L T H E C L U BP L A Y E R ' S I B R A R Y

Trainlikea Grandmaster
ALEXANDER KOTOV Cafferty Translated Bernard by

B.T. Batsford Ltd, London

pubtished First 1981 Reprinted984,1986, 990 1 1 Alexander Kotov, 981 1 @ ISBN 71 3609 (limp) 0 34 3 Typeset by W.Turner SonLimited, & Halifax andPrinted Great in Britain by Billing Sons Worcester & Ltd, forthepublishers B. T. Batsford Limited 4 Fitzhardinge Street, London H OAH W1


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Symbols Acknowledgements and Preface A littlehistory is Howthe Opening Studied Objectivity the Ending in Competitive Creative or Element? the Studying Middle Game Annotating Games A Philosophy Chess of Schools Chess of Botvinnik's Chess School Kart's Chess School Karseladze's School Chess Withouta School

6 7 9 1' ] 24
za 41

63 68 70 84 102 112

A BATSFORD CHESS BOOK Adviser:GM Keene R.D. OBE Technical Editor: Kingston lan






?? B

Check Goodmove Very strongmove Doubtfulmove Blunder Whiteto move Blackto move

NOTE:Some minor corrections were made to the text at editonat sf€ge- R.G.W.

'What a strangestateof aifairsyou have in chessnowadays; of He a of remarked friend mine. doesnot knowthefinerpoints the but he takes note of all the resultsof IndianDefence, Kings and tournaments matches. 'Whatdo you have mind?' in 'Almost oT aboutthe emergence a thereare reports everyVear the Yugoslavia, Britain, In talent. Moscow, chess outstanding new USAl 'lt'sthe natural progression the generationsl of 'Progression! in the Candidates' for Matches overa decade Yet the been always almost for challengers theworldtitlehave theeig6t'old selfsame men" 'WhataboutKarpov?' 'Karpov been Where the are already. for champion fiveyears has series 1965 of to youngtalents? Compared the Candidates' other has in of the averageage the challengers the 1980 series goneup yet younger thanthirty, is There no challenger two by almost years. of and fifty-one, some is already Petrosian o; theotherhandTigran ' gettingcloseto their halfcentury.. . the othersare 'lt sometimes that haPPens way 'sometimesl at Thenagain YefimGeller the age of fifty-four in the all outplays the youngmenand takes goldmedal the 1979 - another to example youthi Chamoionship Soviet a this We discussed topic.and laterI reflected greatdealtryingto of organisations many the whichtroubles chess a answer question of in Aecently Moscowtherewasa gathering experienced countries. grandmasters and young talentedplayers.There were notes of of alarm soundedin the speeches famouschessexpertssucfi as and-othersEven Taimanov Polugayevsky, grandmasters Smyslov, We by in wereexpressed an article Petrosian claims 5arlier, serious later,but herewe can thoughts shallget to know his interesting 'lt lor the to givea resum6: is easy playagainst youngplayers; me theyarean openbooki for What are the reasons the slowingdown in the development




of younggrandmasters both in our countryand in others? The authorcameto the conclusion an answer that can onlv be oiven aftera careful analysis the present of state chess of theory. Ho-w do we play? Whatis the foundation modern of chess? What plavs the leading in our creative role efforts? Whatarethe chiefprinciples of modernchess theory? My latefriendand trainer, grandmaster Simagin, usedto stress the needto discuss philosophy present chess, the of dav how for example regard advantage Whjtemoving \^€ the of first,whatare the mainguidelines our research for work. Theauthorhasto overcome some diffidence tacklino most in this difficult topic,in tryingto filla gap left by theoreticians: I console myself with the thoughtthatthe traveller who penetrates thick the forestmayhave sadfate, no worsethanthat of the irresolute a but who hesitate thefirstclearing at In examining current the state chess authorhasno choice of the but to copewith another task- to talkaboutmodern methods of chesscoaching, and naturally the modernSovietSchoolof of Chess. canhardly denied modern lt be that chess to a considerable is extent Soviet chess. a careful By examination chess of coachinq in player learn lot,and useit in hisoiwn the USSR Western the can a attempts improve. to For example how usefulit is to become famlliar with the organisation teaching and methods Botvinnik's of famous school, Soviet school others. the TV and Thuswe getthe mainaimof thisbook: To describe features the modernattitude chess, the of to as largelyworked out by the Soviet School,to try and revealtne philosophy modern of chess, to indicate chess studied and how is rn the strongest the Schools Chess the Soviet of of School. ln the lightof thistheauthorhasdivided bookintotwo basrc the parts: 1 How chess theory is studied. 2 Chess schools in the Soviet Union.


A littlehistory

game players who devote theirtimeto the greatandancient Chess The into two basiccategories. firstsimplyplayin can be divided try The to appropnate theirstrength. second to find tournaments whichin theory, to chess sense somephilosophical in chess, create world genuine The first become a science. our dayshasbecome grandmasters, winnersof top tourthe and leading champions of The writebooks thetheory thethreestages on naments. second and bothactivities f igures combine leadirig Sometimes of the game. person the worldof chess. in thenwe getan outstanding by principles chess theorywerediscovered of Thefirst guiding theseprinciples Amongst and of the inventors openings gambits. one: bring out your pieces is the best established the simplest quickly, and go for the enemyking with all your fie seize centre the aimsare servedby the EvansGambit, forces.Such 'blitzkrieg' the Evennowadays and others. the Gambit Gambit, Kings Danish piece are development a cornerand speedy of seizure the centre stoneof modernstrategy. postulate important to And16 Philidor drewattention yetanother 'Thepawnisthe soulof chess' stated, everybody concurred and he centrepawn the studyto pawnchains, isolated in devoting careful pawns. of andtheweakness a groupof of event in the development theory was the A significant weak with his stresson avoiding of teaching WilhelmSteinitz and slightadvantages of the squares, accumulation temporary. ones. With the arrivalof into permanent their transformation a theorybecame realforce;hewasthe onewho originated Steinitz whichis now so welldeveloped. to aooroach chess the scientrfic theory - Tarraschand his The proponentsof Steinitz's - tried to express in teaching the form of Steinitz's supporters they in laconic rules, asoftenhappens suchcases, wenttoo far. and to and began lose dogmatic, chess The laconic tended become to and itsfreshness, originality charm. this.In the earlypartof Theyoungof that timeroseup against and books and Nimzowitsch R6tiin theirpolemic the 20th century


A little history

articles and Alekhine his practical playstarted propagandising in moreand morethe creative principles be foundevenearlier to in the games Chigorin. of Theirmainpostulates were:Getawayfrom playinventively, originally, as Black not go for dogma, even and do equality, theTarrasch as school taught, fromthefirstmoves but try yourown planof counter to create play. These aims, immediate an counter attack pieces a seemingly pawncentre, by on impregnable were servedby the invention their openings the Alekhine of Defence, Gr0nfeld the Defence, Nimzowitsch the Defence so and on. Morethan halfa century hasgoneby since appearance the of R6ti'sModern ldeas in Chessand Nimzowitsch's Systemin My whichthe principles theseinnovators laiddown (theycalled of are themselves hypermoderns). thenchess grownintoa the Since has massively-popular thenumber chess artand of books magazines and in the various languages the worldcannotbe counted. you of Yet will look in vain on the bookshelves a work devotedto qeneral for questions chessdevelopment. an accountof thd main of for postulates modern chessthought. The bookshelves piled of are high instead with bookson the openings, tournament booksand biographies the greatplayers. of In thisbookwe try to dealwith a number important points of of modern chesstheory. What is chessnowadays? How is theory studied a leading by school? Howaremodern views thisancient on gameformed? The reader alsolearnhow a general will theoryof chess develops how the theoryof the threestages the game and of is studied the Soviet in Union.


i Howthe Openings Studied

play day How do present grandmasters the first stageof the game? do What principles they follow?lf we can answerthesequestlons theory. all in we shall makerealprogress understanding modern who experts Chess of all the advantage the first moveFirstof position are in that to seem allege Whitehasno advanbge theinitial alwavs side the sports starting nearly wrong.Evenin quick-moving the even hass6meadvantage, if veryslight for example rightto In to bullyoff in hockey. chesslt ls always serveat tennis,or what sort.of then arises preferable be White.The question to the to in planBlack choose an attempt neutrallse should strategic the right to movefirst and to seize initiative. "lt of that to stands reason the methods playfor Whiteand Black them so are different, we shallconsider in the initialoosition separately. White in maybe distinguishedthe mlnd of Three maincurrents thought playing Whitein a tournament-.game: grandmaster of a modern ol of maintenancetheadvantage lrrstmove of 1)Themethod quiet strike. swift 2) The methodof the 'coiled spring: of 3) Themethod the to does whena grandmaster nothave winat allcostshe 1) In cases io sensible andsticks clear in lines the opening shara tends avoid to is whenthe opponent a definite is alsoadopted Thismethod lines. to'keep him in protagonist sharpplayand it is advantageous of check: of Thecharacteristicsquletplayareobvious pawnexcnanges' aim White's is simple the pawnstructures. of the formation rigid by conferred the sllghtbenefits admittedly of maintenance th-ose White.lam not aimingfor too much,but in nature chess being of what I haveI hold is White'smotto as t were of of Examples suchplaywith Whiteare manyformations the (Diagram), the 1 Declined Gambit of variation ihe Oueen's Carlsbad


How the Openingis Studied

White 13 pawnadvance Black just otreincautious by siuce hereis apparent great damage on forceandinflict pieces uncoilwith will White's atrd the erremy. slow years. Youwillfind apparent of the Examine games receltt
play by White in a Kingslrldianopenlrlg.

SlavDefence, Caro-Kann so on. the and

t2 ',.& 2t"'../1, '.:L2.,
7i/Z ''&. t "ilat& t



% "&t ^&a%i.,x '"&t% 2 % 'ut'//h "'.2

It is peaceful the centre, peaceful the flanks. in comparatjvely on Thesmoothness the pawnchains, limited of the availabiliw open of lines. absence a direct the of clash evident: is Sucha methodof playcomesfrom the previous century, and onemightmake musical the comparison suchpositions not that are the shake the twist,but rather monotonous and the waltz, even or the minuet chess. of 2) A sharpcomparison provided the methodof the swift is by strike, brisk'cavalry of raidsl Thismethod waswidelv too adopted in the old days,and keeps placenowadays. its Who will express surprise nowadays the sharppawnadvance g2-94-g5 even at and on to 96?lt occurs the Sicilian in Defence e4 c5 2 lf3 d6 3 d4 1 cd 4 axd4lf6 5 lc3 e6 6 s4!?

7 %t%6ru t'&ft' /&a
pieces sinceWhite'sbunched is Yet this slowness deceptive, bringWhitearrearly that can arl often unrolland develop activity when careful to the can win. Orre oulyadvise reader be particularly spring.' the of along lirres a coiled his develops forces hisopponent Black forcesBlackto of The advantage the first moveby his opponent Onedistrllguishes to approaches the opening. ratherdifferent adopt for in modernpraxisthreemethods Black. for 1) Play equality. plarr' out of 2) Themethod carrying an irldeper]derlt method. spring 3) Thecoiled '1 ) We have alreadynoted that ill the olden days White often of quietlystrivirrg maitrtain advantage the move the to proceeded just tryingto keep usedto matroeuvre as calmly Blackin thosedays level. todaytoo at the highest is method applied This it level. ancient to doesnot have go for a since understandable Black Thisis easily with a draw. lrl suchcases satisfied win in everygame,often beirrg ( manoeuwe . ' simplifying witn Capablallca's one hasthe OGO openrtrg in Defence thesame or Lasker's d5Xc4 and Af6-d5) The same purposetends to be servedby the Oueensh.ldian
' Translators Nate ; Pachman,Bled 1961 is a partcularly PetrosEn elar|ple I ff 3 c5 2 93 - c6 3 Jg2 96 a slnKrna O O-gq7 5d3e6 6e4 Aqe77 Ee I GO8e5d6 9ed 12-U1&bq

t7:., '1,11 2
2) A A

tui , ',:1.:aa.
?) Jl


2 2 7 //alt


Have not seen we suchearly strikes games Botvinnik the In by in Carlsbad variation the OGDand in the Caro-Kann? of Other tvpical attempts breach defensive to the ramparts an early at stage the are bishop sacrifice and intuitive kniqht AflXb5 in the Sicilian various sacrifices the same in opening suchas Ac3-d5 or {d4J5 (witha pawnat e6). black 3) Sometimes grandmasters decide avoid deeplv-studied will to the booklinesby using method a that reminds of a coiled one sprrng. They makejust one pawn advance the centrefianchetto to the bishops and allowthe opponent occupythe centre. to The calm

g r a 6 t o ) b o z { 9 c l ' 1 r r b 3 lrd 4 ? t g , e 5 l o 3 l a l c 4 l g b 5 1 5d b a 5 6 A d 6

5ft17 t!43 &a7 lseedtaaam/ 18 He4 t18 s1'6+ r' gxt6-r9 '9 e5- €)g5 20 Ag/ lorces a gt '{6+r g'f6 20 Aes+ ;atc) 18 :ldg

gss 21As7 1o.


How the Openingis Studied

Black 15 '/l:,,t

^& % %i %t % % %,t<.&,4 t

'w &t



q :,/.1,, l t

"'/l:z; ",iy. "'//./lt i t 7t"..&,ft& 7t i , 6 .././Z 7* 7 ta./: 7 fr"'////
+ /,&,"/l /.N. & +



too. Defence lf reasons. our lines alsousedfor psychological are Suchopening attacks is artd is a confirmed supporter combinational of opponent to sacrificespays givehimthe it easily induced go irrfor dubious to that he will stubhistoe to formations sound so opportunity attack and them.Sucha methodhasalways beenadvisable will against continue be so. to developed the by 2) Thismethodwas first adopted Chigorin, by so hypermoderns haslostits air of novelty widelyis it practiced and nowadays. Black simply pays no attentiollto the advantage conferred the moveand doesnot striveto equalise. by His objective to carryout his own planof activeplayby his is piecesand force his opponentto adopt measures repulse to the This takecareof the problem threats generated. in itself so should The amor'rgst contemporary of equalising. popularity the method of grandmasters explained psychological is considerations: Black by gets out of beirrgunderconstraint, acts independently can and partlyigrrore what his opponent doing.Such independence is is valued modern in highly chess. plan.The first is Moderrr theory notestwo typesof independent to counter-attack White'spawncentreas in the GrunfeldDeferrce, Deferrce. Nimzo-lrrdian so or'r. second to The is theAlekhine the and work indeoerrdentlv the flankand is bestseenirrthe Siciliarr orr goes. . . a6 arrd. . . b5,andin the Defence, especially whenBlack ModernBenorri Defence wherethe samemovesirrvolve pawn a sacrifice Blackirr the BenkoGambitarrdthe Benoni. by Such in features seen Diagrams and6. are 5 to 3) lf the coiledspringmethodbringsbenefit White then this methodcan buildup poterrtial ratherequivocal energyfor Black too. lt can be successful, the risksinvolved but haveto be clearly bonrein mind. in By goingin for volunbrypassiVty the hopeof a subsequent Blackmay exceed bounds the feasible the and counter-stroke of position with no remedy the cramp. firrish irra cramped up for One

shouldnote that this methodis most trequerrtly adopted the by players the oldergerreratiorr. are experienced careful of They arrd and do not go beyondthe line bety/een voluntary and forced passivity. thismethod oftencaused theirlack familiarity Also is by of with 'the very latest word in theoryl Openings thissort arethe various of formsof the PircDefence, arrdthe Kings Indian Deferrce involving wing play . . a6, the c 6 , . . . E a b S a n d .. b 5 . Thenexttwo diagrams showtypical situations whichthenarise.

t7 7 tt<. ffifr


t7#. 7.4t %iry q.xi t% %,

%^ru, /lz 2 fr% vzt&

questions pointof view Letus moveon to opening fromanother and in particular openings studied the Soviet how are in Union. players, through network Thiswork involves experienced and the player in thesearch new of magazines in too for brings theordinary moves, new systems, new ideas. The search rrew moveshas alwaysbeengoingon, when for preparing games, the board,in mutualar.lalysis the for with at opponent afterthe gamearrdirrsubsequerrt analysis home.lt is at oftenthe casethat a movelongheldto be strongest laterrelected is in favourof another. is a process hasno errd, irrevitable This that an process the ongoing irr development chess of theory. Theory.however, manyvariations whichthe initial in contair'ls moveshavebeenchecked throughso frequently it hasbeen that shown that deviations the earlierstagesare definitely at not advar.rtageous. result As a theywill be played with machinegun out -likespeed grandmaster games. example in For somevariations of



How the Opning is Studied

Black | 7 playnow follows: hoursof study Striking onlvaftermarry 20 18 . . . ab! 19 Axbs+ A-cG 9f3

the Chigorin system Blackin the Ruy Lopez, for and of the ooen (5 system defence of workedout almost AXe4) havebeerr twentv movesdeeo. There similar are longlines the 8 . . . gXb2 Poisoned in Pawn lineof the Najdorf (see irr defence the Sicilian diagram 14),and in the Panov-Botvinnik Atbck against Caro-Kann. the Letus takeau example the development a longfoicingline of of in the Siciliarr Defence. After1e4c52lf3d63d4cxd44lxd4 l f 6 5 N c 3 a 66 suggested move7 ... b5. The the AS5 e6 7 f4, Polugayevsky ramifications the linehavebeenworkedout irrdepthand have of Iedto the adoption the name Polugayevsky of the Variation. fact In thereis an immense amountof literature the subject on coveritrg various books and manymagazirre articles Themainline, course, g of arises fromtheenerqetic corrtinuatlon e5 de 9 fe arrdrrowtheflextble courrter . 8c7 9 Variousattemptshavebeenmadeat the hiqhestlevelto refute Black's play. 10 lf3 was triedl when Btackoets risky-looking play by 10 . . . b4. After that most attentionivas sat,sfactory devoted Simagin's to move1O$e2 andfor a lor.lg timeit washeto thatthiswasWhite's strongest colttinuatiot.r. lr'r various events Whitetended score quickwirrs to wrththisand otherlitles involving ef, but fromtimeto timethe supporters 10 of the variation Blackshowedthat the suggested as improvements were not too formidable White.The process r*assessment for of carried.or't it remaining with ur.tclear wasWhite,s what best. rne taresr devetopments in 1979.In the USSR came Spartakiad _ of that yearthe question first place of was decided the match in polugayevsky between Ukraine the and the RSFSR. adopted his lrneexpecting opponentBelyavsky adopt 10 $e2, but his to instead grandmaster Lvovcontirrued ef *eS 1 I A e2 the from 1O 5tXgS 12 O-O Ee5 and rrow13 Af3. 'Thismove plan prepared for ., game and the subsequent was specially with Polugayevsky' writesBelyavsky. qamewenton The-AfsS lhe O-O17 13.. . .. i"9.1 14 €h1 E,xf6 1s )e4 E/e7 t6 ?_)xtl! and Whttereafised positiorral his advantage withouttoo muchtrouble. leter_that year Polugayevsky againadopted variation ot]ce his against GrL.infeld Riga in the lnterzonal. wasexpecting newline He € lrom nrs opponer'tt, got in firstwith hisown inuovation but involvino a remarkable tactical stroke foundby the lvloscow grandmaster ii the quietof hisstudy. The game went 10 8e2 6fd7 1 1 O-GO4\c6 12 4t xc6

'rlztlft t% 'r& 7
7:r.. 7)87../lz'


blow. 20 ... ab3+l! A phetromenal 21 cb Axbs withcheck preferred movehiskingwith to up Blac[a piece so Gr0rrfeld leaves 21 thesequel &b1 6a5 22 Ed4 trc823 [ed1 9524$xc5+ soonled extrapiece gxc6 25 gd3 Ae7 26 Qel O-O Black's and to a win. r11 appaTerlt becomes cotlcept of The grandeur Polugayevsky's awayafterthe game:2 1 ab out the line;hich he pointed straight Ha1+ 22 €d2 g'd7+ 23 Se3 ScS+ 2a @14g5+ 25 €g3 as elle I xat tl tne ontyhove,every'thing losing. th-e !e1*)r.can gf6

26 himseli Axco Ex;1 27 AxdT+ €i8 28 8'n""itor" 29 &12 E xe5t3o €743[e3+ 3 1€f2 trea+ 32 €g3 He3+ Ad6+ 33 €h3 Er.ha T9]9-


A 7,2,,1 5

...&7//.::,"'/..ttt t7/t

7/:A i 7/,; ',,:& ;/L; .//,1

* 7r,/:,' '',.1t './.N

s'c7 16 trhef)cs ts_x":919 h6 14Ah4 Ab7 151f,e2 E{g 17

€rh3 b4 18 Ab5!7 This movemeetswith a refutation the sort that can be found of

of of that You mustconcede this is a fineexample the method irrto of an openingby mearrs ever deeperpetletrationstudying beneiitof showsthe great practical ihis forcino"lines. example are just before game There a a or prepa;ngbefore tournamerrt, a wotrwithoutany history a gamebeitrg of itr nrmb"t 6f cases chess wlth a new move his amazed oppoller]t realplay.The researcher psychologically the sirrce urrderstood *oi with it. Thisis easily ai',a is in the ir]r'lovatiorr opening wellknown' of effect arrurrexpected side has to io*"u"r suchatrapproach the opening its negative krlowrrto vour becomes use of forcinglir'les too. The frequertt
rll tnelT ttlrr'l oDDoner]ts.Thev remember yoLl' favourite lilles alld ot today may prepare convincing rejortrders.As a result the hunter


How the Openingis Studied gc2 d5 variation the Nimzo-lndian Deferrce irr //6/.



wellbecome preyof tomorrow. Voumavfallvictim such the arrd to a lightning stroke you havebeen as accustomed w ] bv. to So the player who goesin for forcingvarrations to be botd has and confident himself, mostof all mustconstantly in and work at theory. There suchplayers are who have contributed manylines to the Ruy Lopez, the Slav Defence.the Tarrasch Defence,tne Oueen's GambitAccepted, King'sIndianDefer]ce other the and open[]gs. As eachtourrrament goesby theselinesbecome morecomplicated, and likean oil drill borirrg everdeeper into the geological stratachessthoughtpenetrates ever deeperinto the unknowr]. Suchstudy,we r]ote,is |rot rrew.Onceagainwe havetakenit over from greatfigures the past, of o'tlytheiranalyses dealtwith other openings suchasthe Giuoco Piarro the Kinq's and Gambit. By analogy just with the lines described there-are manvstandard positions knownwhichdo rrotarise fromforcing variations into but which the modernplayerwill regularly entei without any real thought.Examples the next two diagrams are arisingfrom the Nimzelndian King's and lndian Defences. 11

t*h7zt/,L 7t7l,,t'fi, 'a/t '/tt

E,AAg. '&,t':e, ....frt o 7:.2;.; 7ti /1,2., t 7t"'.&ft':&, ';l a.& 'tlV 't;l: "//,,, ' 7
,'..,/. 7,2. ,t..,tt t^

'/zl 71.2826''//,..

77tz, 7. '/fu,a7t 7.' 7z::t-

t',&.t'l& ,&ft'/t "'/t:;l ib\7../.2,?H

^t&Wz 2t


&./z /2i ^ %ix 7,, ,.2 .rr&

t "'.& ',.& A 2 %t %. % t7 t a2 /z /&. 7,4&fr


positions takerr the starting are as pointby theoreticians _ These for their further researches. Thereare qiriiea numberof such positions (tabiyato usetheArabwordto describe themjr.t at.lcient chess-_'battle array').For example. one may quote various positions from the Chrgorin System the Ruy Lopez in (13),ot the
l-OlSOlled Pawr] Variatior] in the Sicrlian/ /4/.

'. -J!-..////./. .zE '''/..,/.' /&t'Lt , g '.., t;...,,.''L, A ./t".:: .,:. '1 i.* ""/:/, ..&ft/r '/./,12 "." ,& z\7r.tfr ..ft ft .fu.A.,:.,:ft /:..2: -

afterotrlya games reach will suchpositions Oftengrandmaster playand thenthe players settle will down for a long mirrules few to thereis a jokemade the judgethat he should think.Sometimes positiorr the boardwithoutfurtheradoas the actual otr set up the startingpointof the game. of that lf we concede the threemethods playin the opelllllgwere as employed earlyas the 19th centurythe methodof looking game or with to connected middle forwardfromthe opening plans of an irrvention the stagesmust be considered even endgame present time. for to himself trying a grar.tdmaster not confine does Themoderrr glance looksforward his good build-up the opening, far-seeing in the of In game the atrdeven ending. plantring layout fntothe middle o{ pieces pawris anticipates actions the later in stages the his he and oame. mustbecollsidered fromtheoperrirrg To lookrightto the ending well klrownaphorlsm There is Tarrasch's a rare phenomenon. 'between openingarrd endingthe gods have madethe middle must stage at game: the envisaging the endirrg sucharlearly of Yet to ascends a new of be surely a method thefuturewherltechrrique more becomes arrd level achievement the mindof a grandmaster of quotesomeexamples We canalready developed far reaching. and the looking towards elrding. of thisforesight 1 1972andafterthe moves c4 San ln Karpov-Browne, Antonio, c5 2 b3 Af6 3 Ab2 g6?



77,,, .'xt t& t 7 z

% /& %2,a,l,

+ /,/lt 72, 7.:/ 7L::7:,, '/.ft.ft

or the star]dard main line position r the Caro-Kar'l') (15). or the 4


How the Opening is Studied


l^9Fd2 the endgame vvnrTe woft

x c','t"l'?:i[:3]'8?;l:%i3E::?;,o,'f.*K,g??Aji3 t'"'/t:'.'. .,./;rL.Zt sas 14 f,fdl EabsG
,/ Lz)

White unexpectedly played AXf6 ef. How can one explainthe 4 excnangeot what is normallya strong bishop for a kniqht? The calculationis simpte: White gets totai control *"; Jb %;i; ."" use€ g-srde pawn superiority the ending.By accurate in :l?lt1".l wortd champion managed to expioit these l]:y_ T: 9oT'nS.



& a&,

t & a7 f f i i ' . / t tl 2 7/2 ? 2 ,:/,, 't 2 t + +

glt t../.&, i t&

titlematch. After1 c4 96 2 d4 3 -_Af6 lc3 aS a-afg Hgi7'!"e3 went a;gl jr + E 9^o9 ;.".2 dc 7 [x {4 c5 8 d5 e6,White 1O€)Ydl Axe6 t 1 A xe6 fe.

wjthout too much trouble. srgntftcar]t game is petrosian-Botvinnik from the 1963 world .A

aas sxuzTe n'x-d z-ano


+ '/l/zd& ,/t&lL



t r "/./z A /lr:.t,8t '//tttt" 7tfu"..rt7/

from the most often arisil'lg Sincethat time the key positrorl, iniensively Sovietplayers, by has Operring, beenstudied English of who alsosoughtthe bestmethod Botvinnik's advice, following The bestmethodis to pawn'cliff'in the cerltre. playagainst the of the undermine mostformidable the pawns theoneat e4 (eb). USSR 1948went 1 c4 6)t6 2 Nc.3 c5 3 93 Ch KotovFurman, e5 d5 4 cd AxdS 5 Ag2 4lba 6 Af3 6c6 7 O-O 8 d3 Se7 9 Ad2 hd4 10 Ac4 f6

a ra,


i 2 "t'./r.t,r.&. ",.//,/,r. t't 7 .,.i "'t/'/t'
7:2,, .,.,& ,.fu '"'/:.,t', n
'/,/r.'t TI

,, 1"."-,",,

tney assessed diagrampositiorr the as

Petrosian c , o r e r that in preparrng n t s posittorr t relatesu r d Lr r I J r e p a T l l g , r thts p o s l t r o r w l t h h i s t r a i n e r . wjih 'atmost

rslands. On" -, T.r.l. note that if playingfor a. wirrg pawn superiority occurred the past- rn oartjcutir in Em.Laskei;;; onc6 irrthe BuyLopez orderto get an "*ti" p.*n i" J;;;,g" In - yet ptaying rne opponer.rt i,'lir.r"Eilsiae for to have,jstands, rs Il^lT.:']_d]iq creafly product our davs. a of the,opening the middle with gamein mindis _-Playing weapon in the hands of modern giandmasters. a powerful Tne ieading repres€ntativesthe scientific of planniigstyle,.r"i "rr, Loi)ii,.rr and Karpov,have demonstrated impr:essive u"urpf". ?".ran strategy. |I ""lu both as Whiteand Btack. usedthe oawrr ,^-?_o^Y1ll irroJten, Tormatror't seerr hisgame with Lisitsin the Vosco* l,ltenia[i,,raf in tounramer'rt 1935.-(9) oI / manouevres clearly planneo advance exploited l.t he - ,With this thestratesy repeatedtnu.are JuJniJr in ir.l" :9y.:ill1g";Jh9f as Whriewas null y"gf rhlstime agairsittl;ent"a rbo) l U - r t h e b o a r d r o u r r da , r d t h e o a w n l o r m a t r a r r , , rder,:rcat. is Here ?oardroundard t6e pawnto.ry.tat,or.r Iuoll !h-e_ too
Botv I t rk won elegar]ly.

