozis gamosaxulebiT,
amitomac, germanelTa did gamarjvebas ungrelebze 955 wels, lexis
velze, mematiane miqael mTavarangelozis saxels miawers. xSirad
brZolis dasrulebis Semdeg tardeboda samadlobeli wirva miqael
mTavarangelozis mimarT.
wminda giorgis, rogorc qristian mebrZolTa patronis kulti
ufro adre damkvidrda aRmosavleTSi, xolo dasavleTSi mebrZolTa
patronisa da meoxis saxiT igi XI saukunidan Cndeba. erT-erTi pirveli
miTiTeba amis Sesaxeb gvxvdeba normanebis* brZolis aRweraSi
saracinebis* winaaRmdeg 1063 wels.
miuxedavad yvelafrisa, ver vityviT, rom raindoba saeklesio fena
iyo, piriqiT, is warmoiSva rogorc saero fena Sua saukuneebis
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feodalur sistemaSi. radganac Sua saukuneebis sazogadoebaSi yvela


qmedeba RvTis nebis SesabamisobaSi iyo moyvanili TanamedroveTa mier,
amdenad, raindi da misi morali, Sua saukuneebis sazogadoebis
azrovnebis Sesabamisad, religiuria. raindi, upirveles yovlisa, iyo
mebrZoli, `milites~ _ ase moixseniebdnen maT Sua saukuneebis sasuliero
literaturaSi. raindis swrafva TviTdamkvidrebisaken, simdidrisaken,
qalisadmi trfoba, qristianul ideologias upirispirdeboda kidec.
amitomac, zogierTi avtori miiCnevs, rom raindoba iyo qristianuli
formis, magram mainc ufro metad warmarTul safuZvlebze damyarebuli
instituti.
raindis qarTuli mniSvneloba, sulxan-sabas leqsikonis mixedviT,
aris `cxenis gamwvrTneli kaci~. sityva raindi evropaSic ukavSirdeba
cxenosans. cxenosan mebrZols samxreT safrangeTSi uwodebdnen
`kabalarii~, `kavalarii~ _ laTinuri sityvidan caballum (cxeni), xolo
XI saukunidan ki miles iTargmna, rogorc chevalier raindi. germanul
enaSi sityva raindi (Ritter), Tavdapirvelad niSnavda mxedars (Reiter),
gansakuTrebiT iseTs, vinc ixdida samxedro movaleobas, rogorc mxedari,
magram maleve, es gageba (Ritter) idealuri mamakacis saxelad iqceva.
inglisSi daaxloebiT XI saukunidan xmarebaSi Semodis raindobis
aRmniSvneli sityva
`knight~, romelic warmodgeba Zveli inglisuri
sityvidan `cnight~, rac niSnavs biWs. qarTul enaSic Wabuki ixmareboda
raindis aRmniSvnel terminad.
radgan raindi, upirvelesad, cxenosani mebrZolia, istorikosTa
nawils raindoba aRmosavluri warmoSobis institutad miaCnda, sadac
cxenis kulti adreve damkvidrda. SeiaraRebuli mxedari ufro adre aris
cnobili aziaSic. saerTodac, miaCniaT, rom adrianopolTan* brZolaSi
378 wels, sadac romis jari daamarcxa cxenosanma barbarosebma, evropaSi
safuZveli Caeyara cxenosani laSqris upiratesobas; es TariRi, xSirad,
axali etapis dasawyisad miaCniaT evropaSi.
IV saukuneSi samxedro strategiaSi xdeba gadatrialeba, rac
gamoixata mxedarTa gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis CamoyalibebaSi. mxedari
sabolood jabnis qveiTs. Tumca aseve miaCniaT, rom evropaSi mxedris,
cxenis kulti kelturi warmomavlobisaa, Semdgom ki germanelma tomebma
gaiTavises es tradicia.
raindobam aRmosavleTSi iseTi ganviTareba ver hpova, rogorc
dasavleTSi. VII-VIII saukuneebSi arabma cxenosanma mxolod droebiT
miiRo upiratesoba. xalifatis* ekonomikurma ganviTarebam IX saukunidan
samxedro sistemis gardaqmnis aucilebloba ganapiroba. gaizarda mZimed
SeiaraRebul cxenosanTa roli. mxedari aq `iqtas~ (arabulad `nadeli~)
mflobeli iyo. identuri iyo procesi iaponiaSi, sadac VIII saukuneSi,
imperator kotokus reformebis Sedegad, gaizarda feodis mflobelTa
ricxvi. feodi `sioni~ da feodali `riosiu~ damoukidebeli iyo
7

siuzerenisagan da miwas memkvidreobiT gadascemda. paralelurad,


yalibdeboda samuraebis fena. XI saukunemde isini warmoadgendnen mZimed
SeiaraRebul mxedrebs. XI-XII saukuneebSi samuraebi raindTa ordenad
yalibdebian.
analogiuri movlenebi mimdinareobda bizantiaSi, sadac armia
kargavda Tavis saxalxo xasiaTs, ufro profesiuli xdeboda, mis birTvs
warmoadgendnen stratiotebi miwis wvrili da saSualo mflobelebi.
aRsaniSnavia, rom bizantiis X saukunis samxedro traqtatebi am
mxedrebs uwodebdnen Zvel saxels `katafraktebi~. magram raindobis
Camoyalibeba saboloo saxiT bizantiaSi ar moxerxda, radganac vasali aq
ufro damokidebuli iyo Tavis siuzerenze, garda amisa, ganuwyvetelma
omebma, romelTac awarmoebda bizantia, igi Camoayaliba, rogorc
politikurad organizebuli saxelmwifo, romelsac ar sWirdeboda
raindi. erTi sityviT, rainds aq ar daekisra eTikuri misia, misia
mxsnelisa da gadamrCenlis, qristes meomris.
saintereso paralelia: evropeli raindi da samurai. TiTqos,
iaponiis politikur Caketilobas, unda gamoewvia Zireuli sxvaoba am
kategoriebs Soris, magram aq Cven bevr msagavsebasac vxedavT. samuraebis
eTikur kodeqsSi `busidoSi~ mocemulia samurais ZiriTadi
maxasiaTeblebi. rogorc evropeli raindisaTvis, mTavari saxasiaTo
Strixi aqac siuzerenis erTguleba da pirovnuli Rirsebaa. samurai unda
yofiliyo erTguli, vaJkaci, kargi meomari.
saqarTveloSi raindTa fenas aRniSnavda termini moyme da Wabuki.
termini raindi pirvelad gvxvdeba `amirandarejanianSi~, sadac igi
moxseniebulia cxenis gamxednavis aRmniSvnelad. im azriT,
rogorc
dRes Cven mas viyenebT, is gvxvdeba `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~. Tamaris
mematiane Tamaris qmris daviT soslanis Sesaxeb wers, rom iyo
`raindobiTa da mSvildosnobiT usworo SemmarTebeli~. s. kakabaZis
azriT, qarTuli raindobis institutis Camoyalibebas xeli Seuwyo
dasavleT evropis jvarosanTa mier ierusalimis qristianuli samefos
daarsebam. misive TqmiT, `moyme iyo upirveles yovlisa meomari. samxedro
vnebaTa is daudgromeli Relva, romelic saSualo saukuneebis rainds
rogorc aRmosavleTSi, ise evropaSi iwvevda `sagmiro saqmeTa~-ken,
ganuwyveteli
miswrafeba
sxvadasxva
axal
gancdaTa
da
SemTxveulobisaken, raindisaTvis rogorc yvelgan, saqarTveloSic
damaxasiaTebelia. yvelaferi es Seadgenda qarTvel moymeTa Tvisebas~.
qarTuli raindobis, anu, rogorc is saqarTveloSi aRiniSneboda, moymeTa
ideebi yvelaze maRalmxatvrulad aris gadmocemuli SoTa rusTavelis
`vefxistyaosanSi~.
raindobis asparezs, ZiriTadad, mainc Sua saukuneebis safrangeTi da
germania warmoadgenda, saidanac is gavrcelda SemdegSi inglissa da
skandinaviiis xalxebSi. espaneTSi raindobas Taviseburi forma hqonda,
8

radganac is, qveyanaSi arsebuli mdgomareobis gamo, mimarTuli iyo,


ZiriTadad, islamis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad. italiaSi ki, sadac
mniSvnelovan rols qalaqebi TamaSobdnen, raindoba, rogorc Tavisufali
fena da sakuTari cixe-simagreebis mflobeli, naklebad Cans.
radganac raindi iyo SeiaraRebuli mxedari da mis simbolos cxeni
da maxvili warmoadgenda, saintereso iqneboda Sua saukuneebis
sazogadoebaSi rogorc cxenis kultisadmi, aseve maxvilis simbolosadmi
damokidebulebis warmodgena.
maxvili damakavSirebeli jaWvia sustTa da uZlurTa daxmarebasa da
raindobas Soris.
igi Zalauflebis (xelisuflebis) simboloa,
romelsac eklesia sazeimod gadascemda mefeebs gvirgvinkurTxevis
saeklesio
ceremonialis
dros,
iseve
rogorc
is
mogvianebiT
gadaecemodaT raindebs raindad kurTxevis dros.
maxvilis kulti qristianobamdec gvxvdeba, gansakuTrebiT iranel
xalxebSi. amiane marceline* wers, rom alanebs ar aqvT arc taZrebi, arc
salocavebi da arc raime gadaxuruli qoxi. isini erTaderT rames scemen
Tayvans _ miwaSi Caflul maxvils, rogorc omis RmerTis simbolos.
herodote miuTiTebda aseve skviTebis Sesaxeb, rom isini maxvils,
rogorc omis RvTaebis _ aresis simbolos, msxverplad wiravdnen
cxenebs. saintereso gadmocema arsebobs aseve hunebis beladis atilas
Sesaxeb, romelmac ipova maxvili, riTac SemdgomSi moipova gamarjvebebi
evropis teritroriaze.
Sua saukuneebis saraindo romanebSi interesi maxvilisadmi, rogorc
erT-erTi mniSvnelovani qristianuli simbolosadmi, gansakuTrebulia.
Sua saukuneebSi mravali legenda Seiqmna maxvilis Sesaxeb, romlebic
romelime xalxis gadmocemas eyrdnoba. erT-erTi aseTi saintereso
legenda Seiqmna jvarosanTa pirveli laSqrobis periodSi. jvarosanTa
mier antioqiis gaWianurebuli alyis dros, gadmocemis Tanaxmad,
laSqrobis erT-erT monawiles hqonda gamocxadeba, rom antioqiis erTerT taZarSi dafluli iyo maxvili, romelic jvarcmis dros romaelma
legionerebma aZgeres macxovars. jvarosnebma amoTxares es maxvili, misi
wamZRvarebiT moipoves gamarjveba da antioqias daepatronnen.
Sua saukuneebis saraindo eposSi gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs
gadmocemebs rogorc zemoTnaxsenebi maxvilis, aseve saidumlo serobis
barZimis Sesaxeb. es iyo barZimi, romelic macxovarma serobis dros
gamoiyena da romelic
moipova ioseb arimaTielma*. is moixsenieba,
rogorc wm. graali, romlis mopoveba Sua saukuneebis raindisaTvis, erTerTi yvelaze mTavari amocanaa saraindo romanebSi.
gadmocemebSi, maxvili, xSirad sulieri saxiTaa warmodgenili da
sakuTari saxelic ki aqvs, magaliTad, boevulfis maxvili xrutingi,
rolandis maxvili durandali, karlos didis _ Juaezi, legendaruli
mefis arturis maxvili ekskaliburi.
9

raindis mogzauroba, Sua saukuneebis miniatura

raindis aRzrda da kurTxeva


raindad gaxdomisaTvis bavSvobidanve emzadebodnen. keTilSobili
ojaxis vaJi 7 wlis rom gaxdeboda, dedis xelidan mamakacis xelSi
gadadioda
aRsazrdelad,
igi
mihyavdaT
senioris
sasaxleSi
`saswavleblad~. am bavSvebs paJebs an valetebs uwodebdnen.
bavSvebis gabareba sxva raindis saxlSi sxvadasxva mizeziT iyo
ganpirobebuli. upirvelesad, raindisaTvis didi pativi iyo, aRezarda
momavali mebrZoli, ojaxisaTvis _ miebarebina Svili aRsazrdelad
warCinebuli raindis sasaxleSi. sxva raindisaTvis aRsazrdelad
mibarebis wesi imiTac iyo ganpirobebuli, rom mSoblebs, SesaZlebelia,
sisuste gamoeCinaT TavianTi Svilebis mimarT da ar gamoeyenebinaT
aRzrdis is mkacri meTodebi, romelic saWiro iyo raindis
mosamzadeblad.
bavSvebi 7 wlis asakidanve, xSirad 10-11 wlis asakidan, iwyebdnen
swavlas raindis sasaxleSi. isini swavlobdnen weras da kiTxvas
laTinurad, aseve Tavdapirvelad raindebSi Zalian waxalisebuli iyo
franguli enis Seswavla. swavlobdnen biblias da, xSirad, Svidi
Tavisufali xelovnebis* sagnebs. Tavisufali dro eTmoboda cekvas,
10

arfaze dakvras, maT aswavlidnen sxvadasxva saidumlo mecnierebebs.


