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in other hospitals in the field of I.T. The medical staff will be educated about computers and at the same time it will lessen their work. Background of the Study According to the brochure given by the hospital, since its founding in 2001-2002, the Immaculate Heart of Mary is one of the hospitals that has quality healthcare in Catanduanes and nearby provinces. Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital has 125-bed, strategically located in Rafael ST. Rawis Virac, Catanduanes. One of the very few tertiary hospitals in the region, it has continuously provided the community with medical care and valuable diagnostic services at affordable costs. Conceived by a handful of trained medical specialists and with the financial backing of Founder and President Mr. Nilo V. Segismundo and his wife Edna C. Segismundo, the hospital was established out of a common desire to provide the community with quality health care. Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital provides the following services: Clinical services such as medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, dentistry, anesthesia, radiology, clinical laboratory, and community health. Services like medical records management, procurement, personnel and security are under administration. Central stores, domestic hygiene, maintenance and repair fall under support services. On average the hospital handles about 200 patients / clients per day. Out of the services provided, and the load of work handled per day, a lot of records are generated manually. For example the clinical writer keeps a register, the laboratory keeps another, the wards and theatre also keep theirs. Medical follow up charts are also produced and kept. This registration at different levels usually leads to duplication.
Various reports are generated periodically for use at different levels of management. The hospital is required to make monthly reports and annual reports plus any situational reports in case of an outbreak. Production of these reports using manual system are both done with pen and paper, thus sharing of these records among the health professionals are usually difficult and time consuming. Health workers spend more time looking for information than the time spend caring for the inpatients therefore patients have to wait for long time. The researcher considered that a computerized system is needed to handle the huge records, to quicken the generation of reports, to ease the sharing of health and to store the huge amount of data efficiently and effectively from the replacement of the current manual system.
Information Technology Innovation This century witnessed a giant leap in information technology. Computers are not only used to diagnose the illness or for doing surgery, but also they are used increase of efficiency in all fields ranging from fixing appointment with the doctor to keeping the record of the patient. Software application can provide solution and services for the global health care industry. By using the cutting edge technologies, hospital management can be improved with efficient work flow and communication. This study will enhance the management operation using Visual Basic 6.0. The proponent used Visual Basic 6.0 because it is a powerful, interactive data-management tool used in creating application, as well as adobe Photoshop 7.0 in development of software, it has more appealing design to the user interface and MySQL for database because of its powerful features of data management. To access the data efficiently the prospective users of the computerized system are hospital staffs and doctors of the hospital.
The proponent used fingerprint scanner for identification and will serve as the employee’s security access for their records. Employees are also required to have a fingerprint identification that will serve as their access to the system. Rationale The reason why the proponent developed this study, it’s because the proponent wants to improve the quality and management of clinical care and hospital health care management in Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital. Also to developed hospital management system and improve its effectiveness and quality of work. The system is effective, flexible, user-friendly and developed to deliver realistic benefits to hospitals. Objectives of the Study The following are the general and specific objectives that this proposed study seeks to achieve. General Objectives. The general objective of the study is to design and develop a hospital management system that would serve as proposal to help Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital to their operation and provides an easier, faster, more organized, secured, and accurate system. Specific Objectives. The study will be conducted for the following specific process.
1. To analyze and describe how the manual system of Immaculate Heart of Mary
Hospital works. 2. To identify the problems encountered in Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital.
3. To develop a system that will improve the scope:
3.1 In-patient 3.2 Outpatient 3.3 Channeling 3.4 Payments 3.5 Reports 3.6 Maintenance 4. To show that the proposed system is technically, economically and operationally feasible. Assumption of the Study The following assumptions were formulated since the aim of this study was to develop a system that would not be compared to the existing system. 1. The Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital operates manually by logging a system that utilizes the pen and paper methodology. Information about patients is done by just writing the patients name, age, gender, and other patient’s information. In payments of the patients, bills are generated by recording price for each facility provided to patient on a separate sheet and last they all summed up. Recording other transaction records are maintained in pre-formatted sheets, which are kept in a file. 2. The problems encountered in the Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital are: Time consuming, information redundancy in every department, and sometimes misunderstanding between hospital personnel and patient because of time pressure, 5
data are not well organizing, minimal security, and inaccurate computation of patients accounts.
3. The proposed system improves the:
3.1 Inpatients and Outpatient This features helps in overall bills, and registering information about patients. A unique ID is generated for each patient after registration. Also can view medical history of patient. 3.2 Channeling This feature deals with; when the ID is generated the patient receives the appointed time and number from the receptionist and accordingly visits the doctor. 3.3 Payments This feature will allow user with appropriate privileges to generate, store and retrieve information of billing and keep track of individual payments. 3.4 Reports This features help to monitor the all master records and appointments. 3.5 Maintenance This feature allows monitoring hospital facilities, and track scheduled services. Also monitor the doctor’s, corporate employee, medicine, ward, department, services of hospital, and room information. 6
3.6 Other features Tools, Windows, and Helps. The following features can help in their daily activities and other transaction. Search engine, Microsoft Magnifier, Microsoft narrator, calendar, System calculator and System notepad. This feature helps hospital staff to monitor the user accounts and can change their password. Help. This feature helps the user search and views the information of the hospital.
