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A Thesis Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Course Bachelor of Science in criminology
By MARK ROD H. LABAYO
College of Criminology of Law Enforcement Manuel S.Enverga Foundation Lucena City
INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Jail is a correctional institution to used to detain persons who are in the lawful custody of the government. This includes either accused persons awaiting trial or for those who have convicted of a crime. Jails are generally small prisons run by individual countries and cities, though some jails in larger communities may be a large and hold as many inmates as regular prisons. Jail is also a synonym for prison, especially when the facility is of a similar size as a prison. As with prisons, some jails have different wings for certain types of offenders, and have work programs for inmates who demonstrate good behavior.1 Prison policy was driven for much of that 20th century by a hope that the staff in the environment would rehabilitate prisoners and fit them for a more productive life on release. In the 1970s a series of studies showed that this aim was not being achieved, and it become clear that stop were disillusioned with the concept. Rehabilitation is not now sought as an active in a course of a prison sentence although limited facilities are made available to prisoners, For example, to gain education, where the overcrowding of the system does not make it possible.
Deterring crime is another function claimed for prisons, but for prisoners themselves it seems to be a little effect. A larger than average number of offenders come
“Jail” [ONLINE]. Available : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/country_jail [2007,August 7].
from background that have not equipped them either educationally or emotionally for inter interrelation in a law abiding community. The re offending rate among ex-prisoner is about two third of those release, which is, if anything, higher than the rate among those not imprisoned. The main justification today both in philosophical fashioned and politics, for imprisoning people is that there crime deserved punishment, in that imprisonment is to worst punishment that can humanly be imposed.2
The criminologist Gresham Sykes has listed the “pain of imprisonment” that both male and female inmate face. The first is the deprivation of liberty and the loneliness and boredom of imprisonment. Second, prisoner are deprive of all goods and services from the outside world. Stripped of position, they often equate their material loses with personal inadequacy. The third deprivation, for the majority, is the absence of heterosexual relationship. Fourth, prisoners are subjected to a vast body of institutional regulations designed to control every aspect of behavior.
Male and female prisons cultures however differ fundamentally in difference are larger influenced by rule behavior learned out of prison. Equally, the values and attitudes attributed to inmates’ societies are importation from the larger world. Although they are
David Watson. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2003 (Microsoft Corporation, 2003).
distorted by isolation and deprivation, prisons cultures reflect the culture from which the prisoners have come.
The male inmate is thrown into prolonged intimacy with author men and is force to assume aggressive posture and to maintain a constant wariness for his personal safety. Homosexual rape is a common occurrence in male prisons, with attacks generally made on vulnerable new inmates. According to Sykes, however the greater the degree to which the society of captives moves in the direction of solidarity, the greater the likelihood that the pain of imprisonment will be rendered less serve. Thus, in the mal prisons, gangs attempts to define and control the prison experience. The inmate joins the gang in order to restore the status that has been taken away, to provide protection and to obtain goods. Some gangs, such as Vice Lords and Gangster Disciples from Chicago, originate as a street gang and are imported into the prisons. In the Stateville III penitentiary, such gang members account for the majority of the population. Other prisons gangs follow the exportation model.
Gangs like the Mexican mafia (California) in the Texas syndicate attempt to which into the out side world and participate in organized crime and violence. Most prisons gangs are organized as long racial lines, with groups like the Aryan brotherhood traditionally hating blacks and their gangs in prisons. Typically, prison gangs attempt to control to control the contraband traffic (especially drugs) wit in the institution through the threat of violence and extortion. Tattoos, colors and other symbol mark the member and the territories of prisons gangs.
In US female prisons, inmate society is generally made up of informal pseudo families. Almost all inmates are part of a family and define their relations in Kinship term. The pseudo family provides a predictable and stable structure of social relations including homosexuality relation to which a female inmate can turn for support. It is not uncommon, however, for the deferent families to come in to conflicts.
Women are held in smaller prisons with fewer programs and recreational opportunities. Typically, the program that are offered reflect stereotyped female rules, with emphasis on house keeping, sawing, clerical and typing skills. Program such as substance abuse treatment and health care and parent skills have been recommended to deal with the special needs a of female inmates. They are especially at risk for HIV/aids and sexual transmitted disease.