senioris sasaxleSi axalgazrda eufleboda RvTis siyvarulsa da
pativiscemas, swrafvas saxelis moxveWisadmi da qalisadmi. swavlebaSi
mTavari iyo sabrZolo xelovnebis daufleba: swavlobdnen brZolis
wesebsa da kanonebs, cxenosnobas da jiriTs, farikaobas, maxvilisa da
Subis xmarebas, miminoTi nadirobas, Wadrakis TamaSs. mTavari iyo,
bavSvebSi momaval raindebSi aRezardaT Rirsebisa da pativis
grZnoba. amisTvis arsebobda sxvadasxva saxis TamaSi, romelic wvrTnida
da ayalibebda
momavali raindis xasiaTs. isini aSenebdnen qalaqebs,
sadac aRniSnuli iyo aRmosavleTis qristianuli dasaxlebebi, rac
Tavidanve miuTiTebda, rom raindis moRvaweobis mTavar asparezs
warmoadgenda qristianuli sarwmuneobisa da qristianTa dacva. raindi
bavSvobidanve unda Caswvdomoda Tavisuflebis suls.
14 wlidan igi Rebulobda saWurvelmtvirTvelis (meabjris)
wodebas
da
xdeboda
Tavisi
raindis
ganuyreli
Tanamgzavri.
saWurvelmtvirTvelebi iyofodnen TavianTi movaleobebis mixedviT:
saWurvelmtvirTvelebs, romlebic emsaxurebodnen stumrebis miRebas
sasaxleSi, unda mierTmiaT stumrebisTvis Rvino da sadili, aseve unda
SeZlebodaT maTTan lamazad saubari. iyvnen saWurvelmtvirTvelebi,
romelTa movaleobasac, ZiriTadad, warmoadgenda zrunva raindis
sasaxleSi arsebul cxenebze, nawilis movaleobas warmoadgenda raindis
iaraRisa da saWurvlis movla. rodesac raindi sasaxlidan midioda,
saWurvelmtvirTels unda mierTmia misTvis abjari, aseve iaraRi.
sasaxleSi maT aseve iyenebdnen mstovrebad. maT evalebodaT saidumlo
werilebis an sxva informaciis gadatana sxvadasxva sasaxleebsa da cixesimagreebSi. maT iq yovelTvis pativiT xvdebodnen, isini xelSeuxeblebi
iyvnen arasasiamovno informaciis mitanis drosac.
daeufleboda ra raindisaTvis aucilebel xelobas da unar-Cvevebs,
rainds SeeZlo aerCia qali, romlis gulis dapyrobasac igi cdilobda.
saWurvelmtvirTvelebi
exmarebodnen
raindebs
brZolis
win
Semosvasa da SeiarRebaSi, rodesac raindi Sedioda eklesiaSi, isini
movaleni iyvnen, misTvis iaraRi da Cafxuti CamoerTmiaT. brZolis dros
saWurvelmtvirTveli raindis ukan idga, Tumca igi ar iyo mxolod
mayurebeli, mTeli gulisyuriT adevnebda Tvals raindis brZolas da
exmareboda mas. mas droze unda miewodebina raindisaTvis axali iaraRi,
Tu raindi Zlier dartymas miiRebda da cxenidan gadmovardeboda,
wamoeyenebina da miegvara axali cxeni. saWurvelmtvirTvelis movaleobani
Zalian mZime iyo da am wodebisaTvis paJebis momzadebas did dros
uTmobdnen; saWurvelmtvirTvelis wodebis tareba didi pativi iyo, 21
wlis asaks miRweuli bevri axalgazrda ver Rebulobda am wodebas.
21 wlis saWurvelmtvirTvels ukve raindad akurTxebdnen. arsebobda
raindis kurTxevis gansakuTrebuli ceremoniali. igi tardeboda
11

umetesad didi saeklesio dResaswaulebis _ Sobis, aRdgomis,


naTlisRebis, amaRlebis, an kidev mefeebis gvirgvinkurTxevis, taxtis
memkvidris dabadebis, misi naTlobis, an ufliswulebis jvrisweris
dros.
raindobis mosurne saWurvelmtvirTveli kurTxevis win unda
ganbaniliyo da, axal TeTr tansacmelSi gamowyobils, Rame taZarSi unda
gaeTia. taZarSi is mTeli Ramis manZilze muxlmodrekili loculobda
RvTismSoblisa da Tavisi mfarveli angelozis winaSe, kiTxulobda
fsalmunebs da SesTxovda ufals daxmarebas im diad gzaze, romelsac is
unda Sedgomoda. meore diliT raindobis kandidati muxlmodrekili
moismenda wirvas, amis Semdeg mas mama an naTlia taZris sakurTxevelTan
miiyvanda. maT xelSi eWiraT Taflis sanTeli. moZRvari iRebda aRsarebas
momavali raindisagan da aziarebda mas. Semdeg ismenda misgan sazeimo
fics. momavali raindi uflisa da Tavisi senioris erTgulebis fics
sajarod warmoTqvamda. amis Semdeg, moZRvari sakurTxevlidan iRebda
xmals da Semoartyamda mas welze, Semdegi sityvebiT `saxeliTa mamisa
da ZisaTa sulisa wmidisaTa, miiRe es maxvili da gamoiyene igi Seni
Tavis da RmerTis wminda eklesiis dasacavad, daamarcxe qrsites jvris
da qristianuli sarwmuneobis mtrebi da ar gamoiyeno arasodes
usamarTlod~.
xSirad raindis kurTxevisas moZRvari kiTxulobda raindis kodeqss,
sadac mocemuli iyo raindis ufleba-movaleobani, aseve Seaxsenebda mas
Tavis movaleobas uflis winaSe da ganumartavda raindis saWurvlis da
SeiaraRebis qristianul mniSnelobas, Semdegi saxiT:
`maxvili, romelsac jvris forma aqvs, Segaxsenebs Sen, Tu rogor
daamarcxa macxovarma jvarze adamianuri codvebi da sikvdili, aseve Sen
unda daamarcxo Seni mtrebi am maxviliT, romelsac aqvs jvris forma,
es aseve mianiSnebs imaze, rom maxvili aris samarTlianobis iaraRi da,
amdenad, iReb ra mas, Sen valdebuli xar iyo yovelTvis samarTliani.
javSani Sens sxeulze aris saSualeba, dagicvas mtris dartymisagan.
rogorc cixe-simagre aris garSemortymuli Zlieri kedlebiT da Rrma
TxrilebiT, raTa daicvas igi mtris Semosevisagan, aseve javSani da
Cafxuti icavs raindis sxeuls yoveli mxridan, rac aris niSani imisa,
rom raindis guli SeuRwevelia Ralatisa da ampartavnebisaTvis.
es grZeli da swori Subi aris simbolo WeSmaritebisa. rkina masSi
niSnavs WeSmaritebis upiratesobas sicrueze, xolo mis boloSi droSa
maCvenebelia imisa, rom WeSmariteba ar unda daimalos, aramed unda iyos
aRiarebuli yvelas winaSe.
muzaradi aRniSnavs Zalas da vaJkacobas. rogorc is uZlebs
dartymebs, aseve nebisyofis Zala icavs rainds yvela codvisagan.

12

xelTaTmanebi, romelic icavs Sens xelebs, aris mimaniSnebeli imaze,


Tu rogor unda ufrTxodes raindi yovelgvar uwmindurobasTan Sexebas,
sZuldes qurdoba, ficis darRveva da yovelgvari siglaxe.~
rodesac es procesi dasruldeboda, rainds miuaxlovdeboda
seniori, romlis cixe-koSkSic is izrdeboda. seniori samjer daadebda
maxvils Tavze da mxrebze Semdegi sityvebiT: `RvTis, wminda giorgisa da
wminda miqaelis saxeliT, gakurTxeb Sen raindad~. bolos, axlad
nakurTxi raindi, taZridan gamosuli, Semoaxteboda cxens da gaaWenebda
cixe-koSkisaken, sadac mas am dRis aRsaniSnavad didi zeimi da turniri
eloda.
gansakuTebuli iyo taxtis memkvidreebis, ufliswulebis raindad
kurTxevis wesi. aseT SemTxvevaSi, mefe ufro farTo masStabis
RonisZiebas atarebda. Zalian masStaburi iyo imperator fridrix
barbarosas vaJebis, mefis hainrixisa da Mhercog fridrixis raindad
kurTxevis ceremoniali 1184 wels. rogorc Tanamedrove mematiane
gadmogvcems, am ceremonials eswreboda 70 000 raindi, rogorc imperiis
yvela mxaridan, aseve inglisidan, safrangeTidan, burgundiidan da
flandriidan. am dRis aRsaniSnavad Catarebul turnirSi monawileobda
20 000 raindi. SeiZleba, es cifrebi gadaWarbebuli iyos, magram
miuTiTebs imaze, rom raindoba internacionaluri da didi Zala iyo.
SesaZlebeli
iyo,
raindad
kurTxeva
ufro
martivad
Sesrulebuliyo. es xdeboda, umeteswilad, omis pirobebSi, rodesac
seniori am ceremonials asrulebda mxolod maxvilis mxrebze dadebiTa
da Semdegi sityvebiT: `RvTis, wminda giorgisa da wminda miqaelis
saxeliT, gakurTxeb Sen raindad~.
SesaZlebeli iyo, brZolis periodSi raindobis wodeba didi
raodenobis mebrZolebisaTvis erTdroulad mieniWebinaT, maT Soris
gvxvdebian ubralo warmoSobis mebrZolebic. magaliTad, fridrix
barbarosam brZolis velze mianiWa raindis wodeba ubralo mebrZolebs
da glexebsac ki. aseTivea Sua saukuneebis matianeSi gadmocemuli erTi
cnoba, romlis Tanaxmadac, safrangeTis mefem filip lamazma, rodesac
misi raindoba TiTqmis ganadgurda flandrielebTan brZolaSi, aseTi
gadawyvetileba miiRo: yvelas, visac hyavda ori vaJi, erTi unda gaexada
raindad, xolo visac sami vaJi hyavda _ ori. Tanamedroveni wuxiliT
gadmoscemen am ambavs da masSi raindobis dakninebas xedaven. aseTi saxiT
warmoqmnil raindebs wyalobis raindebs uwodebdnen. aseTi dabali
fenidan warmoiSva trubadurebis didi nawili, magram maT TavianTi
moRvaweobiT did pativs miaRwies.
imisaTvis, rom raindad kurTxevis ceremoniali ufro naTeli iyos,
gTavazobT raindad kurTxevis erT-erTi ceremonialis aRweras, romelic
iohanes bekelis qronikidan gadmoiRo prof. i. doliZem da qarTulad
Targmna:
13

raindis kurTxeva, miniatura


vilhelm holandielis raindad kurTxeva
`...mas Semdeg, rac yovelgvari mzadeba damTavrda kelnis eklesiaSi,
mefem
...
meabjre
saxarebis
wakiTxvis
Semdeg,
bohemiis*
(saWurvelmtvirTveli) vilhelmi warudgina kardinal petre kapuciuss,
pap inokenti IV despans da Tqva: `Tqveno usamRvdeloesobav, mamao, Cven
wargidgenT am rCeul meabjres da morCilebiT gTxovT, miiRoT misi
saRrmTo aRTqma, raTa Cven saSualeba gvqondes, miviRoT is Cvens raindTa
sazogadoebaSi~.
kardinalma ki, romelic iqve idga mRvdlis samoselSi, mimarTa
meabjres ise, rom yurad iRebda yvela sityvas da Tqva: `TiToeuli,
visac surs raindad gaxdoma, unda iyos didsulovani, warCinebuli,
mdidari, gamoCenili da mamaci; didsulovani ubedurebis dros,
warCinebuli _ warmoSobiT, mdidari _ siqveliT, gamoCenili _ Tavisis
saqcieliT, mamaci _ vaJkacuri gambedaobiT. manamde, vidre aRTqmas
dadebde, saRi gonebiT gansaje raindis mcnebebi. es mcnebebi Semdegia:
uwinares yovlisa, yoveldRe mousmino wirvas qristes vnebaTa
xsovnisaTvis, gabedulad gaswiro sicocxle sarwmuneobisaTvis, ixsna
eklesia da misi msaxurni yvelasagan, vinc Zaladobas ayenebs mas, daicva
qvrivi da oboli gaWirvebaSi, moerido usamarTlo oms, ar Seasrulo
ukeTuri samsaxuri, gaxvide orTabrZolaSi udanaSaulos gadasarCenad,
miiRo monawileoba turnirebSi mxolod varjiSisaTvis, yvela saqmeSi
mowiwebiT daemorCilo romis
imperators*, ar xelyo imperatoris
qoneba, araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar gaasxviso mefis an imperatoris lenebi
da, saerTod, RvTisa da adamianis winaSe moiqce umwikvlod. ukeTu Sen am
mcnebas morCilad daicav da, SeZlebisamebr, gulmodgined Seasruleb, maS
14