4. That the proposed system is technical, economically, and operationally feasible.
Scope and Limitation of the Study To create a more effective system, the proponent needs to know the measure of responsibilities and boundaries of the proposed system. Scope. In general, the focus of this study is directed towards the design and development of a hospital management system of Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital with its doctors, staff, managements, and patients are selected. The study is largely dependent, honesty, sincerity and integrity of the respondents. The system has a secure log-in for doctors and staff. Managing appointments is also integrated and billing statements and official receipts are automated. Limitation. For its limitation, the study is limited only on the customer-employee transactions. The inventory, employees profile, hospital profile and payroll for the employees are not provided by the system because it will only focus in medical practice that combines medical automated hospital solutions and hospital workflow management, customizable to the requirements in hospital. 7
Significance of the Study This section shows the beneficiaries of the proposed study and explains what benefits they will acquire upon using the proposed system. Hospital. The proposed system will simplify and automate everyday hospital tasks and can help maximize time spent with clients thereby providing better making it more profitable. Doctors. The proposed system will make it easier for the doctors to manage the hospital and convenient when it comes to retrieving patient records. Medical staff. The computerized medical record system for Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital helps medical staff to easily find and create a medical record of a certain patient. The proposed system will also minimize the errors of the medical staff. It will give the staff information about the system and extend their knowledge about computer application. And by using fingerprint scanner the medical staffs are also exposed to new technology like this. Patients. Patients which come from any part take treatment inform of admitted basis or out patient door basis. Patient is an important factor for hospital. Researchers. The researcher has developed their writing, analysis, and interpretation skills needed to make a good thesis. Future Researchers. It will benefit the future researchers because this study will serve their basis and guidance towards their proposal, so that they would have ideas on what more they can do with their proposed studies. Definition of Terms These are the definitions of terms used in this study;
Admitting Department. Responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death. Authorized Personal. Individuals that have the right access to a certain job within the organization. Biometric. Refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Database. Is an integrated collection of logically related records or files which consolidates records previously stored in separate files into a common pool of data record that provides data for many applications. Database Management System (DBMS). Is the software that allows a computer to perform database functions of storing, retrieving, adding, deleting and modifying data. Relational database management systems (RDBMS) implement the relational model of tables and relationships. Existing Manual System. Refers to the present use of pen and paper method in handling business transaction. Fingerprint. The pattern of ridges on the tip of one’s finger that can be used for biometric verification of one’s identity. Hospital. A medical treatment facility capable of providing inpatient care. It is appropriately staffed and equipped to provide diagnostic and therapeutic services, as well as the necessary supporting services required to perform its assigned mission and functions. A hospital may, in addition, discharge the functions of a clinic.
Inpatients. Patient who is admitted to a hospital or clinic for treatment that requires to stay overnight. Information Technology Innovation. A process of making changes to something established by introducing the latest technologies. LAN-based. software that enables a group whose members are based in different locations to work together and share information. Is a term which means of or using LAN technology. Local Area Network (LAN). is a computer network covering a small physical area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings, or a school. Management System. Documented and tested step-by-step method aimed at smooth functioning through standard practices. Is the framework of processes and procedures used to ensure that all organization can fulfill all task requirements to achieve its objective. Outpatients. A patient is admitted to a hospital or clinic for treatment that does not require an overnight stay. Receptionist. An information professional trained in the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. System. Refers to an assembly of computer hardware, firmware, and software configured for the purpose of classifying, sorting, calculating, summarizing, transmitting and receiving, storing and retrieving data with minimum of human intervention. User Verification. one who uses a computer system. In order to identify oneself, a user has an account (a user account) and a username (also called a screen name, handle, nickname, or nick on some systems).
Visual Basic (VB). is the third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its COM programming model. VB is also considered a relatively easy to learn and use programming language, because of its graphical development features and BASIC heritage.