Academic and vocational programs for women have also been promoted as a method to improve prospect upon release. Mother have additional burden of concern about the care of their children while they are incarcerated. Approximately one in four adult female prisoners is pregnant at the time incarceration or has given birth at some point in the pervious years. Continued cot act with children is a concern. Usually, a state has only one facility for female prisoners, which makes visitation difficult.
Given the problems engendered by prison itself, it is not surprising that rehabilitation program to reduce recidivism in the United States. The number of exprisoner who are rearrested within three years of their release is estimated are about sixty
percent. However, programs such as substance abuse treatment have proven to be surprisingly effective. The longer inmates remain in treatment the more likely the inmate will remain drugs and crime free.3
Raymund Narag spent nearly seven years in manila’s notorious Quezon City jail for a crime he did not commit. Three years after He was released from his leaving hell he published a book about his experience, Freedom and Death: Inside the Jail. Published in 2005 it painted harrowing picture of a prison system more in tune with the 19 th century than the modern age.
Narag led out in graphic detail sub-human existence that inmates were force to injure the stench, the overcrowding, and the toilets that ran like rivers through the cells, disease and death. Built in the 1950s Quezon City jail was supposed to house only 236 inmates. Today it is more 3000, packed in so tight that many sleep standing up. It is scene repeated around the country in a prison system grossly undermanned, poorly funded and neglected by the countries economic planners. According to Chief Supt. Antonio Cruz head of the bureau of jail management and Penology and the largest cog in a fragmented penal service, the system is near to breaking point.” Overcrowding is our most pressing problem, he told EFP. Cruz bureau, which is armed interior department, runs 1100 prison with the total sale area of just over 56000 square meters (about 603000 square feet) and a
Gennaro F. Vito 2003 Grolier Encyclopedia (Grolier Interactive, Inc., 2003).
population at the end of 2006 of more than 60000 inmates. Most are awaiting trial while a small percentage is serving sentence for minor crime like theft and illegal drug use.4
As part of the requirement for the degree in Bachelor of Science in criminology and to provide valuable information in the common problem encountered by the selected inmates of Quezon provincial jail, the researcher find it essential to the present study.
STATEMENTOF THE PROBLEM
This study will seek the common problem encountered by the selected inmates Quezon provincial jail.
Cecil Morella “Philippines Prisoners Trapped in Living Hell” Manila Times February 3, 2007).
Specifically, this study intends to answer the following question. 1. What is the demographic profile of the inmates? 2. What is the common problem experience by the inmates? 3. What are the effects of this problem to the rehabilitation of inmate? 4. According to the inmates what are the possible measure to minimize the effect of their common problem?
Harsh Environment Inadequate Diet Poor Quality of Food Homesickness Boredom Absence of heterosexual relationship Sexual assault Overcrowding Gang war Abusive Jail Personnel Communicable Diseases Insufficient Medical care Poor Jail Regulations Lack of Rehabilitation Programs
Effects of these problems to the rehabilitation of inmates Possible measures to minimize the effects of their common problems
PARADIGM OF THE STUDY As shown in the paradigm of the study, the common problems that may be encountered by the inmates in Quezon Provincial Jail may include harsh environment, inadequate diet, poor quality of food, homesickness, boredom, absence of heterosexual relationship, sexual assault, overcrowding, gang war, abusive jail personnel, favoritism, communicable diseases, insufficient medical care, poor jail regulations, dilapidated facilities, and lack of rehabilitation programs.
Subsequently, inmates should adopt measures to minimize the effects of these common problems in their rehabilitation.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms and its definition are given to enlightened readers mind in reading study.
Boredom Gang Inmate Homesickness Jailbreak Rehabilitation
-the listless and dissatisfaction resulting from loneliness and Homesickness of inmates -group of inmates who band together for mutual protection and profit. -a person who is confined in Quezon Provincial Jail. - the longing for home of an inmate - an escape from prison - programs undertaken by the administration of Quezon Provincial Jail to reform the inmates.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
To inmates, this study will give them the avenue to ventilate the common problems they encountered in the jail. This information could enlighten the administration of jails to address these problems affecting the rehabilitation of inmates.
To jail personnel, this study will impart important and useful ideas about the common problems of inmates. In the same manner, this research study will make them more aware of the measures that can be taken up to minimize the effects of the common problems of the inmates.