icode, rom Sen daimsaxureb droebiT pativiscemas amqveynad da


sicocxlis Semdeg saukuno sasufevels caTa Sina~.
amis Semdeg, kardinalma meabjris orive xeli daado saxarebas da
Tqva: `gsurs
Tu ara, RvTis saxeliT, morCilebiT miiRo raindis
Rirseba da SeZlebisamebr Seasrulo sityvasityviT wakiTxuli wesebi?~
meabjrem upasuxa: `diax, msurs~.
amis Semdeg, kardinalma gadasca meabjres ficis teqsti da man
damswreTa winaSe xmamaRla waikiTxa: `me, vilhelm, holandieli grafi,
saRvTo imperiis Tavisufali feodali, vficav wmida saxarebas, romelsac
papis taxtis kardinalisa da legatis _ petres TandaswrebiT vexebi
sakuTari xeliT, Sevasrulo rainduli wesebi~. kardinalma Tqva: `dae es
Tavmdabluri fici iyos Seni codvebis Sendoba! Amin~.
rogorc ki es iTqva, bohemiis mefem magrad dahkra meabjres kiserze
da Tqva: `yovlisSemZle RmerTis sadideblad me gRebulob Sen raindTa
ricxvSi da bednierebis surviliT Cvens sazogadoebaSi; magram
gaxsovdes, Sens magier rogor scemdnen macxovars mRvdelmTavar anas
winaSe, rogor dascinodnen mas pilates winaSe, rogor amaTraxebdnen da
eklis gvirgvins adgamdnen, rogor Semoses igi mewamuli samosiT da
masxrad igdebdnen mas mefe irodis (herodes) winaSe. me GgTxov,
gaxsovdes Sen es dacinva, itvirTo misi jvari, mogiwodeb, Suri iZio
misi sikvdilisaTvis.~
mas Semdeg, rac yvelaferi sazeimod damTavrda da wirva Sesrulda,
axali raindi sayvirebis, bukisa da naRaris kvraSi samgzis ekveTa SubiT
bohemiis mefis Zes, xolo amis Semdeg gauZlo moelvare xmlebiT
asparezobas. sami dRes izeima didi xarjebiT da amasTanave damswreT
uboZa didZali saCuqari.~

raindis aRWurviloba, coxe-koSkebi


sabrZolvelad SeiaraRebul rainds mTeli sxeuli javSniT hqonda
dafaruli. XI saukunis bolomde es iyo rkinis rgolebisagan moqsovili
jaWvis perangi, mogvianebiT mas liTonis firfitebisagan gakeTebuli
abjari cvlis. brZolis dros raindi Tavze ixuravda muzarads rkinis
Cafxuts, konusis formis mqone foladis Tavsaburavs. muzaradi rkinis
an SuSis
burTuliT bolovdeboda. muzarads Tan axlda liTonis
firfita cxviris dasacavad. rkinis sabrZolo iaraRs warmoadgenda mZime
da grZeli xis Subi, rombisebri rkinis bunikiT. bunikTan aWedebdnen
qsovilisagan damzadebul emblemas, romelic qarSi frialebda. amrigad,
SeiaraRebuli raindi cocxal cixe-simagres emsgavseboda.
15

Sua saukuneebis raindi


raindi ganuyrelad atarebda fars. fari xisa da tyavisagan iyo
damzadebuli, dafaruli liTonis firfitebiT. fari jer mrgvali iyo,
SemdgomSi is ise dagrZelda rom mTlianad faravda mxedars. farze
gamosaxuli iyo raindis gerbi, romelic mis keTilSobilur warmoSobaze
miuTiTebda.
fari raindis ZiriTadi gamosacnobi niSani iyo. farze gamosaxuli
gerbi warmoadgenda raindis warmomavlobisa da vinaobis garkvevis
saSualebas.
gerbebis gaCenas istorikosebi jvarosanaTa omebs ukavSireben, roca
evropeli raindi Tavisi warmatebebis aRsaniSnavad mis mier dapyrobili
qalaqebis kedlebsa da cixe-koSkebze cdilobda Tavisi sagvareulo
niSnis amotvifras. aseve, isini TavianT farebze gamosaxavdnen TavianT
sagvareulo gerbebs, magram, Cveni azriT, gerbebis warmoSoba ufro
Soreuli istoriis nayofia. sagvareulo da sxva ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi
gvxvdeba jer kidev egvipteSi, aseve Zveli aRmosavleTis sxva qveynebSi.
saberZneTSi qalaqebs Tavisi niSnebi anu gerbebi hqondaT. korinTos
simbolo iyo mfrinavi cxeni (pegasi), aTenisa bu, peloponesisa _ ku,
Tebesi fari, samosis farSevangi, rodosis vardi. es gerbebi
romaul samyaroSic gadmodis. Ppompeusis* gerbze gamosaxulia lomi
xmliT xelSi, keisrisaze* _ SeiaraRebuli venera. aqac saintereso
faqtia, an istoriuli damTxveva. ama Tu im sagvareulos gerbi TandaTan
mkvidrdeboda da misi gadatana sxva sagvareuloze SeuZlebeli iyo. Sua
saukuneebis sazogadoebaSi iyvnen swavlulebi, romlebic specialurad
swavlobdnen gerbebs da romelTa movaleobas warmoadgenda, scodnodaT
gansxvaveba sagvareulo gerbebs Soris da Tvalyuri miedevnebinaT
dadgenili wesebisaTvis, raTa ar darRveuliyo isini, daculi yofiliyo
16

heraldikis zogadad aRiarebuli wesebi. heraldikis wesebis dacva


moeTxoveboda yvela rainds da igi gansakuTrebiT mowmdeboda turniris
dawyebis win. raindi gamocxaddeboda moedanze, Caberavda sayvirs, masTan
mividoda heroldi 1 , romelic Seamowmebda misi gerbis Sesabamisobas
sagvareulo gerbTan da, rodesac igi daadasturebda mis sinamdviles,
mxolod amis Semdeg miimagrebda raindi sayvirs (buks) muzaradze da
Seuerdeboda Tavis saZmos.
raindebs aseve hqondaT devizi, anu TavianTi mowodebebi. devizi _ es
iyo gmirobisa da simamacis gamomxatveli, Semoklebuli gadmocema
raindTa sagmiro Tavgadasavlisa, romelsac qmnidnen cixe-koSkidan da ama
Tu im adgilidan sxva adgilebze moxetiale raindebi, trubadurebi.
yvela devizi sxva emblemisagan gansxvavebul Sinaarss iZenda. xSirad maT
alegoriuli mniSvnelobac hqondaT. iyo sxvadasxva Sinaarsis devizi,
magaliTad: gafrTxildi _ es me var; geSinodes Savi xaris da a.S.
raindis faris formis mixedviT SesaZlebeli iyo misi erovnebis
garkveva.
ingliselebs
hqondaT
mrgvali
fari,
italielebs
_
elifsoiduri, frangebs _ an oTxkuTxa an gulismagvari, germanelebs _
mrgvali, zeviT amoWrili samkuTxediT, espanelebs ki radiusze
gadaWrili elifsis magvari.
cixe-koSkebi
feodalebi Sua saukuneebSi cxovrobdnen cixe-koSkebSi, romlebic
Sendeboda gansakuTrebiT SerCeul adgilebSi. igi garSemortymuli iyo
miwayriliTa da sqeli galavniT. cixe-simagres ara mxolod samxedroTavdacviTi funqcia hqonda, aramed is warmoadgenda raindisa da misi
ojaxis sacxovrebelsac. amdenad, simagre iyo rogorc damcavi, aseve
sacxovrebeli Tu sxva saxis damxmare nagebobebisagan Semdgari mTeli
kompleqi.
cixe-simagre warmoadgenda mrgval an oTxkuTxa ganier koSks
klaknili formebiT, zogjer koSkebTan iyo mibjenili didi lodebi.
koSkebiani cixe-simagris mflobeloba did pativad iTvleboda. cixesimagris koSkebs Soris erTi gamoirCeoda Tavisi simaRliT, mas oTxive
mxares hqonda sarkmeli, es iyo sasaxlis patronis sacxovrebeli da
sameTvalyureo koSki. es mTavari koSki, romelsac germanelebi burgs,
xolo frangebi donJons uwodebdnen, gansakuTrebulad iyo daculi,
masSi SeRweva SesaZlebeli iyo mxolod jaWvis asawevi kibiT, an moZravi
misayudebeli kibiT. am koSkze iyo zari, romelsac Camokravdnen mtris
gamoCenisTanave, raTa mosaxleobisaTvis emcnoT amis Sesaxeb. zarebis
1

am institutis Sesaxeb saistorio literaturaSi garkveuli azrTa sxvadasxvaoba


arsebobs. yovel SemTxvevaSi, maT mTavar movaleobas warmoadgenda sagvreulo gerbebis
Seswavla da warCinebulTa Soris arsebuli davebis ganxilva.

17

xmaze glexebi tovebdnen TavianT samuSaoebsa da samosaxloebs da cixesimagreSi ikribebodnen. sameTvalyureo koSkze yovelTvis imyofeboda
guSagi. is uxmobda glexebs ganTiadze samuSaod.
koSkebi erTmaneTTan SeerTebuli iyo ganieri aivnebiTa da
fligelebiT. oTaxebi koSkebSi ar iyo myudro da cudad iyo ganaTebuli,
vinaidan viwro sarkmelebi hqondaT. ar arsebobda higienis dacvis
pirobebi. oTaxebSi iyo didi buxrebi, romelTa win
Tavisuflad
Tavsdeboda koSkis mflobeli Tavisi ojaxiTa da amaliTac ki. buxrebis
Tavi morTuli iyo sabrZolo iaraRebiTa da sagvareulo gerbiT. donJons
hqonda sardafi, sadac inaxavdnen Rvinos da zamTrisTvis produqtebs,
aseve sardafSi inaxeboda mepatronisa da misi meuRlis Zvirfaseulobebi.
sardafebs iyenebdnen tyveebis sapyrobiledac.
simagris teritoriaze ganlagebuli iyo sajinibo da sxva saxis
damxmare nagebobani, romlebic gankuTvnili iyo Sinauri cxovelebisaTvis,
romelTa simravlis gamo, cixe-simagris patara ezoSi yofna xSirad
autaneli xdeboda; magram XIII saukunidan ukve gafarTovda simagreebis
teritoria da masze ukve Sendeboda ramdenime koSki da koSkis
mepatronisTvis _ calke sasaxle. axali koSkebi gamoirCeodnen TavianTi
mdidruli mowyobilobiT. gansxvavebiT adrindeli koSkebisagan, romlebic
xSirad ise mokrZalebulad iyo mowyobili, rom raindis sacxovrebeli
oTaxi beris senaks mogagonebdaT, amjerad sasaxlis mepatroneebi TavianT
darbazebs amkobdnen ucxoeTidan Camotanili Zvirfasi nivTebiT da
fufunebis sagnebiT. warmatebebisa da miRwevebis gamovlenas raindebi
sasaxlis mdidrulad mowyobiTa da mdidruli nadimebis CatarebiT
cdilobdnen. sasaxlis kedlebze gamofenili iyo rogorc sasaxlis
patronis sagvareulo gerbebi, aseve nivTebi da sigelebi, romlebic
adasturebdnen maTi patronis jvarosnul laSqrobebsa Tu sxva
warmatebul brZolebSi monawileobas.

18

Sua saukuneebis raindTa cixe-koSkebi


cixe-koSkSi misi mflobelis Zalaufleba ganuzomeli iyo. sasaxlis
mflobeli TviTon gamodioda mosamarTlis rolSi da TviTonve
aRasrulebda ganaCens. samarTlis ganxorcielebisas is umetesad
eyrdnoboda Tavis neba-survils da araviTar kanons ar iTvaliswinebda,
arc saeklesiosa da arc raime saadaTo samarTals. sasjelis formebsac
TviTon seniori adgenda da xSirad sasjeli warmoudgenlad sastik
meTodebs iyenebda kidec.
cixis mepatrone raindis erT-erT mTavar gasarTobs nadiroba
warmoadgenda. mSvidobianobis periodSi raindi mTeli Tavisi amaliT
kvirebi rCeboda sanadirod tyeSi, Rameebs karavSi atarebdnen.
gansakuTrebul
yuradRebas
uTmobdnen
sanadiro
ZaRlebisa
da
frinvelebis gawvrTnas. gansakuTrebiT fasobda mimino, romelsac patroni
ar iSorebda ara marto nadirobisas, aramed yvelgan Tan daatarebda _
eklesiaSic ki, wirvaze yofnisas. warCinebulTa gansakuTrebuli
damokidebulebaze miminosadmi isic miuTiTebda, rom Sua saukuneebis
samarTalSi misi mokvla gatolebuli iyo ubralo glexis mokvlasTan.
iyo SemTxvevebi, rodesac tyve raindi uars ambobda gamosasyidad miminos
micemaze, Tumca ixdida Zalian did gamosasyids.
koSkSi mcxovrebi qalebi, ZiriTadad, saojaxo saqmeebiT iyvnen
dakavebuli. koSkis diasaxlisi zrunavda bavSvebis ganaTlebaze.
qaliSvilebi swavlobdnen mcenareTa samkurnalo Tvisebebs, aseve
WrilobaTa
damuSavebas,
isini
ikribebodnen
erT-erT
darbazSi,
amuSavebdnen matyls, aseve sxvadasxva xelsaqmes swavlobdnen da Tanac
erTobodnen sxadasxva sagmiro saqmeTa TxrobiT.