As Hanson pointed out that, an electronic system is important in the field of medicine because it allows storage and retrieval of a greatly massive amount of information in a quick and efficient manner, which makes health care more effective (p. 75, 2004). This which includes ensuring that the system handles amendments, corrections, authentication, backups, down time, confidentiality, printouts and reports for disclosure purposes. According to Scott and Rundall, 20005, in a fund-supported study find that the keys to successful adoption and implementation of Electronic Health Record (EHR) include participatory selection process, flexibility regarding staff roles and responsibilities, and decisive leadership at critical stages. Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems have great potential to improve health care quality. So far, however, real and perceived barriers from high costs and decreased productivity to staff frustration have prevented most providers from implementing them. The automation process gives enormous contribution to businesses, offices and even in government establishments according to Lake, in the journal called “Content Management and 11
Automation for the Government Enterprise” state that: the pressures of the costs associated with advance information technologies have further encouraged automation of paper business processes. (http://www.homelanddedjournal.com) “Retrieved 08-26-09”. (Klein, 2006), states that there is an opportunity to transform health care and improve patient safety by better leveraging information technology to improve the efficiency, accuracy, and effectiveness of the health care system. However, adoption has been slow and the results have been mixed up. If deployed incorrectly, without well-conceived process improvements, I.T systems can do just the reverse, leading to critical delays or mistakes. As describes by (Ellwood, 2005), Patient record is the principal repository for information concerning a patient’s health care. It is very important to have storage for data and information especially when it comes in keeping the records of patients. This could not be use for future search of records. Without the core of storing data and information, the record would not be trace promptly in time of looking for the files. In this sense, the proponent desires to achieve the needs of automation of patients record to which is very vital in keeping information of the patients and patient record improvement could make major contributions to improving the health care system of the nation. According to I.T Hawryszkiewycz in his book entitled “Introduction to System Analysis and Design” 3rd Edition (2005) stated that one of the most important factors in building systems is to develop a good understanding of the system and its problems. This is necessary in order to identify the correct system requirements and provide solutions that are acceptable to an organization and its personnel. (p.62) An understanding of the system cannot be developed by analysts simply sitting down and drawing a model of the system or setting user requirements in the privacy of an office. It can 12
only be done by discussion with users to find out what they require of the system and then building systems that satisfy these requirements. Thus, in summary, it is necessary to spend some time studying the system, talking to its users and obtaining information about how the system works and what is needed of the new system. According to Petroutsos in his books entitled “Mastering: Database programming with Visual Basic 6” (2006) stated that since corporations based, when it comes to designing a very large database, most corporations will hire consultants to do the job. Medical companies, for example, with large computer installations and an army of programmers, database administrators and all kinds of computer specialists, usually outsource design of their database. From time to time, they’ll bring consultants to tune the database, as well. (p.39) There’s a good chance you may never have to design a corporate database. The database may already be in place, or your company may outsource the design of its main database. Even so, in order to develop applications for an existing database, you should understanding its structure and not be intimidated by its size. In recent years, computerization of hospital management system has increased at a moderate rate and this trend is likely to continue, particularly as technology improves and becomes more affordable and as the demand for healthcare information increases. If future hospital management system is merely automated versions of most current records, however, an opportunity to improve fundamental resource for healthcare will have been lost. Every access to and sound organization of data elements can be provided by automation of hospital management system, but the availability of the data elements depends on whether practitioners collect and record such data in the first place. The statement of Reihdl in his study entitled “The ComputerBased Patient Record” stated that “The automation of patient record retrieval, maintenance, and 13
use is necessary, but not sufficient, for record improvement”. Well, he has the point of giving the findings of what he believes. We can achieve record improvement in a way of valuing the record keeping. Related Studies Computers are being employed in clinical medicine in hospitals for various purposes. They can act as arithmetic calculators, they can process and analyzed output from recording devices, and they can make possible the automation of various machine systems. However, in the field of case records their role is much less well defined, for here the organization of data as a preliminary to computer input is the real stumbling-block. Data banks of retrospective selected clinical information have been in operation in some centres for the number of years. Attempts are now being made to design computerized “total information systems” to replace conventional paper records, and the possibility of automated diagnosis is being seriously discussed. Golla (2007) stated that record keeping is an organized way of storing valuable information about certain persons handling of such records the proposed system includes all the important records that are organize and place on the system database that are subjectively relating to the transactions of the hospital. Santos in her thesis entitled “A LAN-based Patients record and Billing System of San Lorenzo Hospital of Galon”(August 2006), stated that every establishment started from nothing so as this hospital that we are designing a system. It was conceived by a group of pioneering physicians who envisioned a modern hospital with all the advance technologies and amities that can service affordable to patient from the common mass. (p.1)
Francisco and Rivera in their thesis entitled “LAN-Based Computerized Patient Record System for General Tinio Hospital’ (April 2008), stated that a computer is a tool used by a human in problem solving processes rather than a problem solver itself. Companies extended known capabilities due to the following attributes: speed of operation, memory capacity and cost effectiveness in many applications. (p. 7) Many hospitals are now using a computerized system. According to Maglonzo and Cruz on “Billing System for Castro Maternity and General Hospital” (2005), the system is a major leap forward in computing. It makes computation easier and more fun to use with many user interface and performance enhancement. It will get more work in less time. Professionals in every field are discovering knowledge to meet these changes. To compete effectively in world market, every individual is making effort to explore in their respective firms. Computer-based patient record has a great advantage over the paper-based record since it can be accessed from multiple locations within the health care facility. Depending on the system security configuration, computer-based patient record may also be accessible from distant locations e.g. a physician dialing in to the hospital information system from his/her or home. Documentation in a computer-based patient record is more legible because it is recorded as printed text rather than as hand writing, and it is better organized because software display structure is imposed on the input. Theoretical Framework of the Study This part describes the relationship between the dependent variables, independent variables and intervening variables of existing system and proposed system. As shown the figure 1.0 below. Input Process 15 Output
Hospital Management System Existing System Hospital Management System Proposed System
Manual Recording, updating, transaction, searching, patient’s records Computerized Recording, transaction, updating, Searching, Patient’s Records
Written Patient’s Record, Updated Patient’s information Printed Patient’s Record, updated Patient’s Information