To students of Bachelor of Science in Criminology, this study will provide essential information that would be helpful in preparing them to be good criminologist or jail personnel. To future researchers, this study will provide baseline data needed for further study.
SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS
The focal point of the study will be the common problems encountered by the selected inmates of Quezon Provincial jail. In particular, it will discuss the demographic profile of the inmates, the common problems they experienced, the effects of these problems to their rehabilitation, and the possible measures that could be undertaken to minimize the effects of their common problems.
In this study, the researcher will use descriptive method as research design. Simple random sampling technique will be utilized in selecting the respondents of the study. A structured type of questionnaire will be used by the researcher in collecting data for the study. The respondents of the study will be limited to seventy (70) selected inmates of Quezon Provincial Jail. The study will be conducted during the 2nd Semester of School Year 2007-2008 in the premises of the Quezon Provincial Jail in Lucena City.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter contains the different literature and studies related to the problems taken up by the researcher in this study.
The establishment of prisons in the Philippines formally started during the Spanish regime when Spanish penal laws contained in royal decrees; ordinances, rules and regulations were extended to the country. The main insular penitentiary was the old Bilibid Prison in Manila that was conducted in 1847 and formally opened by a Royal Decree in 1865. The San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm in Zamboanga City named after the patron saint of its founder Ramon Blanco was established in 1870 primarily to confine political prisoners. This prison was closed during the Spanish – American War. Under the American regime, more insular prisons and penal colonies were established. The Iwahig penal colony in Palawan was created on November 16, 1904. The San Ramon prison, which was closed in 1898, was reopened. The Reorganization Act of 1905 created the Bureau of Prisons under the Department of Commerce and Police, and then transferred to the Department of Public Instructions and finally placed under the Department of Justice.
The 3 prisons and penal colonies, namely: (a) Old Bilibid, (b) San Ramon and (c) Iwahig were placed under the Bureau of Prisons jurisdiction including the Corregidor Stockade and the Bontoc Prisons which were later phased out. Due to increasing population and criminality, more prisons and penal colonies under the Bureau of Prison were created. The Correctional Institution for Women in Mandaluyong was established in 1931 by authority of Act No. 3579. The Davao Penal colony was established on 21 January 1932 in accordance with Act No.3732 and Proclamation 414 series of 1931. The old Bilibid prison was transferred to the present site in Muntinlupa City and renamed the New Bilibid Prison. Under the Philippine Republic, after World War II, 2 more prisons were created to decongest the over-crowding condition of the New Bilibid Prison. The Sablayan Penal Colony in Mindanao Occidental and the Leyte Regional Prison were established on 27 September 1954 and 16 January 1973 respectively.
Jails are institution for the confinement of persons who are awaiting final disposition of their criminal cases and also for the service of those convicted and punished with shorter sentences, usually up to three years. As can be perceive in this definition, a jail is a confinement facility, usually administered by a local law enforcement agency, intended for adults but sometimes also containing juveniles.
This holds detained persons pending adjudication and or persons committed after adjudication for sentence of not more than three years. Although under Philippine laws jail is not under the control of the bureau of corrections but under the Department of Interior and local Government, jails are part of the overall correctional program. They are in fact penal institutions. Like other correctional institutions, they old many prisoners
who are serving sentences, and they have responsibility for their care. In the past, the emphasis of most jails was on the detention. In recent years this traditional role has been redefined, and now the courts and the community are working to see that their jails developed correctional and rehabilitative programs.5
Considering the present study focus on the problems of inmates while they are being incarcerated this article is relevant as it shows not only the history of jails in the Philippines but also the important role that jails play in the rehabilitation of inmates.
In some prisons, corruption and abuses is still rampant, and the problems of lynch violence, insufficient medical care, and the continued failure of rehabilitation practices all remain as serious issues. The general public’s understanding of the function of prisons remains conservative. Prisons officials, who ought to be grounded in specialized and concrete basic policies, remain the same, they are emphasize only on isolation, punishment, heavy sentencing, and so forth. Apart from lip service, they have no fundamental concept of prison reform, nor do they have any practical, sincere measures.6
Since it described the harsh environment of a typical jail, this article is deemed to be associated to the present study.