"6,.;;;irnuij il l:ll9:*R:l exptcted practrce :"1,lyl thesptittrrrisEr"cii;;;;;;;i;"il;"""X' Whire ot

*If,. "b.^v d"d; r. ish

*on, noi"in" lrot one


^ '"'/:a..,


After11 . . ef 12 gf 0-0 the arrdrrowl 1 f4! underminirrg centre. of 13 a3 Aec6 14 e3 Adfs 15 Ads+ Whitehadfullcontrol the cer'rtre. game of suchexamples the openirrg/middle Onecanfind matry to games, the same applies KarpovThusin and linkin Botvinnik's by easy comparatively victories he the RuvLooez hasoftenscored and planof suffocating oppolrent bothflanks inthe orr the thesame cer'rtre. how lam often askedorr my travelsto differentcour'ltrles it atrd in Utrion whether is truethat operrings studied the Soviet are Then or.l research openir.lgs compuiers usedin systematising are files card-index on posed question, how matry the againlam often there operrirrgs arein the USSR. on away that the irrformation which these lcan say straight We do not yet have, questior'rs based is exaggerated. are ir'l Thereis a cardirrdex the computers. r]ately, openit'tg any unfortu to in Moscow, itsscope, my mind,is clearly but Chess Club Central inadequate.



How the Openingis Studied



The study_of openings the USSB is mainlyan indjviduar in undenakrng. publish We various monographs individual olr openrngs 'reservoir and maltymagazine yet artjcles, them-airr ot innovations. rs strlll(eptsecret- jn [-e homesof the leadjnq qrandmasters. Theseinnovations discovered therrhomei"i"ir.f, .nJ "t are in trajning get-togethers. Sometimes they are the discoveiy one of man,sometimes a orouo. of help of . Corrstderable i"s given by the hundreds thousands of chess tanswho send thetrideas a chess to magazine stratqht a or to grandmaster. Sometimes thesediscovenes remartaUiS. a"re ifrrs for a.longtimethe knightsacrifice madeUV Afetfrine nriieturn in match wtth Euwe,1937,wasconsidered be correct:_ 1 d4 ds to -2 c4 c6 3 lc3 dc 4 e4 e5 S Axc4 ed S at3.



%i'& Zt7.z, % % % . % 72A1&% t ',*? 2_1 %a:'./z ',..,&, % ,&ft

How many studyopenings? and How do grandmasters masters me Thisreminds of to doesoneneed know? svstems ^.ot inot an-d when the same questionwas oi irio.ais"outes my student days is The 'You studies. finalconclusion the ooieAiUout our professiotral haveto know from the wisdomof old Ine oorro*eo lApplied abouteverything and aboutsomething, a little Jverything about you haveto knoweverything ihat means aOvice io tness t-nis and whichyou aregoingto useregularlv, alsoknow if'Jopenings Onehasto bearin mtnd all behrnd t6e openings ii.i" qbnetriioeat things, youcannot and cancomeup with somestrange inat"praxis an you will not suddenly comeup agalnst openlng that ouarantee andnot studied. ihat you havergnored 'Every greatmaster has luthority Botvinnik written Thatleading which to will find it useful havehis own theoryon the openings, with plans linked is closely a knows, theorywhich only he himself game: for the middle

AteKntnes ldea.


In:].1* by


untit-the amateui IrGoiihSi6vldt hs anatysis showing

dc7 AyrT+ €e7 8 gb3 cblr eb"kt.i,il i"i;iE

Suchexamples couldbe multiplied theyshowthat research and in the USSBrs conducted a whotearrv oi-*Lir_quarltiJj1r,,.. by yer rne marnresearchers must be considered leadinq qrand_ the ma_sters, canbe classitied various who into groups. Firstof all who knewor , .onemust pointto the greatiheoiists Know everythtng (or more accurately nearlyeverything) that appeared opening in articles all the world,schess' in magizi;es, followedup everyinnovrtionin games tneytaw, *J""l"ri"oi, .'ii iio an rmmense amountof private studyon theirown or with a few close friends. These theorists wereVsevolod Rauzer, lsaak Bojeslavsky. _ Semvon Furman Vtadimir and Simagin. No,,mdays rea-d;idiilr[il;;ih" our opening YefimGeller. is All-these prayers vreredeepthankers '"irjiii-""' whose significance a product of their greai irre"i is ,]"r0 knowledge. Thentherearethoseplayers who havecontributed proqress to , oy reTatntngthetrmemory In everything valuable hasaooeireo that so raT,tn pnntor rnactual games. examples these,comouter As of mrnos we may quoteyevgenyVasyukov. yuri Balashov, bavid Bronstein, MarkTaimanov ieverat tne youn! ge,,eiiii;:' a-nd ot

--tF-'AlmostCertain Wins'


three orl one sideoi the boardin rook 2) Four pawnsagainst endings. bishop agairrst with Sl n |.;ng"of positrons krrrght engames and A qreatdealol work rn analysing syslernatising. volumeset of booksby Soviet *rr Suiii"Oout in the multiple on Thisis beingcarTled of wiitersunde,the editorship Averbakh contribution to attention thesignificant *unt to drawparticular ,nJJ made endgames of i; t'h; understanding opposite-coloured ;;" games' hisremarkable in Karpov bv worldchampion "'One questions the research in o{ of tf,e mainfeatures endgame playersis the proof that the endgamels not an oi Soviet gameand with the mrddle linked inO"p""J""i iiage out is drrectlv at grand'naster somepoirltin ""i,i*im in" "d"ning.The modern way that oftenestablishes the qulckest to vlcrorv stages the earlier is so ot eicf'anges asto go for theendingHere a curious is i ierres '1979 Spartakiad Soviet from the example ' Counter Centre Karpov-Lutikov, g,ias 3 Aca grd6 4 d4 A16 5 !f3 96-Ae3 1 e4 d5 2 ea


O b j e c t i v i t yn t h e E n d i n g i

The concluding part of the gameis the moststable the three of stages. marn rhe methods playln theendgame litfle of vary withthe passage time,so the grandmasters the methods, the of use on whote, the past, ot andthe same applyIn the future. will What doeschange with time is the technical armament an of irrdividual, knowtedge thewaysto achieve his of victory a varjety in of elemerrtary endrngs plans exploitjng and for ad\€ntage typical tn complicated ones. drawattention theaahievemerits We to of Soviet researchers thisfieldwhileincluding work doneby Western in the analysts. 'Computer Endgames' This heading compris€s those endings where means forcrng the of 'to a win or achieving drawhave a been established theveryend'so thattheycouldbe put,if required, a computer into programme. is lt noteworthy that jn somecases computers haveactuall-y beenused in determining outcome certainendings, example the of for the queen NPagainst ending and queen. is 'l Here thelist: aqainst ) Two kniqhts oawn. 2) Bishop RP-aoa'nst pa*n and 'conjugate 3) P€wnendings rnvolvrng squares: 4, uueenandpawnaqatnsl queen. 5) Rookandpawnaqainst rook. 6) Bishop pawn and lgainstbishop. 7) Knight pawnagarnst and kn,ghi. u) Hookano otshop agatnst rook Of coursethe numberof such computerendings will keep increasing timegoes as on. Almost Certain Wins' Theoretical analyses have established pretty accurately the (win, out_come sometimes draw)in these positions: 1)RP+BPwithonerookeach.

aio z eaZ AsZ 8 As5;5 e d5 Ab4 10 13Ar5 11 lge4 *d7 120-o-o = the basisof

ignoring played the opening eb.k n1i obviouslv important' but, in developmerrt ,more, theoiy.not iustfalling'b;hind his forcis badly,wrthoutsystem Now there is the hui tjio oui operl threat13 a3 and Blackhasto letthe centrebecome simple side developed the tavoLlrs better whichalways 1 'jx i - C . . . - t - s r g d c E x d 2 - 1 4 A t d 2 ' ! > e 4'1 5 . x e 4 66 N > e4 6 fe x c6 lt worrldbe evenworseto play 15 :\ klngcarlrlot pressure whlleBlack's fi o Lal and f7 comesL,rlder srmpler' qo f,*av irom the cerltreTherewouldalsobe anotl"er' move 16 the namely intermediate i"u" oi tLtrt,'to 15 . . a,re4, "ormation' wouldcollapse cb when Black;s

16 Axf6+ sf 17 -Sd3! 23

, lll':.t^ t t r ;./.'.,. A',,';, t../:. 'L,l //:::t:.,. '/;,


.7".... '1"/.t:,

z:t:z; + + lA H

t '/:zal&

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itseli establishes gfjl:Tir',. una'on g iia" aiewejkanda bi'nop demands
and is The static black Pawn massin the cerltre useless

centre in.the ot-lnepost,onf ne whltesquares A fineresolution


Objectivityin the Ending

to Transposition the middtegame from the opening


constantdefence. Karpovmakesthe simpleaccurate olan of simplifying position the further an endjng into where weaknesses the oecome moreaooarent. 17 . . . O-O.O trhdl gc7 19 c3 h5 20 AfSt 18 Threatening to the seventh. rook Blackhaslo concede fresh a disadvantage the retreat his knightto the very edgeof the of board. 20 . . . Hxd221 E xd2 Ab8 22 h4 Ah6 23 Axh6 tr xh6


ry ry%%"/.&
& %^% & 'H, "/zft
Summing the results up achieved White in striving rne by for ending frommove13 onwards noteBlack,s we fixedpawi mass in the centre White's g-sidemajority and whichhe isabout exploit. to Meanwhile pieces badlyplaced Black's are and Karpov forcesa win. ouack _ 24-a4 flh8 25 b4 bG 26 bb trg8 27 @c2 abS 28 ab5 fie8 29 c4 1-O. Transposition the middlegamefrom the opening to AS Kan remarkedIn his book From the Openingto the Middte Gamea playernormallystrivesto create niiaOte'game positions which suit his personal tastes and style,but since- opponent the fights. against it is not always thrs possible getone,s to way andir ts usetut havereseTve to objectives the opponent if avoids what one hasin mind considers main or the line. to phase highly is rated , Thatiswhy theabilrty playthetransitional by specialists. Botvinnik commented hisopponent the 1951 on in worldtitlematch thatin thetransition fromopening middle game to Bronstein no equal. had sight starts press the $-srde to on . It is a hopeless whena player In tne mtddle game wherthrswholeconduct the openinq ol has been dtrected towards burldirrg hisforces theopposire ot up on side the board. Thissounds exaggerated. it gives idea whatthe but an of player's is at the moment transition. the middle task of ln gamehe mustfollowup and builduponthosefeatures whichhave"evolved In the opening, must be absolutely he consistent accurate and in usinghis plusses denying opponent chance exploit and his the to nrs mtnuses.

t'Pff "'/Zz.'t"'/' % % '&.4%tH " & " '

mustagain The How doesone studysuchconsistency? answer of andanalysis one's with goodnotes of examination games bethe of fromthisPoint view. own oames the the No-w timehascometo dealwith the middlegame, stage takesplace The part of the struggle important wnen the most a is theorvof the middlegamethe theoryof chessThiswill Include in the USSR' out that i"iiript'o'i of the re5earch hasbeencarried from a correct deviations certain we Firsthowever haveto mentlon madeby certalnplayers of the mistakes o{ understanding chess, these indicated Having approach. *ho ar" retiss in their general path whichwill leadto to-depictthe correct errors rt will be easier progress a freshfloweringof the art of chess' and

Competitive or Creative Element? 29 David Bronstetnwrites that he has to state that the sporting else the li{eout of everything a.i,eni - -F\€rv in modern chessis choklng papers dav I qo down to the grol,nd floor and collectthe when l-find ""i 'i-r"q"ii;'l"Jtrommy mail b6x lt is a red letterday '64'


Competitive r Creative lement o E ?

We startwith a quotation from petrosian. I admitthat I choose hrm particularly because calmand solidplayer this cannotpossibly be regarded a player thesharply-combinative, sort.As he as of Tal-like, once commented the criticswho examined sportino of his and creative achievements knockme for my draws. my"styte, They tbr theyknockme for everythingdo: I Wellthenthisplayer who wasworidchampion sixyears for who . hasnot lost his hopes winningbackthe tiflewrote i; 1g7g as of follows: tendency modern in chess the predominance is of . A noticeable the sporting element overthe creative. factthat nowadays The the resultts more imporiant than the contentis our misfortune, a misfortune which the ind iscriminating publicapplauds. cannot I thinkthata player genuinely lo\argthe gamecan get pleasure just Tromme numberot pornts scored matterhow impressive no the total.I wili not speak myself, for the masters the older of but of generation, whosegames learned, aesthetic was from we the side the mostimportant. Theytoo wantedto win, but they didn,tiust thilrkabouthow to win a game. how to win it worthity. bur When I started careerthereweTefar fewer chessplayers my .. thannowadays. Nobody went jnto chess the sakeof woilory for benefits. Nowadays chess become popular has a activity, whichhas led not onlyto a devaluation tjfles, alsoto a proiessionalism of but of no great qualrty. Chess going is through difficult period. the a On onenar]d hasreached hrgh tt a level, theotherit hasgiven to on nse a coldpragmatism. People have learn distingursh art from to to r6al a s!bstitute it, Todisringuish for creativitV hack_work. trom t-retty strong wordsfrom Petrosian! it is notjustwordsyou And . hea .dear.reader, a cry fromthe heart a manwho hasgiven r, but of hrswholelifeto theart. Youmight thinkthatthiswastheopinion oneman,andthat of others don'tagree. the factis thatsuchcalls rid ourselves Yet to of heartless professionalism be heardfrom many authorrtatjve can grandmasters. usquoteiustone. Let

or magazrne the rrewspaper I ol issue a chess ini" ir,Z:ut".a Yor rtems dessertl papersand leaw thechess reialniorgh tne other in set chess out and look at the latestgames the i1"*'f o"i.v orlceI me especially which interest urilou.1n".r'tources Those on throughin detail are mentally worked ni"" }e.4 through'them board the chess " years ferver now ln recent applies of Y;f;hui. sadstate affairs Gamestrom even and {ewer qamesreallycatch my attention and rt is and in Iirono iounir."nts arelackirrg deepstrategv logic' combrrratlor'ls calculated to find deeplV a uer\, ,a.e occurrence play by orepared aI the precedlng ' to atterrtiolr draw the reader's in" o,uqruntirtihe chesi press areiustillustrations and strokes sometimes impte tactical mistat<ei, of ratherboringPlaY. "irr ir'lterest Tnlrr again an attempt to keep up ,the ,reader's to the asking reader tlnd of *ill be a page dragrams aor"ho*ih"r" aTe the nextnumber answeTs way a combinational to victoryln the sometimeearlyin our gamewas played thit the i uu'l.lno,".ting even the 1gth sometimes ir'l 6enturv, -youcanlookthrough At and N&"r. tina books magazines times and of *noie out". coitections aiournament stillnotfindanything example' ;"li ittractive,or realart Lookthrough'.for il;i;."r;;;id is bookChess Chess yearsor Matanovi6's of -ii lr|eInformators recent as a iollectionof gamesregarded the best of recent *nilf, w[n comblnatrons comeacToss thereyouwillrarely Even decades. finale. a sparkling worksof art, Who by ts Yet how muchpleasure grven genuine Dlows bV to be delighted the serils-ofcomblnatlve couldnot fail
Skople,1976 playedin Reshevsky-Vaganian.


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:,'zl:tA7lD& 7,2,/,D"/./2t.&

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1 4 . . . e 5 ! 1 5 f x e s ,-,a> es-r o a > .s Ah4 + !! 17-32 h4 ol exploitation the open BXf3 18 Ef1 g'b4+ fiith energetic king. position the enemy of




Competitiveor CreativeElement?

An Attemptat AnalYsis


19 1[f4 $e7+ 2O1f,g5ge6l21 Afs E xfs andWhitesoon gaveup the hopeless struggle. How muchpraise player the from Erevan heardfor this game, possibly much more praisethan for winning an international tournament average of strength. Yes, is pleasant playthrough it to sucha combination, how rarely cannowadays. iswhy but one That we arehearing moreand morethe comment experts chess of that nowadays losing creative is its content, that few consistent games are beingplayed, that deeply calculated impressive sacrifices and combinations rare. are As V.Baturinsky wrote in Pravda just before the start of the 'The 1979 Spartakiad participants the Spartakiad takenote of will of the critical comments, addressed particular someyounger in at masters, pragmatism aboutexcessive which impoverishes chess. They will play gameswhich will give aesthetic satisfaction to connoisseurs the ancient gamel o{ An Attempt at Analysis Before trying to determinethe reasonfor a certain creatrve deterioration modernchess haveto formulate accurate in we an definition chess. has long beenheldin the chess of lt world that chess a game, science an art. Chess is a and contests be very can sharp andtheircompetitive nature cannot denied. be In orderto provethe scientific aspects chess is sufficient of it to bear in mind how many bookson chesstheory are publisheo throughout world,how manymagazines the thereare in various languages. is inextricably Art linked withthe production worksof of art whichremain the memory mankind centurjes. it not in of for ls 'Evergreen the casethat Anderssen's Game'againstKiezeritsky contrnues enthuse modern to the chess fan? One must be fair and admitthat the various aspects chess of attractvarying contingents fans,both in quantity of and quality. Comparatively people in for chess few go science; an art chess as has more recognition. it is the competiti\€side which attracts Yet peoplein their millions. is sufficient remember interesr lt to the generated throughout world by the recent the worldtiflematchin Baguio, evenamongst those who don'tevenknowwhatthe Kino,a cahbit is. So the three aspects chessdraw supporters unequal of in number,but doesit followfrom this that we haveto judgeihe worth of eachaspect numerical on criteria alone? Obvi6usl-y first pnze wtnners knownto many, onemustnot ignore fact aTe but the thatoutstanding games enjoygreatpopularity too. lhustheremustbefew realfanswho cannot remember finish a such as that jn Botvinnik-Capablanca, AVRO, 'j939. I trust the reader notjudgeme a braggart, in various will but countries tne of

interesting said'What have to introduced me people worldon being queen Averbakh, against that queetlsacrifice ;2mesvou plaved: Or the game Tournament. rn irtes n3, check. the 1953Candidates 19521 at -"ihe Barcza Stockholm, aoainst rated fans' by is in side artistic isveryrmportant chess, highly that alwaysbeenrecognised chessis an art, ald jts best It has artists. lhus practitionershave been described as artlsts Thus Rubrnstein oractrtionershave be-endescribed was arts and this grandmaster finest iescribed as described it as the fir]est of arts and this grand Tartakower,was great artist by contemporariesconsidereda 'the-rebellious artistiwhilewe alsohavethe words of inristened 'l consider responsibilities all an chess art,andaccept those Apmine uponits devotees: whichart places 'Alrioht. the chessis ratedas an art, and as a sciencei sceptic the side it'sthesportlng thatdraws crowdslf I win miqht;etort'yet me write about. the I firsi prizein a tournament am f6ted, papers I why should go the with praise, ians greetme with applause -So and side c.ealiue with riskycomplications compliafter'|'',e chasinq with the helpof calmly, | canwin in quietfashion, cateO iacritices? 'bare technique': and And that is how we got a'tribe'of grandmasters masters run but for fineworksof art in chess, even who notonlydon'tstrive logic' - 'Why go for unnecessary Accuracy, stress? them down -the and things which will bring success i".hniqu", those aie g: well-bein and recognition, consequently How This Arose of the 2fth century irom aboutthe beginning'grandmaster' to the endof the was never formally Thirtiesthe iop chesstitle to awarded anyone.' with the lf some mastertook first prize in a tournament players the time the press,would of participation the strongest of to add iutomatically grandriaster his name.Alongwrth this the best qamesof thi event would be noted, and the strategic then, werefew grandmasters but on There o{ sionifiiance the play. the ralsed aboutwhether holder never weTe doubts in-e otf'erhand the onwards idea it. deserved Fromabout195O sucha titlereally of the lists of arose ratingand grading in orderto assess tournament fashton in performancei th-eworld's best plavers numertcal of were suggestedin dltterent calculation Various methodsof still largely holdswaytoday' systems and suchdifferent "oun1ii"., calcuregularly Elo level At international the so-called coefficients the set norm Nowadays professor became lui"J uy tr''" American
,Translatar,s Note Thls seems tO gnorF the use of the trtle.b,V^thc ast-Tsar' tournamentof 1914 - LasKer' ists of the St Petersburg t'l"i olu. tf. ot tne fLna I and Marsha Alekhne, Ta.rasch Capablanca.




Competitiveor CreativeElement?



players ratedin their order by Elo, are all the world'sstrongest who ts aheadof him, who behind. everybody knowshis place, not Naturally everyone to and certainly strives moveup the ladder to fallback. Topevents madeup on these ratings if you have are a highEloyouarein,if you don'tthenwaityourturn in the queuel present-day worldthe Elo As in every aspect our complicated of ratingsystem hasits prosand cons.The prosare clear- some order has beenbroughtinto being, and at any momentpeople get knowwheretheystand. players oriented a tournament The for knowing advance in how manypoints they haveto maketo raise what they their rating, in the eventof the absence success or of need keeoit at oar. to Yet,in our view,the drawback this'overall to spirit arithmetic' of cancels all theseadvantages. people'waiting turn in out The their the queue'try to improvetheir standing the most practical by place methods. There little is herefor the beauty nobility the and of game. asmanypoints possible, up thelist, go Get thatisthemain as concern the majority modernplayers the quality the of of and ot games place is evenforgotten takesecond or completely. pragmatism Yetwho willcriticise grandmaster hisexcessive a for sincehispoints his score, rating, determines standard living, his of his invibtionto the next tournament depends it, as do the on simultaneous exhibition engagements. Nowadays the West thereare sometalented grandmasters in who wander fromcountry country route to en fromonetournament to another. Theyplay'athalfthrottle' withoutgiving theirall.lf they in do badly onetournament willgo off to the nextone hoping they to do betterthere.Theyplayin SwissSystem events allsortsof and weekend tournaments. Thereis no time left for analysis their of games, since is already it timeto be off to the nextevent. As a resultthe top title of grandmaster beensignificantly has devalued. OnceI introduced Max Euwe grandmaster had to who a heldthe titlefor overa decade. 'Who was that?' askedthe then President FIDEwhen the of grandmaster left us. lAn international had grandmaster'; my was "youyourself reply, awarded the title: him RealHarm One could becomereconciled all this if the arithmetic to that drives creativity not do realharmto chess. out did Alekhine wrote thatto achieve you success chess hadto make thorough in a study of yourself youropponent, mostimportant allyouhadto and but of 'havea higherpurpose than the satisfaction the moment. of This purpose lsee in scientific creative and achievements whichplace chess a parwith otherartsl on The path to the highestachievements the path of creative is

who setshimself Onlythe player is Alekhine saying. achievement games with realcontentcan reachthe top The the taskof creating a a chess gameof arithmetic' gamethat glves who makes Dlaver living,will never reach the peak of Mount irim a reasonable of Lookaroundand you wlll seethat the top echelon Olympus. combining by who scoresuccesses by is cfrbss titteO thoseplayers Followthe improvement with the creative. element the competitive world title holderAnatolyKarpov He hasa by achieveC the present and to gift and natural of accuracy an ability thinkclearly logically methods' by and in hisyouthoften beatopponents purelytechnical and romanticism combinative of thoughan element No\Madays 'fillino-oui' and morestriking full of contentThe makeihis qames a master oi positionalmethodsto go for tactics and trend of moremarkedThisis shown eveT is strikes becoming combinative ikhail it magician'-M T€1, witn friendship the'chess by hisincreasing ices pawnsacrifices exchange sacrif madeby and ii'shownbv thi match of in Karpov the games his Baguio the ihere is an6thersideto all this, perhaps most important of the Olympiad top officials a certain the during 1972Skopje Once that would help to giveadvice askedBotvinnik Fede-ration Chess player' talented of alonqthe improvement onecertainly if the B6winnitasked player he wrote notesto his gamesThe 'Perhaps for a magazine, for y-our own but not answerwas no. Thenthe on leading his collocutor' persisted Bowinnik nenetitZ' no answercamemoredecisively, I don't write notesto my games 'ln thatcaseit is too early usto talkaboutimprovement Let for time: us returnto that in a few Years many of The misfortune young peoplein chess,including. work This analy'trcal neglect qrandmastersthat theycohpletely is of the we understood. do not mean analvsis ;;;k ili il pioperly Into penetration abouta deep we thL or that vai'iatbn, are talking of about the {ormation Jis"nce oi the chessstruggle, il;;"tt posslmost deeplyhiddencombinative plans, the about seeking 'homework' whichall the kingsot chessnaveoone Such bilities. the qivesone the chance discover faultsin one'splay'to go to in erudition andto widenone's of ieeoerintothe secrets the game cheis. but ability' was of period basis success research the inln eartier as as to thereis no approach a game a whole We.must' nowadays -matt"l to approach chess: bring backthe analytical ot urgency, . {M.Botvinnik). 'l never And hereis anotherquotefrom Botvinnik personally had to I because always my contemporaries, stoodout amongst thereisan example Tal, ;;;;;";. by haro"wort. on theotherhand, it: 10 who did not have work at ot someone half withthe second of thatstatemeni' agree cannot iperionalty


Competitive CreativeElement? or

What ShouldBe Done?


I since have oftenhadoccasion seehow hardTaldoes to work.You onlyhave lookat hisnotes games seehow muchefforthe to to to putsin.These variations, of a webof complicated full combinations, couldonlybe produced manyhoursof studyat home. by Let us sum up our reflections. beloved is becoming Our art unfortunatelymore'arithmetical' a game, just in the reckoning not up of the full and half points,but in its very essence in the process thinking of aboutmoves. Thisarithmetic clearly is killing creativity thai leads sad results. and to Onlya few grandmasters havebeen ableto avoidthisrisky trend, andtheyfindtheirrewa rd in the achievement the highes.t of results, becoming in wortd champions challengers thistitle. and for Themajority, including alas, manyyounggrandmasters, completely have rejected analytical the punished chess, punishment For approach. thisiheyarebeing by the beingtheir gradual transformation hacks, into destroying the all brightprospects to theirnatural due talent. Thisfailingis intensified the Elo system the form it now by in takessinceit supresses creative the sideof talentand forcesthe player chase to afterpoints ordernot to havehisrating in fall. possible a We have answer question to this here:is it always for player restrict choice moves safe to his of to ones, plavwithout and rask, restricting himself purely to technical manoeuvring? lf you studythe gamesof the greatclassic players you must conclude that the combinative method, search beauW the for in chess, riskypath,not onlyenhance the chess alsogivechances but of victoryin positions wherethe technical approach would most likely lead a colourless to draw.

piece remainsa up. Dd4 41 Hf2 axf3 42 trXf3 Adsland Black What Should be Done? trendwe have described so Howcanwe put rightthedangerous the of as to prevent furtherdeterioration the gameinto one of such as Some peoplesuggestextrememeasuTes, arithmetic. rid Thisis no solution, since ratings the getting of the Elosystem. when comparative strength havea part to play in determining of that tournaments filledwith players aboutequal are arranging press has wherethe question received lot a In strength. the Soviet of therehaveevenbeensuggestions somenewsystem of attention This for of ratings creativity. wouldonly leadto moreconfusion, wth each playerhavingtwo numbersto his name.Yet if we we generalise from the views alreadyexpressed can suggest measures. various is deviation the Firstof all the liquidation the 'arithmetical' of themselves,duty theyowe themselves a duty of the players social and wishes get the bestresults, afterall to as wellas us.Everyone 'Thecriterionof realstrengthis a deeppenetration the secrets into (T. a positionl Petrosian). of 'How lose?'was question the or is it that your Karpov cameto '1979 My Spartakiad. reply to comment addressed me duringthe the unbeatable, loss wasthatno-one insured is against even normally went on to playsome and that afterthisfirst lossthe champron games. wasmy shortanswer notveryknowledgeto first-class This therethat I ablespectators, it was onlyto a few of the people and on went intogreater detail overmy reflections the veryinteresting master l.lvanov the in lossby the world champion the talented to Uzbekista n-Leningrad match. the analyse did It is well known that Capablanca not always to games won,but healways a devoted lot of attention thosehe he players always a had lost.Thisis proofof the factthatthe greatest critical to attitude theirolavand triedto root out errorsand make is hard theirolavmoreuniversal. Alekhine's work on hisnotes well givesthe same game by Fischer known and every annotated his first in impression. WhenBotvinnik played tournament playwas he Championship beat ratherdry. Then, whenin the 1933 Soviet hard who wasalwai-s Botvinnik Rauzer with Black, demanding the play,statlng, praise his combinative gavehimself for on himself 'Finally haveplayed sort of gameI havebeenwantrng play to the I for a longtime: that in the fans of all this I then claimed In tellingthe patient gamewe had seenin a cedtaln sense new and a lvanov-Karpov in that special of Karpov. feelI am not mistaken alleging the I sort world champion triedto playthis gamein a mannerhe had not top opposttion. adopted before against class


zWn t/:,,. ,/:/i
4 2 & A AA

7t 7t 'tt,^ ft'il4



29 g',xb7 gxbT 30 AxbT axe2+ 31 gh2 Ae4! 92 trc4l ten aXf2 33 1!g2 andnowthesbrtling mo\€deep combinaton . . . -4"01A flc2 fls4+ 35 €h3 6e5+ 36 €)h2 E xf3t 99 37 flxe2 ls4+ 39 €h3 Ae3+ 39 €/h2 Axc2 40Axf3

- In his well-knowngameagainstR6ti,Alekhinecould haveplayed 26 .. Ea3 restrictinghrmselfto purely technicalplay. lt is not clearwhether he would havewon in this case.Yet what a meteor, like progressthe beautifulgame made throughout the world of chessafter the moves26 . . . fie3! 27 g1l3 cb 28 gXbE lc3!


or Competitive CreativeElement) E

Federations Help from Chess



% %tryitu t %t t z%'",&%2 % %'^a%H% %t'''&^
Vlz + & ^%8?Z,i

was as by Canyou creditit that this position reached Black the perfectKarpov? Rather normally restrained technically does and playedby Tolushwith his the position remindme of openings famouswar-cry'Forward, Kazimirovichl'or Tal.I would have by understood Blackhad takena draw by perpetual if check easily after 15 Sd2, but Karpov mixedthings evenmoreby 15 . . . 96 16 traf1 ge7 17 a3t5. he A weird positionl Black's king is stuckin the centre, hasno to saferefugeon the flank.Blackplayed stubbornly defendthis position what followed heroic fighting in and it tookall of White's spirit overcome to Black's defence. Theworldchampion's to tactical methods. attempt try out sharp principles only be with someslightinfringement strategic of can welcomed. seeherea clearstriving adopta moreuniversal to We to of style, obvious an desire bringin elements riskand sharpness ro nrsgame. Thisshouldnot be takenas meaning that Karpov formerly was tactical Ouitethe reverse. teamof His slow in spotting chances. helpers haveoften been surprised the way he can hit upon by unexpected moves, than it tooka player oftenmuchmorequickly of sharD combinative stvleto find them. I havefound this swift grasp whenI have positions. too shownhimcomplicated The pointto note is this: when players a sharpstylespot of combinations tactical or strokes thevflareuo at once. anddescribe 'l'vefoundit!' Karpov them in joy'ful emotional tones. wouldreact differently,speakingof such possibilities without any great enthusiasm. gains impression for him the search One the that for tactical lines a Derfectlv is normal This state affairs. means he of that principle worksthrough suchlines, thenactson thewell-known but whv shouldone win bv a ten-move combination whenthereis a win bv a ouietlineand in a shorter number moves. of just thinkthatwe areappealing for rollicking So letnotthe reader complications. beauty chessis not exhausted suchan The of by approach, is to be foundtoo in theconsistent, but logical, technical things with suchas we tendto associate Karpov.