iaraRis darbazi
19

raindebis wes-Cveulebani
turnirebi, dueli
turnirebsa
da
sabrZolo
TamaSebs
raindis
cxovrebaSi
gansakuTrebuli adgili eWira. isini
SeiZleba SevadaroT Zveli
saberZneTis olimpiur TamaSebs. turnirebSi gamoCndeboda raindTa
sabrZolo momzadebis done da aqve isinjeboda maTi iaraRisa da
aRWurvilobis
simtkice.
qristianuli
eklesia
winaaRmdegi
iyo
turnirebis Catarebisa, radganac is miaCnda uazro drois tarebad da
garTobad, romelic tragikuli SedegebiT mTavrdeboda.
1130 wels, klermonis II saeklesio krebaze, romis papma inokenti
II akrZala turnirebi. amave krebaze dadginda, rom ikrZaleboda
qristianuli wesiT dasaflaveba maTi, vinc turnirze mokvdeboda.
miuxedavad amisa, turnirebi mainc tardeboda, is raindebisTvis iyo ara
mxolod garTobis, aramed samxedro Zlierebisa da momzadebis
demonstrireba.
amdenad,
ramdenadac
raindoba
warmoadgenda
Sua
saukuneebis sazogadoebis mniSvnelovan Zalas, eklesiac da saxelmwifoc
xSirad ukan ixevda da garkveul SeRavaTebze midioda. mogvianebiT
dadginda turniris Catarebis specialuri wesebi, romlis dacva
savaldebulo iyo yvelasaTvis, Tanac turnirebi tardeboda samefo
moxeleebis _ heroldebis zedamxedvelobis qveS. turnirze mxolod
warCinebuli warmoSobis raindebi daiSvebodnen.
pirveli cnoba turnirebis Sesaxeb jer kidev IX saukuneSi gvxvdeba.
pirveli cnobili germanuli turniri, Tavisi namdvili wesebiT, Catarda
1127 wels, viurcburgSi.* inglisSi turnirebis Catarebas safuZveli
daudo riCard lomgulma. turnirSi monawileobis misaRebad garkveuli
gadasaxadi iyo dawesebuli, romelic ganisazRvreboda masSi monawilis
mdgomareobisa da Semosavlis Sesabamisad. turnirebze qalaqSi an
feodalis sasaxleSi, sadac is tardeboda, sxvadasxva mxridan bevri
xalxi ikribeboda. saturniro moednebze ewyoboda specialuri tribunebi
keTilSobili batonebisa da qalbatonebisaTvis. turnirebi xSirad
imarTeboda raime mniSvnelovani movlenis aRsaniSnavad, magaliTad, mefis,
hercogis, an kidev warCinebuli raindis qaliSvilis gaTxovebis, Svilis
raindad kurTxevis, mterTan zavis dadebis an xandaxan, ubralod,
gasarTobad. cnoba turniris Catarebis Sesaxeb, swrafad vrceldeboda
mTel mxareSi. baronebi agzavnidnen Sikrikebs sxvadasxva sapatio
stumarTan, turnirze misawvevad. raindebis yvela koSki iwyebda
gansakuTrebul mzadebas turnirisaTvis. arCevdnen saukeTeso samosels da
iaraRs, abjars, aseve cxenebs turnirisaTvis. yvela cdilobda, Tavi
moewonebina turnirze Tavisi samoselis, SeiaraRebisa da amalis
upiratesobiT. turniri iyo rogorc Tavis gamoCenis adgili, aseve
20

nadavlis mopovebis saSualeba, nawilisaTvis is iyo asparezi, sadac


SeeZlo Tavisi simamaciT da gambedaobiT moenadirebina sayvareli qalis
guli.
turniris dawyebis win qalaqi, sadac turniri tardeboda, sazeimod
moirTveboda. turnirSi monawileobis misaRebad mimaval baronebs Tan
axldaT Zalian didi amala. rogorc Sua saukuneebis qronikebSia
aRwerili, amalis win midioda ramdenime aseuli saWurvelmtvirTveli,
Semdeg mas misdevdnen paJebi, romelTac xeliT mohyavdaT miminoebi,
Semdeg _ musikosebi, maT mosdevdnen raindebi da bolos _ TviTon
seniori.
turniri
iyo
samxedro
Sejibreba,
romelic
specialurad
momzadebul arenaze tardeboda. rogorc es turniris Catarebis
specialuri debulebebiT iyo gansazRvruli, turnirze brZolis dros
raindis iaraRi ar unda yofiliyo basri, raTa amiT miyenebuli dartyma
ar gamxdariyo sicocxlisTvis saSiSi. aseve specialuri cirkularebiT
regulirdeboda turnirze monawileTa daSvebis wesebi. dRemde moaRwia
ramdenime aseTma cirkularma turnirze raindTa daSvebis Sesaxeb, sadac
gansazRvruli iyo is moTxovnebi, romelic aucilebeli piroba iyo
turnirze dasaSvebad, aseve wesebi, romelTa dacva moeTxoveboda
raindebs turnirze monawileobisas.

turniri, miniatura
specialuri moxele, heroldi turniris dawyebis win amowmebda
raindebis gerbebs da aseve raindTa warmomavlobis Sesaxeb informacias.
wesis damrRvevi raindi sajarod cxaddeboda wesis damrRvevad da mas
turniridan aZevebdnen. mas aseve ekrZaleboda SemdgomSi sxva turnirebSi
monawileoba. turniris dawyebis win, an turniris organizatori Tavis
mosawvev baraTebSi acxadebda turniris mTavar prizs. prizi SeiZleboda
yofiliyo fulis mniSvnelovani raodenoba, aseve gvirgvini, qamari, raime
cxoveli _ daTvi an iremi, an, sulac, ramdenime warCinebuli qalbatonis
kocna. turniris dawyebis win irCevdnen turniris dedofals, romelic
21

gamarjvebuls gadascemda prizs. turnirebze iyo sxvadasxva saxis


TamaSobebi. ZiriTadad, iyo orTabrZolebi, aseve gunduri brZolebi.
turnirebi xSirad tragikulad mTavrdeboda. 1241 wels erT-erT
turnirze asi raindi daiRupa. TviT hercogebi da grafebic xdebodnen
turniris msxverplni. 1186 wels parizSi turnirze daiRupa inglisis
mefis henri II vaJi Jofrua plantageneti, 1234 wels nimvegenSi* _
florenc IV holandiis grafi, 1238 wels _ misi Zma vilhelmi, xolo
1258 wels antverpenSi _ misi vaJi florenci da a.S. marTalia,
kaTolikurma eklesiam ver SeZlo turnirebis akrZalvis gatareba
cxovrebaSi, magram is kategoriulad uars ambobda turnirze
daRupulebis qristianuli wesiT dakrZalvaze. magaliTad,
holandiis
grafi florenc IV dakrZales tyeSi saeklesio ritualis gareSe.
turnirisagan gansxvavebuli movlena iyo dueli da orTabrZolebi,
romelic tardeboda feodaluri sazogadoebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli
dapirispirebebis mizeziT, mas araferi hqonda saerTo raindul
SejibrebasTan. dueli ufro feodaluri Sinaomebis gagrZelebas
warmoadgenda.

orTabrZola, miniatura

Sinaomebi, romelic damaxasiaTebeli iyo Sua saukuneebisaTvis,


raindebis moqmedebis mniSvnelovani arena xdeba. dapirispireba, romelic
arsebobda feodalur sagvareuloTa Soris, xSirad maT Soris omSi
gadaizrdeboda xolme da es brZolebi, umeteswilad, mZime SedegebiT
mTavrdeboda. omebis Sedegad amowyda ramdenime sagvareulos pirdapiri
memkvidreoba, nadgurdeboda qalaqebi da dasaxlebebi.
mefeebi krZalavdnen feodalTa Sinaomebs. aseTi iyo dadgenileba
`saRvTo zavis~ Sesaxeb, romelic krZalavda omebs marxvis periodSi da
aseve paraskevidan kviris CaTvliT. pirobis damrRvevebi isjebodnen
eklesiidan gankveTiTa da gadasaxlebiT. Sinaomebisa da feodaluri
dapirispirebis gamovlena iyo dueli, romelic imarTeboda raindebs
Soris. dueli, romelic warmoadgenda SurisZiebis anu sisxlis aRebis
22

erT-erT formas, mogvagonebs adreSuasaukuneebis tradiciuli samarTlis


_ ordaliis gagrZelebas, rodesac samarTlis povna SesaZlebeli iyo
RvTis sasamarTloze, anu marTals da mtyuans gansjida RmerTi da is
mianiWebda gamarjvebas marTals.
qristianuli eklesia da saero xelisufleba dapirispirebis
mogvarebisa da gadawyvetis aseTi formis winaaRmdegi iyo. safrangeTis
mefem filip lamazma 1303 wels, specialuri dadgenilebiT, dueli
sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulad gamoacxada.
radganac duelisa da orTabrZolebis akrZalvis cxovrebaSi gatareba
SeuZlebeli xdeboda, mefeebi iZulebuli gaxdnen, daedginaT duelis
Catarebis specialuri wesebi. duelSi monawileobis ufleba mxolod
warCinebul rainds hqonda da isic mxolod gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi,
mefis TanxmobiT, specialurad daniSnul dros. Tumca mowinaaRmdegeebs
eZleodaT garkveuli periodi, raTa kidev erTxel gadaexedaT TavianTi
dapirispirebis mizezebisaTvis. duelis samzadisi iyo TavisTavad Zalian
gaxmaurebuli. mowinaaRmdegeebi cdilobdnen, sazogadoeba daerwmunebinaT
TavianT udanaSaulobaSi da, aseve, daeSinebinaT erTmaneTi. dueli,
ZiriTadad, sikvdiliT mTavrdeboda, Tu damarcxebuli arenaze cocxali
darCeboda, mas sikvdiliT sjidnen.
duelis dawyebis win heroldi Seaxsenebda rogorc duelis
monawileebs, aseve damswre sazogadoebas duelis wesebs, romlis
Tanaxmadac, damswreTagan aravin unda yofiliyo SeiaraRebuli, aseve
akrZaluli iyo damswreTaTvis cxeniT Sesvla duelis Catarebis
adgilze. wesebis damrRvevebi isjebodnen kanonis Sesabamisad.
duelis dawyebis win mowinaaRmdegeebs kidev erTxel unda miemarTaT
mefisaTvis ficiT. bralmdebeli mefis win daificebda, rom mis
mowinaaRmdeges aqvs Cadenili danaSauli, ris gamo is iwvevs mas duelSi,
rom is darwmunebulia Tavis simarTleSi da RvTismSoblisa da wminda
giorgis meoxebiT, aseve darwmunebulia, rom moipovebs gamarjvebas
damnaSaveze. arenaze gasvlis win bralmdebeli gadaugdebda xelTaTmans
Tavis mowinaaRmdeges da rodesac is aiRebda mas, es ukve imis niSani iyo,
rom is iRebda gamowvevas.
duelis dawyebamde samRvdelo piri mimarTavda monawileebs, uari
eTqvaT TavianT gadawyvetilebaze da Seaxsenebda maT,
rogor evno
ufali kacobriobis xsnisaTvis, aseve imis Sesaxeb, rom dueli TavisTavad
iyo momakvdinebeli codva, iseve rogorc TviTmkvleloba. moZRvris
ramdenime mcdelobis Semdeg, Tu raindebi ar miiRebdnen mis moTxovnas,
moZRvari gaecleboda sabrZolo arenas.