For inmates, one of the fundamental consequences of their imprisonment is lack of control over decisions about their activities. This lack of autonomy is evident in nearly
Dennis S. Lagumen, Introduction to Correction : Principles and Practices. Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation, 1999. 6 George F. Cole. The American System of Criminal Justice 3rd Edition (Monterey, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1982).
all aspects of prison life. Prisoners have virtually no privacy and are observable at all times by different forms of surveillance. In medium-security and maximum-security prisons, correctional officers constantly regulate and monitor inmates with state-of-the-art equipment, including video cameras and sound-detection mechanisms. This loss of liberty and privacy represents an extreme change from life in the community.
A set of rigid rules and regulations governs all inmate activity, including recreation and meals. Many of these rules attempt to prevent or reduce violence. Because of the diversity of races, ethnicities, and ages of prison inmates, as well as chronic overcrowding, officials expect inmate violence.
Almost every inmate is permitted visits from family members at different intervals. Conjugal visits- -that is, visits were sexual intercourse between inmates and their spouses may occur- -are customary throughout the world, particularly n the Scandinavia countries and South America. In Canada, most prisoners are permitted private family visits once every two months for periods of up to 72 hours. Prisons in the United States do not generally permitted conjugal visits. In 1998 only six states-California, Connecticut, Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, and Washington-allowed inmates conjugal visits with their spouses in these jurisdictions, prison administrators considered conjugal visits a special privileged earn through good conduct. In most U.S. states, prison officials are reluctant to permit conjugal visits because these visits may permit exchanges of contraband and illegal drugs. Officials must weigh the security risks of conjugal visits against the benefit of allowing prisoners to engage the heterosexual activity. Many believe that the lack of heterosexual activity among inmates.
Gangs exist in every U.S. prisons, and they tend to form along racial or ethnic lines. The influence of prison gangs form according to racial, ethnic, or even religious affiliation has become increasingly important as a means of perpetuating and preserving inmate sub-culture. Inmate subcultures and gangs are also pervasive in prison intentionally, existing in countries such as Poland, the Netherlands, Canada, Australia, Germany and Japan. Many of this prison gangs have evolve elaborate social organization and hierarchies of authority. In many respects, these gangs have taken the control of prisoners away from prison administrators. gangs create a network of members able to harm those who violate their code or who resist them. The penalties the formal prison system can inflict often pose less of a treat to individual prisoners than the dangers posed by gangs.
Herding individuals in cramped spaces is cruel and unjust punishment. Overcrowding is dangerous to help and to human life. It breeds diseases, breaks down discipline and exacerbates tensions. Having to fight for air and space 24 hours a day makes prison, in words of inmates, a living death. Add dirty tap water, dingy toilets, substandard meals, gang war, poorly trained guards, favoritism, and you have a system built for punishment, not rehabilitation. This is not the enlightened approach to penology. It is a throwback to the 18th century the treated prisoners as animals unfit to renew themselves and rejoin society.7
“The Shame of Our Prisons” The Manila Times (June 28, 2006).
Since this news article is relevant to the present study because it presents the existing condition of jails in the Philippines and the various problems that aggravate the poor condition o inmates.
The Department of Justice (DOJ) has ordered a food supplier of the New Bilibid Prison (NBP) to explain the low quality of food it had been serving to inmates. In a one page letter, Justice Secretary Raul Gonzales ordered Zigfried Loo Tian, proprietor of the Golden Taste Food Services and General Merchandise, to explain within five days why the government should not terminate its contract with the company. Gonzales also sought an explanation on why the firm’s food preparations fell short of the standard set by the Department of Health (DOH) as stated under the Revise Guidelines on Current Good Practice in Manufacturing, Packing, Repacking or Holding Food. Reports from the DOH receive by the DOJ showed that the companies’ food preparations had failed the health department’s sanitations and hygiene standards during a quality audit.8
This news article is associated to the present study in view of the fact that it confirms the reality that inmates are experiencing some problems in their dietary requirements and quality of foods being ration to them.
In some city jails the young girls are brought in from the streets to be sexually abused by the guards and the adult male prisoners, for a price. In prisons, sexual assault on young boys is all too common. Some turned into child prostitutes others are physically abused leaving scars and psychological wounds on them all. It is a brutal experience that
“Supplier Ordered to Explain Substandard Food to Inmates” The Manila Times (June 25, 2007).
can lead to a cycle of abuse and violence that fills the streets with young juveniles in constant conflict with the law.9
Considering that it validates the tale of sexual assaults in jails which can be considered a serious problem of an inmate, this article of Fr. Shay Cullen is deem o be related to the present study. Furthermore, this article is also relevant to the present study because it shows the negative effects of sexual assaults to the inmates.