Help from ChessFederations '-biet of in tany yearsI havenotedthe samepattern a number qulckly the front to A y6ungman of talentprogresses countries. title winsthe national and goeson to further iink in nis country, level .r"cess". at international He is writtenaboutenthusiastically in hopesare expressed the in the pap"tt, and the most radiant or him describe - our Fischer, a newKarpovfhese to worasusdO the outrightas thev reflect "ornt"nt, are not to be condemned players thatcountry. of of desires the chess hrdden GM, player an lM andthen-a is go Vetthe years by, the talented or . . stop!He doesnotturn intoa newFischer Karpov but then for the evenmake lasteightwho qualify the Candldates Hedoesn't of echelon GM's figuiesin the middle he M"t.n".. Instead merely chess. of and soonbecomes'one the also'rans'of up to First alla failure measure of for Whatarethe reasons this? The'star' Federation Chess his towards native responsibilities to his of attitudetowardsthe interests his iiarts to'have a careless tournaments, playlngin internal team,and also stops national champlonshlp' in the this carrying asfaras non-participation natlonal are he?The prizes not very high,the goingis tough Why s6ould to and Farmoreprofitable far morepleasant playin an international of This strength. habit avotdtng or eventof average evenmediocre a for looking easy meatleads.to and toughencounters the really and therebyto a the lemands made upon oneself, drop in of standard PlaY. worsened a Unionit hasbecome ruleto applya Thatis why in the Soviet to pressure all our grandmaslers on amountof disciplinary certain of irrespective theirtitlesor part in the.USSRChampionship take recent achievements. federations of this When I haveraised topicthe officials foreign 'lt's all very well for you. Your players helpfrom the get declare works to and Federation are subordinate it. Nothing Chess Soviet our players: likethat on the lf of Nothing the sortl Thisis onlyan excuse. you examine anygrandmaster you position s6riously willfindthat in anycountry chess, He on to depends someextent hisfederation. not onlyplays runs a chess column,and is keen to get he writes books, ruling body The for exhibitions whichhe is paid. chess simultaneous such matters havea say in deciding of a countrycan certainly tne i{ is What is needed a firm handin this matter, only because himselfOutof of interests the grandmaster will outcome be in the championshlp' the may the weakness player avoid national character to to not but it should be difficult prove himthat suchparticipation of for is essential the encouragementyoungtalent playe's at the Do not thinkthat I am onlypointing finger torergn even Unron' like quitea few examples this in the Soviet Thereare



Competitive CreativeElement? or

Federations Help from Chess


thoughwe try and make our grandmasters in the Soviet play Champronshrp. varrolrs Usrng excuses someof our players out qei -he oTlnls oDttgatton, thisgoeson untiJ .star, and the findsthat can no,tonger rntothe SuperLeague the USSBChampionship, get of andhasto startin the FirstDivision at an evenlowerstaqe. or is grandmasteis Suutn"nO _ There no doubtthatsuchtalented is Kuzmin havenot realised theirpotentrai Boleslavsky e"ptain"O tne lrregular patternof success the latter Ov pointinir of ouiinat "rnoli plav uny II:TIl-YT but considered chessat anv trme ano condfttons, :eadv lo thatsitting the boardby oneself a at was boringbusiness. is a serious This m'istake prlvate as itujv covers not only the mechanical memorisation opening of variations, Out alsoconsrderarion mrddle ot gameproblems whi6h helpsone to Trno newapproaches actual in play. borvlnntknas hts commentson this too: ,Along with my retirement fromchess analytrcal seems have work qo;e to;: *as to nrssad comment one lecture. do not aqretentirelv at We with pessimistic these words,but therersan element; truth in ihem.lt is the duty of playersof the older generation follow the to development theirsuccessors to eicou.agJ of and tf,emto 6"cornu just erudite. as thistaskalsofallsuponthe game:s rulinqbodies. I often have occasionto hear from ,i, cofflaqrei il;;;"", comptaint the younger that generation totallyiqnorani tn" are J gamesoT tormer times.po,ugayevsky once enthisedover rne pleasure got fromanalysing'some he games the Hastinqs-ig95 of you tournament. don'thearcomments that from the"voun.,.. like generation. Rather does onetendto hear sortoi tnro fi-t tX"i this I quoteit from a sense beingoffended. ii .f.,uiX.i"iuii"f of uut , Oneplayer onceaddressed me."clearly *inting io ;r; ;;;;fi "g pleasant me, thus:- ,Alexander to Alexandrovich, io r.no* i,joi yesterday youtoo area grandmaste that r'. r-1 quryof the youngptayer knowthe history chess ,r,. to of and __ garnes the past. asrt rstnedutyo;tne-oiOer just ot 9^:!:9l-thg besr to Se:9!91'9n encourage suchstudyof the gtorious past. rossrbty reader comeup with betterideas, the can but hereis a land my coileagues in rninO.l Har" :ummgryoflhe proposals urn FIDE.now FridnK :yi,. Jh"twr gr.ve led by the grearcnessconnorsseur due,weight thecomments those y'u-trlonl to of who aspare to seea better futurefor chess, morecreative a aporoach. 'i goth ) We mustchange attitudes. offjcial accounts tournaments of and reports the press in should dealmorewith the leading of iole creatrvtty should and crjticise,those unfortunate peopte *tio iiit to notice harmdoneby the purely the competitive [oini of view 2) We mustput on a regular foot,ng awardof recognition the tor

l5ebesteamej:l*1"".'"'l"T::l"tT"?"J:*'.%."1Jiil.".*: - ,,a ^hass L/sud,
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or Competitive CreativeElement? the of ideas throughandtherebyincrease numbers thoseinterested will lf this in the creative to aooroach chess. it succeeds movement young grandmasters arewasting theirgiftsin who turnthetalented into outstanding sportsmen endless SwissSystemtournaments art and passionate supporters the creative of chess. of


t S t u d y i n g h e M i d d l eG a m e

gameis tly!]:-q.i" ot We now turn to the question how the middle

"J i I. u i. r laid down bY $ in" sbasnJ't9 _*i,h gilil'i :'.".'J:T i; "3i;'&5',I:ltif; sleln especially
elements summarise-th,e we iii-u" tb""o in otherbooks, merely analysing assessrng and in into takes account i.it,i"n.giuno.rster 'ti'"''"t"u a posltlon. tt,,1!o -Tu^t:']:l I elem nt ';."Jimporta positiona ents' 9pu i


pi'"" n...noniou,?g-".i-s: liiii.iZoili,,iii"'uii .r:1,^1Pi*s""^?:l: these of ti" point
'v sDatialadvantage ano natlrlerrruu5r' rw' Prov"


and the-centre point''op"nrines'



wH"'jllt"::Tfl;UTir"!r?'"*l-er atapran arrived isrormed
for future attackand defence

.view,or 1"""1"j:.::9-"ljT,::T:9 queition which tormentsthe playerat everymove:

f"r";"*T";";;;t"iv"o*-r" o" oav nce porta )lhPTlTi^"jy:tYll ;""i; sl# :1o # ii i. Jig'"*;l im classificatron andf gariepositions' their
factors' identifying iccordingto various

ri$i;"fi;"": ;i: ".iv'i',"a assessment-have Itp?ry:l-f:.1Yj: themost 9:'l 9:"-l"Y::
mid"dle tvtical
chess p n". v"Yi"ni!-*"* nasnoi been operlv..ct1l::d^,i s will haveerrorsand

rit#tule. uJ it'i. po.tiut"that my attempt

in " 'W;ft inevitable sucha case omissions, can gamepositions be ptetis" thai allmiddle i;;inl grouPs:into divided two basic a)PositionsWhichcannotoeresolvedbyanalysisbutbyintuitive decisions. or logic of by iiiostiont resolvable means variations Positions requiring intuitive decisions worked out' bV Thereare caseswhen a posii'oncannot be. mind,We lesthe human baff of mass poisibilities *ri"'t*.lt"Jif'e chesscomputer(of the sort we an advanced ;;.-|ff;;inJr;en couldcopewith sucha task, i"uilable) ii ""i u"i nu"u ""i;;;;i" cnange to for thistends bethatthereis a sharp ieason



Studying the Middle Game '

requiring intuitive decisions Positions


in the material balance the attacking sacrifices pieceor as a side pawn,afterwhichthe normal methods assessment recede into of thebackground. role in A decisive is played suchcases the'iaste'of player, by a by positions. suchpositions his liking antipathy 'unclear' for In the or variations on moves madenot on the basis calculating are of but Lntu rtron. 'Calculation positions writes Therecognised virtuoso intuitive of Tal is only one side of it. In chessno less lmportantis intuition, inspiration, if you prefer,mood. lfor example cannotalways or why in one position moveis good,and in another this bad. explain found a combination intuitively ln my gamesI havesometimes feeling that it mustbe there. Yet I was not ableto translate simply human language: my thoughtprocesses normal into Hereis an example hisfantasy Tal-Filip, in Moscow,1967: of

lt a piece'.is r n" nia "ot iiCri.riceo the theneed gllylll":i:: !9I19l psvcholosical.",."]T.:

in special theqosilrof'' wasnothing on Whitecarries asif there 9: t^*l

i.irivlii r"ti"", tharcreatesagreeto iakeon suchdiificulties' P-"ll voluntarily


7' ffi % ry 7A% * 2 "N1 2 '&Vzt ft7/t + %zH%
Seeing that slowmethods would leadto the petering of his out initiative Whitewent for the intuitive 19 sacrifice Axf/!? €)Xf7 20 gXh7. Obviously had calculated first few moves Tal the and weighed the chances bringing hisreserves. up of up g x d g i sb a d 2 2 g h S ) 2O ... e521 EXdB EXdS (21 ,

'/&.t V;: & 1b w %r.%

[..'lfNot sides. oi "t".von" *ill 24 ... lLd4?! 24 Hd6l would leavebetterdefensive i-aufioilto*. eI 26 25 .n"n"es Wh'tu could continue 14, but aIler 25 is 27 Etxd6 Axh3l the pos;tron far from clear' ;"""!-gxe+ galnsWhitedetlnlte line attacking wouldbr;ng froweveianother 25 Ee 1 Ada 26 c3 fic5 27 c4 25 H.d1Ed6 ..Not"zs Ab6 26 E x dg AXdB 27 I4l wirh dangerous for White. threats 26 Aa3 Ea6 26 ' trd8 27 c3 Ab6 in"-8""isG error, vet the alternative in Brack trouble' qxdS AxdB 29 f4 also leaves 29 -"fr


to Q7 .

ed 28 Ad5 trxa3 29 g'fs+

22 ghs g€6. WhathasWhiteachieved? Blackthreatens liquidate the to all

it). finishes in play'especiallYhts like Onecanfindmanvexamples thisinTal's to A that ieature ledhistrainer' Koblenz' uounq"|. ;"rioO lt wasthis 'Never mind about Misha being ir"h positions, iJilri"ni-oi rut"iiir oo*n. lrthere is iust one open lineon the boardhe will forcemate!' or sooner later grandmaster every to riis cui,ous notethatnearly are ot posltions. mostdifficult allto Judge The intuitive hasto olav sawruns:if justa pawn As,the of i"torvJihe sacrifice "if',i6n if.ror" on aflera piecesacrlllce orolnary vou can weiqhJp the chances the to scales measure consequences ieles vou ndd the most.sensitve of a oawnsacriftce. attract that aTe iniuitiue oos,tions so Interestlng theysometimes or players AnatolyKarpov as of the attentron evensuch ratiorlal Petrosian. Tigran 29

hr, ?? $94, but Tal had seena way to keepthe initiative. 23 h3! Simple convincing. and Whiteprevents queen the exchange and gives kinga flightsquare. his 23 ... AcS It is not possible the finestchessmind to calculate the for all possibilities this position. in Blackfinds it difficult 'unwind'his to piecesand get his king into safety.The possibilities may be illustrated the following variation 23 by HdO24 fie 1 $fB 25 tre3 6fa 26 $xes SxeS 27 pxeS fld1+ 28 €)h2 AdO 29 AXd6 EXd6 30 trf3+ trf6 31 Ec3 andWhitegetsa material aovanrage. 24 €)h1

hAitt , r gtt r "..X
::1 6


.:."1 i$,E,.'a"'r.,. A'/a'


/.'t 'l.l:".

69 l caasj l sa*92 99,il6,nJI"t .F ",""1 l#l?.t" 30^* * meet to ;;; ;;'rtended 3H:"'XAlXl:"il'':?Y;;;;; ..il'iiil35

Thrsrs KarpovDorfnan, SovretCh Top Leagle'.1-9-76-


Studying the Middle Game



flxg8 24 fle8 mate. - 1.8Qxe5 de 19 f4 Afs 20 Ah3 Axh3 21 flxh3 pc8 22 fe $c4! Whitehastwo central pawns the piece for andan extraoneon the flank.So, material equality, the position hardto assess. but is pieces fairly Black's are active, thereareno whitemjnorpieces left, and it is hardto forcea penetration maiorpieces with alone. 23 E1d3 srf4+ 24 Sb1 ftc4l Blackmakesa confident puttinghis pieces counter-attack, on excellent yet squares. Karpov manages provethe superiority to of ntsposEon. 25d6 8e426 trhe3 Exe32z flxe3gxh428gf3! 30

20 SxcS Axf6 21 ge8+ Ss7 22 sf+-@ha gxsE+ 23

l-7 : Ab6 by 18 fle1 AxdS 19 pg2, and 17 . lc5 by 18 amusinq fie1 fla7 19 llh3 with the possibte finishtt. . . gf8

'L//' @"'/l"tH "'..&t//Lt /.,.4./,-a 21. /&, t ''/r& ..rt '''.fu,

...e, ,t

2 'H,47 t/t 2

Nowthemateriallevel, White's is but initiative forces win. a 39 gf4l a534 gh4+ €eB 35 gxhT gf3 36 gh8+ Se7 37 "" ghl+ g€ 38 gc4t glb7 3s b3 tre6 40 Esl trxe5 41 fl98- $e7 42 g"n4+ &d7 43 gf6t fie7 44 gr5+*d6 45 #!9-tr.gs 46 gdsr €e6 47 €b2! f6 48 flf8 gs7 49 &c8+ BdS 50 *c4+ 1-O

Forcingpenetration the queen,so that White now gets by concrete threats. 29 . . . ts' 95 29 [e1 u,g2 30 E1fs Es6 31 Efl g'ds 32 de €xe7

Loqicalpositions by players manypositions how to resolve havelearned Leadinq and carryingthrough a logicalplan basedon exact analysis factorin a given out After assessment. working the mainpositional this to designed enhance positron player carries operatlor'ts out the or opponent lets advantage him'crush'his iactoruntilthe growing play a combinative blow that leadsto mate or great materlal advantage. plans was in The great specialist working out such logacal after 15 movesin Lilrenthal against Hereis his position Botvinnik. (see 20) the Moscow,1936,tournament. diagram pieces placed and harmoniously of Whitehascontrol the centre, These factors usedto followthrougha are morespace. occupies planof 'sutfocating' opponent. the 16 trfd1 Axd4 17 Axd4 d5 18 a4l the advance b6degree freeing to PreGnting the maximum way of gettingany sort of activeplay only b5, which is Black's it this, and only permits when it to continues prevent Botvinnik to leads a quickwin for White. 18 . .. fe8 19 Ads Hc6 20 pxsT Qlxg7 21 h4 of is the link Another in the plan.Black given choice playing of of with a weakening his€-side anda laterpossibility line h7-h5 knight away his or by opening Whitethere, of moving decentralised but to decides temporlse, h4-h5.Black from 97 andso permitting thisis no improvement. 21 . . . Ee8 22 Ec3 ahs 23 gfd4 bs taken care but freedom last, it hasallbeen at like Thislooks some 23 Therewas the alternative . . AJ6 when 24 of by Botvinnik. of flxf6 exf6 25 gxf6 is bad because 25 .. d5! but White on on couldinstead keepthe pressure by not taking f6. After lust by 24 . . . Axdb 25 exdS followed h4-h5Whitewouldstarta winning attack the €-side. on 24Cbab 25 Edcl ! trxc3 26 flxc3 ba 27 HcTl

pos/t|ons 2) P_ositions resolvable calculation calculable by positions 3) Positions resolvable by'tacking to and fro, - manoeuvring posltrons.

Resolvable positions This a large is section which inciudes almost chess positjons. all lr canbedivided further into:1) Positions resolvable logrcal _ plans precedents logical by and

t vH ''&, ',/z ',/t

/& '/t6/z 7t wfr/t
t 7 7 * 2 7:.,,

to The crowning the planwith penetratlon the 7th rankand of gx b3? then 28 dlrect threatsio the enemy king. lt 27 f XeT+ flxe7 29 flc8+ mating.


Studying the Middle Game



Black has avoided mate but the suoer-activewhite Dieces pawn at a4 makesit a simplewin combinedwith the unstoppable for White. lt must be noted that the possibility such an ending of in arose logically the plan of using his spaceadvantage, and rt is possible that rt evenwas envisaged preparation in beforethe game.

27 . . . g'bs 28 ba $e2+ 29 gd2 g/xf2+ 30 €xf2

t 3 O. . . e 6 ( N o 3 0 . E a B3 1 E c B +S x c S 3 2 N x e T + ) 31 Ab6 AfO32a5flb8 33 fic8+ PXcB34 NxcS le8 35 a6 fc7 36 a7 tlla837 Axd6 gf8 38 e5 $e7 39 $e3 f6 40 &44h641 Ac9+ &17a2&e4 $97 43 Sd4 Nc7 44 $c5 1-0

a and Black will establish knight on the fine square e5. White's of establishment a knighton c6 via d4 could be neutralised possible sy Nd7-bB. 'ln that caseWhite would probablyhaveto defer f4 until he had it prepared by g3, so as to meetef by gf. Eventhen though Black's of concentration forceson e5 would give him a chanceto conduct slides downhill whereasnow he gradually a most stubborndefence,

25 Ac2 t)c7 26 Heal $e7 27 $b1 Ae8 28 Ae2 Ad8 29 6h2 Ag7 30 f4 -White the exploiting factthatan gets in assoon possible, as this

This gamewon first prizefor the best playedgame.ldraw attention the fact that in Soviet to tradition bestgameprizeis the awarded justfor a cascade bnllia sacrifices alsofor iron not of nt but logrc. J ustsucha fineimpression ironconsistency of comes from thrs effort by a pupilof Botvinnik the gameKarpov'Unzicker, in Nice Olvmoiad. 1974.


cometo e5. knrghl cannot enemy 3 0 . . .f 6 anythingWhitenow to of A confession his inability undertake and presses enemy forcesbackto the lasttwo or threeranks the can Black onlywait. 31 f5 s5 if chances he Black hadsomeslight still Thisis totalcapitulation. on keptup the tension the €-side.

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32 Ac2

t7 ffit


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Thegeneral impressionthatWhitemerely is stands slightly'freer' pawnon the Sth rankgiving rather with hiscentre him morespace. YetBlack no weaknesses is ready repel assault any has and to an at partof the board. Karpov formsa planof strengthening position his fudherwhich maybe summarised thus:Block ti,e a-fileby $a7 to preventrook exchanges and a simplification the position. of Underthe protection this bishop of concentrate majorpieces thea'file, the on thenat anv moment the retreat the bishop threaten dominate of will to that file.However this is not enough itself win. lt willhave be combined by to to wrth threats the€-sideanda general on cramping theenemy of forces. Thepossibility alternating on the$-sideandon thea-file play of will stretch Black's detensive resources. 24 Aa7! Ae8 Notecarefully Black that planhere. was fails forma counter to lt obvious White's that involved advance since the f4, $-side threats he had no otherway of makingprogress. Blackshouldhave So planned formation the whenf4 canbe metby ef Ae8, dd7,,t&e7,


plan of usingh5 as a transferpointfor first With the simple bishopand then queento get closeto the enemyking.These if would probablynot be so effective Blackwere not manoeuvres tied down all the time by White's threat to switch back to the g-side. 32 . . . Af/ 3:] 6g3 4lb7 3a Adl h6 35 q h5l g'e8 36 $d1 Ad8 37 Ea3 €f8 38 E1a2 €g8 39 Aga gf8 of on Black cannotbke tvvice h5 because the knight Obviously will whitesquares tell. the later weakened fork on f6. Sooner or 40 Ae3 €g8 41 Axfl+ Axf/ 42 g'hs ld8 43 $s6!-on queen badas the whiteknights h5 andi5 tn is Capturinglhe grave threats with conjunction the pawnat gOwillcreate 43 . .. €/f8 44 Ahs! 1-0 the of Theonlychance holding f 6 pawnis 44 . . gf 7, but then envisaged situation 45 Qga 6eB 46 Ab6 wouldleadto the ideal plan. in Karoov's


Studying the Middle Game




7 '.& &2 t 2t& *,

t7t & 2 7 2
reminds player the a the suddenly At times during game position the like Thisis frequently that he hasseensomething this before. frequently and casewith the moreeruditeplayer, occursparticularly 'logical' positions. whenplaying with whenwe have conflicts the Thisis quitelogical; toughclose 'mixing pieces impossible it'andgiving blowfor blowit is practically position for before one.On to findan exactprecedent the concrete plans on the otherhandlogical makea deepimpression the mind work one doesthe moresuchprecedents and the moreanalytical The of of arefixedin the consciousness. usefulness sucha storage in knowledge cannotbe over-estimated its economy time and of mentaleffort. games Thisapproach oftenseenin Botvinnik's is and his game Thusin his 1Othgameof notesoftendraw attention the feature. to the world titlereturnmatchwith Talin 1961 he writes'Obviouslv

manner. Capablanca 12 . . . aa5 13 Ac3 b5 14 Afl b4 ls Abs €d8 16 Af3 irc4 -Capablanca's planhasbeenfollowed and has broughtBlacka advantage. definite 17 Axc4 dc 18 Ad6 AxdG 19 exd6 Ac6 20 AeS AXhl 21 axf7+ &ea 22 Axhg Ae4 23 d5 ed 24 Ad4 Af6 2s the @d2 &d7 and Blackexploited extra pawn without much trouble. example the 13thgame the same in Another of match.


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Blackdoes not go for the pawn win by 12 .. ab4 13 €d2 this Exa2 14 flxa2 $1xa2, sinqe wouldhandoverthe initiative in to his of to White.Blackhurries advance b-pawn imitation the game, plandemonstrated the Janowski-Capablanca New York, in 19161 That gamehad opened1 d4 Af6 2 Af3 dS 3 c4 c6 4 lc3 Afs 5 g/b3 gb6 6 g/xb6 ab 7 cd lxdb I AxdE cd 9 e3 plan10 lc6 1O$d2and nowcame . . . AdTllwith Capablanca his to ningto ad\€nce. . . b6-b5and thentransfer knight c4. treatshis position the in So with this gamein mind Botvinnik

Botvinnik Whiteandwrote'lt is not hardto finda planhere. was position a training It was successfully game usedin a similar tn Boleslavsky-Botvinnik, Voronovo, 1952. and consistsof the undermining Black'spawn chain by b2-b3 and a2'a4. lt is of surprising that althoughWhite openlywent for this plan my opponent, essence, not try to counter in it: did 14 Sc2! Ad7 15 6e2 Af8 15 Aca a6 17 b3 HacB 18 Ad3 Ab6 19 Ae2 trd6 20 &b2 f5 21 fldcl fi16 22 a4 ba 23 b a a 5 2 4 & c 2 c 42 5 H c b l p b a 2 6 l a 2 S c S 2 7 p x c S f i x c S 28 lc3. White's advantage obvious. is Whitecouldhavewon bV 28 f 4, but he decided achieve to victoryby positional methods duly and did so. Yet anotherexample this in Botvinnik's notesto Spasskyof '1966:Botvinnik, Soviet Team Ch. 1 e4 cG2 d4 d5 3 lc3 de 4 Nxe4 SfS 5 Ag3 Ag6 6 h4 h6 7 Af3 AbdT 8 h5 Ah7 I Ad3 Axd3 10 gxd3 Of6 'This welfknown variation of the Caro-Kann a favourite is weaponof Spassky's . . . unfortunately my opponent . for the wholevariation wellknownto me,since longagoas 1928 | was as hadoccasion writenotes a game to to nov, thts Grigoriyev-Pa where same wasplayed!' opening Comment superf is luous. One may find similarexamples the exploitation past of of precedents suchspecialists planning Karpov, by and of Petrosian as Keresamongstothers. care{ul A examination such examples of


Studying the Middle Game



should convince reader the need getto knowthegames the of to of the past.As the proverbputs it'Why inventthe bicycle over all again?'Another argument favourof thisis the needto avoidthe in lf dangers timetrouble. people goingto devote muchtime of are so just to thestudy and memorisation opening of lines themdevote let as greata zealto the studyand building of a memory up bankof plans. logjcal Calc ulablepositions positions, positions Thishasthreeaspects: combinational with forcedvariations positions alternating with and blows. After quiet manoeuvring tacticalplay there often arises or a position which a decision in can be forced by a sacrifice. The outcome maybe either forcedmateor extensive of material. win

is differencefrom combinations that the elementof essential is sacrifice missing. 40

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,&i 2 '/rX 2 '.& 7.:.,,; " .'.tt' l H & 2 t 'H ft;x 7,, "/t "'N

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ma FromAlekhine-Vid r, NewYork,1924. the on 12 Deb gXc3 (Capturing eS wouldleave g-side too 13 in the face of attackby White'spieces) AXdT weakened 14 g'b1 axdT the not Thisthreatens justh7, but alsoA-e7-b4irapping queen, has so Black to givebackthe pawnat once. 14 . . . fle8 15 AxhT+ €h8 16 Ac2! a threatg-d 1-h5and $a4 winning pawn. With ihe double 16 . . . lf8 17 Qa4 fle6 18 g/bs and Whitewon a pawn. by blowscan be illustrated this play Positions with alternating 1937. Alekhine-Euwe, from the 1gthmatchoame.

Thisis Agadzhanya n-Farbisovrch, Ch 1977,Swiss USSB System qualifier. Black exploits openposition the king. the of 1 ... g'h2+ 2&xh2EXfl+ 3 gh3 Ehs+ 4$sa Sf4+ 5 gg3 trffs+ 6 $94 flfgs mate. Thefollowing inishf rom Westin-Karlsson, f Stockholm, 1973 is also striking.