Figure 1.0 Theoretical System Framework of the Existing and Proposed System In figure 1.0, paradigm represents as the existing system. It shows the input, process and output of the hospital management system and then the process is manual recording of information, searching and updates. In this process, the output is handwritten record and updated information of the patients. The lower paradigm of figure 1.0 explains the proposed system that is computerized to where the process is being computerized. The process is as follows: Inputs of patient’s information, then the process of recording, updating and searching will be manipulated by the computer. The output of the process is the printed patient’s information. The aim of the study is to increase the efficiency and productivity of hospital management system. Computerization of the current manual system saves labor and time in recording information, inquiring records, updating surgical results records and the manual admitting tasks. The computerized proposed system utilizes a database for record keeping and report generation. Conceptual Paradigm of the Study Conceptual paradigm shows how the proposed system will work. The proponent makes use of graphics such as clip arts to represent how the proposed system process would be. 16
5. Printed Report 4. Authorized User
1. Patient’s Information
2. HMS/Fingerprint log-in
Figure 2.0 Conceptual Paradigm of the Proposed Study In figure 2.0 shows how the proposed system operates. First is that the admitting incharge will encode the information given by the patient. Second is that after encoding the information of the patient, it will go directly to the HMS with a security log-in by means of fingerprint. Third is that, when the information is being save, it will be stored directly to the server for safe keeping. Fourth is that, the authorized user can view the information record of the
patients from the HMS but in a limited access. Lastly, is that the HMS will provide a printed report for the patient and some concerns. Through the figure shown above, it would be easy to recognize on how the proposed system works through its flows.
Research Design The proponent evaluates the existing and proposed software, a research design that had been applied. Descriptive survey was used to determine the problems encountered on the existing software. Weighted arithmetic mean was the statistical tools used to determine the feasibility of the proposed software. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) Methods of Research Used In order to achieve a through understanding of all the activities required defining and designing software. The proponent used different methodologies in order to establish the problems and simultaneously formulate the solution. The methods used are the following. Descriptive Research Method. The method is characterized briefly as fact finding with adequate interpretation. The descriptive method is something beyond just data gathering. Facts obtained may be accurate expression of central tendency of duration, or of correlation, but the report is not research unless discussion of these data is carried up into the level of adequate interpretation. Data must be subjected to the thinking process in terms of ordered reasoning. It also involves the analysis, description and recording of the gathered information. The researcher used this method of research in the generalization of essential information for the development of 18
the proposed system. The proponent formulates possible alternatives for improvement of the proposed system through analysis, interpretation and determination of its defects. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) Library and Documentary Research. This type of method falls under descriptive job analysis where the pertinent data gathered from books, accomplished thesis and other resources found in the library are being used in developing the proposed software. This method was adapted in order to create well supported and more probable security software. This research method was conducted by the use of different libraries. The proponent was able to view other resourceful documents from different libraries as a fulfillment to a successful study. Libraries of different universities and colleges visited by the proponent include the University of Sto. Tomas, Far Eastern University – East Asia, University of the East (Recto Manila) and AMA Computer University. (Scates, Douglas E. 2008) Creative Research Method. It is the design and presentation of the system based on the knowledge that the proponent have learned in school. Through this they were able to make the system fulfill its objectives. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) Data Gathering Instruments and Techniques These are varieties of research that supports data gathering. The tools used for the research are instruments that provide for provide for collection of data upon which they were tested. It is essential for the researcher to collect as much possible reliable information needed for more scientific investigation of the system to be implemented using the following techniques; Observation. The proponent learned a large portion of what he knows through observation. Through the use of observation method, the proponent was able to identify the 19
problems or difficulties experienced by the users in the present software. This method enabled the proponent to obtain additional knowledge and information objectively. Both viewpoints are, of course, helpful for a complete understanding of software yet observation is the simplest way of gathering data. This instrument includes listing down of every relevant information that caused the problems of the software. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See Appendix B) Interview. Is the general term for the method used to draw information from a respondent. This involves the collection of data through direct verbal interaction between the interviewer and the respondent. Through interview the proponent were aware on how the present system works its structure, advantages and disadvantages, limitation, and problems. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See Appendix D) Questionnaire. Is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. This method used to select respondents without bias, to be able to improve the quality of the new system. The use of this method was for the proponent to secure detailed facts, views and opinions on paper. Questionnaires were made to obtain their opinions, attitudes and sentiments regarding the study being conducted. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See appendix C) Evaluation. An evaluation form checklist was used to know how operationally feasible the system is using a set of criteria to measure the feasibility of the proposed system in becoming an effective and functional program that users can eventually use. With friendly user interface at no cost whatsoever the following criteria where provided in the evaluation form: Accuracy, Efficiency, Reliability, User-Friendliness, and Security. (See appendix E) Methods Used in Developing the Software 20
In developing the proposed software, the researcher used the waterfall model by Ian Sommerville. Each researcher needs methods to achieve good results. The researcher used the Waterfalls method. It is a system development model designed to simplify the understanding of the complexity associated with developing systems. In systems engineering it is used to define a uniform procedure of product of project development. This system model would help the proponent to create, design and maintain the proposed system because it summarizes the main steps to be taken in conjunction with the corresponding deliverables within computerized system validation framework. Requirements Analysis and Definition System and Software Design Implementation and Unit Testing Integration and System Testing
Operation and Maintenance
Figure 2.0 Waterfall by Ian Sommerville 21
Requirements Analysis and Definition. In this phase, the requirements of the proposed system are collected by analyzing the needs of the users. This phase is concerned about establishing what the ideal system has to perform. However, it does not determine how the software would be designed or built. Usually, the users are interviewed and a document called the user requirements document is generated. The user requirements document would typically describe the system’s functional, physical, interface, performance, data security requirements etc as expected by the user. It is one which the business analysts use to communicate their understanding of the system back to the users. The users carefully review this document as this document would serve as the guideline for the system designers in the system design phase. The user acceptance tests are designed in this phase. System and Software Design. The proponent analyzed and understands the business of the proposed system by studying the user requirements document. They figure out possibilities and techniques by which the user requirements can be implemented. If any of the requirements are not feasible, the user is informed of the issue. A resolution is found and the user requirement document is edited accordingly. The software specification document which serves as a blueprint for the development phase is generated. This document contains the general system organization, menu structures, data structures etc. It may also hold example business scenarios, sample windows, reports for the better understanding. Other technical documentation like entity diagrams, data dictionary would also be produced in this phase. The documents for system testing are prepared in this phase. Implementation and Unit Testing. After code has been generated, unit testing is performed to verify that each unit meets its specification.