An unusual physical fitness regime at a jail in the Philippines has attracted worldwide attention on the video sharing websites, “You tube”. A clip of hundreds of prisoners in orange uniforms dancing to Michael Jackson’s song Thriller has been watch more than 1.3 million times. The routine is the brainchild Byron Garcia, a security consultant for the Cebu provincial government. He said it had help “drastically” improve inmate behavior. And two former inmates have scenes become dancers. The dancing is compulsory for all 1600 inmates at the prison in the Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Centre, except the elderly and infirm.10
In view of the fact that it shows a dynamic program of addressing the problems of inmates, this news article is associated to the present study.
Shay Cullen (October 2001) “The Philippine Prison Style” [ONLINE]. Available: http://www.preda.org/archieves/2001/r01101202.html [2007, August 25]. 10 BBC News (July 26, 2007) “Philippine Jailhouse Rocks to Thriller” [ONLINE]. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6917318.stm [2007,August 25].
The causes of various jail problems are demeaning physical facilities and lack of other facilities such as dining room, recreation area, chapel, class rooms, or places for inmates to enjoy some solitude other than the loneliness of their cells.11
This result from the Gutierrez (2001) is related to the present study because proves that the demeaning physical facilities of a jail can cause some problems to inmates.
The cause of jailbreak and escapes in the experience of the inmates in Quezon Provincial Jail were boredom which ranked first with a frequency of 10. Family problem ranked second with a frequency of 9; and homesickness ranked third with a frequency of 8.12
This finding from the study of Ang (2004) is relevant to the present study because it stresses that the common problems encountered by inmates can trigger jailbreak or escapes among these inmates particularly those who experienced boredom and homesickness.
According to Luce’s “treatment programs” ,the treatment of inmates shall be focused on the provision of services designed to encourage them to return to the fold of justice; and enhance their self-respect, dignity, and sense of responsibility. These
Monette R. Gutierrez, “The Study of Various Jail Problems as Perceived by the Jail Guards in Quezon Provincial Jail” (Unpublished Thesis, MSEUF, Lucena City, 2001). 12 Merlyn L. Ang, “Causes of Jailbreak and Escapes of Inmates in Quezon Provincial Jail” (Unpublished Thesis, MSEUF, Lucena City, 2004).
treatment should focused on the following; (a) basic needs of inmates; (b) health services; (c) education and skills training; (d) religious services; guidance and counseling; (e) recreation services, sports and entertainment; (f) work programs, such as livelihood projects; (g) visitation services; and (h) mail services.13
This findings of Luce complements the study because it present the different factors that should be seriously considered by jail personnel in formulating measures to minimize the effects of the common problems of inmates.
$The programs that were given to the inmates of Quezon Provincial Jail and Talipan District Jail were involvement of inmates to religious activities; inmates participates in livelihood programs such as handicraft weaving; and inmates were given to talk to anther people, relatives, friend, and family members during visitation hours; inmates were encourage to the different sports; and they were given medical assistance.14
In his study, De Villa (2003) recommended that: (a) Quezon Provincial Jail should seek the help of the religious councilors through coordination with the bishop to further help inmates have faith in God and to guide them to live as responsible individual; (b) the correction councilors in the Quezon Provincial Jail must continue doing their responsibility more efficient to maintain good relationship between them in the inmates to reach the objectives of counseling more effective; (c) Quezon Provincial jail should continue to give support for implementation of counseling program so that it will be more
Jessie P. Luce, “ Jail Correction Security/Safety” (Unpublished Study, Camp Guillermo Nakar, Lucena City, 1998), p.10. 14 Ronalyn B.Castillo, “The Condition on Inmates of Quezon Provincial Jail” (Unpublished Thesis, MSEUF, Lucena City, 2005).
effective in rehabilitating inmates; (d) Quezon Provincial jail should maintain the imposition of deserved and fair disciplinary punishment by means of giving warning reprimand was effective to avoid jail disturbance and create positive impact to the offender; (e) there should be adequate jail personnel in the institution in order to boost the proper and effective implementation of rules and regulation; (f) the institution should continue to apply the less punitive sanctions in jail institution like the disciplinary punishment for violation of jail rules and regulations to the violators that could give safety from inmates and staff environment conducive for reforming and rehabilitating inmate offenders.15
German C. De Villa, “The Effects of Counseling on the Behavior and Rehabilitation of Inmates in Quezon Provincial Jail” (Unpublished Thesis MSEUF,Lucena City, 2003).