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Blackmadethe shattering move 1 SfTl! runninginto a knight fork,but after2 AXd6+ Se7 3 gxbb camethe fresh blow3 Af4+ forcingmatenextmove. These cases wellcovered existino are in literature. we do not so need laboJr pornt. to the Wins can often be forced bv forcinomanoeuvres wherethe

13 ... ab4 14 Ab5+ Bf8 15 8e2 Ac5 16 Ad1 Afs 17 h3 hs 18 Ag5 8bG 19 Ah4 Ae4 20 hg Ac2 fashion. . grow With everymovethecomplexities in baffling . 21 fc3 ad4 22 r&fi \22 gd2 would wtn)22 .. hg! 23 Aa+ 8cZ Zq Hxeq de 25 $c4 flac8 26 Hacl bG2.7 f]xcS oi ze gao gxes 29 pxcS gxgS 3o $xcs+ $xcs 31 ExcS EXh432 fic4 le2+ 33€/f1 Af434gg1 g3landthe game in finally ended a draw. just manoeuvres, a no Here therewereno combinations, forcing moveby move all series threats, and counters, counter-threats, of Manoeuvringpositions not consistof? Obviously comblnative What do manoeuvTes hlows nor deep, get plansWe rarely forcinqvariattons lonq-term


Studying the Middle Game



to and of Instead playis quitedifferent consists tacking the either. quickly with separate and fro move by move,often combined plans. isbest froma concrete example. This seen changing short-term 42

t% %t/& 'lfr "&artt %& rr y , t & %y2 7 ffia%a%tt '& w &t1/, 2 Tlt\tg

advantage. up of io findthe speck goldthat makes a positional 29 .. . Hc4? gives and he makes bad slip.By 29 patience a out Black's a b5 30 Ab3 flbb7. or 30 ab trxb6 Blackcould maintain position. Nowhe getsintodifficulties reasonable nerfectly ' 30 As3 llfg 31 h4! AfG 32 Ab3 E xcl 33 fl xcl $d7 34 d5!


2tllg121'7r;t t'//2,. &.AXt "& 7::.,tt77 ''/;/:'.&

(Alekhine-Fergrn, 1937) Kemeri, A deepanalysis the position of points view, position. Fromvarious of will indicate it is a level that the centre,piece weaknesses, occupation open lines,space, of placed. a resultthereare placing, sides aboutequally As the are with the aim of achieving someslightbenefit. long regroupings Short term plansare mixedin with playmoveby move - one player movesit away,one player a the attacks bishop, opponent resists by putting rookon this a occupies openfile,theopponent an thatfiletoo. This cat and mousegame goes on until one side gets the play advantage a result hisexcellent anda slipby theopponent. as of 15 Hfel gd7 16 Ah2 the fromc3 to f4. Thefirstshorttermplan- transferring knight to in Notthat I canseeany realadvantage this,but you have make movesof somesort or other. 16 . . . Afds 17 6e2 trfd8 18 Af4 Af5 19 Axds withthe couldhave beenmade It seems methatthisexchange to is sameeffectwith the knightfrom c3, but playin levelpositions it be logic. to since cannot of an absolute subject suchcomments 19 . . . AxdS 20 Ac4l Ae6 21 a4 HacS 22 Ab3 8c7 23 a5 White has achieved littlebut not enoughto bring abouta a Whatfollows minorregrouping is in as change theassessment level. waiting often involves and simplywaiting.Playin levelpositions As wrote'Whenyoucan'tseewhatto do it is best moves. Tarrasch to give the opponent chanceto move and you wait for his a mista ke: 23 . . . ,Wd7 24 Al4 $e7 25 Ag3 Hc7 26 Ab3 '{gd7 27 Ah4 Eb8 28 Sa4 Sc8 29 flacl in Onceagaina series moves of and nothing changed essence. yet What boring play might be the comment, chessis not just pretty plans. isalsohardwork,realgraft lt combinations logical and and grind, whenyou haveto work overmanytonsof ore in order

t 7at& 'w &.ft.::

to 20 to Whitehashadto manouevre andfro for almost moves the whichcramps enemyminorpieces. makethis slightadvance illustrates thedifficulties both concrete Thislongwaiifor something posltions. of features playin level andspecial 34 . . . Afs 35 g/b4 Ae4 This too is not best.35 . . . Ae4 would offer betterchances. as initiative White's a develops dangerous Now a pawn sacrifice pieces somerealscope. get 36 gd4l Eds 37 Ad2 Axds 38 Axd5 Axds 39 Ae4! The point. The threat of 40 $xds and 41 Nf6+ allows penetration theenemy camP. of 39 . . . Ss7 40 Axd6 8e6 41 *d2 AfG 42 t8c2 b6? -. and to Leads --quickloss.Blackhadto showinventiveness find 44 the variation42 . . . Ah.< 43 Ah2 b:-cl 6xI7 trfB 45 Ad6 chances. Ad4 46 Ef 1 ge7 with somecounter 43 $c7! Whiteforceshisway in to the 7th rankand it is alongthis line thatWhitewins. gixfT 45 Hd1 etc.)45 € . . . ad7 M axfTl HlB 144 Adg grf6 46 Edl l 1-0 trend of I must return here to the question the dangerous marked mentioned, already purepragmatism whichI have towards all particip;tion tournaments lacking otherpositive but in by regular heritage the pastand the of factoissuchas studyof the creative tend games. pointis that suchplayers The writingof notes one's to of moveby move'style playin to drif-t tb intothe'tacking and fro, for is practically positions, whereas method onlyappropriate the all lt criticised Botvinnik since level positions. is thisa newfeature, Nor of School Chess. in an article writtenin 1951 aboutthe Soviet of the ln orderto demonstrate helplessness suchdry practical


Studying the Middle Game



grandmaster may we an against experienced playwhenemployed finalof from quotethis example Sokolsky'Botvinnik, the semi ChamoionshrP. the 1938Soviet 1 c4 {lf6 2 i1c3 d5 3 d4 s6 4 Nf3 Ag7 5 e3 Noi tbad move in itself,but here it is the precursorof play. ghtf a rd strai orwa passivend stereotyped b6 6 5... O-O Ae2 e6 7 O-O 8 cd ed 9 b3 Ab7 10 Ab2 but squares, he has no his on White develops pieces natural game. plan for consistent ready the middle 2 1 O. . . A b d T1 1 8 c 'Gradually thatWhitehas lt becomes clear Botvinnik commented 'developing' pieces his planand is occupied with merely no real ago,but in ourtrme Possibly couldplaylikethat50 or 60 years one gamefrom about formsa planfor the middle wheneverymaster to thereis no'better'way get Intoa the 6th to 8th moveonwards positionthan by just strivingfor better passive crampedand development.' 'At this pointWhitecouldoccupythe central pointe5 with his for knightwhichwouldleadto a fight with chances both sidesA feasible control and coupleof moveslaterthis no longerproves passes overto Blackl squares overthecentral 11 . . . a6 12 Hacl flac8 13 Efdl ge7 14 s.b1 EfdS 15


him but and are White's moves simple obvious, thatis whatloses game! the (44\ 15 . .. c5 15 dc bc 17 QSe2 44


aw,t/&t 'qfri"lt

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17 .. . Ah6! of A concrete attackbasedon exactconsideration the most At minorfeatures the position. this pointthe attackis directed of the against weakpointat f2. 18Sa3 ls4 19Stl3AdeS20 lxes$xes21 Ag3gf6!

t z 2

DeePAnalysis to to Ai this point we wish to demonstrate the reader what it can the heiqhts art of analysis go,and what pleasure can give l downto a to the wrll I truit theexamplesquote rnspire reader settle or of deepanalysis his own games of thoseof the leading really olayers. ' for in at uponto analyse alltimes, preparing a are Plavers called bu't session, mostof all the wholeof the playing qame. throughout of Thenin a shortperiod timeone has irhena gamersadjourned. into deeply to effortin an attempt penetrate to put in an immense variations. manypossible and the position examine the analysis most casesof adjournment Amongstthe various is analysis games in team events There is no of interesting in involved the work,you can of on restriction the number people of and as as have manyhelpers youlike, withthe interests theteam his to is keen make contribution teammember involved every being in in it Fl6wever haslongbeenknownthat the increase quantity lead doesnot necessarily to improved of the participants analysis can organisation make qualitv, sensible However ofienthe reverse. suchgroupeffort very effective how occasions the taskwas on described various already I have Boleslavsky Our trainerlsaak side. Olympiad by tackled the Soviet hall; he slept during the playing nevervisitedthe tournament 'witha clearhead' (he and keenon sleep) then session wasalwavs who broughthim theiradiourned he would meet his colleagues posrtrons. forgive Please of players pastmasters analysis. are ManySoviet the by but methishighpraise, I canshowthatthisisthecase taking whenthe Karpovexamined variations the reader thr-ough forestof in was game from the 1979Spartakiad adjourned thts Romanishin posrtron.


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team seenby the anal}tical the lgor Zaitsev describes chances he where is in a position tryingto f inda \ /infor theworldchampion procedure Black's candlwithestablished a oawnuo.Inaccordance
'Edttar's Nate The E,rgrshtearl DrocedLrre that ro more tharr t\\'o peooe s togethei shoud analysa aolourrrm(]rrt an



22 ah1

Hereis the sort of abnormal movethat Whiteis forcedinto.22 bad. Ec2 tha 23 h3 Axe3 is clearly 22 ... d4t 23 8 e2 €)e5 24 ed cd 25 lxcS $xc8 26 Edel d3 27 8d1 Ag4 28 $al d2 and Whitesoonresigned.


Studying the Middle Game



datemoves thisposition in wereestablished. There three:- a) are 4 3 . . S f 4 + ; b ) 4 3 . . E a 1 a n dc ) 4 3 . . . S g 7 w h i c h e w In examrne turn. a) 4il . . . Af4+ 44 s3 Sc7 45 e7+ $h8 It was established 45 . . €S7 is worse in view of 46 that white wn. Qlxc7 pxe2 47 lXeS+ $h6 48 SdS withan easy 46 lc6 (46 Af7 Qxa5 47 SxeS lf,b7 with the matethreat at h1 is no good)46. . . c4 Beforeit was decided that this movewas Black's bestdefence othermoves wereexamined 46 . . . Ab7 47 1}dSand White e.g. should e.g. . . . Ab648Ad6 lxd649e8g+ win 47 Axe850 or fi xe8+ Sg7 51 Ee7+ winningboth bishops, 47 . . . Ab6 48 ld6 Qxc6 49 Sxc6 AxdO 50 PeOand Black canresisn. 46 . . . c4leads a sharp to struggle, it is not hardfor Whiteto but realise adva his ntage. 47 axcT AxcT 48 Ac2! Thisstrongmovewasadopted onlyaftertheanalytical teamhad established the obvious e8g+ getsnowhere 48 that 48 OxeS 49 ExeS+ gg7 50 Sc2 [xc2 51 Ab4 HxI2+ 52 y Sg 1 [f3 53 Bg2 fla3 54 Nxa6 E xa4 and it is practica impossible Whiteto win. for 48 ... Ae8 (a8 . . $97 49 e8g lxeS 50 lb4! is worse for Black) Ad4! Ab7 50 f3 49 Whitehasnow builta sound fortress of hisminoroieces out and hisrookwill penetrate enemy the rearwhichmustdecide. b) Thencamethe turn of 43 . . . Hal threatening . . AXbS. 44 It was established that White has three ways of realising his advantage b 1) 44 Ac6, b2)44 A)2 andb3) 44 Ha2 whichwe lookat in turn. b1)44 ac6 Ab7 45 Ad5 Hxaa {a5 €97 46 Hb2\ 46 f e 7 + S f 8 4 7 N x g 6 + h g 4 8 e 7 + g g 7 4 9 S x b 7 . H o w e v etr i soonbecame r that 44 Ac6 can be stronglymetby 44 . . . c4l clea Theattempted improvement e7+ @g7 45 lc4 is met by the 44 quietmove45 . . . Ab7 with White's position kingin a critical 4q f3 Af4+ 47 s3 pxf3 48 sf Sxe2 49 lbd6 Qxca. b2) 5o,44 1\a2 c4l (44 . . . trd 1 45 e7+ is weaker) Sxc4 4b has EXc4 or 45 lXc4 l}b7 and Black unpleasant threats. b3) Thenthe declsion was madethat Whiteshouldmeet43 Ha3 by 44 [a2 goingintoa minorpiece endgame thesortthat of actually occurred the game.lt is curious in that the Ukrainian sioe did not expect Karpov go intosucha minorpiece to endgame. c) Of course Whiteteamdid not knowwhichmoveRomanishin the had sealed and had to consider possibilities. move that all The caused themmosttrouble was4il . . . $g7.

45 44 Sd5 (threatening pc6) 44 . . Eal !rts Ac6 frxa4 46 $xe8 fl xaS 47 e7 flxb5. detall at line, Thisisan obvious andit wastheonelooked in great Firstof alltherewasthe straightforward rtg Axbs AxbS 49 e88 AxeS 50 trxe8 €f7 51 trcg (51 $f8, or H hB "+e h 07! 52 HxnT q5! is bad)51 White'swrn is 49 e6g gxes. In both cases TlO trbg doubtful. puts it 'We managed find a remarkable to Then as Zaitsev in resource the diagrami Nowif 49 . . a zl8 Axg6!! HbB 49 Eb2 winning vitaltempo. 50 eegr H xee 51 AxeS c4 52 $a4 and wins without trS8 muchtrouble. after 49 . . tr xb2 50 e88 Sfa+ 51 93 Blackalso loses 54 1 tr{ 1+ 53 Sg2 hg whenthereis the simple Hxt2+ 52 €g qf andalso54 ge7+ €2hO C/f6. 55 " to with 45 . E xa4 in answer 45 $c6 theteam Havinq dealt possibilities were almost and startediookinqat other defensive . AfOl 46 e7 fixa4. stymiedby 45-. . 'someone quickly this refuted by 47 suggesfed He6, but Karpov stroTes 47 lactical &47t148 fl xf6-$xe7 somesurprisinj and neitherknightcan come to the helpof the rook e g-^49 flrc7 for E xas 50 Ads+ Af4+ {not wnit Wnitehoped e.g.49 or 49 lc3 fid4! 6og si Hxeot), On thJ point o{ decidrngthat 47 HeO did not wtn an for imorovement Whitewas fbundafter46 1}c6 E xa4, namelY by is it 4j abTl Does forcea win?Theanswer given thisanalytical 47 moves. . flb4 and47 on is based two candidate treei,hich too:otherpossibilities Thenwe have wn. 47 . . . Hb4 48 tre6 €f7 49 ld8+ with an easy

47 ... exbs 48 gxns Eb4 49 tre6€f7 _59 47 exbs +a axbS Eb44e tre6€rZ 50 -trIf6+ 54 g xe7 51 Ebo Af4t52 q3 Ac7 53 Hc6 Ab8 5a $a6 and HbO Ai4+ 52 g3

hitewins. 47 ... AxbT 48 AxbT Eb4 49 treO €rf7 50. EYf6+ Ata+ 52 g3 SxeT 51EuO anothe rookis now sate(51 54Ads+). Ac7 -The 5 3 A 7 c 7 H x b 6 arlse cralestcomplications after47 . . . Ee4' Thepersistent else found a surewin heretoo by 48 fl xe4 (an!'thing analysts his minorpieces, mainfighting White's leads the lossof one of to forcein thisoosition). 49 le 49 Ad8! (49 A7d6 is weaker. Thencomes48 SOeef + lxeS 51 AxeS-u €{8 SZAxnS Af4+, 53 A"nS Black F A"a 54 &-g2 A 55 €f 1a3). A{terthe text,however. for victory piece whichmustresultin eventual a i^rittGu"to lo-sJ White.

58 Studying the Middle Game TheX-ravEve 59

preferred iine Yet another A superb analysisl in theeventKarpov was of play. Doesthat meanthat the whole night of analysas gained clear wasted? no means By wastedl worldchampion The a him insight the possibilitiesthe position thishelped find into of and hismoves theadjourned in The thus:session. game ended 43 . . . €97 44 93 (going intothe minorpiece ending) . . . 44 Hal 45 Ha2t flxa2 46 Sxa2 $f6 47 Nc6 pc8 48 a5 Sd2 49Ac4 h5 50€g1 f4 51 gxf4Axf4 52 gf 1 Aa6 53€e2 g5 5413 Q1c7 e7 Ae8 56 €7d3Ab7 57 $1ba7 55 Ah2 58 a6 Aa8 1-O. 59 Ads As 1 60 Ac8 c4+ 61 Sxc4 Q1c7 Q1b4 62 Mastery analysis the SovietSchoolis developed all of by by possible means. vitalfeature imparted the chess This is in in circles press the Pioneer Palaces chess In thereare by coaches. thechess regular competitions - findthe bestwayto win or drawin this set or that position. positions are not just solvable combiThe set by planning analysis. national means, and someinclude A feature worthyof noteisthatsparks genuine inspiration of and anal!,tical talentare seennot only in the central townsand cities, but also in the most isolated The settlements. editorsof chess publications receive stacks mailfrom suchdistant of spots, some refuting well-known findingnew pathsin the combinations, others mostestablished for opening lines. With suchenthusiasm analysis amongstwide sections the public it is considered very of a worthwhileundertaklng. Here are some examples the fine of madeby suchanalysts discoveries The X-ray Eye ln the earlydays of its development SovietSchoolwent the through a seriouscreative crisis.At the start of the 1930's, apparently underthe influence Capablanca of who had lost his worldtitlematchto Alekhine subseouentlv and somewhat his lost interestin chess,some Sovietmasters dabbledin stereotyped whilesomewoefultheoreticians supported methods, even Capain blanca his viewson the 'drawdeath'of chess and the needto change game introducing pieces an enlarged the by new on board. Suchtrendswere bitterlyresisted true loversof the art of by chess. number articles A of in appeared the magazine Shakhmatny Lrbfok whichthe harmdoneto chess suchviews in by wasshown. War was declared pot-hunting, against arrogance superficial, and 'reformsl ill-thought-out This battlewas taken up by the young Sovietmasters the time who showedin theirgames of that they principles the natve school were supporters the creative of of proclaimed Chigorin Alekhine. by and The movement a creative for boost in the contentof chess recerved mass support, letters rtedcoming from themost and 1n sta parts with opening distant analyses, striking new ideas startling and

blows. combinative L/stok number 12' 1931' P Romanovsky, ln Shakhmatny in in X-rays Chess an of Master Sport,published article Honoured quoted the analysisof a little known Leningrad which he of his B.Baskov concerning discovery fantastic mathematician New possibilities the gameTartakower-Alekhine, in combinative York,1924. a had that admiringly Baskov achieved commented Romanovsky which lighta positlon different in by greatsuccess putting entirely of The of bv 6ad beenassessed a number authorities conclusion put in doubt. was himself Alekhine wherelong that suchpositions \^/e Alongwith Romanovsky stress refuted are or dubious totally are conclusions rendered established of The but not rarecases comein droves. examination suchcrucial of freedfrom thetyranny analysis positions the lightof concrete in of development a creative to leads enhanced I considerations oenera In course chess. 47

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'1 mark, an HereWhiteplayed $e4 and appended exclamation and his moveto maintain advantage keepthe as beingthe only to that comments 1 $94 wouldlead pressur6 Black. f urther He on a quickdraw. with the anotherlineof attackstarting discovered Vet Baskov 1 c6! whenthe reply stupid apparently to a) f . . . gxc6 seeming win a pawnis met by 2 fle7ll callsthe X-ray move, Here is the move which Romanovsky position. variations The of penetrating the very essence the into a win for Whiteare exceptionally which no,,ifollowand leadto on pretty.Obviously Blackcannotcapture e7 with rook or klng, gSq win Whitegetsa simple after2 the loses queen. since'he rules 4 out on 3 Ef XfTl *c1+ 4 Sh2 andthe matethreat 97

4 )+ SxgT 5 nO-1Wgtt o tj'g'+-1E xds then H xf6+ E)xg/ a, h6+ €sB 6 gs41

163 HxsTtt (48) Thearticlegoeson with the keyline2 If The rook siillcannotbe takenfor the samereasons. 3

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3 Thereremains . trd6, but then comesthe fresh blow 4 queenor rook 14 . . €xS8 5 $94+ 4 Eg8+ ! winning


Studying the Middle Game

TheX-ray Eye




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2 7Z t& ,'%l:., & /r&. %,//Z 7 $" .€-i


gr7 5 dc). gxc6 losesBaskovgoes on to Havingprovedthat 1 winningmethods the moves demonstrate against threecandidate withthe rook. b) 1 Ee7 2 HxeT €xe7 3 8e5+ €fB 4 $xc7 $e3+ 5 passed pawns ensure win. the $h 1 $e7 6 $f ! andthetwo united the the c) 1 . EdO 2 grb4! Not onlypinning rook,but creating powerf threat $b7. Black's defence 2 . . Ec8, to meet is ul 3 best However Whitehas defence. 3 9b7 by 3 trdd8! witha sound g e 7 f a i l s t o e ta n o t h e r y a w i nb y 3 H e 6 l8 g 5 4 f l x d 6 c d ( 4 . . 49). finetouch- 5 E Xf 7+ ll seediagram 49

Thewinafter2 $h6 is shown these by variations, 2 . . . f 6 3 E X f 6 a nn o w d a) 3 ... Exf6 4 gxf6 h5 5 th6! Ag6 6 trf1 gxeS 7 gxg6+ Bg7 8 Ae6+ €/hg I gixh5+ €,h7 10$e5+ $97 1 1t r f 6 . b )3 . . . 6 g 6 4 A e 6 + € h 8 5 t r c f1 t r x f 6 6 t r x f 6 l x e 5 7 cxd4l pc2 B dXeS threat h5. 10 ]196t h4withthewinning c)3 . . . €h8 a flcf 'l andBlack nowhere gowithhisrook. has to d)3 . . . Ac4! 4 flc2! Ng6 5 Se6+ @hB ficf2 dxc3! 6

"'H 2 &.t 7z 7t 7 frvlz 2 + iM, E 2 % z vl,z.,. 7 2 7tZ 7 2 "/:aatH


''//:;t 7 7 7 2AH.A& tzt& 7 2A % 27 & 7 &

7/:... ,ru ,ft 2

and now 5 gbTl ge3+ 6 q7h ge8 7 flxf7+ SgB 8 1 flxs7+ €fg 9 trg3!grxhs+ 10 trh3 g/d1+ 11 $h2 Ss4 12 Ef3+ winning queen. the d) 1 3 EdB2 trefs Hacg12 f6?3 E xf6+ etc.) E xfT+ 4 8e5 EfB {Other moves no improvement) xf B-rr aTe 5 fl €g8 ExfB 6 EXfS+ €xf8 7 $f5+l $e7 I C.d7+€lf8 I grdS+

7 [xg6 (not7 ExfS+ g,xfg 8 trxt8+ Exf8) 7 . ge7 I E x f S + E X f S I E f 6 ! H x f 6 1 0e x f 6 $ c 5 + 1 1S h 1 a n d mates. OtherBaskov analyses appeared later.For example founda he win for Black Rubinstein'Yates. Krssinoen. in Bad 1928.


w;nnrng. quotes another yet In the samearticle Romanovsky analysis by Baskov whoseX-rayeye enabled him to find a win in the game Mieses'Bogoljubow, Kissingen. Bad 1928.(50) Miesesplaved 1 cd which led to a draw after Black's best defence1 line Ac4. Yet the startling 1 Ef 5l Ne7 2 $h6!l wouldgiveWhitethe chance successfully to crown hisattackon the king. Other second moves weaker 2 e6 AXf5 3 AXfs are e.g. f xe6 4 Axe6 Ef7 5 Hf 1 fldd7 andBlack safe. is

'ffit &t% '%i/& % 2 2t7 % "'&86 /&.t7/.r W ,&tr ' N 2

Here Blackhad the chance 1 Axf4 2 HxI4 fl xe3 which Baskovbackedup with a largenumber complicated variations. of


Studytng the Middle Game


/., fu' /;/,; t fu, /:/,; t8ta"'/,;., . t ,:tt l:..:, /./,8

t :l ":z ,.:@ ,.,t,: tr.../: n /.::'',,.




..al/.",./t 7..,€)''2..t


Annotating ames G

Paris, Thisis Koltanowski-Lazard, 1929,in which Blacktried 1 . 9g3 and got nowhere afler2 $14 gc3 3 gxfT+ gh6 4 gf8+. YetBaskov's . . $c3! wouldforcea win. 1 refutation a studv bV the of Then there was the sensational accurate Platovbrotherswho normallycomposedimpeccably studies.



% 2 ///t '/z 71,2, 2 t 7 7:,, .a//, 2 ',f<, 7lt ,z) 7 "Z ./t
ffii. %



Baskov foundthat after 1 €d6 Ac8+ 2 €d7 Ab6+ 3 €c6 4 AfS gh7 5 gb7 €sO 6 Ah4+ €g5 7 Af3+ gra I hc8 $xc8 $xf3 9 a4 Blackhasnot L . . h4?whenWhitequeens 1 w i t h c h e c k . b u t 9 . f S l 1 O a 5 f 41 1 a 6 $ e 2 1 2 a 7 1 3 3 a B S t 2 Black's resistance. and no series checks be foundto break of can quotedwill inducethe The aulhor hopesthat the examples possibilities. I hidden reader sitdown himself find suchdeeplv to to the in can claimthat nothingelse is so effective encouraging groMh of chess analysis, of the both strength suchindependent as games the greatplayers your own. Try this out and I can of and assurevou that vou will soon feel the benefitof it, both in your peers. understanding and in results against chess * topicis thewriting notes games yourown and of to Oneallied practice alsoverybeneficial we nowturn is and thatof others. Such to how thisis donein the Soviet Union.

Your Own Games part A considerable in chess coaching the USSR played in is by writingnotes games. bestnotes published magazines to The are in and newspapers, thisis not the mainaim.A developing but player hasto write notesto his gamesin orderto develop habitof the having self-critical a approach his play.By spotting flawsin to the hisplayhe willmoreeasily eradicate them. youngplayers write notesto their gamesin So we require to theirworking notebooks.is of no importance these lt that notes will be written'for the drawer'andnct seethe lightof day.Thefact theytheywillnot be published even advantage is an since their'btte' can be enhanced. can claimthat the notebooks I containing my game notesin my youth containvery sharpcomments indeed. Many of my colleagues say the sameand carriedthis out can regularly aftera certain lapse timewhensetbacks of forcedthemto carry out an overali surveyof their progress, orderto devise in means rooting persistent of out failings. Of course these individual notes varyaccording the character to of the writer,but thereis muchin common too. Fourtypesof game may anno*€tions be mentioned: 1) Descriptive notes. 2) Ana lv,tical comments. 3) Positional comments. 4) Svnthetic comments. 1l Descriptive ,ofes. Here the commentatorwrites out all the prosedescription the moves and then putsdown an extended of course the game.He notesthe turningpointsin the battle of and assesses accuracy the ideas the of shown.Sucha verbal account devotes lot of attention the psychology the struggle the a to of and attitudes the players. of Actualvariations be totally may absent, or arerestricted justa few moves certain points. to at Sucha method is bestsuited the popular press to wherethe course the game of



Yourown games


withthe who for hasto be explained non-specialists arenotfamiliar employed was Suchan approach successfully finerpoints chess. of by v ShakhmatY SS.S/q its then from time to time in the magazine Champion,the late editor, former World Correspondence Ragozin. Vyacheslav 2\ Analvticalcomments In this case the stress is on actual of with all the notesconsisting a massof variations, variations, (or considered in the some long,some short,which the player duringthe shouldhaveconsidered) of opinion the comment€tor just between the game. here, consisting of links Prose veryslight is variations. of A supporter such a styleof notesin the lastcenturywas predominates Fischer's in Chigorin, in our day this approach and in verypopular recent This has notes hisgames. method become to abbreviated style and decades, one may pointto the particularly used in the Yugoslavlnformator,while observingthat here the plans in of is commentator restricted his opportunities describing I considerataons. and positiona and since is compact enables it It is hardto oblect sucha style to to a space a bookor magazine quote larger of one in the restrjcted who triessucha However God helpthe player number games. of to himself this or methodin trying to improve, ratherrestricts method. Thereis a graverisk that his play will dry up and the will be short, formal and not reallya variations analyses he game. in Unfortunately modern reflection thecourse an actual of of booksone tendsto find only such notesand this is one of the poverty style a number modern of of of reasons the 'fading'and for olaveTs. 3l Positional comments.This method,the mirror imageof the previous gives limited The a one,hasa longhistory. commentator his number variations, usingthemto underline viewof the of only game thevalue theplans reminiscent lt and of adopted. is somewhat ratheris it together, of method1, but the proseis not collected the spread throughout game. out Thiswasthe method adopted manygreatplayers Steinitz, by Nowadays it is a favoured too Tarrasch, Lasker and Capablanca. whoseplayis marked a by methodamongst thosegrandmasters in depthof strategy and logic,but who rarelyget involved bitter 'hand-to-hand' struggles. Naturally enough viewof thedrametrically in opposed methods of 2) and 3) there havebeenattempts bring them together, to to produce synthesis, whichleads to whatis in our viewthe most us a universal rational and method.