Integration and system testing. The individual program unit or programs are integrated and tested as a complete system to ensure that the software requirements have been met. Operation and maintenance. Maintenance involves correcting errors missed in earlier stages of the life cycle, improving the system implementation, adding performance or functional enhancements (e.g., user may request new requirements) or making changes due to accommodate changes in the software’s external environment (e.g., new operating system). This is normally the longest stage in the life cycle, Justification of methods Used The proponent used the waterfall model to complement the needs of developing software for business operations. The proponent believed that business applications undergo continuous enhancements since business operations may change from time to time according to business trends and innovations that would benefit the customers and increase profit. Using the waterfall model would enable identifying new problems, opportunities and objectives whenever enhancements were made. Thus, the continuous flow of stages can be applied again for further revisions to comply with the business operations. Analytical Tools A significant aspect in software development, analytical tools is used to clearly exemplify the graphical representation of the existing and proposed system. With the suitable textual details, It provides a step by step process that will form the flow of the system. Tools such as DFD, VTOC, IPO and SFC will use in the study.
Data Flow Diagram (DFD). A modeling tool used to describe the transformation of inputs into outputs. A graphic illustration that shows of flow of data and logic within the system. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See appendix F) Visual Table of Contents (VTOC). This is a tool being used in the presentation of the Visual Table of Contents of the program, which illustrates the hierarchical process in the level of detail, increase from top to bottom, modify from general to specific. It consists of a treestructured directory which summarizes the contents of each input-process-output overview diagram. This was used by the proponent in presenting a hierarchical view of their software by indicating individual; modules at each level, as the modules that succeed them. By viewing the modular structure through VTOC, the proponent were easily able to evaluate and refine the design and organization of the software. Flaws are also noticed more easily and are then corrected prior to implementation. It also served as a basis for the IPO. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See appendix G) Input Process Output (IPO). A tool representing the Input-Process-Output of the software, which may be their general or specific. To have an understanding on how the program is meet. This specifies the functional processes in the software by describing the inputs, processing steps and outputs for the functions specified. Each module of the VTOC is broken down into IPO chart, and through this, the subunits of each modules input, process, outputs are viewed. Through the nature of the presentation, the proponent easily able to follow a programs structure as they code, modify and maintained the program. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See appendix) System Flowchart This is a graphical representation of the program logic and the design of the proposed software. This is used in order to show or to convey the flow of the program. 24
Being another visual approach to program design and documentation, it epitomizes the flow of the process therefore, not much attention is paid to the inputs and outputs. These tools depict the flow of the program and not necessarily the structure; hence they should be used in conjunction with the VTOC for greater benefit. This was used by the proponent in portraying the course of progression of the program. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See appendix I)
Method Used for Product Evaluation Evaluation of the proposed system would not only resolve the problems encountered in the proposed system but to prove that it is technically and operationally feasible. Technical Feasibility. Market availability of hardware and software components needed in programming system is the primary function of this method. Operational Feasibility. This evaluative instrument is necessary to determine the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed system. The following criteria were used evaluate the existing and proposed system. Accuracy. Refers to the consistency of a measure. The condition quality of being true, correct, or exact, freedom of error. Efficiency. The production of the desired effects or results with minimum waste of time, effort, or skill. A measure of effectiveness; specifically, the useful work output divided by the energy input in any system. Reliability. This tells about the dependability of the system in performing its intended functions and giving satisfactory results.