23

raindis yoveldRiuri cxovreba


raindTa brZolebi, maTi yoveldRiuri cxovreba, sasiyvarulo da
sagmiro Tavgadasavali aisaxa Sua saukuneebis rogorc saistorio
matianeebSi, aseve sagmiro eposSi. raindebi xSirad Txzavdnen simRerebs,
romlebic warsul droebasa da gmirobebs asaxavdnen. am simRerebidan
warmoiSva iseTi mSvenieri saraindo eposebi, rogoricaa nibelungebis
simRera, istoriebi parcefalisa, loengrinisa da mrgvali magidis
raindebis Sesaxeb.
Sua saukuneebis saraindo romani
metad Rrmaa, Taviseburi da
mravalferovani. valter fon fogelvides, kretien de truas, hainrix
fon feldekes, herbert fon fritclaris, hartman fon aues, gotfrid
fon strasburgis Semoqmedeba rainduli yofa-cxovrebis naTel suraTs
gvixatavs. am nawarmoebebSi asaxulia raindis daniSnuleba, misi brZola
borotebs winaaRmdeg.

valter fon fogelvaide, miniatura


raindi kargi ojaxidan unda yofiliyo, lamazi, moxdenili,
mimzidveli. mis silamazes xazs usvamda tansacmeli. unagirica da
aRWurvilobac tansacmlis sadari unda hqonoda. aRWurviloba 60-dan 80
kilograms iwonida, rac misi Zalis damadasturebeli iyo. am Zalas igi
bavSvobidanve avlenda heraklesaviT; magaliTad, mefe arturma samjer
amoiRo xmali lodis qveSidan, sxvam ki veravin SeZlo es. erT-erT
uZveles legendaSi beovulfze, romelic 1000 wels ganekuTvneba,
saSinel urCxulebTan sabrZolvelad Camosuli raindi boevulfi
gadayris iaraRsa da javSans da carieli xelebiT daaxrCobs mdinaridan
24

amosul urCxuls. kretien de truas romanis `ivein, raindi lomiT~


gmiri iveini mxolod erTi dRe rCeba Tavis axladjvardaweril
meuRlesTan. megobrebi Tvalyurs adevneben mas, rom usaqmurobasa da
colTan alersSi Zala ar dakargos.
cnobili dominikaneli beri raimond luli wignSi rainduli
ordenis Sesaxeb, specialurad ganmartavs, rom raindoba aris Rvawli da
pativi, romelic aucilebelia dedamiwaze arsebuli wesrigis dasacavad.
ase rom, raindi unda sargeblobdes yvela pativiT. misi warmodgeniT,
SeubRalavi Rirsebis mqone raindi uyvarT imisaTvis, rom is keTilia,
eSiniaT imis gamo, rom is Zlieria, adideben keTili saqmeebisaTvis,
xolo mas daxmarebisaTvis mimarTaven, radganac is aris RvTis erTguli
da misi nebis ganmaxorcielebeli.
1020 wels Sartris episkoposma fulbertma ramdenime punqtad
Camoayaliba raindis movaleoba Tavisi siuzerenis mimarT, romelSic erTerTi mTavar punqti iyo, rom raindma `ar dauSvas Tavisi siuzerenisadmi
fizikuri zianis cda; agreTve siuzerenis Rirsebis, interesebis da
qonebis xelyofis ganzraxva, ar SezRudos siuzerenis Tavisufleba~.
mowinaaRmdegis sisusteebis gamoyeneba brZolis dros yvelaze didi
danaSauli iyo. roca orTabrZolaSi damarcxebuli moxuci raindi
aRmoCndeboda, axalgazrda ar klavda mas.
uiaraRo raindis mkvleloba rainds samarcxvino saqcielad
eTvleboda, roca gacxarebuli raindi lanseloti brZolis dros
SemTxveviT klavs or uiaraRo mowinaaRmdeges, saSinel gancdebSia da
piligrimobis (wminda miwaze momlocvelad wasvlis) aRTqmas debs.
aseTiva SoTa rusTavelis `vefxistyaosanSi~ gamoxatuli raindis es
Tviseba:
`brZenTa vinme moswavleman sakiTxavi ese vpovne:
eseao mamacisa metis-meti sigulovne:
odes mtersa moerio, nuRar mohklav, daiyovne;
gindes sruli mamacoba, ese sityva daixsovne~.
saintersoa gadmocema kretien de truas parcefalidan, Tu rogor
uxsnis parcefals Tavisi maswavlebeli raindis movaleobas: `keTilo
megobaro, rodesac Tqven mogiwevT brZola raindTan, gaxsovdeT is, rasac
axla me Tqven getyviT: Tu Tqven gaimarjvebT da is iZulebuli gaxdeba,
gTxovoT Tqven Sewyaleba, ar moklaT, aramed iyaviT gulmowyale. amave
dros, nu iqnebiT ybedi da Zalian cnobismoyvare. is, vinc bevrs
laparakobs, scodavs, ufrTxildiT amas. Tu Tqven naxavT qals an
axalgazrda gogonas gaWirvebaSi, me gTxovT _ gaakeTeT yvelaferi, rac
ki SegeZlebaT, raTa daexmaroT mas. me Tqven mogcemT rCevas, romelic
Tqven aucileblad unda daicvaT: xSirad estumreT monasters da
25

iloceT SemoqmedisaTvis, raTa is iyos gulmowyale Tqvens mimarT da


dagicvaT Tqven, rogorc qristiani.~
jer kidev ordenebis daarsebamde, raindTa fena cdilobda
gansakuTrebuli urTierTobis Camoyalibebas: daxmarebodnen erTmaneTs,
emogzauraT an ebrZolaT erTad, saerTo mtris winaaRmdeg. raindebi
debdnen erTmaneTTan megobrobis fics, rasac axlda garkveuli
ceremoniali. isini TavianT sisxls Caasxamdnen TasSi, Seurevdnen
erTmaneTs da ificebdnen erTgulebaze. agreTve, an iaraRis gacvliT, an
msgavsi gerbebis SeqmniT gamoxatavdnen damegobrebis ceremonials.
raindebi debdnen sazeimo aRTqmas, rom moilocebdnen wminda
adgilebs. raindebis aRTqma iyo mravalferovani da xSirad ucnauric ki.
magaliTad, sanam ar Seasrulebda dadebul aRTqmas, ar daiZinebda
loginSi, sakvebs miiRebda mxolod marcxena xeliT, ar dalevda Rvinos,
ar gaixdida tansacmels, an ar SeWamda xorcs, ar aaxelda cal Tvals
da a. S.
raindebi darwmunebuli iyvnen, rom rwmena da wminda nawilebi,
romelsac xSirad atarebdnen, iseve icavda maT, rogorc fari da javSani.

raindi, miniatura
Tavisi ficis Tanaxmad, raindi mudam unda yofiliyo mzad
sarwmuneobisa da umweoTa dasacavad. pativi iyo raindisaTvis sikvdili
iseTi maRali idealebisaTvis, rogoric iyo sarwmunoebis da samSoblos
dacva, aseve sikvdili Tavisi seniorisaTvis.

26

Sua
saukuneebis
evropuli
rainduli
kodeqsis
Sesabamisia
`vefxistyaosanSi~ sityvebi avTandilis anderZidan, romelic yvelaze
srulyofilad gamoxatavs raindis movaleobas:
`ra uarea mamacsa omSigan piris mxmeWelsa,
Sedrekil-SeSinebulsa da sikvdilisa meWvelsa,
kaci jabani riTa sjobs diacsa qslisa mbeWvelsa,
sjobs saxelisa moxveWa yovlisa mosaxveWelsa!
ver daiWiravs sikvdilsa gza viwro, verca kldovani;
misgan gaswordes yoveli, susti da Zal-gulovani,
bolod Seyarnes miwaman erTgan moyme da mxcovani,
sjobs sicocxlesa nazraxsa sikvdili saxelovani~.
rasakvirvelia, raindTa moRvaweobis mTavari asparezi omi iyo, magram
raindebi mSvidobianobis periodSic poulobdnen samuSaos; ficis
erTguli raindebi mogzaurobdnen, eZebdnen Tavgadasavals da cdilobdnen
SebrZolebodnen usamarTlobas. amdenad, raindis wodebis miRebisTanave
isini
iwyebdnen
Tavgadasavlis
Zebnas
Soreul
qveynebSi,
raTa
gamxdariyvnen srulyofili raindebi. mwvane feri, romelsac isini
atarebdnen, iyo imedis simbolo da mimaniSnebeli maT axalgazrdobisa
da simamacisa. yvelaze sasargeblo gakveTilebi moxetiale raindebisaTvis
iyo omebi, romelSic isini ebmebodnen yovelgvari sasyidlis gareSe,
moxaliseebad da cdilobdnen daeWiraT mxari marTlisaTvis. isini aseve
swavlobdnen warCinebulTa karis ceremonialebs, wesebsa da Cveulebebs.
Tavis gamoCenis surviliT Sepyrobilni, cdilobnen daaxloebodnen
warCinebulebs, maT memkvidreebs, surdaT gaegoT maT Sesaxeb ambebi, aseve
Tqmulebebi da gadmocemebi, rogorc sagvareuloebis, aseve qveynebisa da
xalxebis Sesaxeb, raTa ukan mobrunebulebs moeyolaT.
garda imisa, rom raindebi monawileobdnen omebsa da turnirebSi,
isini xSirad erTiandebodnen, raTa SeeCerebinaT usamarTloba da
Zaladoba. isini mudam iyvnen mzad daxmarebodnen gaWirvebulebs da
mfarveloba gaewiaT sustebisaTvis. moxetiale raindebi sxvadasxva
mxareSi romelime warCinebulis sasaxleSi cxovrobdnen, magram Tu
Tavgadasvlis maZiebelT sadme SemoaRamdebodaT, isini romelime gzaze
aRmarTul jvarTan Seisvenebdnen da da iqve aTenebdnen Rames.
sabrZolvelad an romelime Soreul mogzaurobaSi mimaval raindebs
ar mihqondaT arcerTi nivTi, garda TavianTi iaraRisa. mogzaurobis
dros, isini, ZiriTadad, nanadireviT ikvebebodnen. is raindebi, romlebic
miemgzavrebodnen ucxo mxareSi, mtris Sepyrobis mizniT iyofodnen
ramdenime jgufad 3-4 kacis SemadgenlobiT. isini cvlidnen TavianT
sagvareulo gerbebs, an kidev farze gadaaxvevdnen xolme naWers, raTa ar
ecnoT. aseTi mizniT wasul raindebs garkveuli dro hqondaT
gansazRvruli, isini erTi wlisa da erTi dRis manZilze unda
27

dabrunebuliyvnen ukan da, dadebuli aRTqmisa da ficis Tanaxmad,


moexsenebinaT TavianTi saZmosaTvis TavianTi mogzaurobis Sesaxeb; xSirad
swored am mogzauri raindebis monaTxrobis safuZvelze iqmneboda Sua
saukuneebis saraindo romanebi da simRerebi.
mogzaur raindebs
didi pativiT Rebulobdnen cixe-koSkebSi,
romlebic maT gzaze xvdebodaT. daRlil-daqanculi raindebisaTvis iq
yvela piroba iqmneboda, raTa daesvenaT. yvela cixe-simagre mzad iyo,
mieRo raindi, rogorc keTilsasurveli stumari. Cveulebriv, koSkebis
Tavze gamokidebuli iyo mooqrovili muzaradi, rac warmoadgenda niSans
mogzauri raindebisaTvis, rom isini pativiT iqnebodnen miRebuli.
rodesac cixe-koSkidan SeniSnavdnen, rom ucxo raindi moemarTeboda
maTken, sasaxleSi afrTxilebdnen yvelas mosalodneli sapatio stumris
Sesaxeb da iq myofni gareT gamoefinebodnen, raTa amiT gamoexataT
TavianTi sixaruli. stumris pativiscemis niSnad, sasaxlis patroni
iwvevda seniorebs axlomdebare sasaxleebidan da imarTeboda nadimi.
nadimis dros gansakuTrebuli yuradReba iyo mipyrobili stumari
raindis mimarT, romelic yveboda Tavis Tavgadasavlisa da im
gansacdelis Sesaxeb, romelic mas gadaxda mogzaurobis dros. sasaxlis
patroni Tavis stumars misive paJebis xeliT gadascemda saxsovar
saCuqars. saCuqari xSirad iyo Zvirfasi nivTi, an cxeni, an raime
sabrZolo iaraRi. msgavsi saCuqriT maspinZeli fiqrobda, rom is raindis
keTilSobili moRvaweobis monawile xdeboda. SesaZlebelia, mis naCuqar
cxenze, yofiliyo amxedrebuli raindi, rodesac igi daamarcxebda mters,
an kidev sworedac misi maxviliT ganegmira boroti, an moepovebina
gamarjveba turnirSi.
ramdenadac didi iyo Sua saukuneebis sazogadoebSi raindisadmi
pativiscema, aseve mkacri iyo sazogadoebis damokidebuleba damnaSave
raindis mimarT. igi sastikad isjeboda da misi gasamarTleba xdeboda
sajarod, TviTon raindTa samsjavros mier. rodesac raindi aRmoCndeboda
braldebuli RalatSi, veragobaSi an sxva raime danaSaulSi, romelic
eqvemdebareboda sasikvdilo ganaCens, an gaZevebas, maSinve heroldebi
iwvevdnen raindTa sabWos 20-30 kacis SemadgenlobiT da is wauyenebda
braldebas rainds. raindTa es Sekreba ganixilavda danaSauls da aseve
iwvevda mowmeebs.
aseTi sasjelis sisruleSi moyvana xdeboda sajarod, moedanze,
sadac idga eSafoti. rodesac raindebi gamoitandnen TavianT sasjels,
heroldi kiTxulobda ganaCens. ganaCenis wakiTxvis Semdeg mRvdeli
iwyebda micvalebulTa sulis mosaxseniebeli fsalmunebis kiTxvas.
sasjelis aRmsrulebelni iwyebdnen damnaSave raindisaTvis iaraRis ayras
da Tanac yoveli iaraRis da saWurvlis CamorTmevisas saxalxod
acxadebdnen: es aris maxvili, es aris muzaradi veragi da cbieri
raindisa; da bolos, raindis fars sam nawilad gaapobdnen.
28

raindis sikvdiliT dasjis ceremoniali iyo metad mZime da


xangrZlivi procesi. raindis damnaSaved cnobis Semdeg mas gadascemdnen
samefo sasamarTlos; xolo rodesac sasamarTlo mas sasikvdilo ganaCens
gamoutanda, Semdeg _ jalaTs. roca es procesi dasruldeboda, heroldi
damnaSavis Svilebsa da memkvidreebs acxdebda uRirsebad da arTmevda maT
wodebas da iaraRis tarebis uflebas. damnaSave raindis memkvidreebs
aseve
ekrZalebodaT
turnirebSi
monawileoba.
sxvadasxva
danaSaulebisaTvis arsebobda aseve sxvadasxva saxis sasjeli Tvalebis
daTxra, dasaWuriseba, faris gakvra samarcxvino boZze, gerbze
damakninebeli daRis dasma da a. S.