4) The Syntheticmethod. fhis method of explaininga game of and both manydeepvariations verbaldescriptions combines this The world of chesshas come to recognise ideas. strategic exponent, that its principal methodas best,and it is no accident living. in was Alekhine, recognised his time as the bestannotator book was the Theworkwhichgained mostplaudits histournament givento the is of NewYork, 1924.In our dayssuchpraise rightly both to theirown and Karpoy, oamenoteswrittenby Botvinnik of and to the gamesof others.Anotherexample such lames bookof the 1953 Candidates work is Bronstein's synthetic excellent rn The Struggle Practice, in Match-Tournament Switzerland, Chess into translated English. 1980,recently Batsford Annotation Competitions games a means selfas of the Recognising valueof annotating for competitions the best we oftenseein the USSR improvement on to Normally putallthecompetitors a level to setof notes games. from the past.A examples set footingthe games are little-known as goodexample thecompetition arranged longagoas 1937. was year the SovietTrade Unionschessclub At the end of that players living otherthan in for a announced contest firstcategory were organisations furnished All Moscow and Leningrad. relevant with a setof tasksto be carried with the games unknownplayers of An thesegames. authoritative out in the courseof annotating was Blumenfeld Yudovich and consisting Ruymin, of commission whichwerethe best. the and determine set up to monitor entries ls Of coursethe demandsmade on the commentators what interestsus most. Thesebecomeclear from the report of the from commission whichwe quote: 'Common include unsubstantiated a) faultsamongst entries the without considerations to allegations, reference too general b) by c)justification of reference concrete assessment the position, to Variations should workedout be variations. means longabstract of carefully. and one shouldnot go too long down any variation moves withouthaving sure madeabsolutely that the introductory like are forcedf(Aswe put it in the book Think a Grandmaster You movesand only then start have to decideon the candidate analysing eachin turn. ) '1937 The iury then went on to pointout that long unforced but the variations only encumber courseof exposition, are not A errorwasto go in for suchlongvarlatrons oftenfaulty. common of the principle so which were not all that relevant, infringing economy form andcontent. of was as The 1937 exoeriment hailed a new tool in self-improveru Shakhmaly SSS,Q, by mentand hasbeenusedsince the magaztne theoryand of quizzes testreaders' knowledge chess to alongwith



AnnobtionCom@titrons 67 dxes gd8. 20 . . . Ae7 21 Ab2 d5 2213 Ead823 6f4 trhg8 24 Ahs gxhs 26 f xe7 Ed7? .glh425t6t 55

gives moves Nowadays the history. everysixmonths magazine the The withoutindicating whereor by whomit wasplayed. of a game the task of the readeris to providenoteswhich will illuminate turning point of the game,and to back this up by an overall description itscourse by variations of and essentialto account. this who Feaders' letters workedover bv an exoerienced master are selects bestentrjes the and then the magazine reprints game the witha selection the bestand mostrelevant of comments. wellas as the notes leading As of authorities. an example such competition of a we quotethe 1979 effortbv readers annotate Blackburnto the gameplayed London,1863.The noteswerechecked in Steinitz and synthesised A.Magergut. by from Gorky 1 e4 e5 2 Af3 AcG 3 {c4 ScS 4 b4 {Metlin has comments'The Evans Gambit lostitstopicalitv, it wouldbe but possibilities not a mistake writeit off since its attacking to all have yet beenfullyrevealed. is pla!€dvery rarely lt nowadays, not but it avoid3 . . . $c5, just because is unsound in factmanyplayers to avoidfacing itl. 4 .. . AXb4 (After4 . . Ab6 thereis the awkward Sokolsky line a4 a6 6 lc3 intending ld5) 7 5 preference givento the retreatto a5 is 5 c3 Ac5 {Nowadays withthefollow-up d4 d6 7 g/b3 grdT I de Ab6 - returning the 6 extra pawn at the appropriate to momentis the bestantidote a gambit and if 9 ed theng . . Aa5 10 8b5 lXc4 witha level game. ) (7 6 d4 ed7 O-O cd Ab4+ I gf 1 is goodfor White.) position the Evans 7 . . . dG8 cd4 1\b6 {Thenormal of Gambit. played, Whitecanpress forwardby 9 d5 asAnderssen regularly or go 9 Ac3 as introduced Morphy and then taken up by by Chigorin.) assessment White is a pawn down, 9 A€ Aga (Synthetic but has betterdevelopment a strong centre.This central and from onewingto the other control means Whitecanswitchpieces for examplethe bishopat b6, can be easily.Black'spieces. transferred the€-side onlywith considerable of time. loss to has So Whitehasto try for an attack the $-side,whileBlack on to create threats the enemy to Moreover, is normal a as in centre. crampedpositionBlack will strive for exchanges ease his to position. After this general comment annotators the subsequently go overto variations. ) 1OAbs $f8 11 Qxc6 bc 12 Qa3 Axf3 13 gf $95+ 14 €hl Ae7 15 le2 Ag6 16 trsl gf6 17 grd3 €gB 18 Acl h6 19 f4 €zh7 20 f5 To save spacewe do not quote shorter notes concerning individual moves. example thispointonewriterindicated For at that gameby 20 ... dxeS 21 after 20 e5 Blackgetsa reasonable

&H&. '",82t%t:., % /4r.2 lz 'ffit % %8%+ ',& % %

to shortand longvariations have Thecommentators beengiving the At backup theirviews. thispointmanyof themindicate errorof that Whitedid not their surprise last moveand express Black's 27 flxg7+ @x 97 2a flg 1+ $95 29 the notice bcticalstroke g/h6+ €88 $e3 flxe7 3O flxg5+ hg 21 $xg5+ €f8 32 is 33 $xc6+ aridBlack in a badway. i ed+? g6 28 Eael Ee8 29 EeS gh4 20 [f5! $xe7 31 dc of makea fresh assessment this The amateur commentators and position sources* pointout {for the first to compared exisiting Aftertheir the literature) errorof thispawncapture. timein chess best is the outcome far f rom clear.Black's 31 suggestion Aa3l move is givenas 31 . . Se3 which would leaveBlackwith nces. adequate counter-cha 31 . . . EddS 32 Aa3 8e6 3:l Ef4 f5 34 trh4 !5! 35 Ab2

gb3 Eds!36 r&cz88.e237 g&5 38 8c3 tre239 {4 trxd4 40grf3g/dsO-1.

Not-. See for example Rel s Masters of the ChessBoard 1933 ol Neyshatadt's197 I book o|l Ste n tz Pervy ChempDn M/ra Ret m ssedboth tact ca lil)es Nevshtadtgave the fi.st mprovement 27 Z/.97+. whlch had been Heads dscoveredLnthe West many yea.searler - See Bruce AaydensCabbage and Chess Ktngs


A Philosophv Chess of


A Philosophy f Chess o

is Batherlong-winded, it not? What can one do about that in to possibly successors needwhole volumes express will our of of fashlon nature chess theirtime! the -'Witn 6ppropriate into tnisexcursion theorywe hopethat we haveprepared process In of to thereader moveon to thequestion theeducational particular dealwithexisting chess schools we In in chess the USSR. betweenstudy in such schoolsand the and the relationship player. work independent of the individual

After our investigation features modernchesstheoryvvehave of of 'Whatrs the chance now to try to givean answer the question to chesstoday?'Orin otherwordsto describe a'philosophy'of the chessof our tjme.Onethingis already clear.You can no longer restrict yourself to the sort of short formulationsthat vvere 'The accepbble previous in centuries. pawnis the soulof chess'or 'Seize centre get your pieces - suchphrases not the and out' do player in express tenthof theaimsthata modern a tournament has mind uring game. d a A chess contL.st ourdaysisa lery complicated of battle minds, of plans, preparation, of strategical based extensi\r'e on erudition and deepknowledge chess of theory.In our beloved we havethe art sameprocess additional of complication applies lifeand in that in science. Artificialintelligence, example, the structureof for or matter cosmology the product knowledge manyfields. or are of in In chess two thinking beings armednow with a knowledge are of theory,with the experience previous of tournaments and are prepared plansand even specially a givengameby concrete for tactical concepts. lf we try to formulate 'philosophy'of a modern chess might we settle thefollowing on formulation: game chess a logical tactical A modern of is or clash concepts of which ha\€ beenwidelystudied and weighed in preparation up made long beforethe actualgame.This preparation takesinto accountthe experience the best theoreticians the past,as of of codified textbooks in andencyclopedras,wellas taktng as account of competitive psychological and aspects depending upon speclal teatures the opponent's of character. opening the gameis The of played quietplayaimingfor according one of threemethods: to headlong equality, attackor the coiled spring. Moreover initial the of stage the gameis played conjunction plans the middle in with for game even theendgame. middle for or game The struggle carried is out by the method of logicalplans,of concreteanalysis of combinations variations, bv intuitive and or oressuTe.

Everything Staftsfrom Childhood


S c h o o l so f C h e s s

Everything Starts from Childhood 'lt'salright you.Youhavechess for taughtin the schools the on physics, geography. That'swhy a samefootingas mathematics, youngster once leavingschool is ready to play in top class tournamentsl I haveoftenhad occasion hearsuchwordsfrom the lipsof to in foreigners are keen thedevelopment chess theirown who on of We haveto disillusion country. suchpeople pointing that by out they are mistaking desirable reality, the for that chessdoesnot figureon our schooltimetables. children Our basically havethe programme, studythe samegeneral sameschool and educational subjects in schools worldover. as the Thenwe go on to tell how we do havespecial establishments good work in coachingour young chess which do immense players. Those in schoolboys girlswho get interested the game and get while school showthe bestresults school in at and tournaments the right to loin the special chesscirclesin their local Pioneer just Palace, in the same wayas theirclassmates enroll circles in for you.In these Pioneer sport, aircraft modelling, botany whathave or Palaces children for the havethe rightconditions studyas chess masters in experienced chesscoachingkeep an eye on their The Palaces havebeen development. chess circles the Pioneer of the workshop our chess for of development manydecades. grandmasters started these Manyof our leading have in circles rightdown to Anatoly Karpov, havehappymemories them of and evenwhen they havepassed to highereducation on and got a qualif ication profession. or not to Obviously youngsters attracted justby thechance our are to study theory but by opportunities play in eventswhich will developin them the correct qualities neededin a competition player. Aftera number experiments trials have of and we established a unified system tournaments youngplayers, thissystem of for and hasnow beenin operation quite longtime. for a The startingpoint is the schooltournament. Here the best

and tournaments to ^hversare selected take part in inter-school lpvel naLlonal at to competitlons localand inolloo on " -ihire in ur" manysuchevents the USSRThe mainone is the .WniteRoot' competition. a f Eachschool ieids teamof f our boys ii and one gid from the 3rd to 7th classes e. in the age groupo{ onesand the wlnner otherlocal Thrs ;bout 1O:15). teammeets and at goingforwardto higherlevels city,regional republic ieeps centres. --The and level at finalis played national for the'WhiteBook'prize, ot or in one of the hero-cltles wartlme takesplacein the capital in a children yearcompete this five iime. npproximately million in are that the rounds played out-oflt goeswithoutsaying event. wlth so ichool tifrreand during vacations as not to interfere work. school Eachteam Palaces for Thenthereis the competition Pioneer boys anda girlup to theageof 18 andin thefinal of seven consists type of event Eachteamhasa theytakepart in a most unusual and master is grandmaster stronginternational or who cap'tain is a 'graduate'-of particular give-clock The Palace. captains that itso a teams These all against the remaining exhibitions iimultaieous grandand contested the leading verv sharply aTe oames always scored points them.Thepoints rn to canbe expected drop iiasters are the and by thecaptain by histeamagainst othercaptarns adoed the up to determine winner.In suchan eventteamsplrltbeNveen playsa big role,and useful and the captain members individual The generation to.another' most on is experience passed from one Pioneer the who heads Chelyabinsk Karpov popular are captains Tal for Riga, Smyslovfor for Faiaceteam, Petrosian Tbilisi, and so on. for Moscow, Bronstein Kiev can be shownby the fact that in of The sharpness the contest (V.Savon captain)coming was was Kharkov 1979the finalwinner republics' cities.and from the largest of ahead a number teams of get as The next stageonwards the players olderis the USSR yearsold The up for JuniorChampi6nship players to eighteen with the qualify thisevent, for republics champions the various of furtherprospect takingpartin the WorldJuniorand European of Junror Championships. age Finally ihe highest group- up to twentyfive- therels for Thisis the eventlrom of the annual tournament youngmasters. the get mostof thosewho go on to challenge experienced whichwe grandmasrers. of system coaching controlled and Thiswellorganised carefully gets generation that the younger ensures and competitiv! events in perfectits playand get experience roughand the chanceto The tumble competition againstcontemporaries whole system of and the most talented of nu-mber players, takesin a massive




Schoolsof Chess

Tuition Television


them come under even more carefulcontrol,since they are whosefamehasspread schools in enrolled one of the theoretical throughoutthe world. First placeamongstthese ls taken by school. Botvinnik's Tuition Television TV figurein theworldof Sovtet ago Morethana decade a senior theory of lessons chess systematic idea hadtheexcellent of starting programme every In a on TV. Sincethen it hasbecome popular in chess theirleisure who enloy to giving entertainment those home and time. aindi-nstruction a chanceto improvechessstatusfor who takeit moreserlously. those School the and changes improvements TV Chess After various and is of hasa setformat.Theperiod instruction threeyears now has who wantsto enrollfor formalinstruction to senda anyone and details giving shortpersonal begins postcard the before course etc) (beginner,4th 3rd category, category qualification his chess the is This information neededin assessing degreeto which and has homework beendonesuccessfully alsoin orderto make qualification ticket' entryon the student's theappropriate viewers are The in are There four divisions the school. youngest of the 'WhiteRook'schoolunderthe direction chess in enrolled (daughter the famousMoscow of Belavenets masterLyudmilla lessons applyfor Separate of master methodician the 1930's). and the is in chargeOf course BorisShashin wheremaster beginners which works part of the schoolis that for categoryplayers ma-in and-the wlth YuryAverbakh two headings the endgame under from 4th up to 2nd Thisis {or players gamewitii Kotov. middle category. who and a person to Eaih courseis scheduled lastthreeyears maycarryon in the nextthreeyearcycle. for hasenrolled a course and then goeson to the dealswith simplepositions Averbakh in advantage more material and positional of methods exploiting game coursedealswith three The middle complexexamples. and of and analysis assessment position the topiis,combinations, of calculation variations. for is features the use of tests.Positions One of the special on are solving seton eachtopic.Thusthereare ten testpositions solverof six out of the ten is and the endoame. the successful of decision the by status virtueof a special 4th awarded category solutlons in who send eightcorrect Those Federation. Chess Soviet who solve ten correctly all and status those aregiven3rd category granting - 2ndcategory. theendof each year these documents At solvers sent out and some of the most successful awardsare final studioThis in certficate the Moscow theirqualification receive channels widely vartous on rs awardceremony transmitted

The TV school has attracted tens of thousandsof viewers. who answers Yelizaveta Bykova World Champion Women's Former always to with the answers the homework letters deals and viewers' Ietters. to the studiowith a huge casefull of readers' comes and the bedtouchingare the lettersfrom invalids Particularly in actively riddenwho onceagainget the chanceto participate status theirqualification and chess to try to raise goesout overvarious channels at various and The programme timesin orderto coverthe wholeof the vastcountrywith different lastshalfan hour since The programme time zones. its different that we to experiments came theconclusion thisis the aftervarious for sucha programme. time optimum are of The four levels instruction shownin turn, eachoncea at channels month.So each of the four goesout on different all timesbut at the rateof oncea week.The showlasts different the studycovering nine monthsof vear roundwith the serious winterand springand the threesummermonthsglven autumn, Then thereisan attempt I and o\,/er rather lightermaterial revision. overto ratherliohter tales. and popular humour elements theatre, of at introducing Averbakhhas often sharedwith For examplegrandmaster in viewershis discoveries the field of the historyof chessin He particular historyof the chesspieces. hasalso writtena the poem. chess version an ancient of screen programmes on The author of this book has done several programme combined successful humour chess. particularly in One from the Gogol by on instruction entertainment calling actors and whichputon the play'The This Theatre Moscow. wasthetheatre in name ancj of on WhiteandtheBlack'based my longnovel the same player An Alekhine. extract the greatRussian devoted the liteof to f rom the playwasshownon TV in summer. against givinga simultaneous exhibition Alekhine This depicts Prague Praque in Staffin occupied rtu officers the General of thirtyGerman Spak gameto finishis againsiObersturbannfuhrer 1943.The last 'l resigni position hopelessl is officer,'My the declares German Alekhine turns the board round,and takesthe black pieces 'Playonl'Two movesfollowand the German himself, and says as againdeclares it that, believe or not, he must resign White's gameis hopeless. turnsthe boardroundand now announces Onceagain Alekhine matein threeon White's . behalf has An amusing touch - the champion won with both Whtte for language the andBlack, howcanthisbeexpressed chess in but TV screen. mustadmitit tookme two weeks figureit out,but I to I got therein the end./56l the against threat, It is Black playand he can seeno defence to When since gO 2 .$h7+ gf8 3 gh8+ he is mated. after 1


Schools of Chess

Teleision Tuition


7:,27.:.,t 7:., A ' 7:.2 7l/ra Hr ''/.t .L7 tg, 2

Alekhine takesBlack makes re1oinder ... flh4l when he the 1 White can only take the rook with knight- 2 fl Xh4? ge 1+ mates. 2 4ixh4 $c3 and Whitecouldseeno defence mate So to at b2, since 3 $c1 $a 1* winning rookandthenthe pinned if the knight. Once again Alekhine takes Whiteandgoes gh8+l gXhS 4 3 and matenextmove. 196+ Thewholevalue thisexample brought aftertheactors of was out had performed scenewhen the play was examined the from a pointof view.Thisis an excellent technical example combinative of playexploiting The finalcombination open lines. with the queen sacrificeon h8 is a tvoical 'ambush'combination. Thus an purposes.' entertaining episode used instruction is for Beforepassing to the topicof sp€cial on chessschools the in player.When he USSRwe follow the path of ihe improving becomes adulthe passes intoadultcompetitions an on whichare basedon strictcompet,tion and qualification. Only in very rare cases doesthe Soviet Chess Federation makeso boldas to try to correct consequencesbadluckor misfortune. the of The main event of the year for all playersis the Soviet Championship. matter No what a player's highstanding maybe a grandmaster be authorised missthis event only by the can to Praesidium the Chess of Federation. the otherhandif the top On players find it hardto get out of competing the championshrp, in aspirants takepartin it findit justas hardto get in. to Thequalification system worksas follows:The list of entrantsfor the Suoer Leaouestarts with tne (Selection) quarter-final Otborochnii tournament from special or groups (The Chess Federation has not yet come to a final conclusion which tournaments better but more and more are protests are being madeagainstthe 13-round. 64-man Swiss
'Translatar's Nate A,254 page book Chess Schoo/ was ssued n 1976 to accompafy the TV course Apart from contrrbutonsby Kotov and Averbakhrt contans an BO pageaccoulltby Yudovlch the hrstory chessand the theoryof of of the opef ngs

for used the Otborochnii). System From here qualifiersmove on to the First Divisionof the seeded with Championship only the winner of the Otborochnii Then the leading few from the First directto the Top League. qualify theTop League at theendof theyear. Thus for held Division to according actual of and relegation a strictprinciple promotion is results observed. programme of Duringthe restof the yearthereis an extensive and both individual team.The chiefonesare the Soviet events, tournaments international the Soartakiad, USSRCup and various Memorlal, the the Clubtournament, Chigorin suchas the Central in and Memorial Tallinn so on. Keres competein international As is well known our grandmasters countries that throughout worldaswellas helping the tournaments exhibitions and are backwardin chessby meansof lectures, coaching. of by affected the massivenessour Ourtop players doubtless are the and that and organisation theconsciousness theyserve people is chess immense The of special obligations. scale Soviet so have players, one millionof them more than three millionorganised collectives and spreadthroughout 148,0OO categoryplayers, and There nearly 7O0 masters, grandmasters 61 1.5OO clubs. are the 13 worldchampions of 18.Thework of popularising game out a in the outside world is alsoimmense morethan 25 countries yeararevisited our chess representatives. by Different Nuancesof the Word 'School' can be understood a as ln art and literature word 'school' the people throughout worldin the definite trendwhichunites creative their views on the subjectin question. Then there is also the head, meaning a combined havrng own building, its of organisation teaching of staffand programme studies. In the period of the 192O'sto the 1940's there were no organised wastaughtin someform or other, wherechess schools yet from the very first stepsalongthe road to creating nattve a School Chess unityof views threetrendsemerged regards as of and principles. Thesewere the Leningrad school,the Moscow school theUkrainian and school. A leading role was playedat once by the Leningrad school, although assessing results Leningrad-Moscow matches, of in the of tournament performances the timeand evenin analytical work of we notea prolonged of between representatives the sharprivalry thecapital and Leningrad. city maintained massot its After the October Revolution Leningrad strong great These connois' experienced masters. and theoretically seursand strongpracticians work to a high raised their research



of Schools Chess

'School' Different Nuancesof the Word


wherein thosedays theircity was the place since level especially A was published. ShakhmatnyLr.slok the only chess magazine Champions who became Soviet by iole leading wasplayed players -number in or of occasions took high places the national on a - Levenfish, l.Rabinollyrn-Genevsky, Romanovsky, championship vichand so on. there of with Naturallv the presence suchpedagogues emerged a wave of young talents headedby the leaderof Sovietchess Lisitsyn and Chekhover, Herewe find Ragozin, Botvinnik. Mikhail of others. Later on came a fresh generation grandmasters, who weretaughtby the Pioneer Palace graduates the Leningrad of - Taimanov, and Korchnoi others. Spassky, Zak trainer After the October is seenin Moscow. A simrlar development and Grigorilev, by Revolution chess\6s supported Nenarokov, '193O's havethe emergence a of we Then in the A.Rabinovrch. masters- Ryumin.Kan, Belavenets, group of young talented and so on. They competed Simagin the Yudovich, theoretician playersboth in matchesand with the Leningrad successfully research. theoretical provided Here reinforcements. a massive The Ukrainian school who Rauzer played theoutstanding theoretician by role leading was along with another in invented many systems variousopenings These Konstantinopolsky. werefollowedby new names theoretician the famous throughout world who were to makethe Ukraine andothers. Stein Bronstein, Geller. Boleslavsky, to changes the War broughtsignificant The GreatFatherland of By of geographical of location our schools players. the middle -194O's there had been a movementof peopleto Moscow the Bronstein, from Leningrad, and Botvinnik, Levenfish Romanovsky Gellerfrom the Ukraine This rather and Konsta ntinopolskv theystillput upa good though mentioned, the weakened two areas to resistance the capitalin team matches.We must be honest has backfrom the school fallen though and saythatthe Leningrad players. leading pointof the development of has Fedeation playeda big part in In our days The Russian the producing such namesas Polugayevsky, late Bondarevsky, Krogius and others Therehas beena Sveshnikov, Tseshkovsky, of where names Taland the Republics growthof talent the Baltic in laterto speak haveoccasion We for themselves. shall keresspeak of with itsflowering school features the Georgian of of the special talent. female fromthe pointof viewof schools of Thatis an outline thevarious On top of thisin our daystherehasbeenthe distribution. territorial of sense theword in of development schools the proper favourable limitations. without anyterritorial '195O's which schools we onwards havehad certain Fromthe

ln talent. this of amount goodin developing donean immense have of of we reso€ct must namefirst of all the schools Botvinnik, and Karseladze, of Kart. Soviet lmmortals of Beforedealingwith these schools a new type and their 'oraduates'we at would liketo takea look in passing the recent or who may be calledveterans of aihievements those players 'candidate-veteransl arethe players for almost quarter who a These and still colours the of a centuryhavebeendefending country's of figurehighup in the lists the bestin the world. -We are interestedmoreover not so much in thetr sporting themof thought, deprived or theirkeen Age results. hasnot dulled They play suchdeepconvincing and their inventiveness fantasy. of the who esteem element those attracts that theirplaystill oames of for 5rt in chess, whom the question how a gamewas played was. plays great partas what its result a as will we We trustthe games now demonstrate act asa compass the to in for the reader his striving assimllate bestthat thereis in him to work at improvinghis play and chess,will stimulate understanding. His thinking. full Tal Mikhail remains of force in his inventive with theirrevelation of and exciting games havealways beenartistic yet {he struggle the pieces, the keenstudentwill find other of from still his in hidden facets them.Certainly games getravenotices 'Theex-world oncewrote As Taimanov his felloworandmasters. influence oftenexerta sort of paralysing champion's= combinations of play.lt wouldseem that the element surprise on the opponent's plays big partin this: a f thereareln thisgame romthe 1979 moves How minv surprise Yuooslavia-USSR match. EnglishOpening Tal-Velimirovi6 I 93 I c4 c5 2b3 Ac6 3 Pb2 e5 4 g3 d6 5 Ag2 AeG 6 Ac3 7 Al3 Ah3 8 Axh3 gxh3 I Ads €/d7 playcannotbe approved Whiie hasa slight of. Black's opening but definiteadvantage. 9 . . . gd7 1Oe3 lceT 11 lc3! superior development. Avoiding exchanges maintaining and 11 .. . af6 12O-Oe/. Ag5 d5 14cdW5 (57) 13 to Talas everwas! When he hasthe chance makean intuitive ptece he sacrifice neverretreats. 15...€)xf716f3 kingin the centre of Line opening, thatthe position theenemy so becomes primefactor. a

1 5A x r !


Schoolsof Chess



t %'/12.,. xtru ,x %,&A %v"il t % 7.* %+)
_;( JFt

t\ v)



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16 ... Aexds 17 fe lxc3 18 $xc3 gxe4 19 ghs+ €e6 .-Avoidinq the nicefinish19 .. gSg 20 AxfO gf 21 flxf6 ge7 22 8$.d5+ Sg7 23 $95 mate. 20 gh3+ €/d6 21 b4! by foreseen Whitein assessing movedoubtless A veiy cunning on Now filesareopened the afteithe knightsacrifice hischances no refuge.. kingcanfind $-side andthe poorblack



Petrosian of considers a considerable this consisting threeislands. plus and has frequently exploited such an apparently oositional advantage. slight 22g9c2 gxc2 23 $xc2 Qd4 24 $fl e5 25 21 fic4 .{.gb2 26 flc2 PcdS 27 g3 Ads Ae €g7 'bad'bishop White's against active After this Blackis leftwith a the in knight.Why bad? Because pawnson blacksquares the restrict Black's whileopening manywhitesquare bishop up centre for Thisfactoris exploited Petrosian from by options the knight. a now on which is why Blackwould havedone betterto retain for weakwhitesquares. of knight thedefence these 28 Axds! H xds 29 Sg2 g16 30 Ad2 trb8 31 Ac4 trb4 32 Hdz Hb7 Black permitsa strikingfinish,but other moveswould not prolong resistance long. for now comes strikinginish. f Whitea pawnup,whereas a

33 Ae3 trd734 Ag4+ gfs 34 $e6 35 Nxe5 {xeS 36 trde2trd5 37 f4 leaves

21 . . . &c7 22 trcl trcg 23 Efs!894 24 peS+ &d7 25 gfl ge4 it of up SpeiOs the end,but therewere no realchances saving evenafterthe right move25 . . c4. 26 Ec4 8c6 27 th3 8e6 28 Axf6 gf 29 Ee4!


/:/. f

'/&t %t,


game. to finish a strtklng A striking 29 . . . $xa2 3O flxcS+ 1-0 with hisfine combinations the Tal lf Mikhail makes fan ecstatic with to continues impress Tigran Petrosian, theotherex-champion. techniqueThe and of the accuracy his manbeuvres his filigree game: interesting saw Yugoslavia thefollowing match against same Petrosian-lvkov SlavDefence 2 c4 c6 3 Af3 lf6 4 e3 eG5 Ads AbdT 6 Abd2 1 d4 d5 c5 7 b3 96 8 O-O Ag7 9 Aa3 b5 10 cd axd5 11 Ae4 O-012 16 trcl 15 i3 AdG &t r+ Axcs EaxcS 15 He1.€2hB e4! g'f5 19 dc lxcS 2o $xcS bc te tz Axea At+ te Ecz for in have TheExchanqes resulted a splitpawnformation Black

ptureat d4 allows matein two. 35 Exd4! 1-0.Any reca The performance 54-yearold YefimGellerin winningthe of Super Leagueof the Soviet Championship Minsk, 1979, at produced real furore.The point was not just the easyand a convincing in the but victory the veteran taking goldmedal, the by possibilities. striking nature hisvictories, mostly of combinative full of Hereis oneof thern. Geller-Anikayev SicilianDefence 1 e4 cS 2l{3 e6 3 d4 cd 4 lxd4 lf6 5 lc3 d6 6 $e2 O-O Ae7 7 O-O I f4 Nc6 9 Se3 a6 10 a4 The well-known Scheveningen wriation.White tries to slow down Black's to expansive activities the g-side whilepreparing on stormthe g-side. 10... Ad7 11Sf3 las128e28c7 13g4! The start of a bold stormingoperation with which is played youthf vim. Geller ul considers that Blackmust now continue13 thenWhite's atbck looks Ac4 14 95 le8 15 Afs Ad8. Even

76t/:.. '&, 7 'r&&'/& ft L, H. ::lrt H 2

t '.,/lt:.,. A,

t 7 t './/r/ 2 ....&, t t 7 "/&@'/.:t",:
/// './tt


Schools Chess of



Drettv forceful. 13 . . . [fc8 14 95 Qe8 15 f5 lc4 16 Ahs g6 17 fg fg 18 9f2 6e5 There no otherwayof supporting but White's is f7, initiative now becomes formidable. 19 Af3 Ag7 20 Axes trfg 21 Afl/ Axhs A decisive mistake leading a stormy to finish. AIter21 . . . gh 22 White's attack remains threatening, Black chances but has of $d4 resrstrng.

that himself the Whitehassatisfied ludgment Wth characteristic in advantage the endrng a4 wrllgivehim definite ou.i"J pu*n at is advantage slrght how this apparently [OJrvd witn admrration accuracY' cxolotted "^i9 withamazlng


ary z /&r. AI 772,t 7.2., 2
iw 7L2.,

-e- d8 31 a7! tl.b6 30 E fi"S naA 29 i..:'b3 ""iniiou*n ties and a ,snowalmost queen, f inally downallBlack's In theoiflng breakthrough witha decisive {orces 31 . . . ;b6 32; xb6 lxb6 33 i 'a5!