User-Friendliness. Refers to ease of use in accessing information in terms of usage and convenience for use with minimum amount of efforts use was disseminate and communicate with other people at any given time. Security. The ability of the system to secured from unauthorized user. Statistical Treatment of Data. Information and data gathered in the course of the study were both qualitative and quantitative in form. For the quantitative data, the researcher applied statistical methods of analysis in order to the properly interpret and present data in a more understandable form. The following statistical methods were used interpret the results: Percentage. This statistic refers to the relation between the part under consideration to the whole, expressed in hundredths. Ranking. This refers to arranging scores of the data in numerical order. Frequency. This represents the number of respondents that obtained a particular score. These are the following formula use in computing the operational feasibility 1.) Mean Mean (M) = -f (x1+x2+…..xn)/n Where: M = is the mean for each criteria n = the total number of respondents. f = refers to the frequency of the number of times that a given (x) was chosen by the respondents as rating for a given criteria. x1, x2 …..xn = respondents only numerical rating 1,2,3,4 & 5 representing the the evaluators rating given criterion. 2.) Weighted mean 26
Weighted Mean (WM) = ∑f ( x1 + x2 +…..xn)/n n Where: f( x1 + x2 +…..xn)/n = representing the sum of all Means (M) of each criterion. n = the total number of criteria being rated. 3.) T-test WMP - WME √ (∑MP2) + (∑ME2) n(n–1) Where: WMP = weighted mean of proposed system. WME = weighted mean of existing system. ∑MP2 = represent the sum and square of the weighted mean of the proposed system. ∑ME2 = represent the sum and square of the weighted mean of the existing system. n = total number of respondents. n-1 = degree of freedom. Likert Scale The Likert scale was applied to the qualitative data collected because its appropriateness in giving meaning to the feedback obtained from respondents. A Likert scale measures the extent to which a person agrees or disagrees with the question. Table 1.0 Likert scale by Rensis Likert Rating 5 4 Range 4.21-5.0 3.41-4.2 27 Equivalent Excellent Very Good
3 2 1
2.61-3.4 1.81-2.6 1.01-1.8
Good Fair Poor
Economic Feasibility The proposed study was subjected to market analysis to determine the cost development the software, especially the pay back period or benefit the return of investment. Formula for System Development Cost Hardware Cost Salvage Value – Hardware cost/Life Expectancy* Development Period 12 months Annual Depreciation Cost – Hardware Cost – Salvage Value Life Expectancy Life Expectancy of Hardware Monthly Depreciation Cost – Annual Depreciation cost / 12 months Hardware Depreciation Cost – Monthly Depreciation cost* Development Period
Software Development Cost Salvage Value – (Software cost / Life Expectancy)* Development Period 12 months Annual Depreciation Cost – Hardware Cost – Salvage Value Life Expectancy 28
Life Expectancy of software Monthly Depreciation Cost – Annual Depreciation cost / 12 monthly Software Depreciation Cost – Monthly Depreciation cost * Development Period
Labor Cost – Developers Fee * Development Period
Miscellaneous Overhead Cost Computer, Fingerprint Reader, Printer, Scanner, Electric Fan, Light KWH Used – No. of Watts * No. of Hours * Month 1000w Total Overhead Cost – KWH Used Total Software Development Cost – (Hardware Cost + Software Development Cost + Labor Cost + Miscellaneous + Overhead Cost)
Table 2.0 presents the distribution of respondent’s profile and its percentage distribution. Table 2.0 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to Position Criteria Doctors Nurses Physical Therapy Cashier Clerk Management No. of Respondents 2 24 1 1 1 1 Percentage (%) 6.66% 80.00% 3.33% 3.33% 3.33% 3.33%
Position. Table 2.0 reveals that most of the respondents are nurses consisting of two doctors, followed by twenty-four nurses, one physical therapy, one cashier, one clerk and one management. These people are employees of the hospital we visited and also memberbeneficiaries of the proposed system. This further reveal that most of the respondents are nurses which have a total percentage of 83.33% followed by doctors who have total of 6.66%, Physical Therapy 3.33%, Cashier 3.33%, Clerk 3.33% and the management which also has a total of 3.33%. 30
The respondents are from the Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital. The following table will present the respondent’s data with regards to the existing system and were asked to fill out the appropriate boxes. Criteria with multiple answers are also asked to be filled out.
Table 3.0 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to the Record Keeping Criteria Log Book/Record Book Store files in cabinet File Racks Others Frequency 17 6 8 0 Percentage (%) 56.66% 20.00% 26.66% 0%
In this portion, the record keeping of the hospital were evaluated as shown in table 3.0. There are 56.66% of respondents assessed that they keep the file on log book/ record book, followed by 26.66% of the total respondents said that they keep the files on file racks, while 20% of respondents that they store files in cabinet and 0% respondents go to others. This further reveals that most of the respondents assessed in log book/record book for their medical records. The majority of the respondent’s uses log book/record book for all their transaction in the hospital. This can prove the proposed can be favored by users against the existing system because of the improvement of record keeping in proposed system.