raindis urTieToba qalTan


raindobis institutis gagebisaTvis iseve mniSvnelovania raidnis
qalTan damokidebulebis
gacnoba, rogorc raindis eklesiasTan da
samefo karTa damokidebulebis Seswavla. Seyvarebulad yofna raindis
aucilebeli movaleobac ki iyo, risi mimaniSnebelicaa raindTa mTavari
devizic `RmerTi, qali da mefe.~
adre SuasaukuneebSi, raindobis Camoyalibebamde, rogorc Cans, qalis
roli sazogadoebaSi naklebi iyo. miuxedavad qristianuli eklesiis
mcdelobisa, romelmac, wina sazogadoebisagan gansxvavebiT, qalis adgili
ufro mniSvnelovani gaxada, isini mamakacebTan mainc araTanaswor
mdgomareobaSi imyofebodnen. qalebi, ZiriTadad, saojaxo saqmeebiT iyvnen
dakavebuli. aseve Zalian mniSvnelovani iyo qalisaTvis, xelsaqmesTan
erTad, ganaTlebis miReba. qalebi warCinebuli ojaxidan swavlobdnen
wera-kiTxvasa da saRvTo literaturas.
qalisadmi
pativiscema,
rasac
gansakuTrebiT
gamoxatavda
keTilSobilTa sazogadoeba, evropaSi yvelaze adre Cans samxreT
safrangeTSi, provansSi. provansi iwodeboda raindobis akvnad, radganac
aq mieca mas yvelaze metad saero xasiaTi sasiyvarulo
TavgdasavlebiT. erT-erT provansul nawarmoebSi naTqvamia: raindebs aqvT
mravalmxrivi Rirseba: erTni arian kargi mebrZolebi, sxvebi gamoirCevian
stumarTmoyvareobiTa da guluxvobiT; erTni Tayvans scemen qalebs,
sxvebi brwyinaven kostumebiTa da SeiaraRebiT; erTni arian mamacni
saraindo SejibrebebSi, sxvebi momxibvleli arian warCinebulTa karze.
provansSi qalebis mdgomareoba gansxvavebuli iyo evropis sxva
samefo-samTavroebSi arsebuli mdgomareobisagan. provansel qalebs ufro
meti uflebebi hqondaT, isini iyvnen mesakuTreebi da ganmkargvelebi
TavianTi qonebisa. maT adre daikaves mamakacebTan Tanaswori mdgomareoba.
raindebi irCevdnen TavianTi gulis qalbatons. gulis qalbatonis
arCevis dros gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani ar iyo misi garegnuli
29

mimzidveloba, raindebi ufro metad qalis warmomavlobasa da


mdgomareobas aqcevdnen yuradRebas. raindebi TavianTi gulis rCeulisagan
iRebdnen saxsovar nivTs, es SeiZleba yofiliyo misi Tavsaburavi,
sayelo, an saxelo, daakravdnen mas fars da didebisaTvis misi saxeliT
ibrZodnen. xSirad raindebis rCeulebi iyvnen gaTxovili qalbatonebi,
rac srulebiTac ar uSlida xels maT sajarod ganecxadebinaT TavianTi
trfoba
aseTi
qalbatonebis
mimarT.
raindebic,
umetesad,
daqorwinebulebi iyvnen, magram isini TavianT rCeulebad sxva
qalbatonebs asaxelebdnen. qalisadmi trfoba raindebSi, umetesad,
araxorcieli siyvaruli iyo; Sua saukuneebis literaturaSi aris iseTi
siuJetebi, rodesac raindi etrfis qals, romelic mas arasodes unaxavs,
mxolod gaugonia misi silamazis Sesaxeb. erT-erTi aseTia gadmocema
raindis Jofrua rudelis Sesaxeb, romelsac Seuyvarda tripolis
dedofali, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi arasodes enaxa; miuZRvna ramdenime
brwyinvale simRera da misi erTguli iyo 15 weli, xolo Semdeg
gadawyvita wasuliyo wmida miwaze, sadac mdebareobda qalaqi tripoli.
gzaSi igi avad gaxda da misma megobrebma miiyvanes erT-erT hospitalSi.
dedofalma gaigo ra poetisa da raindis es Tavgadasavali, is TviTon
Cavida hospitalSi, raTa Sexvedroda masze Seyvarebul rainds. raindma
mis mklavebSi dalia suli. raindis dasaflavebis Semdeg dedofali
monazvnad aRikveca erT-erT monasterSi. aseTi siyvaruli sanimuSo iyo
imdroindeli sazogadoebisaTvis. Tumca vxvdebiT iseT SemTxvevebsac,
rodesac raindis `qalisadmi Tayvaniscema~ atarebda mxolod formalur
xasiaTs. magram idea, riTac raindi qalTan iyo dakavSirebuli, zneobrivi
da amaRlebuli gaxldaT, rac raindis uxeS bunebas mimzidvels xdida.

jvarosnuli laSqrobani, saraindo ordenebi


raindobis aRsasruli
jvarosnuli laSqroba, romelic mimarTuli iyo urwmunoTagan
qristes saflavis gasaTavisufleblad, ufro
mniSvnelovans xdida
raindis rolsa da movaleobas. raindebi, romlebic laSqrobebis
dawyebamdec mogzaurobdnen wminda miwaze mosalocad, amjerad aseT
mowodebas papisagan iReben, Tanac Cadenili codvebis mitevebis aRTqmiT.
raindebi didi enTuziazmiT moemzadnen jvarosnuli laSqrobisaTvis,
radganac urwmunoebTan brZola maT idealebs Seesatyviseboda, Tanac
Soreuli mogzauroba Tavgadasavlis maZiebeli raindebisTvis Zalian
mimzidveli iyo.
30

radganac, maioratis wesis Tanaxmad, memkvidreobas mxolod ufrosi


vaJi iRebda, aRmosavleTSi laSqroba umiwod darCenili raindebisaTvis
socialuradac mimzidveli iyo. raindebi mzad iyvnen laSqrobisaTvis,
sadac maT, garda saxelis da didebis mopovebisa, simdidris mopovebis
SesaZleblobac eZleodaT. amdenad, rodesac
urban II mowodebaze
jvarosnuli laSqrobisaken, 1095 wels, raindebma erTxmad upasuxes
`RmerTs ase surs~, am sityvebiT isini ukve gaxdnen RvTis nebis
aRmsrulebelni, anu qristes mxedrebad Cairicxnen.
raindebi,
ise
rogorc
es
Sua
saukuneebis
sazogadoebis
azrovnebisaTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli, darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom isini
TavianTi TavganwirviT urwmunoTagan ierusalimis gaTavisuflebisaTvis
brZolaSi moipovebdnen rogorc amqveyniur didebas, aseve daimkvidrebdnen
sasufevels zecaSi.

jvarosnebi wminda miwaze, XIII saukunis miniatura


raindebi laSqrobaSi gaemarTnen mtkice SemarTebiT, Tumca jer kidev
mcire aziaSi aRmoCnda, rom maT didi da mZime brZolebi elodaT.
jvarosnebma
pirveli
laSqrobis
dros,
Turq-selCukebisagan
gaaTavisufles Zveli qristianuli qalaqebi: antioqia, edesa, tripoli
da bolos, 1099 wels ierusalims miadgnen. am droidan laSqroba,
ZiriTadad, raindebis xelSi gadavida, ubralo xalxi, romelic pirvel
laSqrobaSi monawileobda, ukve ar asrulebda araviTar rols, maTi didi
nawili mcire aziaSive daiRupa, xolo nawili ukan dabrunda. yvelaze
warmatebuli jvarosanTa laSqrobebidan pirveli laSqroba aRmoCnda,
rodesac jvarosnebma gaaTavisufles aRmosavluri qristianuli qalaqebi
da ierusalimi. jvarosanTa laSqrobebi TiTqmis or saukuneze met xans
gagrZelda. maT rva laSqroba moawyves aRmosavleTSi, magram mainc ver
miaRwies TavianT sanukvar mizans; dakarges ierusalimi da sxva
qalaqebic.
miuxedavad amisa, jvarosnulma laSqrobebma mainc didi gavlena
moaxdines evropis ganviTarebis gzaze. jvarosnuli laSqrobebis xanaSi
31

erTmaneTs Sexvda ori kultura _ aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis, ramac


am kulturaTa urTierTgacvlis process Seuwyo xeli, ganviTarda
vaWroba. aRmosavleTSi didi xniT yofnam gaafarTova dasavleTSi koSkSi
gamoketili raindis TvalTaxedva. raindebi gaecnen aRmosavlur
ganaTlebasa da aRmosavlur samxedro xelovnebas, Sexvdnen TavianTTvis
sruliad ucnob samyaros. dasavleTis raindebs araTu naklebi warmodgena
hqondaT muslimuri samyaros Sesaxeb, aramed TviT bizantiur
kulturasac ase pirdapir aq Sexvdnen. qalaqma konstantinopolma, Tavisi
simdidriT, farTo quCebiTa da didebuli taZrebiT, rasakvirvelia, didi
STabeWdileba moaxdina dasavleTis raindebze. magram ara mxolod
konstantinopolsa da muslimur qveynebSi nanaxma simdidrem da fufunebam
iqonia gavlena raindebze, aramed aRmosavlurma kulturam da ganaTlebam,
amdenad, jvarosnuli laSqroba maTTvis aRmoCnda ganmanaTlebeli
mogzauroba, ramac bevri ram Secvala raindebis wes-CveulebebSi.
aRmosavleTis gacnobam, sxva xalxebTan da kulturasTan Sexvedram
raindi ufro tolerantuli gaxada. jvarosanTa laSqrobis periodSi win
wamoiwia pirovnuli Rirsebis sakiTxma. xSirad raindebi cdilobdnen,
sarwmunoebis
sxvaobis
miuxedavad,
pativi
ecaT
pirovnuli
RirsebebisaTvis, rac dasturdeba jvarosnuli epoqis qronikebSi
mocemuli sxvadasxva cnobiT.
jvarosnulma omebma erTmaneTs gaacno da daaaxlova ori samyaro.
evropul da aziur raindobas istoriuli pirobebis saSualebiT
ufro mWidro kontaqtebis damyarebis saSualeba mieca. rodesac 1131
wels gardaicvala grafi Joselini, masTan mebrZolma emir hazi-ibndaniSmendma Sewyvita yvela saomari moqmedeba da frankebs SeuTvala: `me
giTanagrZnobT Tqven, rac unda ifiqroT, me ar vibrZoleb axla Tqvens
winaaRmdeg, radganac Tqveni mmarTvelis sikvdilis gamo iolad SemiZlia
Tqveni damarcxeba. amitom airCieT axali mmarTveli da Cven ganvagrZobT
oms~.
1192 wels, iafesTan brZolis dros inglisis mefes riCard
lomguls
cxeni
moukles.
misma
mwinaaRmdegem,
saiT-ad-dinma,
saxelganTqmuli salah-ad-dinis
Svilma, ori cxeni miarTva moqiSpes.
imave wels riCard lomgulma raindad akurTxa saiT-ad-dini. aRsaniSnavia,
muslimi raindis usama ibn-munkizis memuarebi (1095-1188 ww.). misi
cxovreba jvarosanTa omebSi miilia, magram es xels ar uSlis mas,
pativiscemiT moixsenios mowinaaRmdegeebi, romlebTanac is megobrobda
kidec.
jvarosanTa laSqrobam xeli Seuwyo TviT evropeli raindebis
daaxloebas. Zalian xSirad sxvadasxva qveynis raindebs erT kastad
miaCndaT Tavi, maTTvisac meorexarisxovani iyo politikuri, eTnikuri da
vasaluri warmomavloba. XII-XIII saukuneebis evropuli romanebisTvisac
damaxasiaTebelia es movlena (kretien de trua, gotfrid fon
32