.. ieS 2o as .;tc t 21 E'11ad2zz, --1at .-'a8-?3 '-c3 26 -;a4!d427-.1d1 e52a 95 *ii =azAq a6 g"f825 \ Yd8+

7,2, 7.,,ft 7.2.. 72.,'.E-< .,,NTl/., ,z) la a



tlt 2t'17.., 'XL'/.tt/.'/L,,, 71,,t ./Y. &


A piece sacrifice clearing wayfor thebishop e3 to takethe the at longdiagonal. Black to takethe knight. has 22 ... ed 23 Ah6+ &s7 24 947+! trxf7 25 HxrT+ €)h8 26 Ad4+ Af6 27 E xf6 1-0 LevPolugayevsky alas, a candidate thetitleof veteran. too, is for you In hisgames willnotfindthe intuitive sacrifices a Tal,northe of fearsome attacks a Geller, the truechess is won overby of but fan the accuracy his manoeuvres hisboldness decisiveness of and and grandmaster at the crucial stages his games. Thusthe lVoscow of managed win this game at a key stageof the '1979 Riga to Interzonal against opponent an with immense experience topof level contests. Polugayevsky-Larsen SlavDefence 1 Af3 6f6 2 c4 cG3 d4 d5 4lc3 dc 5 a4 la6 5 e4 Sg4 7 10gf lc7 11 flsl lhS Axc4e68Ae3Ab49grd3Axf3 12$.e2 play Boldand unusual in the opening. whitepawn'fist'is The veryformidable sweeps and awayall Black's to attempts get the initiative thecentre. in 1 2 . . . s 6 1 3d 5 ! Not fearing any shadows Whiteopens filesin the vicinity his of king. Thisis Polugayevsky's concrete assessment work. at 13 . . . Ad6 14 dc bc 15 gd4 O-O trdgl Axh2 16 The Danishgrandmaster queens himselfhurries exchange to gamewouldbe riskyfor Black. since furtherplayin the middle 17gxdg EfxdS 18 trxd8 EXdS 19SxaT

22 adsl

a th t , ,& ././r./r.

play and Thetriumphof methodical accurate in the glqlorla1lon and Thec6 pawnis indefensible withltsfallall advantages. of slight disappear. resistance of hopes successful 5s . . . €"2 34 Axc6+ €/d6 3s ab4 ae6 36 Ad5 Aa8 37 af6 h5 38 $ds NecT 39 le8+ 1-0. ChessTrainersand their Background oT of organisation everycountrysooner latercomes The chess needed and coaching the trainers of the up against q"uestion chess be got from, what sort of to rJn it. Where can thesetrainers haveto Doesthe trainer do qualifications training they need? and in who-is now no longerplaying top,,events be a strongplayer cope.withsuch Can a youngmaster Oecauie of"tAeage factor? lhe in will be helpfJl findrng chess ol *o*? tn" experiSnce Sovret to questions, we havedecided devotesome so answerto these space it. to our termsand restrict taskto the proper Firstof all let us define those senseof coaching.During top class events,especially qualifying cycleone seesthe involvinq worl6 championship the or grandmaster by players iegularlyaccompanied a well'known taskit ls to helptheplayer whose is master. persor] the second lnis beforethe eventand beforeeachgame'often in-nisprepaiatior.r advice and-givrng variations ol iar..i"q ;ait ,n Lhecho:ce opening rask The-main ana'ysed and qameis rinished rs 6erng "ltur""*n gamesThe'period of i"nOs-to Ueiitistingin theanalysis adjburned is of service'ofsuchseconds not longand duringthe llext such

-7--82 of Schools Chess Trainerand PuPil
charge it openings is harmfuland too much likerote learnlng In-studying

this else mayinvite someone to be hissecond time. the event player essential and o{ Whatarethe qualities a goodsecond, is it really to it one to have at all?Possiblyis better try to do it allon yourown? be help, canhe actually a hindrance? or always Does second a not second only The simple answermust be that if a potential knowsthe gamewellbut is a friendof yoursthenmakeuseof his lf services. you can be surethat you can rely on him for good game while you get your of overnightanalysis an adjourned him. thenit is worthhaving valuable sleep if However you haveany fearsthat as soonas you go to bed yourexample aftera quick yoursecond not be longin following will for the sakeof form and will lookthroughone or two variations then the through night, that he hasslaved makeout nextmorning donewithout. helper better is sucha false a for Moreover sucha helper one eventbe called trainer? can with his not! A traineris a personwho is concerned Certainly to paysa lot of attention the work We chargeday by day,and for cerbinlyneedseconds certaine\€nts but they must not be with trainers. confus€d for featureof chessthat the opportunities It is an interesting personnel greater thanin other groupof training are up building a becomes trainer a a ln activities. mostof the latter person sporting timein histhirties at his career some or coach afterfinishing active his In chesson the other handa trainermay well continue own thereis For getting results. example excellent and carryon career who play Furman theexcellent at Madrid1973by the lateSemyon there along with his famous pupil Anatoly Karpov. competed grandmasters as trainer international have Several our younger of play in who is stillactive tournament and Dvoretsky master l\4ark Botvinnik as had title has hopesof the grandmaster for himself. person Bagozin Vyacheslav for trainer a longtime that charming in with participation a competitor as who combined bigworkload a tournament. the 1948 Interzonal 'l interesting has Dvoretsky writtenthus:- feelthat it is no less in takegreater delight the I thanto playoneself.even to bea trainer I of tournament successes my ladsthan I do in my own. However play, enjoymeettng strong I up haveno intention giving practical of player players the boardand my impressions a practical can as at from Possibly otherstrongplayers be oi useto me as a trainer. the wouldliketo combine and amongst grandmasters masters our and with taiented, clever two 'specialities'? allcreative After contact youngsters bringgreatpleasure!' curious can Trainerand Pupil to in has someguidellnes help Experience theSoviet Union given people underh1s with one (or several) workingregularly a trainer

workto but a]t to consider theopenings, it is alsowrongto restrict to opponent easy ^-^. .'. tr.ryo whlch makesit too easvfor the whtch makes openlngs one o. t*o or)entnos ought ouqht to be givento typical attention ^.onare A oood deal of attention prepare. good 'When.

recalls, ..dnames. As Kr Snoiitu, As Kasparov

a I school hadto spend lot of timeon ierni's*ort in the Botvinnik in so tlnq and pawnendings when I cameto a trickyposition my methodl qames knewthe winning I ow-n mustbe focussed attention that to iet"it stands reason the maln phase the game ln suchstudy of game, principal the middle on the and of to it is usetut riork throughthe analysis all sortsof games games, one'sown and thoseof both and oositions to annotate others. 'ln chess in any otherform of sportthe guarantee future of as laiddown trainingprogrammelnere are is success a prop€rly such as the abilityto manyhabitswhiih haveto be inculcated the of correctassessment position, accuraie the variations, calculate choice of the correct psychological of advantage, iealisation by Canbe,and mustbe,developed specBl All continuation. these (Dvoretsky). traininql moredifficult, pupils taskbecomes his has Wh;n a trarner several A to approach each. knowledge an hasto have individual he since in is essential orderto be and strengths v\,€aknesses of eachpupil's the ableto buildon the oneandtry to reduce other' by Dvoretsky:- A player's Here are some other comments partsof his fixedon the backward be attention should constantly shouldbe constantly on play,and special exercises thesethemes I {rom my own pupils canpoint a Tb i'epeated. quote few examples so technique I constantly poor in endgame was out that Cheki-rov ot methods endgame to his worked drawing attention standard on piay in variedpositions. a resulthe madeswift and obvious As Drooress. ' so stamina, he had in was T"hen aoainDolmatov lacking physical and so on) and (running, swimming foot6all, to Ooa tot of sport his water treatment*in order to strengthen nervous -.system to staying-power lastout a tull tlvenour Nowadays hasenough he playing and session a wholetournament.

ole I was pr,eryri.ns.19r

sm Water treatmerri A system ol strengthellrrg the or-ga| lterature The bodv rs rubbedwth coo arra sports *,O"iv i"iorn'""nO"O rrrSovret usedevento co d bathsand sw m'nlnq latercoldwateaand spongeunt I rt becomes i11 openarrdurrngirosty weatner the 'Translatar's Nole


Botvinniks ChessSchool



B o t v i n n i k ' s h e s sS c h o o l C

The chessorganisation Soviet of TradeUnions had the excellent ideain 1963of setting a small up school wouldcoach that someof young players thecountry. the mostgifted of Former worldchampion Mikhail Botvinnik, greatest our theoretician, a Doctorof and Technical Science expressed desire runthe school the to where the studies takeplace post.For nearly by two decades school this has been turning out 'gfaduates' who havea fine grasp of chess strategy plavand the routtne and tactics, experience practical of needed this.Mostimportant all they havehaddeveloped for of in themthe knack working of independentlychess at study. There can be no doubtthat the mainfeature the school its of is head.Botvinnik's name has figuredin the world of chess, and outside too,for morethanhalfa centurv. it The'oatriarch'of Soviet chess, we lovingly as call him, has gone throughan tmmense experience matchand tournament play.He took part in more of thanfiftytop-class plav, tournaments hisfortyyears active in of was worldchampion thirteen years, for winning defending tifleon or the fiveseparate occasions, played our winning and for Olympiad side srxtrmes. He isa player who to an unprecedented penetrated extent deepiy into the possibilities the game,more than all the remaining of grandmasters hisday.Another of worldchampion Tigran Petrosian haseloquently described emotions a player the of who hadto siton the othersideof the board from Botuinnik. oncetoldhow hard He he found it to playagainst Fischer, thenwent on, 'Yetit was but harder playagainst to Botvinnikl You got a feeling thenof having no wayout.This vr,as !€ry unpleasant a feeling. Once conversation in with Keres told himaboutthisand evendrewthe comparison I of Botvinnik a bulldozer as clearing ever!,thing awayfrom its path. 'Justthinkwhat Keres smiled commented and it was likefor those who hadto playhimwhenhe wasyounger': No less expressive thewordsof Geler, are describing feelings his as he satdownat the boardto playl\likhail Moiseyevich. 'Gamesaganst Botvtnnik, as a rute, are a batfle aqainst

part strategy. asthevisible of an iceberg Just makes monmumental part so the up onlyonesixthof its height, too in thisbattle greater are the ideas not broughtout. ln sucha casethe consequences of misbkeare quite considerablel of the slightest that of It is easyto understand the school sucha greatexpert the best talent from throughoutthe country.These attracted what are now very well-known namessuchas Anatoly included from Schadrinsk, Yury Karpovfrom Zlatoust,Yury Balashov from lvoscow.Lateron they were jcinedby Yelena Flazuvayev from HarryKasparov from Baku, Artur Akmilovskaya Krasnoyarsk, and SergeiMakarichev from Moscow. partsof our All Yusupov wererepresented. country large howtheworkshould organised. lt be It did not takelongto settle to two wasdecided meetfaceto face in shortsessions or three get-togethers in normally took place Moscow timesa year.These holidays NewYearand in the spring, whilein at duringthe school The wasa holiday resortor health centre. the the summer venue realised difficult isto teach how it chess of administrationtheschool on at a higher level,especially the basisof a correspondence to features of The had course. studies to be adjusted the individual each student,his character, age, health,style of play and preferences.great in A dealhadto be takenintoaccount particular his howto develop love thegame a for andhow to stimulate strong his ooints eradicate weakones. and Whenhe The standard and studymethodis simple convincing. goeshomefrom a session gets his own individual eachstudent thoughtout by the coach. assignment which has beencarefully Duringthe long breakbetween the has sessions student to work throughthisassignment. at the nextsession mustmakea he and reporton what he hasdone.Theprinciple thusstrictly is followed that the assignments individual the reportson them are are but collective. givean fly So the daysof the session by as the keenstudents account theirprogress takepartin the groupassessment of of and theothers turn,allthe whiletaking in noteof thecritical comments by the coach. the end of eachsession freshassignment set is At a whichmustbe carried before nextmeeting. the out Thestudents notfrightened toughassignments, rather of but are welcome them,knowing that suchhardtasks a freshstepon are the roadto p€rfection. During lifea pupilhasto learn his from manyteachers. learns He his native language, mathematics, natural sciences. Oftenteachers willtell how they learned studied. in the chess the and Yet school pupilshavea teacher the highest of classwho can passon the lessons play in tournament as wellas the secrets learned top class of theoryworkedout by the mostoutstanding in researchers this


BotvinnikbChess School

Botvinnik's Chess School


field over the last half century.That is why the time spent in he Botvinnik's schooland the counsel givesis remembered so vividly hispupils. by with Botvinnik broughtme AnatolyKarpov recalls'Mystudies particularly homework which immense the assignments benefit, forcedme to referto chess books andto work indeoendentlv: him up HarrikKasparov,student the nextgeneration backs a of 'ln 1973whenI wasstill boywho just liked playing Mikhal a chess Thereis no priceI could Moiseyevich invited to join hisschool. me I for I name thethings gotfrom it in thecourse thefiveyears was of He to there. doesnot usehisauthority beardown too hardon the pupils is his and to impose viewson them.Botvinnik the person chess my sorttoo. is who confirmed me theviewthatAlekhine's in At each he his At ot stage suggests approach. the beginning 1977| time scorlng became JuniorChampion the second for 8l/2 Soviet I out of 9 and winningthe title with a roundto spare. went to for Moscowwith the ideathat everything goingswimmingly was me me.There the school at Mikhail Moiseyevich congratulated on my victoryand suggested I go throughmy winninggames. that yet HereI wasseverely at in criticised somepoints themby hrm. to event hearfrom Botvinnik the quality my playin the recent that of gavehimgreathopes me wasthe height happinessl for of A point to note here is that the pupil is not automatically permitted makehisreport theassignment. Before isdone this to on profile his overall between is bv and progress sessions assessed experienced teachers. These themselves are hisresults ask what in progress tournaments, whatare hisexamresults academic and at school, hefit,doeshetakepartin sport, is doeshe knowthehistory of chess?They also check up all his games,assessing their strndard. Onlyif all thesethingsare in good ordercan the pupil how he hastackled tasks aopear beforehisfellows and relate the assigned himby Botvinnik. to Thissuperbschoolis organised wise pedagogues. is the by lt dreamof thousands boysand girlsto qualify it. Boysare of for from the 11-18 age group.girlsf rom 13-18. Onlythe admitted mostpromising talents admitted. are In addition theoretical to assignments thereare practical trials suchas sim neous ulta exhibitions. Hereis an example from onesuchexhibition whichwillbe useful for allchess coaches workthrough. thoughts to The here attributed to Botvinnik maynot be exactly thosethoughts that he hadat the time,but this is the direction whichtheywill havegone,as he in bothtriedto discover what hisopponent knewand triedto playin sucha waythatthe pupil wouldextract maximum the benefit from the encounter.

Defence Karpov-Botvinnik Caro-Kann playedNovember13th, 1963, in Moscow. Clocksimultaneous 1 e4c62d4 d5 3 lc3 96 Let's get away from standardplay to see how he thinks of independentlvtheorY. 6 ed cd 7 1\b5 4 at3 Lg7 5 ;f4;94 7 defence . . . Aa6. butwhatif we try to thereis thesimple Now for for oosemore difficultproblems the lad. Go deliberately an position seehow he goes an to aboutexploiting advantage. inferior 7 . . . &8I h3 Axf3 9 g'xf3 lc6 1Oc3 Af6 11 Ad3 a6 Af4 16 g'd2 12 ba3 Bb6 14 8e2 Ahs 14 Ae3 {9c7 15 O-O 17$.xd3 h5 18lc2 AX€ The at well, earlier. knight Thisladmanoeuvres as I havenoticed it so a3 wasawayfrom the centre, he brings overthereto the real of scene activity. 18 . . . Af6 19 f4 e5 20 6)e1 h4 21 4lfs Ae7 22 Aes Afs 23 Ac1 €97 now it is time to expelhis outpost castling achieved, Artificial .. f6. knightby 23 Ht2 Ae7 25 gd3 b5 26 Ad2 b427 He2 a5 28 Eael withallhis pieces e6, so on ready press to Aha! Karpik getting is for the timebeingI do bestto avoid. . f6. 28 . . . Ea6 29 grd3 grbT 3O flcl fic8 31 Pel a4 32 c4? knight capture d4. at he He see What's doing? doesn't the simple to on l'd Possibly I shouldn't the pawn? prefer playthegame to bke check his plav more deeply,yet that move would producea position. there's nothing cando aboutthat.The one resignable Well, l'll oversights. exploit it, and after the lad makeselementary must aiming mastery at off. exhibition givehima telling A plaver l'll from ruleout allslips chance occurrences hisplay. and 32 ... Axd4 Thereare eventearsin his Now he'sseenit and is perplexed. up. eyes. mind,he hastc toughen Never 33 Ed2 AfS 3a trdc2 Ne3 35 Ee2 dc 36 Axc4 Axc4 37 E xc4 Hd6 38 ge4


on Well now, exchanging e4 finishesit. lf he takeswith the e2

88 Botvinnik's ChessSchool Yuri Balashov 89

rook then a further exchangeon c4 and it is a purely technlcal matter. What has he shown so far? Calm play in the opentng manoeuvringplay, but without strivingfor too much, reasonable all then a pawn givenaway.So the gameendsand I haven'tlearned that much about him. PossiblyI should give him the chance to show a bit more? What if I give up the queen?| could check his then. So let'sseewhat the lad from the Uralscan do. technique

where he Then there are his resultsin the USSF Championship in 1976 and equal third-fourthin 1979 - enviable was second Finally has often takenfirst placein stronginternational he stability. tournaments.

38 ... Exc4? g,xb7 Af640 Axb47 again, and Tolyahas Oh, oh, yet anotherbad slip.He'slosing he As tearsin his eyesagain. soonas he got winningchances he blunders away a bishop.Obviously is still young and inexgiveway. perienced hisnerves and 40 . .. AaA+ 41 €lh2 trb6 42 8e7 Ecxb4 a wasbroken andadludicateddrawby off At thispointthe game thirdpafi. theappointed go sessions on yearafter year,and the staff Such coaching of are formerstudents the school little Sometimes changes by little. thereare quiteyoung there.Nowadays to enrolled be teachers of there.Who knowswhat will become boysand girlsstudying of themin thecourse time? to the accustomed seeing reference fanshave become Ourchess 'studied Botvinnik's of they accounts the in chess school'when read Yes, performancees thisor that youngchess talent. of tournament events and someot the havereached top in various his students the to themselves reach finalstage an attempt themareexerting of student to takethe chess crown from the mostdistinguished Karpov. themall.Anatolv the to try So we shall to introduce reader the leading'graduates' wjll and biography Perhaps theirgames school. of this legendary his to to the stimulate reader strivehimseli improve play.Youare gallery players whose longyears of a of aboutto go through picture finally teacher hard studyunderthe guidance an experienced of paidoff in theirmastery thetheory of and practice chess. of Yuri Balashov With the exceptionof Anatoly Karpov himseifthis calm, is restrained, taciturnoupil of Botvinnik the one with .thebest tournament record overthe Vears. ying in for rly Hehasa particula finerecord qualif events theworld in he championship in the lasttwo cycles tookfirstplace special for to our USSR Zonetournaments determine representatives the (in FIDEInterzonals 1975 he was in a fourfoldtie for first place). up thesesuccesses in Theannoying thingis that he hasfollowed for fashion, mediocre and so has neverqualified a placein the would indicate a as lvlatches that his other results Candidates' leoatimate outcome.

and by thiswe dc not iust of He hasa fine knowledge theory, chose that Karpovchose ,anonenino not for nothingthat Karpov variations.wasnot for nothinq variatlonslt mean opening at in as hischiefsecond the 1978 worldtitlematch Bagutoi him myselfto seehow hard he worksat this ln nive naa occasion '1970| was headof the Soviet Taimanov at delegation the Fischer as alongwith Vasylkov, Yuriwas there, and mitcn in Vancouver all He second. had broughtwith him almost Fischer's iii.rnou't with his on and games for days endhe keptfilling notebook allsorts lyses. of ana his in the So hb onlyhasto overcome finalhurdle perfecting play detailthat to makeit to the verytop. What is this slight in order wordsof lles the Possibly answer in these fromthis? him holds back 'YuriBalashov months I for elghteen with me studied Botvinnik: him back rsan Inadequte which is holding feelthat the obstacle thrs To for position. someextenthe hasovercome by feel natural and tactician whrle hardwork.On the otherhandhe is an excellent I conceptions: by evervbodv histactlca he siillin the school amazed has tactician ottenbeen excellent aboutan comment Botvinnik's from the 1979 USSRSuperLeague Hereis an example echoed. blows. of series tactical whichhasa firework-like


2 g, |&t t ./t/z a/L,ia

7./r. 7,',.,



AANA ft28'"'z.t/.: ',,/t 'aat\

for in Balashov, whichlt is level the moment Thisis Romanishin up playon theg-sideandopens files to go for active Whitedecides to helpthis. 13 a3 b4 14 Aa4 4)d7 15 c3 ba 16 b4 White'sideaiJcleai He hopesbv E xa3 and then Efa 1 to Blackhasa attackthe a6 pawnoftenenoughto win it. However to and whileWhitetakestwo moves re-establish breathing space playln thecentrelt is w€ll'known Black create can material 6quality than playon tne wrngs that suchcentreplayis more important playto his can that Black soonextend central is misfortune White's to the $-side with threats the king style' this Balashov demonstrates in mostinventive


Botuinnik's Chess School



16 . . . dsl 17 e5 96 18 942 f6! 19 ef $xf6 20 $a2 $h8 21 gxa3 e5! whitepieces stranded the othersideBlack Since several are on can hurryto playon the S-sideand usehis superiority therenot worrying aboutloss material. of up. Someprettyplayis coming 22 fe Ncxe5 23 lxeS lxeS 24 fladl A better chance successful of was defence 24 ]\e2 whenBlack wouldcontinue 24 manyawkward threats. flae8 creating 24 . . . d4l25 cd lf3+ 26 tr xf3 Axf3 Whitehasto be verycareful the queenentryon 93 can be as decisive. 27 HrI Axg228€xg2 64

'/',, alfu, fu 7 '.". ^/fu, W tr,tN1.& zfr

7 . 9 , 2 7 t t/t:'. t /&t7z 7 ',1',Z 7

28 ... Ah4!! Annotators normally such moves'quiet'sincethey do not call involve yet, captures check, asthe quotegenerally on.they goes or areoftenmorepowerful allthat.Theability find suchhidden for to tactical blows, especially foresee to them longbefore event, the ts grven Tew. to 29 $c1 Both29 Qf2 tr xf2+ 30 fi xf2 $93+ and29 Ef3 E xf3 30 the €/xf3 g'h2! 31 b5 treB leave kingtoo exposed. 29 ... &g3+ 30 ghl g,xh3+ 31 €91 8g3+ 32 €/h1 Ef3! playerknowsthat in such positions Any experienced there is piece hardly evera wayout for thedefender theattacking as enloys suchgreatmobility. 33 Af3 g'h3+ 34 Ssl {$94+ 35 ghl Eh3+ 36 Ah2

/.:/.,t 7@"'/,1,/ H :;.t:'2tr2

oeriodof studv\&asnot very long.Many yearslaterRasurayev years To in Karpov. spend of me andhelper Anatoly beca thefriend ls of of the company two suchtitans chess the sortof thingothers aboui. canonlydream is on of Thegeneral opinion commentators Razuvayevthat he is 'baggage' was but that his strategical tactician, an excellent for inadequate a long time and this held him backfrom getting hard title. goodtournament results the grandmaster However and players and him of finally brought intothe ranks our strongest work in the long-awaited in the 1976tournament Cubahe gained 'Razuvayevtitle 'Rather getsthe the belated'was viewof thesceptics, yet in our day there are evensome title at the age of thirty-one, yearold grandmastersl sixteen lovechess. for thereare no obstacles thosewho really However to continued continues work hard. and Thenew'old'grandmaster to attention the playof the he ln particular hasdevoted @rticular The greatstrategist the pastAkibaRubinstein. resultof his study of 'FizkulturaSport' i in is the new bookon Rubinstein the Moscow and the but series, evenmoreimportant authoris stilllearning so Alongwithtournament in canreckon freshsuccessesthefuture. on as himself an assisbnt been coaching Yuri appearances hasrecently chessschool. this is the third world So to Smvslov a soecial in with whomhe hasworked. champion fan.The impress true chess the Not just tournament successes produces enthuses which Razu\€yev attack sort of finecombinative him and induceshim to spend hours working through their from the game RazulayevHere is an example ramificatons. 1979: Frunze, Championship, Lputvan, FirstDivision, Soviet 65

a.// % "&,. %2,,. tn

%\ AI


i2 z../, 2 /.&
l\ .?)


t r x h 2 +0 - 1

Mateor loss the queen inevitable 37 $xh2 l\g3+ of is after

Yuri Razuvayev Whenstillveryyounghe hada stroke luckthat manyothers of dream Hewasfortunate of. enough turn out on theluniorboard to for the'Trud'team the champtonship the voluniary in of sports societies.* Trud'stop boardwas Botvinnlk and soonyoungYurr became student the school. a in thouohfor various reasons thrs

player notea will position but looks solid, theexperienced Black's the in camp. This enables whole set of weak squares Black's attackinvolving to energetic Razuvayev carry out a combinative moves. someunexpected 2O lfS! gf
'Trcnslator's &ote. These Inc ude the bettef kno$,rr names of Dlfamo Spartak ve BLrrevestnwho f e d teams n ai competrt actrvtles k Lokomotrv.