Table 4.0 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to the Tools they use in Recording Patient’s attendance Criteria Log Book/Record Book Paper and Book Coupon Bond Time card Frequency 6 9 5 20 Percentage (%) 20% 30% 16.66% 66.66%
The tools used in recording data as shown in table 4.0. There are 30% respondents assessed that they use paper and book, followed by 20% of the total respondents that they use log book and record book, and 16.66% said that they used. The majority of the respondents choose the time card as the tool used for recording the information of the patients which has the average percentage of 66.66%. This further reveals that the recording patient’s attendance on hospitals mostly relies on forms which are out numbered from the choices given on the table above. This is show that the proposed system is most favored because of the enhancement of recording patient’s attendance.
Table 5.0 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to the The Common Problems Encountered in Record Management Criteria Time Consuming Damaged file book record Encounters voluminous of records Misplaced records 15 others 1 3.33% 50% Frequency 9 10 Percentage (%) 30% 33.33%
Table 5.0 above is the common problems encountered in record management and these are the result of the evaluation given to the respondents. There are 50% respondents assessed of misplaced records other 33.33% of respondents assessed to damaged file book record, followed by the time consuming in record management which has the percentage of 30%, there are 30% of respondents assessed to encounters voluminous of records and lastly assessed to others is 3.33%. As the result of evaluation on table above, this further reveals that the most common problems encountered in record management of the manual operation are both slow in process and unorganized. 33
Table 6.0 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to the Problem encountered of their Recent System Criteria Numerous outputs of records Frequent errors in computation Human error Unsecured data Others Frequency 9 10 14 8 1 Percentage (%) 30% 33.33% 46.66% 26.66% 3.33%
Below are the findings of their recent operation as shown on table 6.0. There are 46.66% of the respondents assessed human error, 33.33% frequent errors, followed by 30% of respondents choose the numerous outputs of records operation of their recent system, 26.66% of the respondents choose the unsecured data and 3.33% to others. The result of evaluation given on above table reveals that the majority of respondents found the difficulties of operation with their recent system.
Table 7.0 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to the Features incorporate to the current system Criteria Faster accessing and organization of medical cases Fast and accurate computation w/ printed receipt Security in the patient records Process and store the medical cases both in and out patient Others Frequency 10 10 8 14 0 Percentage (%) 33.33% 33.33% 26.66% 46.66% 0%
Table 7.0 as shown above is the result of the security of their recent system. There are 46.66% of the respondents chose the process and store the medical cases both in and out, while another 33.33% of respondents chose the faster accessing and organization of medical cases, 33.33% respondents chose for process and store the medical , 16.66% of respondents of security in the patient records and 0% for others. In this evaluation, it shows that the majority of respondents chose the process and store the medical cases both in and out patient operation of their recent system. The Components of the Proposed System
This section provides the development of the features and components that will make up the proposed software. They are to be used by the users in order for proper functioning of the software. General Functions/Features. The hospital management system with fingerprint security log-in for Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital generate reports; automatically update the database and record of a particular patient. It has different features such as patient admission, managing inpatient, and managing outpatient, channeling services, reports, maintenance, pharmacy and billing. These functions would help the user to manipulate the HMS with the ease of use because of its friendly interface. It also provides a search function that helps the user for immediate inquiries as well as printed reports. Icon Driven. Icons are provided in order to help the user to easily navigate the program by clicking the different buttons with tags at the bottom using the mouse can promptly do the task. Report. Forms and reports can also be printed. User-friendliness. The proposes software is said to be user-friendly because it is mouse driven and icon driven, through this it will be easy for the user to understand the flow of the system. Software Development The proponent has considered the following elements during the development of the proposed system. Specification. The very first step to be taken in developing software. The proponent first enumerated the features and functions to be carried out by the proposed system to have a clear
view of what is to be developed. Also in order to operate the proposed system the user must have at least an Intel processor with 128 MB of memory. Design. Designing software is done when the entire requirement has been collected. The researcher made use of the following software components such as program flowchart, visual table of contents, input-process-outputs, and others to facilitate the development of the software. The design was based on the data gathered using the data gathering instruments used such as interview, questionnaire, evaluation form, and observation. Programming. It deals with the preparations of a set of instructions for the computer to use in the solution of the weaknesses, the desired programming language and the forms are specified, the computer programs that make the hardware run. The proposed software was developed using Visual Basic 6.0 was chosen by the proponent due to its capabilities of being an OOP (object oriented programming), this was used in creating the GUI (graphical user interface) of the system. And for the presence of MySQL as for database management. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 was used for the graphics of the system do it will be more appealing. Testing. Before the system can be used, it must be tested and there will be a series of tested to show the proposed system and afterward compare it with the existing system. Testing and checking the reliability of the program is needed in order to affirm a sufficient output. Source code must be verified and validated to improve the quality of the product. On the other hand, the proponent might find some errors and will continue to do so until there are no more errors found. Therefore the proponent conducted a series of testing and debugging in order for the program to be free from errors.