strasburgi). feodalebi, romelebic, ZiriTadad, Tavisi mamulidan da


Tavisi koSkidan xedavdnen samyaros, axla ufro daaxlovdnen. am
daaxloebam Camoayaliba maTSi saerTo kanonebi da qcevis normebi.
amdenad, gaerTianda raindTa fena, sadac ufro win idga rainduli
idealebi, vidre maTi nacionaluri mikuTvnebuloba.
saraindo ordenebi
XI saukunis bolosa da XII saukunis dasawyisSi iqmneba samxedroberuli ordenebi, romlis wevrebic beruli cxovrebis wess samoqalaqos
uTavsebdnen. Cvenamde moRweuli wyaroebiT ver xerxdeba imis garkveva,
Tu ram gamoiwvia beruli institutis transformacia samxedro
ordenebad.
es ordenebi, romlebic mniSvnelovan rols asrulebdnen rainduli
idealebis gavrcelebaSi, warmoiqmnen jvarosnuli laSqrobebis dros.
uZvelesi rainduli ordeni iyo `wm. ioanes ordeni ierusalimSi~.
es iyo erTaderTi ordeni, romelic ber-monazvnuri ordenidan aRmocenda.
XI saukunis Sua xanebSi igi daaarsa amalfielma vaWarma, benediqtianuri
ordenis wesdebis Sesabamisad. jvarosanTa mier ierusalimis aRebis
Semdeg ber-monazvnebma piligrimTa, upovarTa da avadmyofTa movlis
mizniT, Seqmnes hospitali. 1120 wels es ordeni raimond du puis
meTaurobiT gadakeTda wm. ioanes hospitalis saraindo ordenad. ordenis
mfarveli iyo ioane naTlismcemeli. ordenis wevrTa movaleobas
wamoadgenda RaribTa da avadmyofTa movla, piligrimebisa da muslimTa
mier datyvevebul qristianTa daxmareba. hospitalierTa ordeni nel-nela
ufro samxedro interesebs ayenebs win da misi wesdebac am mimarTulebiT
Seicvala. Seicvala maTi Cacmulobac. Tu adre hospitalierebi
atarebdnen Sav mosasxams zed gamosaxuli TeTri jvriT, mogvianebiT Savi
mosasxamis qveS isini atarebdnen wiTel kabas, Tanac jvaric rvakuTxa
gaxda. aseve, Zvirfasi tansacmlis tarebis adrindeli akrZalva ukve ar
iyo mniSvnelovani, maT SeeZloT Zvirfasi naWrisagan damzadebuli
tansacmlis tareba. hospitalerebi cxovrobdnen cal-calke senakebSi, ar
iyo marxvis Zalian mkacri moTxovna. ordenma maleve daagrova didi
simdidre, isini flobdnen did miwebs, tyeebs, venaxebs da sasaxleebs.
maTi rezidencia mdebareobda ierusalimSi, qristes saflavTan axlos.
ordens hqonda aRmosavleTSi, tripolis sagrafoSi margatis didi cixesimagre, aseve did miwebs flobda antioqiasTan. ordens Tavisi
filialebi hqonda safrangeTSi, inglisSi, germaniaSi, italiaSi, aragonsa
da kastiliaSi.
jer kidev jvarosnuli saxelmwifobis srul dakargvamde, ioanitebi
gadasaxldnen kunZul kviprosze, magram, adgilobriv xelisuflebasTan
SeuTavseblobis gamo, maleve gadavidnen kunZul rodosze, romelic im
33

periodisaTvis bizantias ekuTvnoda. papisa da safrangeTis mefis


daxmarebiT, ordenis grosmaistris Zmam fulko vilaretelma 1309 wels
daipyro kunZuli rodosi.

ioanitebis rezidencia k. rodosze


kunZuli TiTqmis 200 weli epyraT ioanitebs. pirveli didi Seteva
maT winaaRmdeg sulTanma mehmed II ganaxorciela, xolo 1522 wlis
dekemberSi, sulTanma suleiman II sabolood daipyro kunZuli rodosi,
ioanitebma 4000 raindis raodenobiT 1523 wels kunZuli datoves. isini
jer kunZul kretaze gadavidnen, Semdeg napolSi da bolos _ Civita
vekiaSi. 1530 wels imperatorma karl V rodosidan gamodevnil
ioanitebs gadasca kunZuli malta, ris Semdegac isini maltis ordenad
moixseniebodnen. maltis ordenma daasrula arseboba, rodesac egvipteSi
salaSqrod mimavalma napoleon bonapartem iq Tavisi jari Seiyvana.
ukanasknelma grosmaisterma ferdinand fon hompeSma, romelic Zalian
susti mmarTveli iyo, kavSiri daamyara ruseTis imperator pavle I-Tan
da mas gadasca ordenis grosmaisteris tituli, Tumca romis papma is ar
daamtkica. pavle I-is daRupvis Semdeg mis memkvidres aleqsandre I-s ar
ganucxadebia pretenzia maltis ordenze. SemdegSi adgilobrivi
raindebidan irCevdnen grosmaisters, magram maT male dakarges Zveli
mniSvneloba. 1834 wlidan maltis ordenis rezidencia qalaq romSi
mdebareobs.
erT-erTi didi ordeni, romelic Camoyalibda aRmosavleTSi
jvarosanTa laSqrobebis dros, 1119 wels, iyo tamplierTa ordeni. misi
saxeli modis im adgilidan, sadac cxovrobda didi magistri _ kerZod,
solomonis taZarTan ierusalimSi. ordenis Camoyalibebis mizani iyo
akridan ierusalimisken mimavali piligrimebis dacva, radgan ierusalimis
samefos samxedro Zala ar hyofnida gzebze mSvidobiani gadaadgilebis
uzrunvelsayofad. ordenis Camoyalibeba dakavSirebulia burgundieli
raindis hugo de penis saxelTan da mis Svid megobarTan.
aRsaniSnavia, rom beris mier iaraRis aReba da brZolebSi
monawileoba miuRebeli iyo qristianobisaTvis da winaaRmdegobebs
34

iwvevda.Mmiuxedavad dapirispirebisa, tamplierebma SeZles saeklesio


fenebSi moepovebinaT mxardaWera, ris Sedegadac 1129 wels truas
krebaze Sedgenil iqna ordenis wesdeba, romelic papma honorius II-m
daamtkica.

tamplierTa ordenis beWedi

tamplierTa jvari

ordeni Sedgeboda sami jgufisgan: 1) raindebi ordenis


sruluflebiani
wevrebi,
romlebic
aucileblad
didgvarovani
warmomavlobis
unda
yofiliyvnen,
2)
klerikalebi,
romlebic
RvTismsaxurebas asrulebdnen ordenis eklesiebSi, 3) msaxurebi,
romlebic uZRvebodnen ordenis sameurneo saqmes. ordens saTaveSi edga
magistri, romelsac raindTa wridan irCevdnen. misi rezidencia
ierusalimSi iyo.
tamplierebi atarebdnen TeTr mosasxams wiTeli jvriT. ordenSi
gawevrianebis ufleba mxolod Tavisufal moqalaqeebs hqondaT, amasTan,
isini unda yofiliyvnen kanonierad Sobilni. ordenSi iRebdnen bavSvebsac.
tamplierTa
monasterSi
cxovreba
Cveuli
samonastro
saxiT
mimdinareobda. tansacmeli beruli ar iyo, misi SerCevisas Tavisufleba
eZleodaT.

ierusalimis mefe balduini gadascems


taZars hugo de pens, miniatura
35

tamplierebis moRvaweobis sfero ar iyo mxolod wminda miwa.


pirveli evropuli saxelmwifo, sadac maT aqtiuri qmedebebi daiwyes, iyo
espaneTi. P1143 wels, barselonis grafis miwveviT, tamplierebi
rekonkistaSi* CaerTvnen.
rac Seexeba wminda miwas, ierusalimis mefis Zalauflebis Semdeg
tamplierebi aqtiur, damoukidebel sagareo omebs iwyeben, isini uteven
Crdilour provinciebs, samxreTiT damoukidebel politikas awarmoeben
egviptesa da damaskosTan, mogvianebiT mamluqebTan xelSekrulebebsac ki
deben.
wminda
miwaze
cixesimagreTa
umravlesobas
tamplieri
da
hospitalieri raindi berebi icavdnen. meTormete saukuneSi am simagreTa
umravlesoba mdebareobda ara ierusalimis samefoSi, aramed CrdiloeT
siriaSi. tamplierebi ara marto mflobelobaSi iRebdnen cixeebs, aramed
aSenebdnen axlebs da Zvelebis reorganizaciasac axdendnen.
miuxedavad ber-raindTa mcirericxovnebisa, isini gamoirCeodnen
mamacobiT, organizebulobiTa da TavganwirulobiT. kargad icnobdnen
adgilobriv garemos, Sesabamisad, yvelaze gamocdili da kargi meomrebi
iyvnen wminda miwaze.
tamplierebSi Ddisciplina umaRles doneze iyo, morCilebis aRTqma
yvelafris Sesrulebis garantias iZleoda, Jak de mole swored am
faqtors miiCnevda gadamwyvetad da ambobda, rom swored amis gamo
Camoayalibdnen
tamplierebi
Zlier
raindebad.
tamplierebs
damrRvevTaTvis
gaTvaliswinebuli
sasjelebi
hqondaT,
ordenidan
gagdebiT dawyebuli, gamaTraxebiT damTavrebuli.
sxva ordenebisgan gansxvavebiT, tamplierebi avadmyofebze ar
zrunavdnen. Tumca isini qvelmoqmedebaas eweodnen, Raribebs aZlevdnen im
puris meaTeds, romelic tamplierebis monastrebSi cxveboda.
ordeni Zalian bevr teritorias flobda, rogorc dasavleTSi, aseve
aRmosavleTSi, ramac ganapiroba is, rom maT didi raodenobiT Tanxa
hqondaT. Aordens SeeZlo adgilidan adgilze Tanxa Zalian martivad
gadaeadgilebina, maT bevri didebuli aZlevda fuls, romelsac surda
Tanxis gadatana dasavleTidan aRmosavleTSi an piriqiT. SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom tamplierebi pirveli bankirebi iyvnen evropaSi.
tamplierebis
Semosavlis
ZiriTad
wyaros
Sewirulobebi
warmoadgenda, swiravdnen mefeebi, didgvarovnebi, Raribebi, Tumca
Semosavlis naxevarze meti wevrebis Senaxvaze midioda.
1307 wels, filipe lamazis brZanebiT, daiwyo tamplierTa
dapatimrebebi da gasamarTleba, romelic dasrulda 1311 wels ordenis
grosmaisteris Jak de moles koconze dawviT. aRsaniSnavia, rom
tamplierTa ordenis ganadgurebis motivi dRemde ucnobia. arsebobs
versiebi, rom filips fuli sWirdeboda, magram amis damadasturebeli
36

aranairi cnoba ar moipoveba, Tan tamplierTa qoneba pirdapir mefes ar


gadaecemoda memkvidreobiT. am sakiTxze dava dRemde mimdinareobs.
tamplierebis ordeni Tvisobrivad axal safexurs warmoadgenda
evropis cxovrebaSi, maT aRmosavleTSi qristianobis dasacavad didi
roli Seasrules da ukanasknelebma datoves es teritoriebi. maTi
ganadgurebis Semdeg iqmneboda da dRemde iqmneba aTasi legenda, rac
gamowveulia ordenis zRapruli simdidriTa da ZlevemosilebiT.

Jak de moles koconze dawva, miniatura


sasuliro ordenTa Soris mniSvnelovani iyo
III jvarosnuli
laSqrobis dros, 1190 wels daarsebuli tevtonTa ordeni. is daaarses
germanelma raindebma cixe-simagre akraSi, sadac ordenis wevrebma
daafuZnes saavadmyofo daWrilTa da avadmyofTa movlisa da mkurnalobis
mizniT. tevtonTa ordenis devizi iyo `daxmareba, dacva da gankurneba.~
1196 wels Sedga ordenis daarsebis ceremoniali, romelsac
daeswrnen hospitalierebisa da tamplierTa ordenebis magistrebi.
Tavdapirvelad tevtonTa ordeni hospitalierTa ordenis SemadgenlobaSi
iTvleboda. Tumca, germaneli imperatorebis aqtiuri CareviT, ordenma
damoukidebloba
moipova.
Tavdapirvelad
masSi
200-mde
raindi
gawevrianda da airCies magistri germaniis imperatorTan da papTan
SeTanxmebiT. pirveli magistri iyo hainrix fon valpoti. papma inokenti
III 1199 wels daamtkica ordenis wesdeba. ordenis mizani iyo
emkurnalaT
qriatianebisaTvis
da
gaevrcelebinaT
qristianoba
warmarTebSi. sxva ordenebisagan gansxvavebiT, ordenis wesdebiT, misi
wevri SeiZleboda yofiliyo mxolod germaneli da aucileblad maRali
socialuri fenidan. maT ecvaT TeTri mosasxami, romelzec gamosaxuli
iyo Savi laTinuri jvari.
marTalia, tevtonebi ar iyvnen arc iseTi Zlerebi da arc iseTi
mdidrebi, rogorc tamplierebi, magram maT III jvarosnuli laSqrobis
Semdeg garkveuli simdidre daagroves aRmosavleTSi. tevtonebma aaSenes
cixe- simagre monforti. ordenis wevrebi sam ZiriTad berul moTxovnas
37

_ dauqorwineblobas, morCilebasa da siRatakes _ umatebdnen Semdeg


moTxovnasac: ibrZolebdnen warmarTebis winaaRmdeg da mouvlidnen
upovrebsa da avadmyofebs.