2 H ,//


School Bouinnik'sChess

Artur Yusupov


he Blackis forcedto acceptthe offer.Perhaps thoughtWhite but check, he is soondisabused. for \ €s going perpetLral it here.Moving to d8 wouldgivebetter Therookis badlyplaced chances. defensive 22$95+ €h7 23 &f5+ €98 24b4 Hc7 25 gss+ gh7 26 g'fs+ White will himself forgive who hashadsuchpositions Th! plaver which helpsto keepaway the spectreof of this repetition moves as him astray he could leads the However repetitton timetrouble. try the decide gamein a few moves 26 6S4l hg 27 fldS already this we Should deprecate slip? of andth; threat 28 gh4+ is killing. to givesthe opportunity admirean No, sincethe inaccuracy f ine exceotionallv tinish. 26 . . . €gB 27 $s5+ &h7 2A 9f5+ €g8 29 trd6! we lf line stroke. the rook is captured get a quickwin Another know - 29 f rom the linewe already $xd6 3O $94! So of to Blackhasto be reconciled this strengthening the attacking forces. 29 . . . Ac8 30 gss+ €h7 66

21gxfs trcs

t , f r H ', x 2 X


2 f f i'2 wr. .,&t.,/tzlt7 ?r..lt '2 '2 ,.fu '.& 2 &, I . t A /
31 Ad7!! pieces, cannot yet be to Theknightis put en prise four different whichshowsthe immense takenby any of them!A fine position, placed whitepieces. forceof the harmoniously 31 . .. gtxdT lf by Tryingto prolongresistance a queensacrifice. 31 E Xd7 then 32 E Xf6 AXf6 33 AxfG with forcedmate.lt is other movese.S.?2 , Eg8 33 easyto seethe win against 34 gxh5+ gs7 35 Axf 6+ el8 36 g'h6+ Axf6+ Axf6 32 EXdT! win, but then a the Avoiding trap 32 flxf6 whichlooks simple comes 32 AxfO 33 Qxf6 $g4l 32 . . . AxdT 33 Axf6 Axf6 34 $xf6 fl xc4 35 ge7 1'O Artur Yusupov more be Yusupov probably considered can The Moscowplayer

Bowinnik's pupil than anyoneelse.He worked directlyunder years, and then the rest of his for Botvinnik three consecutive but then underMark Dvoretsky, you haveto bearin since career is of master Dvoretsky alsoa pupil Botvinnik, thatrnternational mind years been to has assistant hisoldcoach. andin recent gives great and co-operation Yusupov Dvoretsky of Thecreative to bothof them,andthe coachhasoftensaidwhata fine oleasure We bupilhe hasand what loy he geis from their get-togethers. should of of havespoken the friendship thesetwo, but we really pupilSergei Dolmatov has Botvinnik since another of speak three, The closeness their of to a regularcompanion Yusupov. been from thefactthatat the l9TBWorldJunior can careers be gauged to and went to Dolmatov the silver the Championship gold medal had eventin 1977 Yusupov been whilein the previous Yusupov, are So of recipient the gold medal. the threeplayers olten seen the tasks, especjally can and together thecoach givethemthesame to and keyassignment to playin boldfashion to continue learn mastery. of allfacets chess quite left early andhasonlyrecently histeensln began Yusupov in Moscow theall-Union he 1973at theageof thirteen represented Youth Gamesand four years later he took the World Junior master. Ouitesoon an so Championship becoming international his pushto go furtherand he scored first afterthat he beganhis in grandmaster normin a tournament Holland. at League Super camehisway in the 1979 USSR A realtriumoh for grandmasters in contention the were Minsk whereninefamous kepton YoungYusupov themTaland Geller. Soviet title,amongst fine and only Geller's playjust level termswith them throughout madeon The who camesecond. impresston outdistanced rrval his and was his teachers commentators immense, they notedln and particular fineendgame play his in hiswin overTal: Here an example is 67

White'sadvantage does r]ot seemso greatand you can only plus. admire madeuseof thisinsignificant how Yusupov g/b7 23 l9ds! 21 Edl ! h6 22 $c4! Onecannotbut markthe threepartsof the queenmanoeuvre


Botvinnik's ChessSchool

Arthur Yusupov


queenssincert marks.White intendsto exchange with exclamation is in the rook ending that he can best exploit his positional advantage.Black cannot give way with his queen, say to b8, as will occupy the 7th rank with greateffect. then White'spieces

23 . . . grxds 24 E xds f6 25 Hd7 a5 26 a4 e4 but the There no doubtthatthisweakens e-pawn, Taldecidec is of only after a long assessment this difficuLt on this concession position. leave pawnon e5 wouldletthewhitekingcomeIn To the furtheron eitherpenetrate to viathe whitesquares e4 and thence the €-side or go overto win the a5 pawnso forminga winning Dassed oawn. 27 trds Bf7 28 g4 g5 29 €g2 €96 30 h4! play. king Thethreatis to forcethe enemy accurate Onceagain pawnat h5. So a backto the lastrankand have strongcramping at Blackhas to capture onceand so weakenhis $-side pawns further. 3 0 . . . s h 3 1g h 3 E b g pawn to an With heavyheartTal decides surrender important go for an activerook position. he lf but he had no choicebut to passive to the Whitetakes h4 andthenplays kinground on remains f4 to {orcethe win of thee-pawn. 32 €xh4 Ebl 33 EXaS trh1 + 34 €s3 trsl + 35 €)h3 trhl+ 36€g2 tra1 37€h2 Ha238€g3 Eal 39€g2 Ea2 40 €g3 Eal 41 tra8! position Thiswas the sealed move.Analysis the adjourned of his Whiteto find a winningplan.Firstof all he advances enabled passed pawnasfar as possible reduce mobility theenemy to the of of kingand rookby the threat queening. 41 ... f5 playwtli Tal that After manyhoursof analysis realised passive passive Whiteadvances pawnto a6 the lose. Thusif Black remains Thisforces with the threatof a7 followedby Eg8+ queening. Blackto keephis king on 96 or 97. ThenWhite will go $f4, with exchange f2 pawnfor the e4 prawn penetrate hisking his and erther the S-sideor by gorng on overto theaOpawn. 42 gf+ $xf5 zlil a5 fl91 + 44 gh3 Ehl + 45 €g2 Ea1 46 a6 $94 win to the lf the kingretreats 97 or h7 to prevent standard (say king on f7 or e7J oI a7 followedby fih8 fi xa7 with Black's exchanges a6 pawnfor thee4 one the Eh7+, thenWhitesimply passed pawns win. united ensure easy an andthe two 47 a7 @h44aftl lf winning method. now 48 . ef+ In thisposition simplest the and thenthee3 pawnwillsoonadvance torcea win. zl8 . . . fla2+ 49 $1 flal+ 50 €e2 Ea2+ 51 €dl tra6 52 f5 Hd6+

pawns of the Thischange frontby the rookto keep passed under from thesidebrings easing thesituation. no of Whitesimply control plays freedkingto support passed his the a-pawn. 53 €c2 Hd7 54 Sc3 h5 55 €c4 gh3 56 f6 h4 57 $cb €h2 58 Eh8 1-O thrs Although endgame doesnot contain any striking moves or it excellent manoeuvres is an eloquenttribute to Yusupov's technique. Harry Kasparov. Flohrhadthe quizzical far comment'As as I can understand this yet gameif Kasparov yet cannot be called Academician the title an is his of professor certainly alreadyl Thiscomment referred a player who was onlysixteen the to at an list timeyet hadalready impressive of tournament successes. Tal that any success the lad in the 1979 SuperLeague by claimed ln wouldbe a sensation. the eventhe shared 3rd-4thplace with yet Balashov, it is no secretthat somepeople expected evenmoTe from him,esoeciallv his threewinsat the sta of the event. after rt However youngman hasnot yet learned the fullyhow to control hisemotions makes and slips occasionally. Botvinnik's comment this is that evervone on makes from slips timeto time.Thehardworking Yusupov oftenhasthem,so Harry's occasional should worry usespecially, will mature not he ones and theywilldisappear. play ln fact Kasparov's hasalready made suchan impression that pointnotjusiin the USSR hisstyle are but andhisvictories a talking alsoabroad. His greatest success abroadwas the spring1979 BanjaLuka tournament wherehe took first placeaheadof a fieldof strong grandmasters Petrosian, Andersson Browne. play and His including was the high spot of tne eventand the spectators crowdedin to watchhim.We shall in read andarticles the doubtless manybooks futureabouthisplay. guarantee that is thecontinuing friendly A of contact with He whichKasparov maintaining BoWinnik. worked is formally the school five years, for himself a as in and stillregards pupil,in the sense that after nearlyeverygame he phonesup Botvinnik praise, alsoready hear hoping hearhismentor's to but to with gratitude critical comments maycome. that any Flohrpoints that the youngmanis full of concentration and out prefer walkroundwhenit is serious hisattitude. to in Someplayers theopponent's to move, evenchat(though aboutthe not turn and gamein progress, course) wth friends colleagues. and Kasparov of
'franslatar's gve ryole RussLal] soL-rrces the frsl name as Gary or Gark. but (asparov publsher. hassgned h msef Harry n ettefswf tte \ n Erg sh to a Westerrr

sitsat the boardand thinksin the way that Botvinnikusedto. Only does he permit himselfto get up when he has a clear advantage that he and takea quick strollround the stage.Then it is noticeable how to hidethis excited and he has not yet learned is nervous and The expertshave someadmiringcommentsto makeabout him for Petrosian, example though tinged at times with exp€ctation. 'Harry is greattalent.In terms of talentI would comparehim wlth a A the Tal,buttalentalonedoesnot guarantee highestachievements. how he reactsto especially greatdealwill dependupon his reaction, 'tria I by fame". the has his Despite youth Kasparov alreadyplayedmany fine games. where his We selectone of the latestfrom the 1979 Spartakiad 'marble' stylewas shown to perfection. Kasparov-Butnorius, Aueen's lndian Defence

Harry KasProv Harry Kasprov



f Now the queenhasto be saved rom the threatof 22 HSa'gho

25 24 Eczts'h6 *tl '.c726

'&x E 2 i&, 'ili 7Z /&, & ""///tt


7,/..2:,t: % :,//t:..
has.no on battery thef'tileand Black Whitehasbuilta threetold movesthat this to this.White hasachieved with simple counter taken singly With hls strong impression a"f." no particularly has Black to losematerlal' refuted scheme deiensive 26 ... t5 27 ell dealof material' pawnwillcosta great ihe simolest thepassed -i;;6as

7l'r.z 13 7,/t

1 d4 af6 2 c4 eG3 Af3 Ab4+ 4 Abd2O-o 5 e3 bG6 Ad3 d5 Ab7 7 O-O 8 a3 Sxd2 9 Axd2 AbdT lO cd Axds 11 b4 c5 12 flacl cd 13lxd4 nicely achieving unpretentiously, the Whitehas played opening ad\€ntage.One senses placedpieceswithout any noticeable White'sdesireto makethe middlegamethe sceneof the real who aTe by Well, that is a normalapproach players struggle. is White'sconfidence soon ability. conscious their strategical of justified clashes. strategical aftersome complicated 13 . . . AeS 14 Sa5 [e4 15 Ael 8g5 16 f4l pawn thrust.White therebylifts the calculated An accurately piece pressure against 92. 16 . . . 8g6 17 fe lcS 18 Ag3 6xa6 19 Afs! Black's chosenlinecannotbe approved he hasforcedhis fromwhereit doesnot getintoplay knight theedgeof theboard to that the Blackassumed to the very end of the game.Possibly for was compensation the distant white pawn formation spoiled moredeeply. Apart the knight. Kasparov assessed position Yet has of awkwardplacing the from the knight a6 thereis the slightly at queenand the general lack of co operation the blackpieces of initiative. tact In a means that Whiteis ableto develop threatening pressure the apparently weakpawns which is the basis White's of pieces. tor support White's create sound in ways, oneof which his Whitecouldgenerate pressure various decides act in to the wouldbealong c-file.Instead youngmaster the in all thevicinity the kingand moves hispieces thatdirection. of 19... flae8 and put the a6 Capturing f5 wouldgiveWhiteall the centre on position. The text prepares retirethe poor to knightin a critical horse b8. to 20 Ad6 fie7 21 flr4!

AxdG -The g/xd6 32 gd3l his improves White his way siirplest of realising advantage forces to placinq, contrast theenemy are which in stark oiece ' i,".: . S"i ss gc4 €?h694 svt4 )e6 35 ercSE/do35 gtg-+ €,g"e-iire5+ Srfs 38 ijxrg Ed1 + 39 $f2;5d2-r aO€s3 $e1 + 41 gh3 1-O
Serqei Dolmatov about was Dvoretsky asked Championship Aiterthe 1979Soviet and Yusupov performances his two charges, of the comparative 'Recently hard.,at Artur hasbeenwo-rking His reblyOof titot. tnal and repertoire I wasconfldenl Ine of thewideninq hrsopening I cannotsaythat he Dolmatov i"iurti*ouio show.As io-rSerger were up as hasworked hard,eventhoughhis results to thlsev€ntpornt The In firstplace the FirstLeagJe hadjusttaken "nO oooO he is that for the Super Leaguehls theoretlcalbaggage was inadeouate: -iri"l" in "otrn.nts are valuable their stresson independent hearin theWest thatyou rarely comment work,the sortof critical Dolmalov's Of by one of theirgrandmasters course .ii.i .'i.irri" with Tal evenif shared .n'"r"0 i+in- r sin' placein thiTop League for result him wasan unpleasant studied gotu,nnit thiscomment hisformerpupil,'Dolmatov on has a for a year' He is a good iacticianbut ha,s, poor *,tii rrl" to ne and of pos'ton, thisl-swhal oLgnt workhardonl understandtnq thrs will overcome Muscovite that the talented o;;;;;t"h"&



td i+ &n 2e Ae7 es ao gxta er st


Botvtnnik's Chess School



of recentfailure and get backto hisformer form, an example which is this gameagainstAnikayevin the 1979 First League.


//tt2 "'..&t',&

i///ta%tz w 2h& "ry ",&

z/&t2 7'Z xa%
Obviously blackqueenis well away from the $-side ano the White in cannot help in the defence there.This factorjustifies playing sacrificial witha rooksacrifice. a attack starting 2O trf6!€g8 It is not hardto establish the rook could not be captured that persists his withoutswiftfatalconsequences. thatverypiece in but destructive operations. 21 Hxh6! Later on analysisshowed that the strongestmove \Masthe preparatory Ae4 whichwouldhave 21 rendered rooksacrifice the Whitefor his at h6 evenstronger, one cannotreally but criticise boldlineof play. 21 ... gh22g/xh6f523ef flxf624Ah7+ At firstsightit seems simpler takethe rookby 24 gh7+ €XB to gh8+ Sf7 26 8xa8, but then Blackwould get excellent 25 by counter-chances26 . Ac5. 24 . . . W 25 Axf6 Axf6 26 Efl Bc5+ 27 €,hl g{8 28 Ss6+ Se7 29 Bh7+ 8g7 pTessuTeis easyto understand With his king undersevere it Black's to into but desire simplify an endgame. thisis a badchoice for in the is since endgame hopeless him.He hadto try hischances variation . . . €dg 30 Ae4 8e7 31 Sg8+ 29 the complicated since White @c7 32 Sxag gg7. Wouldthis savehim?Hardly. gx96 34 the by couldcontinue attack 33 Axf6 Axf6 (33 Then34 34 threats. $g8l is goodfor White) fid 1 with unpleasant 34 . . lds €b6 is metby 35 a5+ €xas 36 grdS+,while The is 35 Ae4 isalsobadfor Black. bestdefence 34 . . . Ad5 (not 34 $xg2+ 35 $x92 $xg6 36 €f 1 g'fs+ 37 $e1 and the king escapes checks) the when after 35 E xds White has justification hoping a win. for for every 3O $xg7+ $xg7 31 Hf/+ €d6 32 flxg7 lxc3 33 bc lXxa4 Black's counter-chancesthe$-sideareclearly on inadequate tor pawnson the otherside. the struggle against two unitedpassed



and a victory. Whiteplaysaccurately scores convincing 34 h4! Ac6 35 hs trhB 36 Sh2 a5 37 s4 a4 38 Ad3 €rds 39 Ef' a3 40 Ef1 e5 AlthoughBlack has some play the split pawnsare not as as united ones. formidable White's 41 €?93 e4 42 Ae2 Ea8 z|il g5 Aa4 44 g6 Axc2 45 97 a2 6 hGe3 47 Hf8! trxf8 48 gxfS$ al$ 49 Sf3+ off atbck of two pieces Thefight is finished by the combined on has the enemyking in the centre.Dolmatov workedout all the consequences. 49 . .. ge6 lf 49 . . . gc4 then 50 gb4+ forcesmatenext move. 5O Ag4+ €d5 51 grdS+ €c6 52 Af3+ gbs 53 grds+ $a4 54 $c4+ 1-O YelenaAkhmilovskaya Botvinnik had a numberof girl pupils we havealready has as Here lady has indicated. is whatoneof our strongest players to say 'l music, listening it is and to aboutherself, am veryfondof classical for lt real relaxation meduring tournament. isa realdelight me a for 'Giselle: alsoverykeen playtennis, to visitthe ballet I am to whichI play a highlevel loveno less at and thanchess. regret factthat I the lbecame familiar with this form of sport so late on. Generally preparation, this speakingdevotea lot of attention physical I to and helpsme to playbetter: players, competes only Lena now oneof our strongest is and not against women,in whichfieldshehaswon the grandmaster title, but alsoagainst men.Sheseems havethe ambition emulate to to NonaGaprindashvili hasthe grandmaster notjustfor her who title longtenureof women's world champion alsofor playagainst but men. Lena'scomment on this, 'l have plaved in severalmen's tournaments. not satisfied my results lam with there, I enjoyed but playing. Men rarelymakejust good simple moves- they try to makemoves which,whileperhaps beingthe verybestthenat not East really goodones.Playing are with menis excellent trainingl Go throughthis gameagainstPetrovich the 1979 USSRin ._ Yugoslavia matchand in everyone of White's you will see moves the triumphof strategic thought, accurate exploitation insigniof Trcant advantages inventiveness in attack. and 'the hand of ^ In some of the movesyou are sure to detect uotvinnrk' work. at O-O * 1 e4 c6 2 6f3 g6 3 d4 $97 4 Nc3 d6 5 Ae2 af6 5 O-O / a4 abdT 8 a5 e5 9 ge3 $e7 1Ofie1 h6 11 Afl Ag4 12 d5 Whitehasformedthe longterm planof blockade the white of squares the$-side,andin orderto carrythisout is ready give on to



BotvinnikbChess School

Yelena Akhmilovskaw 07 cannot defendthe white squares. -

I Ol

up thevaluable black-square bishop a knight. for Closing centre the is partof the plansince thereis the consideration theattacker that on thewing mustalways a counter-strokethe centre. fear in Thisplanof $-side pressure. course, of was regularly adopted by Botvinnik against bestplayers theworld. the in 12 ... Axe3 13 flxe3 c5 14 a6 b6 15 abs AfO 16 h3 le8 17 c3! For the success the operation White'spieces the g-side of by on
an nnon {ilo ic ^aa.la.l

aboutit, and leads theconclusion to Thisgamehasa greatlogic the in between men tuition ditference ability that underBotvinnik's is to andwomenplayers reduced nil.

33 . . . *d8 34 Axg6 8e7 35 $c8+ AtB 36 .!}fs &g7 37 g,b7 hs 38 h4 €f6 39 gGAh6 40 -Ad7Bh7 41 Ae8 t9gs 42 AxhsAf443 8/a7 1o queens aB. 43 on A{ter Pt9344 gf7+ Wh,te


17 . . . Q1c7 b4 Axbs 19 AxbS flb8 2O bc bc 21 Sc4 18


'&. 72,' '4t:.. %t:.,t"&

7Aryrtry /&, Ha% 7 % AA
lA A.

r y tr u , %

The knightaimsto get to c6, so that whenexchanged that on furtherlines be opened, square will pieces alongwhichWhite's wjll develop winningpressure. against Play weakened squares was a speciality Botuinnik's. his pupils of and carryon thismethod. 22 . . . Ad7 23 Ab3 Hb6 24 Aas Hfbs 2s Ac6! Bold and decisivel gains resulting The posltional from the exchange c6 far outweigh sacrificed pawn:- the bishop on the at c4 has its scopeincreased towards f7, the rook at d3 qets the chance attackd6 as wellas f7. Black to avoids for on6 move. this but then realises the intrusive that knight cannotlongbe tolerated at c6. 25 . . . trfg 26 flb1 Sxc6 27 dc gxc6 28 tr xb6 gxb6 29 Ed3 Ed8 30 8g4! White'spieces strikeat the opponent's fortifications from all directions. Thereis the threatof gxg6, whileif 30 . . . gf8 the 31 flf3 wins since31 . . . Hd7 is now not possible. only The defensive chance thereturnof theextraoawnbv 30 . . d5 so was that the queencan be broughtto bear in the defence the of beleagured $-side. 30...9h831 Hf3! Nowthef7 pawnfallsin sucha waythatalltheavenues attack of on the kingareopento White. Theexchange rookshasnot eased of Black's taskas the queen and bishop sufficient are mating force,especialiy the bishop as at

3 1 . . . t r f 8 3 2t r x f / E x f 7 3 3 A x r /

Kart'sChess School



Kart's Chess School

ViktorEmmanuelovich is nowadayswell-known Kart a chess trainer phenomenon a and and mustbe considered surprising unique in chess, likeof which we havenot seenbefore.and may be just the who never as rarein the future.The point is that he is a player nevereven approached scoreda victory in strong tournaments, grandmaster in his playing level and standard doesnot evenhave the master title.Yet he developed wholegroupof outstanding a grandmasters who havecarriedthe fame of the Lvov schoolto all Darts the world. of Hispupils speak him with suchadmiration. of OlegRomanishin \ rasonceasked who coached now that he hadthe grandmaster him 'My in in title.Hisreply: attitude chess nd my wholeupbringing the a gameare the productof Honoured Trainer the Sovret of Union Viktor Emmanuelovich and if thereare any failings this Kart, in upbringing thefaultliesin the pupils, in the teacher then not who is pedagogue: generous outstanding a marvellous. and Fine wordsof the sortthatevery teacher wouldliketo hear from yet hischarges, theydo not explain fullythe fruitfulresults his of work overthe years. in Afterall he hasproduced the lastdecade a whole set of outsbndingplayers, namelygrandmasters Oleg Romanishin, Alexander Belyavsky, Dorfman, losif AdrianMikhalchishin, MarthaLitinskaya manyotheryoungmasters. and What arehismethods, whatdoeshe concentrate on? His answer:'The mainfeatureof our work is verv likelvthe development character of and love of hard work. Only strong characters are capableof producingtop competitive resultsl Confirmation this is seenin the attitude tough competition of of pupils his OlegRomanishin between two mosttalented the of and SashaBelyavsky. When the slightlyyoungerOleg gainedthe mastertiile his achievement was soon matchedby the then fourteen year old Belyavsky.Later on the same pattern was followed, the h,vo vied for varioustitlesand too olacesln as tournaments. the spiritof competition Yet between them did not prevent them remaining friendsand workingon chesstogether.

is feature themselves a marked between competition Thiscreative Kart's PuPils. of all to success Dvoretsky drawnattention Kart's has colleague Junior their different the in developing best sidesto his pupilsdespite of and nersonalities styles play. ' for my this I canconfirm and mustexpress admiration the spirit in whichapplies and understanding mutualrespect friendship, of pupils am invariably I to Whentalking Kari's collective. thisfamous mutual, whichis so noticeable clearly of struckby the feeling love, to themwith regard theircoach. among pupils, someof the betterknownof Kart's Let us now examine who in recent years have joined the ranks of the strongest in grandmastersthe world. Alexander Belyavsky he since feelsthat he was luckyin his childhood YoungSasha how to playchess and was only eightin 1961 when he learned run of joinedthe chesscirclein the Lvov Palace Pioneers by and weresoondeveloped abilities chess The V.L.Kart. youngster's the typical spirit of competitionin the circle led to considerable level.. in at success events cityand republic School 2 me Lateron he beca a pupilat the Number Specialist whereKartwason the staff,and then he startedscoringsuccesses level. at national at World JuniorChampion Belyavsky became ln 1973 Sasha presages whichnormally a Teesside, England, greatachievement tournaments. Sashasoon entrv to the too circle of international first talentby sharing as confirmed reputation an outsbnding his placein the 1974 SovietChampionship Tal so winningthe with grandmaster title. and can be sincethen have been numerous His successes hard talentand his scrupulous attributed first of all to hls native whichmight thatto lastout a tournament workat chess. knows He last getting on for a month you have to have good healthand in includes skiing winter strongnerves. Thatis why hisdailyroutine that lt and tennisor swimming summer. is no coincidence he in graduated Culture. of from the Lvovlnstitute Physical put a brakeon his Possibly studiesin highereducation his plaver from 1974 he hashad his upsand advancement a since as beenhaltedand he has some downs.This decline has recently such record-breaking as recent whichcanonlvbe called successes the perfectsccreof 13 pointsout of 13 at the 1978 Alicante ahead the nextplayer! of tournament Soain, clearpoints five in
'franslator's Po and). Note Lvov s the largestc ty tn the Westerrr Ukra ne (formerlypart of


Kart'sChess School



Belyavsky study, it wrll so spends greatdealof timeon private a be interesting hear his opinionabout this aspectof chess to especially it is a weak point in manyof the world's as training, juniors players. and younger He has exoressed opinionthus: 'The difference his between working chessin the quietof your studyand duringan actual at gameis very significant. is hardlyever the casethat you wrll lt achieve levelof concentration homethat applies the at duringa game.This is because the absence the powerful of of stimulus by factor.As a result greatadvantage the of supplied the playing nullified. home study- theavailability a lotof time- is largely of In any event,whetherit is a question an actualgameor home of analysis, is not useful work at it morethanfiveto six hoursa it to day.Afterthatthe productivity extratimeput in is too low.Also of what mighttakeyoua dayin a tournament work out takes to two or threedays home: at Thiscommentis very interesting. us develop Let this line of thought further.Hasthe reader, wcnder, I everhadto playgames in theabsence an opponent, is playagainst of that himself, making movesirstfor Whiteandthenfor Black? f Circumstances been have suchthat I have oftenfoundthisthe onlymethod training of that I could use.How did it work out? No matterhow I tried to be objective forcedmyself thinkas muchfor oneside for the and to as maintain rightsortof attitude. otherI couldnot easily the Belvavskv has commenton this too: 'The absence a of 'rejoinder'from a you intoassuming an opponent oftenleads things player hardly overthe bestmovein homeanalysrs. chess A is ever impartial. Evenin analysis is tryingto find a win for Whiteor a he drawfor Black. thecourse analysis sympathies oneside In his of for may change, but will not disappear impartiality foreignto is research. Thereis a greatdealof interest thesecomments in and they yet reveal Belyavsky's commonsense. he seems missthe most to point.No matterhow you try in joint analysis important with a you favoured help€r experienced or coach willalways moreand see figurethingsout betteron your own, thanwith the besthelpers. Thereare many reasons this, the greaterconcentration for of thoughtby an individual, nature thoughtand perception the of in the humanbrain.Thenthereis the factorof resoonsibilitv. How games, manyerroTs haveoccurred the analysis adjourned in of has evenat the highest level, because analyst assumed if the that position wouldbe spotted there wasanlthingspecial a gjven in it by yourfaithin a collaborator reduce you hiscollaborator. resting By the efficiency your own work,and you failto realise simple of the factthathe is making same the assumption aboutyou,is relying on vou in the same facile wav.

de like I ah^/ays to quotethisexample:- in 1967at the Palma and Smyslov l, always threeof us, Botvinnik, tournament Majorca gametogether, duringthe ninetyminute the analysed adjourned Or rather that is how the first hour was spent Then break. him wouldaskusto leave and in the halfhourremaining Botvinnik himself . the of resumption playhe wouldcomplete analysis before lines went into by comparlson he at How different timeswerethe with what the threeof us had workedout! by doesnot get discouraged the fact that hisanalysis Belyavsky results not as are and accurate that htstournament is not always that even is ooodas he wouldwish.Hisconsolation the comment how to do properresearch once saidthat he learned Botvinnik the onlywhenhe hadreached ageof aboutthirty So workin chess still at Belyavsky theageof twenty-six hassometimeto go in more universal his is As to styleof playBelyavsky probably He a than his othercolleagues. knowshow to conduct aporoach the fierceattackon the king withoutcounting cost in sacrificed then defence, then nextgamehe can put up a stubborn material, in he below, canshowgreatmastery as again, in the gamequoted patterns a trickyendgame. in weaving tricky SuperLeague1979 chev USSR Belpvsky-Makary Oueen'slndranDefence 1 d4 Af6 2 c4 e6 3 93 Ab4+ 4 i.}'d2c5 5 a4 Sxd2+ 6 gxd2 cd 7 Afs b5 Black some brings in for Thisstriving originality thefinaianalysis t r o u b l e . 7. . d 5 w a s s i m P l e r . 8 cb Sb7 9 $xd4 $a5+ 10 gb4! Black will have to make decision. and accurate An original and in the the considerable effortsto recover pawnin the ending positional advantages certain interim Whitecanconsolidate 10 . . . grxb4+ 11 ab a6 12 ba Nxa6 13 Ad2 Ae4 14 b5 Ac7 15 E xa8+ $xa8 16 Ab4 A xbs 17 Ag2 4)gs but one to Blackhurries exchange of White'sbishops thereby by chances 17 : d6 1B defensive loses time.Hecouldgetbetter A d 2 f 5 1 9 l x e 4 f x e 4 2 C & d 2 & d 7 , o r 1 8 @ d 71 9 [ a 1 f 5 andthen20 trc8. 18 Ah4 j\xs2 19 lxg2 Ne4 20 f3 lif6 21 &d2 dG 22 tra1 €d7 23 Ae3 Eb8 24 €d3 so is advantage insignificant, it is all the more Whiie'spositional this duly with whichBelyavsky exploits surprising seethe ease to plus. minimal 24 ... Ag8 by from its strongposition he7-c6. Hoping drivethe bishop to 25 q;4 r^e7 26 Hd1 f6 27 e4 d5 28 1-le3Nc6 29 Scs d4 to on lt sounder exchange e4 move. looks A double-edqed


Kart's Chess khool



30 6c4 e5 31 f4 $e6 32 tral Ac7 33 Ad6 Eb3+ 34 €c2 Hb7 35 tra4 s5 36 fs fg

z?,x %


z lZ '..2 /,& '/& Efua'.&fi/t 2 'fu
37 b4l prepared White has rnsidiously this torcefuladranceof hrs passed pawnand now he forces decision justa few moves. the in 37...h538€)b3d3 The threat of 39 $Xc7 ExcT 40 fla6 followed by a swrft push theb-pawn of cannot met.Black be decides try anddistract to the opponent from this by a pawnoffer. 39 SxcT fl xs7 40 $c3 Obviously is srmpler this than40 HaGd2. 40 ... 4d441 €,xd3 Af3 42b5 1-O Analysis during adjournment the indicated it washopeless that to DIav on. Oleg Romanishin A really embarrassing of affairs state occurred the sbrt of the at USSR Super League, 1975,in Yerevan. 23 yearold master A from Lvovscored winsagainst famousplayers. seven Thismaster was OlegRomanishin European the JuniorChampion 1973,andthe of listof hisvictims asfollows Petrosian, is Furman, Polugayevsky, Balashov, Geller, Alburtand Klovan. justthewinswerestriking, Not but the manner theirachievement of broughtrepeated burstsof applause from theaudience. Romanishin to givehisown reaction was later: win gives a A one feeling self-affirmation, success a feeling self-expression, of and of but onlya sensible harmonisation between theseurges can bring greatachievementschessl really in He has not always managed scorevictories. styletends to His towardsthe combinational tact'cal, it is welfknownthat and and thispreference notalways does result firstprizes tournaments. in in So we mustconcede he hashisupsanddowns, greater that thanin players, his styleof playand the manycontemporary leading but content whichhe putsintoeverymovehasgained admiration the of fans aroundthe world. He has that rich gift of fantasy that enables to discover him fascinating possibilities depths new in the of


chess. performanc€s theyare his We willnot go through tournament at disappointed weregravely supporters euei thouoh-his ,-- oreat should He Zonaltournament. really in the 1979 Soviet t'ir ?ulrrr" by got i.iar,e into the Candidates now. Howeverhe is sureto have that and hisfansareconfident what in the future, miny"au"""ta"a most of all, his creativeplay, will them iiii'ult"vt delighted contlnue. ' to to i thoughta lot aboutwhichof his games present readers, game to simply ask him what was his favourite andthen-decided 1975, at Petrosian the Yerevan, gameagainst his J nominated mentioned already thdtwe have Championship Soviet lndian Defence Romanishin-Petrosian Oueen's b6 4 e4 Ab7 5 Ad3 1 c4 Nf6 2lc3 e6 3 a]f3 positionThe in Not a iew id&, but very effective this particular a in to *iff go later c2 frbmwhereit willassist developingSOlsnop side - attack. 10 O-O b3 S ... Ue 6 $c2 c5 7 d4 ed8 Sxd4 Se7 9 O'O 13 f4 flad8 6c6 1 1 Ab2 a6 12 €hl Bc7 .-On thi-face of it White'tmovesjust look hkestraightforward to of moves the sort necessary get his.piece:.oyt developing lrom a hides trickyrdea yet simplicity squares, thisapparent theirinitiai is buildups one of the natureof his combinative ihe unexpecied style. of features Romanishin's marked at piece theedgeof the board bB on BbcThaslut hisstrongest whichis aboutto takeplace theaction to whereit is unable helpin to on the €-side. This fictor inducesRomanishin decideon in measures hisS-sidepressure extreme

14 trcl *b8 14 trf3 g6

".&t 7./i:.:,.
)\ "z) t\ 2!