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The validity of any study lies upon the theories and principles, which have bearing to the study. In line with this, the chapter intended to discuss the theory found relevant to the study that serves as the framework.
Prisons today face difficult problems of operation and management. At the heart of many problems is prison overcrowding. Overcrowded conditions lead to many secondary problems, including increased litigation by prisoners and their advocates. Faced with rapidly expanding prison population, some governments, seeking t shrink their expenditures; have attempted to involve the private sector in prison operation. Overcrowding in prisons is associated with violent deaths, suicides, mental illness and disciplinary infractions. Overcrowding also contributes to increased litigation by inmates and dissatisfaction among correctional officers.
Since 1980s the average age of inmate in U.S prisons has gradually increased. As a result, larger numbers of offenders now need special medical treatment and prescriptions. The demand for medical and psychiatric services has increase correspondingly. Prison administrators also face the growing problem of the rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is often transmitted sexually and crowded prisons provide prime settings for AIDS epidemics.
In the United States all federal prisoners must work if they are able, and they are paid a small wage for their labor. Each state has its own policy concerning prison labor. Some critics view prison labor as exploitation of inmates, while others view it as beneficial because it significantly reduces inmate idleness.16
In this study, the researcher utilized a descriptive method of research. This method involves collection of data, tallying of the responses of the respondents, analysis, and interpretation of the gathered data.
This was conducted in the premises of Quezon Provincial Jail in Lucena City. Quezon Provincial Jail houses both offenders awaiting court action and those serving short sentences juvenile offenders and mentally ill are usually detain here pending transfer to DSWD and the National Center for Mental Health. It is situated in Barangay 10 in Lucena City along Alfaro St. near the Quezon Convention Center. This jail was
Dean j. Champion. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia ( Microsoft Corporation, 2002).
constructed 1909 during the administration of Governor Domingo Lopez. Significant improvements in the facilities of Quezon Provincial Jail were undertaken during the term of Governor Anacleto C. Alcala. Ideally this jail should only accommodate about 500 inmates but at present there are about 1,223 inmates.
Respondents of the study are limited to seventy (70) selected inmates of Quezon Provincial Jail. Since they are deemed to be knowledgeable enough in giving necessary data needed in the study, the researcher will intentionally select them.
The researcher used the simple random sampling technique in order to give the selected inmates of Quezon Provincial Jail an equal chance to be chosen as respondents of the study. The respondents of the study will be selected by the researcher without bias or any predetermined choice. Those who were willing to cooperate with the conduct of the study were given a questionnaire.
After the approval of the questionnaire, the researcher will coordinate with the administration of the Quezon Provincial Jail in Lucena City to allow him to conduct the study. Once the permission was granted to conduct the study, the researcher personally administered the questionnaire in the premises of Quezon Provincial Jail. Subsequent to a
cordial greeting to the selected inmates, a short introduction about the study will be made. The researcher waited for the respondents to complete answering the questionnaires. Upon completion, the researcher gathered the questionnaires.
The responses to the questionnaires were analyzed and interpreted in graphs and tables aided by the use of statistical treatment. To determine the demographic profile of the selected inmates of Quezon Provincial Jail, percentage method was used. The formula for percentage method: F P = ------- x 100 n Where : P = percentage f = frequency of response n = number of sample
To determine the common problems experience by the inmates, the effects of this problems to their rehabilitation, and the possible measures to minimize the effects of these common problems, waited mean method was be used. The formula for waited mean method. ∑ƒx X = -----------∑ƒ Where: X = weighted mean ∑ƒ = sum of all the subject ∑ƒx = sum of all the products of ƒ and x; x and x; where ƒ is the frequency each option and x is the weight of its option
The following statistical limits and descriptive equivalent/rating will be used:
3.60-4.00 2.60-3.59 1.60-2.59 1.00-1.59
Code SA A D SD
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
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