tevtonTa cixe simagre akrasTan


tevtonebs ar hqondaT gamorCeuli SeiaraReba, Tumca kargad
flobdnen omis warmoebis xelovnebas.
tevtonTa ordeni gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda magistris herman fon
zalcas (1209-1239 ww.) mmarTvelobis dros. ordens miwebi hqonda
saqsoniaSi, frankoniaSi, bavariaSi, hesenSi, aseve hqondaT cixe-simagreebi
venasa da praRaSi. pirvelad tevtonebi aRmosavleT evropis teritoriaze
gamoCndnen XIII saukunis damdegs, rodesac ungreTis mefem miiwvia isini
paWanikebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad, magram maleve, rodesac ordenma
moiTxova gansakuTrebuli pirobebi, ungreTis mefem isini Tavisi qveynidan
gamoaZeva.
mogvianebiT, tevtonebi miiwvia poloneTis mefem prusebis winaaRmdeg
sabrZolvelad. poloneTis mefem
misca maT ufleba, prusebis
damarcxebis Semdeg damkvidrebuliyvnen am miwebze. prusebis dapyrobil
teritoriaze tevtonebi agebdnen cixe-simagreebs. prusiaSi tevtonTa
ordeni gadaiqca feodalur saxelmwifod.
XIV saukunis 60-80-ian wlebSi ordenma daiwyo intensiuri brZola
litvis winaaRmdeg da garkveul warmatebebsac miaRwia. 1403 wels papma
bonifacius IX aukrZala maT qristianuli qveynis _ litvis winaaRmdeg
brZola. am periodSi dinastiuri qorwinebis Sedegad gaerTianda
poloneTisa da litvis samefoebi, romlebic erTiani ZaliT gegmavdnen
tevtonTa gaZevebas dapyrobili teritoriebidan. 1410 wels moxda
gadamwyveti brZola griunvaldTan. tevtonebma warmatebiT daiwyes
brZola, magram brZolis bedi gadawyvita ordenis magistris ulrix fon
iungenis sikvdilma da tevtonebi damarcxdnen.
1466 wels tevtonebi iZulebuli gaxdnen, Tavi poloneTis mefis
vasalad gamoecxadebinaT. Semdgomi dartyma tevtonebs protestantulma
reformaciam miayena. ordenis wevrebma miiRes martin luTeris mowodeba,
38

fici gaetexaT da daqorwinebuliyvnen. grosmaisterma albert fon


hohencolernma gatexa fici da aRiara protestantizmi. man Tavi prusiis
mTavrad gamoacxada da realurad Seqmna Tavisi samflobelo. aman ki
tevtonTa ordeni gaqra.
garda sasuliero saraindo ordenebisa, arsebobda raindebis saero
ordenebi, sadac ZiriTadi bermonazvnuli moTxovnebi dauqorwinebloba,
siRaribe da morCileba _ ar iyo aucilebeli piroba. aq mniSvnelovani
iyo raindis iseTi movaleobebis win wamoweva, rogoric iyo RvTisa da
samSoblos erTguleba da samsaxuri, gaWirvebulTa da daCagrulTa dacva
da samarTlianobisTvis brZola. rasakvirvelia, ise, rogorc es
damaxasiaTebeli
iyo
Sua
saukuneebisaTvis,
ordenebis
wesdeba
qristianuli moralis Sesabamisi iyo. Tumca, rogorc i. haizinga wers,
qristianuli moralisa da raindobis idealis gaerTianeba garkveulad
mainc ganuxorcielebeli idea iyo, radgan rainduli idea didebisaTvis
da pativisaTvis brZola _ ufro ampartavnobas Seesabameboda, rac
sruliad ewinaaRmdegeba qristianul ideologias.
pirveli saraindo ordenebi Seiqmna espaneTSi. upirvelesi espanuri
ordeni iyo kalatrava, romelic 1158 wels daaarsa fileros abatma
raimondma da misma berma diego velaskesma. ordenis pirveli
grosmaisteri
iyo
fileros
abati.
ordeni
xelmZRvanelobda
cistercianuli ordenis wesdebiT. isini atarebdnen TeTr mosasxams
wiTeli jvriT.
meore espanuri ordenic amave dros warmoiSva kastiliaSi. es iyo
alkantaras ordeni, romelic daaarses salamankelma raindebma suero da
gomes fernando barientosebma. ordenis ZiriTadi mizani iyo saracinebis
winaaRmdeg brZola.
espanurma ordenebma
udidesi roli Seasrules
espanur rekonkistaSi, pireneidan arabebis gandevnisaTvis brZolaSi.
XIV da XV saukuneebSi dasavleT evropaSi Camoyalibda mravali
saraindo ordeni, romelTac, msgavsad klasikuri Sua saukuneebis xanis
sasuliero saraindo ordenebisa, maRali eTikuri da pilitikuri
idealebi hqondaT, magram, i. haizingas azriT, es ufro ocnebebi da
iluzia iyo.
gviani Sua saukuneebis rainduli ordenebis mizani iyo axali
sazogadoebis Seqmnis xelSewyoba, radganac am ordenebSi, umeteswilad,
nebadarTuli iyo sazogadoebis yvela fenis monawileoba, maT Soris,
vaWrebisac da ubralo adamianebisac. gviani Sua saukuneebis ordenebs
aseve hqondaT garkveuli politikuri da religiuri amocanebi. es iyo
evropis kontinentze gadmosuli Turqebis winaaRmdeg brZola.
XIV saukuneSi safrangeTis mefeebis meTaurobiT daarsda ramdenime
saraindo ordeni. aseve iqmneboda ordenebi samTavroebSi.
radganac XIV saukunidan ordenebis Seqmna TiTqmis moda gaxda, TviT
maRali aristokratiac ar rCeboda gverdze. marSalma busikom Seqmna
39

ordeni keTilSobili siyvarulisa da Seviwroebul qalTa uflebebis


dasacavad, safrangeTis mefe Janma
daaarsa
RvTismSoblisa da
keTilSobili ojaxis raindTa ordeni. Radgan am ukanasknel ordens
emblemad hqonda varskvlavi, mas varskvlavis ordenad icnobdnen. erTerTi aseTi cnobili ordeni Seiqmna burgundiaSi `oqros sawmisis~
saxelwodebiT. misi damaarsebeli iyo burgundiis hercogi filip
burgundieli. es ordeni erT-erTi yvelaze warmatebuli iyo im periodis
dasavleTSi, risi mizezic, upirvelesad, albaT, TviT burgundiis
ekonomikuri siZliere iyo.
XIII saukunis bolodan raindoba kargavs
mniSvnelobas. isini
TavianT iaraRs ukve ar iyenebdnen
keTilSobiluri miznebisaTvis,
piriqiT, sxvis dasarbevad mimarTavdnen. maTi suliskveTeba knindeba da
ilaxeba Rirsebis grZnoba, romelic xSirad uazro duelebis sababi
xdeba.
XIV saukuneSi raindobis idea TandaTanobiT kargavs Tavis
cxovelmyofel xasiaTs. raindoba samefo da samTavro karis saTamaSo
figurebs
ufro warmoadgenda, vidre raime realur Zalas.
cecxlsasroli iaraRis Semotanam Zveli mniSvneloba daakargvina
raindobas. samxedro ZalaSi ukve upiratesoba eZleva artilerias.
raindoba
dasrulda
reformaciis
xanaSi,
rodesac
ufro
mniSvnelovani gaxda axali socialuri fena da soflebidan da raindis
koSkebidan kulturulma cxovrebam qalaqebSi gadainacvla. Tumca
raindulma idealebma da tradiciebma Zalian didxans gaZles evropaSi.
amis
magaliTebi
uxvad
gvxvdeba
dasavleTis,
rogorc
saero
literaturaSi, aseve saistorio mwerlobaSi. evropis axali istoriis
gariJraJze kidev arsebobs rainduli turnirebi, raindis aRTqma da
erTgulebis fici. XVI saukuneSi jer kidev Cans raindobis Zlieri fena
tiudorebis inglisSi. inglisis mefe henri VII gatacebuli iyo
turnirebiT,
aseTive
gatacebas
turnirebiT
vxvdebiT
germaniis
imperatoris maqsimilian I-is biografiaSi.
magram raindoba, rogorc
Cans, ukve fiqciad iqca, rac `don kixotSi~ SesaniSnavad asaxa espanelma
klasikosma servantesma.
sadac raindobas ar daukargavs mniSvneloba, es iyo keTilSobilTa
sagvareulo istoria. sagvareulos rainduli warsuli gvaris win
wamowevas
uwyobda
xels.
sagvareulo
niSnebi
da
sigelebi,
rasakvirevelia, ukve brZolis velze ar mowmdeboda, rogorc es iyo
aucilebeli turnirebSi monawileobis dros, magram is sazogadoebaSi
didad fasobda.
miuxedavad amisa, ara marto Sua saukuneebis xalxebis, aramed
dRevandelobisaTvisac, sanimuSoa raindTa yofa. isini barbarosobisa da
uxeSobis periodSi iZleodnen Tavazianobis magaliTs da xels uwyobdnen
saTnoebis damkvidrebas, kanonisa da marTlmsajulebis gavrcelebas.
40

raindobam
daamkvidra
mravali
Rirseuli
wesi
sazogadoebrivi
urTierTmimarTebisa, aamaRla qali, romelsac Sua saukuneebSi naklebi
uflebebi hqonda da misca mas kuTvnili adgili dauTmo sazogadoebriv
cxovrebaSi.

41

ganmartebiTi leqsikoni *
adrianopoli _ axlandeli q. edirne TurqeTSi.
amiane marceline _ (marcelinusi) moRvaweobda daax. 330-400 wlebSi,
romaeli istorikosi, tomiT berZeni, werda laTinurad. monawileobda
sparseTisa da germaniis winaaRmdeg omebSi (353-363 ww.). dawera
Txzuleba `momxdar saqmeTa wignebi~, romelic moicavs romis istorias
96-378 wlebSi.
aqvitania _ istoriuli olqi samxreT-dasavleT safrangeTSi. Zvelad
romis provincia, Sua saukuneebSi _ sahercogo.
bohemia _ 1. Cexiis saxelmwifos Tavdapirveli saxelwodeba; 2. 1526-1918
ww-Si habsburgebis germanul imperiaSi Semavali Cexiis oficialuri
saxelwodeba.
viurcburgi _ q. germaniaSi, bavariis mxareSi, navsadguri md. mainze.
investitura _ senioris mier vasalis Tanamdebobaze daniSvnis, wodebis
miniWebis iuridiuli aqti, romelsac Tan sdevda vasalis erTgulebis
fici.
ioseb arimaTieli _ q. arimaTiis mdidari moqalaqe, qristes faruli
mimdevari, jvridan macxovris gardamoxsnis monawile.
keisari _ romis imperatoris _ cezaris titulis Zv. rusuli
saxelwodeba (berZnulis gavleniT: keisaris _ monarqi, mbrZanebeli).
kluniuri
moZraoba
_
kaTolikuri
eklesiis
gasaZliereblad
ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebi X-XI saukuneebSi. am moZraobas saTaveSi
edga klunis saabato burgundiaSi (safrangeTi). mTavari moTxovnebi iyo
_
mkacri
reJimi
monastrebSi.
maTi
damoukidebloba
saero
xelisuflebisagan da episkoposTagan uSualod papisadmi daqvemdebareba
da a. S.
nimvegeni _ qalaqi axlandel niderlandebSi.
normanebi _ (skand. `CrdiloeTis adamiani~), am saxelwodebiT icnobdnen
das. evropaSi skandinaviis xalxebs (molaSqreebs) VIII-XI ss-Si. TviT
skandinaviaSi maT vikingebs, xolo ruseTSi _ variagebs uwodebdnen.
oto I _ (912-973 ww.), germaniis mefe da `saRvTo romis imperiis~
imperatori, hainrix I-is Ze.
otonebi _ (Zv. germanuli _ `Otto~, `mflobeli~, `memamule~) ramdenime
mefis, imperatoris, hercogis saxeli.
pompeusi _ (gneus, Zv. w. 106-48 ww.) romaeli sardali da politikuri
moRvawe.
rekonkista _ espanelTa moZraoba arabTa (mavrebis) batonobisagan
gasaTavisufleblad.

42

romis imperatori _ (saRvTo romis...) Sua saukuneebis imperia, romelic


926 wels daaarsa germaniis mefe oto I-ma. masSi Sedioda germania,
italiis nawili, Cexia, burgundia, Sveicaria da a. S.
saracinebi _ antikur avtorebTan dasavleT da samxreT arabeTis
mosaxleobis saxelwodeba. Aadre Sua saukuneebidan am saxelwodebiT
moixseniebdnen yvela arabs, mogvianebiT, gansakuTrebiT jvarosnuli
laSqrobebis epoqaSi, es termini gamoiyeneboda islamis mimdevari
xalxebis aRsaniSnavad.
Svidi Tavisufali xelovneba _ saswavlo disciplinebi Sua saukuneebis
skolebisa
da
universitetebis
`artistul~
(mosamzadebel)
fakultetebze (gramatika, ritorika, dialeqtika, ariTmetika, geometria,
astronomia, musika).
xalifati _ muslimuri, feodaluri Teokratiuli saxelmwifo (arabeTis
naxevarkunZulze), romlis saTaveSi idga xalifa.
hainrix frinvelmWeri _ germaniis mefe da `saRvTo romis imperiis~
imperatori hainrix I (daaxloebiT 876-936 ww.), liudonfilgebis
gvaridan, saqsoniuri dinastiis damaarsebeli.

43

Ggamoyenebuli literatura dawyaroebi:


g. akofaSvili raindoba saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1996
Sua saukuneebis samarTali, Seadgina da komentarebi daurTo prof.
i. doliZem, Tb., 1962, t. II

44

Barber R. The Knight and Chivalry, Woodbridge, 2000


Bumke J. Studium zum Ritterbegriff im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert, Heidelberg, 1977
Chivarly in theRenaissance, edited by S. Anglo, Woodbrige, 1990
Das Rittertum in Meittelalter. hrg. von A. Borst, Darmstadt, 1998
Fleckenstein J. Rittertum und ritterliche Welt, Berlin, 2002
Flori J. Chevaliers et chevalerie au Moyen Age, Pris, 1998
Henne am Rhyn o. Geschichte des RittertumsWiesbaden, 2003
Keen M. Chivalry, London, 1985
Le Goff J. Le civilization de LOccident medieval, Paris, 1997
.
, M.
. , M., 2007