A:'&tx ",./2 2 4l\+ +
D . H '::'.,


16 Ads! ed 17 ed himseliadmittedthis move is witnessto a As F'omanishin ice '17 knightsacrif 17 a In morieniof weakness. his opinion second hisaim Thusafter way of achieving Af5lq wouldbe a quicker - " t c t e e d t r t e gr g H s g * € f ' s 2 0 d C J L > 6 2 1 - l - f 5 H g 8 would have a winn'rg attack so the knrght 22 *ths Wh]ie


Kart's Chesskhool

Iosif Dodman

l Og

could not be captured. Black would still have some Possibly in 17 chances 'muddying waters' the variation aI5 dxe4 by the 18 fixeT+ AxeT 19g/d4 d5 20 grxf6 d4 etc. 17 .. . Axd4 18 \9xd4 trde8 19 f5! The only way. 19 94 would barehis own king too muchand Black could thenplay19 . . . $aB 20 95 QxdS+ 21 cd gxds+ with unclear conseouences. 19 . . . Ad8 20 Sh4 Ees It is hardto break through against sucha defender Petrosian. as By blocking the maindiagonal Blackcan start looking forward conf idently. 21 th6 8c7? 'Eventhe wisestcan makemistakes!' Thatdefensive specialist Petrosian up here. slips Thecorrect move21 . . . fl94 wouldgive especiallyhe wantedto avoid draw if the Whitea lotto thinkabout, by repetition 229f4 aI6 23 th6 Ag . After the text the attack breaks through. the Black notonlyto defend point97, but h7 aswell, has andthe greataccuracy. moves Fhus22 . choice defensive of demands at Ae8 wouldlose onceafter23 Ef 1 Af6 24 tr 3. 23 Qxe5 de24ls fxs6 25 $xg6 lg4 This will rs on clever attempt not help theknight too vulnerable as the openfile. 26 Ahs Ht6 27 Wd2 trf4 28 d6! that White hasyei another attacking resource hrs in Showing passed formidable d-pawn. White's mastery enabled to foresee him whichchange direction theattack. suchresources the of 24...*s729d7A:b7 Or 29 . AxdT 30 Qxga ,{xg4 31 Hxg4 gxg4 32 a whileWhitealsowinsafter29 . . WxdT fld 1 winning piece,

abilitiesis Provided by the followirrg game, Dodman-Chekhov, M i n s k ,1 9 7 6 .





z +


22 fls3 ScB

clearmoves. ot with his Whiteexploits advantages a series simple 17 b4! gfdg 18 c5l $e6 '18. . . dc 19 bc and the knight on getsan excellent outpost Or rook. in b6 hemminq the enemy .gxa2 el 23 19 Af4 Ac4 2O Ecl Axa2 21 Sa4 e5 22 Hfdl ! forces Black's of layout pieces. harmonious an Achreving ideally pressure copewith the aresolitandcannot 23 . . . lg 24 hg d5 25 sxds! 5rg5 26 =.c4! to this transferring piece the f-file manoeuvre Anotherexcellent attackon f7 as -- part of a massed


Ec8 31 c6 bc 32 bc [c7 33 H,c4Se5 34 ficS E/d6 35 74

. 56-.. H.ie'zznAg.t za trd3 a529 trd{3 ad8 30 b5

30 g/xd7AxdT 31 $xs4 fixs4 32 Ed1Ah4 33 trxd7 $xg3 3ahs fl xs3 35 trd6. ef 3 1 q x g 4 A g 5 3 2 E d 1 i s a 30 g'xf4 1-O(30
simple win).

t E 'Ut"%z.t t 'HA7z, % 7 7 % % %HW, % 72fr/&

losif Dorfman Whatcanyou sayaboutthe playof grandmaster Dorfman losif wasa questiononceput to my friendSaloFlohr. answer I His was that this was an interesting, tough player, who had somehow recently tallenback. He had sharedthe gold medalof Soviet Champion thenbegun playunconvincingly. and to Well such thingsdo happen from time to time with younger (and players witholder ones too,the reader add). may Onecanonly pupilof Kartwill be ableto overcome hopethat this talented the temporary crisisand will regainhis best form. Evidence his of

calculation based accurate otr operation A finalsacrificial 35 . . . ab7 36 ib tr xc5 37 AxfT+ ! €g7 38 gra1 + g'es 39 SXe5 trxe5 4O AdS! (to on Eb5). Alittle trickbased line-closing ruleout 40 ... trb841 trf7+ €lhg 42e4 Hee843 Ss2 1-O Adrian Mikhalchishin has Yet anotherKart pupil,Mikhalchishin' like Dorfmanmixed in goodresults One withfailures. mustwishhimsuccess hiseffons his to reduce variability. tn Timoshchenko against are Hiscapabilities shownby thlsgame

v| 10 khool Kart'sChess
Marta Litinskaya


at the 1978Top League Tbilisi. 75

1 / Z% t 7 %i

x ' 2 % %

'7w % 2 4 7 ffi %a''&
pawngives chance have the passed to the White's dangerous use accurate of this time, hemakes and for initiative a long ?3 21 dOEcg 2. adb Hc2 122. . . Ec4 wasbetter\ 6)e7+ 24 8e4 trc4 €hB quickly 25 6gb i5 26 AS6+ lose 24 .. flxa2 would €98 27 8e6+. 2s g'xoz g'd7 26 g,xd7 AxdT 27 Htel trcS 28 6d4 AfO 29 Ab3 trc230 Ad5 Axds 31 Exds EXa2h4 is 31 materral equality fatal. to Thishaste re-establish chances. better defensive leaves 32 Acs Ag4 33 d7 of pawn as has Thislormidable which served thebasis White's
33 . . . tre2 34 fl xe2 Sxe2 35 Ab7 h4 36 sh 4xh4 37 d8g/ axdS 38 AidS €lg7 39 Ac6 a6 40 bd4 Qc4 41 flcS A€ 42 Hc3 -tg6 zl(t 6c6 Ae8 zl4 [a3 fle1 + 45 €lh2 Ee2 won. 46€93 flc2 47 6e5 AfS 48 E xa6 and \y'Vhite Marta Litinskaya this of had have theopportunity seeing ladypupil Manycountries but Shehaswon a numberof titles, ot latewe of Kartin action. table. of her at rarely seen name theveryhead thetournament have of out to She had seemed havemissed on the chance qualifying Matches after her fourth placein the Candidate for the women's of but in Alicante, took the chance comingin as 1979 Interzonal qualifiers withdrew, shewon a and whenoneof theoriginal reserve Fischdick after Giselle the matchagainst West German dramatic being3-Odown! the a spiritis perhaps signthat sheis overcoming Suchfighting to and starting playat herold strength. crisis Litinskaya, is Hertactical awaTenessseenin thrsgame,Lysenkotournament. Zonal from the 1979 USSR title Litinskaya grandmaster for women Heregrandmaster {the players by was introduced FIDEin 1976) carriedout a mating attack.
now becomesunstoppaDle. manoeuvres

x.../lLt, '',,& 'z 7
26 ... Hxa2l27 c3 leads 27 @xa2 $aB+ 28 lo of Acceptance the rook sacrifice 1 Ac3+ 29 bxc3 SXc3 andmateon a 1.Thetextis no better €b the nextmoveblocks exitof the whitekingfrom the Black's since decides. rookson thea-file firstrankand thendoubling . . . b3t 18 Qxcs lxcs 29 A1d2 Ad3 O-1 27

.rx, 2 t

School KarseladzeChess s


all of excellentunderstanding position, reinforcedby tactical from we in This inventiveness. is confirmed theexamples now gtve theirgames.


K a r s e l a d z e C h e s sS c h o o l 's

:&,t"'..& 296t'/Z 7 t tt

natureof the Kart We havealready mentioned remarkable the withouteventhe master titledeveloped a schoolin that a player is wholeseries grandmasters. less of No surprising the otherchess Thisis the whichwe now dealwith, this tme in Georgia. school school V.Karseladze. of republic not has We mustbe honest and saythat the Caucasian player worldclass, yet produced single thoughtheyhave wella of in B.Gurgenidze E.Gufeld and knowngrandmasters T.Georgadze, his in {wholearned chess the Ukraine). Chess Federation Yetin the ranks the players the Georgian of of we findmanyof thebestplayers theworldamongst in women, and worldtitlehasbeenheldfor almost two decades a by the women's NonaGaprindashvili the world won Georgian. 1962thefamous ln As to title title. yet sheis the onlyplayer holdthe grandmaster both for playagainst menandagainst women.Recently hasnot had she womenand her challengers the for an easytime of it amongst worldtitlehave her In been fellowGeorgians. 1975shebeatoff the challenge NanaAlexandria, three yearslatershe had to of but surrender titleto thethensixteen old Mava the Chiburdanidze. vear What liesin the future? Thepresent is champion Chiburdanidze whilehereight challengersthe 1980series knock-out in matches of includeno less than four representatjves Georgia- the of legendary Gaprrndashvili, Ale>endria the youngplayers Nana and Nanaloselani NiniGurieli, four of themgrandmasters! and all How can one explainthis floweringof femaletalent in the Caucasus republic, the uneven and development regards as men and womenolavers there? Thereseemto be two reasons the activeand dedicated work of the lateVakhtang Karseladze who brought NonaGaprindashvili thentheexample theworld on and of herself the next generation. is \€ry popular champion on In She her native Iand, years and it is no surprise from theirearliest that girls Georgian try to followherexample. Connoisseurs note the specialfeaturesof the style of the Georgian players thedepthof theirstrategic lady concepts, therr

nidze, This is Gaprindashvili-Chiburda 4th matchgame, 1978 pawnsacrifice exploit to plays interesting an Maya(Black) Teenager of poor pieceplacement and the weakness the central White'! res. squa 20 . . . Ab4l21 Axb4 cb 22 Efel evenweaker' makesWhite'sposition of Refusal the sacrifice thoughshewould stillstandworsein accepteven White should thatevent. 22 ... AdTl to the bringing knight c5 from wherett manoeuvTe, An excellent centre. greatpressure White's on willexert 23 $c2 lcS 24 b3 a6! By whichis now decisive driving manoeuvre A frJshstrategical total brings Chiburdanidze f the whiteknight rom itsstrongposition ra to disorder White's nks. ab 25 Ac3 b5 26 at]' 27 $1e3 Q1a41 the whereas Blackwins the exchange, and convincing. Simple atter 27 obvious tlxd3i wouldgiveWhitecounter-plaY 28 H - Xd3.

2a $la2€lc329 gas axd 1 30 H xd 1 glb3 31 gt)<bs Hca3, glb7Ecxd333 H xd3 tr xd3 34Ads tr xf3 o-1

Nona Gaprindashvili The 11thgameof the samematchsaw Nonatakeher revenge (78) with a fine alrack. Ac3+)27 $a1 flcs-!26 ... b4 (withthe [hrcat27 ma is There the prettv !e 2q. o[ Thisrsa lreshptece cunntng. ottrng 1 $xa2+ | 31 € xa2 Eas in ,the Ac3 29 bc bc 30 flb but defence the full extentof a tfrhit" onc" again fin-ds iemporary be cannot avoided. threatened the unpleasantness 28 Ebl 6b6 29 Sg3 EbcS 30 fibd1 lc4 31 f4 but stroke, other moves tactical if Thisallowsa simple elegant White eithei.Thus 31 $f4 is met by 3 1 would not save


Ka rsebdze's Chess khool




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basedon olayershowedin ihts gamea rare gift of imagination of and Lxactanalysis a rareunderstanding positon. -'zs dr30 e trd8 31 €e3 Ac4 32 Ehdl €/f6 33 a3 sb3 Efl+ €e635a5c2G1

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Axb2t 32 gxb2 ga3+ 33 gb1 tras 34 gfd6 gxa2+ 3b wins. €c 1 trds! 36 tr xds ed37 Sf 5 b3 andBlack 31 ... ad2! 32Hxd2b3! 3:tg'xb3€lxd2 materral advanbge combrned a never with ending series -Black's of threats forceWhiteto surrender. soon 3 4 f 5 € ' d 4 3 5 f i e 1 f l e 5 3 6 S f 3 t r x c 2 !3 7 A x c 2 E x e 1 + l 3 8 4 b 1 g d l 3 9g / x d 1 E X d l 4 0 f e f e - 1 O
NanaAlexandria Thecharming Nana already has triedonce, thoughunsucessfu|y, to unseat Nonaon the chess throne.Her talentand caoacitv for hardworkgi\€ grounds hoping for thatshewillscore successes btg in thef uture and e\€n get to a worldtitlemabh again. tactcal Her po\/ersare seen thisgameagainst in Mnogina the 1g7g USSB in Championshio at Tbilisi. 79

Nana loselani has but is career onlyjust starting, shealready Thisyounggirl's her to sJc6esses her credit ln particular resultin the sionificant the put Interzonal her in the lasteightto contest 1579 Women's Matches. Candidate in L.Zaitseva the 1979 against Hereis thefinalparto{ hergame in tournament Moscow. international


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pushon the €-side Whitecarriesout a decisive h5 sh 18 6xh5 6g7 19 Af4 c5 2Oc3 cd 21 cd abA 22 17 Af3 6c6 23 Ah4 Ad7 24€h2 -To transferthe rookto the importanth-file 24 ... gfc8 25 Ehl Ae8 26 Af3 Be7 27 &g2 gb4 28 4le2 4\a5 29 a3 *e7 -After gtb3 30 grd2 the Black €-side is indefensible 29 ef 33 Axds+ Af7 34 g'h8 A {ine combination 32 33 gh8+ $f7 34 ShS mate' mate, 32 . . Axfs or 32 . . . CdB 33 gthT+ &f7 34 $h5 mate' Nino Gurieli technlque by Theplayof thisyounggirl is marked quitemature This inventiveness. is shownIn her game with tactical combined '1979 (81 tou nte Alica international rnamenl' ) rcla t|'l.Ga in the aoainst ""Whit" on positional advantage the use -ir.", convincing of her at {9-side 'iqiqt whichthe bishop 97 cannotin{luence *Black Ae3 b6 19 AxcT E(ac820 )d5 ic6 aftef2O 5"65 21 Hxds Hxc2 woutdlosequrcklv Black resign' can 22 - flad1 Ec7 23 Af 1 and

30gd2 lxb3 31gxh6 }xal 3? Ax!91 -

(Black) now madethe interesting offer1g . . . - Alexahdria - piece Ad4! 19 cd ed 20 Ah6+ gh8 21 QefS It becomes clearthat othermoves worse.Thus21 irdl is aTe met by 21 . . . €g7 22 gg4 fltea 23 €if I hS and Whitersin a
bad way.

21 . . . d3 22 Af3 b4 23 pxbT c3!! A marvellous position. pieces unable counter White's are to tne aggressive of theenemy spirit foot soldiers. 24 AxaS E xa8 Not onlydoestheextrarooknot offerWhitewinninq chances rn fact thereis no way for Whiteto savethisposition. Georoian T6e

AeE15 Hfdi trfue16assl axss 17Qxssf6 18

2TA a?5 zz ffxosl ab23Axb6 6c6 24Axd8 trxd8

/ 76


truLxr."&r. z % %r.% a% "'e,'ry T
2t% 72 % ,&6&fi. "&t% /&a2 12 Withouta School
25b41 just passed pawns rollforwardunimpeded. Theconnected 25 . . . €gg 26 a5 Q)a727 Afl €tr/ 28 tr<15€e8 The king hurries but over tryingto helpform a blockade, this cannot achieved. be 29 tradl Afg 30 b5 pe7 31 b6 Ac6 32 Abs Abg 33 ExdT 1-0 Whitefinishes elegantly. off meeting ... lXdT by 34 33 E x d 7 E x d 7 3 5a 6 .

the the We havedescribed playof the'graduates'of threemain schools. we have Yet two othersrgnificant whichare Soviet schools years the remarkable wayof the f6meof theirheads. by Some ago Burevestnik students'sports association organised school a under the direction ex-world of champion Vasily Smyslov and a similar for by for school youngtilents hasbeencreated Sparbkheaded TigranPetrosian. Both schools work on the another ex-champion but this same sortof basis the Botuinnik as school, whether system will suitthemand what sort of 'product'weshallhavefrom their has endeavours timewill show.As yet theiractivity not been only goingon longenough usto judgethem. tor However obvious figures passon to the desire our leading of generation there.In thisrespect is therrknowledge the younger to 'l it Petrosian's that comments worthquoting: consider in chess are is possible learn to eveMhing. ThatiswhatI belie\€ in my heart and a of heartsI cherish dreamthat someday I will comeacross the pupil whomI canpass allthat I know,allthat I learned dint by to on aftertruth.I hopeto bringon sucha youngster who of hardsearch couldwork lointlywith me in various researches who could and then try theseout in actualplay.Yet thoughI havenot yet come across I in sucha player am stillliving hopeand likethe work with youngsters. schoolhasbeenworkingfor almostthreeyears The from Frunzehas and thereare somesuccesses. BorvaKantser become whiletwo lads,Kuporosov USSRJ uniorChampion, and Novikov, havereached masternorm: the good luckin the passing of We can only wishour veterans on their immense experience the youngthereby to making serious a contribution the furtherdevelopment popularisation the to and of game. Obviously way of studies undersuch conditions a serious are aimingfor the top, but thereare someof our players who have managed withoutlongformalschooling stillscored and top-class part of the bookto someof these results. devotethe remaining We independent talents who have doneit allon theirown,or hadonly

llB Withouta School



with teachers arenot wellknown. who shortcontact prideof placeshouldprobably to the verv go In this respect girl who has three times been Sovtet talented from Leningrad Ladies'Champion. lrina Levitina What seemed key game,against the world title holderMaya was Chiburdanidze, lostby lrinain annoying circumsbnces, a by mistake the adjourned in in session what was a comparatively position. simple Then came 'reaction'* sixwinsin a row,and not a weakplayers This against either. wasthe 1979USSR Championship at Tbilisi, and brought Levitina her third gold medalas USSB Champion. remarkable a achievement the age of only twenty at five.Thefirstwincamein 197'1, second 1978.There in the seems littledoubtthat we shall her amongst challengers day see the one for theworldcrown. Her style of play is markedby imagination, bold energetic qualities approach combinational and inventiveness. These natural were partly developed her long association with mentor Pavel by Kondratyev. see them examinea positiontogether tn total To harmony to realise is whata futureliesbefore her. Thebestsideof herfighting qualities seen thisgame is in against Larisa Muchnik the 1979Soviet in Chamoionshio.

33 . . . Ac5 34 Sh6+ Se7 35 fl xe5+ Ae6 36 E xe6+ fe 37 grxe6+ €fB 38 grf6+ €g8 39 Ed3 1-o who chess well-known names various other mention Onemight grandmaster The Yerevan with are not a-ssociated any school.
and we haveseenwhat he is is Vaganyan one example Hafael (see fine combinationagainst Reshevsky capableo1 in the "'"r1r"o with the urals and Siberiaare grandol-u"rr associated (who sharedfirst placein the Soviet mastersViialy Tseshkovsky to Tal with Mikhail andjustfailed getto the of Chamoionship 1978 of in the Manila lnterzonal 1976) and Yevgeny Candidates play The Sveshnikov. aggressive of bothmenhaswon themmany suDDorters. Vitaly Tseshkovsky


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To startwith an energetic blowagainst enemy the $-side. 19 Afs! AXfs Obviously the pawnto takewouldloseat onceto 20 8g5+ for 20 et Q1d721 h4b4z2h5! pushcannot heldand Black to openlines the White's be has on S-side. 22 . .. 9h23l6l And now the Lopez bishop c2 is opened at up. 23 .. . Axf6 24 6:g5 Afg 25 Axfs gxfS 26 axhT+ (&e7 27 Axf6 €xf6 28 gh6+ @e7 29 8g5+ €f8 30 Afs flb8 31 flacI b3 32 ab Axb3 33 Hcdl I Whitestations rooksin linewiththe enemv her kinowhichmust brinqbenefits sooner later. or

of League the from ThisisTseshkovskv-Belyavskythe 1978 First a from Omskconducted The grandmaster SovietChampionship. on attack the $-sidewith realflair' difficult 22 ab ab 23 EaOl trbg 24 flae1 Af6 25 EaSl HcbT 26 | Y.1a7 position. Blackwill find it hardto hit uponthe right A curious 27 26 here. . fxaT allows trXb8+ and28 $xbS' decision 26 . . . Hea27 H xb7 gxbT 28 Ea5 e4 29 gd1 gxds 30 AxbS Edg 31 ele2 \dte632 c4! d5 33 cd eieSl 34 g3 f4. 34 the Anticipating threatened . . ;dl-6 35 we3! {+xdsl 36 ic3 wd1 + 37 €9214 38 34 . gt thS S5-r;Lc4+8,fg 40 ies brf3+ 41 urxf3 ef + 42EYt3 Axb4 rFl Ea7 Ae7 44 €S4 *AlthoughThe Whitestillhas muchsimplified p-oiition 6ecome has pressure. formidable 4a .. . tbe8 45 fla6 Ed2 45 f5! Af6+ 47 €{3! Ad7 48 * Ea8+ JdS 49 ic7 .if6 50;b5+ &f7 51 ;f4! to lhe Whitfrxoloits actiuivof his bishops the maximumBlack poslflon. hasa onm 51 :. . Ad4 52 sa7'r E)f853 ie3 1'0 (53 f comes rom thisbrshop Ed 1 54 Ah6+ Thefinai-blow

Makarychev €g8 55 Ac4+, and if 55 . . . €hB then56 l\g7 mate). Yevgeny Sveshnikov alas. from Chelyabinsk, has Yevgeny Sveshnikov Grandmaster yet tailures, thrs periods greatsuccess with avvful of combined young man neverlosesheart.You will often hear him cheerful This is a good sign as selfhis criticising own playand himself. preliminary putting right matters to is criticism the necessary from the of What he is capable at hisbestis shownin thisgame 1978,at Ashkhabad. Top League, 84


-Jhe SergeiMakarYchev a to of ability the Moscowgrandmaster conduct systematlc ;;;;';:is;;;hnikov Leasue in the 1978Super

p";it;;;vi;";;,wnicrrrscliarlcie;i:tic?i,hls^:b/,letls"s^?el[:ls at Ashkhabad

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22'grc2t329AIts d5! 24 gh3! de 2ob41521 6:;b6Ea7 25Axe4 Ad4Z5 Axd4gxd4 27 Ads! --ffiuof.r was stroke haidto hove *"t a com6iicated thistactical
foresee. 27 . . . Axds 28 Eadl Exb4 . Axs2 29 gbq+ Ad5 30 Blackwould do betteroY zd + 3 1 €2h1 €lh8 with somehopeoTsurvrvrng - . ,\ x d5 *q4 -ld"ni"as*ez3o F x"8-r gxeS 38 t7c4+ €h8 39 €fl ue7 40 Eic6+

Whitestarts big pushon the €-side. a 17 s4! $a6 ld trf2 {5 19 sf EXfs 20 h4! af8 21 ah3 Qc8! 22 le2! as not A correctdecision to take the exchange then Black's too wouldbecome strong. white-square bishop 22 . . . trhs 23W1 e624 Eh2! Aa6 25 9f2 €'e7 26 6)g3 Eh6 27 fsl the to Lines breakthrough. areopened enable whtte An excellent pretty matters pieces get at the enemyking and this decides to quickly. 2 7 . . . e t 2 8 S x f 5 ! g f 2 9 axh6 axh6 30 axfs 31 Thekinghasno optionbut to comeout intothe open.lf 31 €hB then32 Axh6 g'xh6 33 lg5! wins. (34 himself the inevitable to Reconiiling Ne7 35 Ad6+, 34 the . . AfB 35 Ag7+ winning queen). 35 hg hg 36 g'h4! AfG 37 th6! Ae4 38 th7+ 1-O players with gallery' modern of Soviet We conclude 'portrait our who 5-7thplaces game extracts two othergrandmasters shared by 1979) lust before in the last SovietSuper League(December, irr Bothof themare'self-taught' goingto Hastings the Premier. for by the iense that though their early effortswere encouraged of to climb thetop isthe result individual teachers morerecent their effort.

gTatwrz31we3 ' e732\e2ten33 s-x".e=ia-iaGia"s-se g-e2iix;8 36 EXds+ {ep 37 r-u
TomazGeorqadze - -tn countryman his under welfknown studled frl voutfiCeorqadze on entirely his own He is an v.i".."riJi", oui tit"r. on worked A of an ;;;;;'i. il'fer1'nougn he gives outwardappearance calm is g-ames that playeione bf whosemost orlginal very ingenious the t<upreicl-rik earlYleaderin the 1979 SovietSuper aoainst"V. at League Minsk. 86

Es2+ €F/

32 Ag5+ $xss 33 trxgs Og634 h5 Ae8

t.l h i.t t.t tEt : t t t t "/aa/./'t.a&, ''fu ^
a surprlslng White has given up the exchangebilt now makes in the centre breakthrouqh " g'de27

Ac4 Ef, 28 leS f xg3 29 Ad4l



er acza bch425t4t 26ar3

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Indexof Players

Referenceis to page numbers for games and game extracts' 99 Akhmilovskaya 22. Alekhine 34, 51, 52, 59 1 Ale)6ndriya 14 79, Anikayev 98 Balashov 89 119 16, Bel)€vsky 1O5, 60 Boooliubow Boilnnik 20. 45. 48.54,87 Browne19 Butnorius 96 48 Capablanca 109 Chekhov nid Chiburda ze 1 13 98 Dolmatov Dorf man43, 1O9 Eurue22 Flltp42 Furmanz I 113 Gaprindashvili
baTcE I rc

29 ... Ass 30 AxfT AXfT 31 trxb7 Ass 32 Hxn €xf/ 33 Af4+ €e8 34 $xa4+ gd7 35 Abs axf4 36 37 AxdT+ @e7 el flc7 38 Sf6+ 1-0.

Ka rpov 19. 25, 43. 46,55,87 96 Kasparov 62 Koltanowski Kotov2 1 121 Kupreichik Larsen8O Laard 62 1 LeMtina 18 | 45 Lilientha '1O 1 Litinskaya Lputyen 91 25 Lutikov 110 Lysenko 121 Makarychev 60 Mieses 11O Mikhalchishin M u c h n i1 1 8 k 20,7A, 1O7 Petrosian PetroVch 99 Platov62 16. Polugalevsky 80 9'1 Razurayev 29 Reshevsky Reti34 55, Romanishin 89, 107 Rubinstein 6'1 54 Sokolsky tzv, S\r'esnnlKov tz I

79 Geller 121 Georgadze 16 Grtinfeld
b uTre I rc

ni losela 1 15 lvkov78

| 24

lndex of Players Vagania29 n Velimirovch 77 Vidmar 51 Yates 61 Yusupov 93

Tal42, 48, 48.77, 33 Tartako\ ,er 59 Timoschenko1O 1 Tseshkovsky 1 19 Unzicker 46



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