Table 8.0 Software Components COMPONENT Operating System Program Application Database Application Server Graphics design USED Windows XP SP3 Visual Basic 6.0 MYSQL Enterprise Edition 6.0 WampServer 2.0 Adobe Photoshop CS3 MINIMUM Windows 2000 SP4 Visual Basic 6.0 MYSQL Enterprise Edition 6.0 WampServer 2.0 Adobe Photoshop 7 RECOMMENDED Windows XP SP3 Visual Basic 6.0 (SP6) Enterprise edition MYSQL Enterprise Edition 6.0 WampServer 2.0 Adobe Photoshop 7
Below is the table of hardware specifications that the proponent used. Table 9.0 Hardware Components COMPONENT CPU Memory Hard Disk Space Monitor Keyboard Mouse Optical Device Printer Sound Card Fingerprint Sensor USED Intel Celeron 2.0 GHz 1 GB 80 GB 14” LCD 101/102 Keyboard Microsoft PS/2 DVD-R/RW Canon S100SP Realtek HD Audio EDS Finger ID system MINIMUM Pentium 4 2.40 GHz 256 MB 40 GB 14” CRT 101 Keyboard Microsoft PS/2 CD-ROM Canon S100SP Realtek HD audio USB fingerprint Sensor RECOMMENDED Pentium 4 2.40 GHz 1 GB 80 GB 14” LCD 101 Keyboard Microsoft PS/2 DVD-R/RW Any type of printer Any type of soundcard USB fingerprint sensor
These hardware requirements are optional but are strongly advised in order for the proposed software to work suitably in the accepted manner. Operational Feasibility. The proposed software was designed in order to meet the needs of the prospective user and satisfy their requirements. The proponent distributed evaluation forms to 30 respondents regarding the performance of the proposed software with given criteria such as Accuracy, Efficiency, Reliability, User-friendliness and Security. After conducting survey, the results obtained where interpreted using the evaluation according to the Likert scale and the minimum requirements are not mandatory but the mentioned, makes of higher models thereof are needed in order for the software to run correctly and proficiently. Table 10.0 Evaluation of the Proposed System Criteria Accuracy Efficiency Reliability User-friendliness Security Evaluation of the Proposed Software The proposed software entitled Hospital Management System with Fingerprint Security Log-in for Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital is technically and operationally feasible for implementation based on the result on the conducted survey. The proponent conducted a survey with 30 respondents regarding the performance of the existing system and the proposed software Weight Point 4 4.1 4.4 4 4.3 Descriptive Equivalent Very good Very good Very good Very good Very good
are rated from excellent, very satisfactory, satisfactory, fair and poor. Under categories are accuracy, efficiency, reliability, user-friendliness and security. Technical Feasibility. This method was used to determine the requirement needed for the implementation of the software. Listed below are the minimum computer hardware that are required for the efficient operation and performance of the proposed software. The proposed software requirements are the following; a computer system unit at least Pentium 4 processor with an operating system of at least Windows 2000, memory of at least 64MB SDRAM and a minimum of at least 30MB free hard disk space, A CD ROM Drive at least 4X in speed, any kind of mouse, keyboard and printer.
Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION
This chapter discussed the summary of the entire previous chapter and came about with an interpretation of the problems and objectives of the study. A conclusion then was formulated.
Summary The study deals with a proposal for a Hospital Management System with Fingerprint Security Log-in for Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital. The objective of the study is to develop software that would enhance the operations of the existing system. From the general objective, specific objectives, specific objectives were: 1.) To analyze and describe how the manual system of Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital works. 2.) To identify the problems encountered in Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital. 3.) To develop a system that will improve the scope: Inpatient, Outpatient, Channeling, Payments, Reports and Maintenance. 4.) To show that the proposed system is technically, economically and operationally feasible. Different methods were used to attain the objectives of the study. The proponents made use of the descriptive research method where the library research method and research survey 41
falls under this category, and creative type of research. To gather necessary data, the proponent made used of the data gathering techniques such as observation, interview, and evaluation. The data gathering instruments used was observation, survey questionnaires, and interview guide and evaluation forms. In developing the software the following analytical tools were used: data flow diagram (DFD), visual table of contents (VTOC), input-process-output (IPO) and program flow chart (PFC). The proponent also used the waterfall model by Ian Sommerville as the method for developing the software. The proponent also made use of statistical tools such as Weighted Arithmetic Mean and Likert’s scale. Method of software evaluation was used to prove its operational and technical feasibility of the proposed software. The technical feasibility was proved by proving information regarding the hardware and software specifications which includes the minimum and recommended requirements. The operational feasibility was proved under the criteria of accuracy, efficiency, reliability, user friendliness and security of use. Conclusion The hospital management system is to modernize the handling of records in a hospital. The software takes care of all requirements of an average hospital and is capable to provide easy and effective storage of information related to patients. Through facts findings and prior research done by the proponent. He was able to meet the goal of developing the software. A system for hospitalization that is fast, reliable and efficient has been developed. This study has shown to be fit for its intended use and purpose.
Recommendation The proposed system Hospital Management System with Fingerprint Security Log-in for Immaculate of Mary Hospital is recommended to be adapted by hospitals or the improvement and streamlining of its operations. The results of this study were based on the response of actual users of the system who stand to derive the benefits offered by the proposed system. Employee and patient in the Immaculate of Mary Hospital can lead into more organize, secured and faster transaction. The study is open to be used as reference material for interested parties who are undertaking similar studies. The proponent is also open for improvements on its proposal to take into future changes in technology.
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