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Geometric Optics Practical

AIM:
The aim of this investigation is to estimate the refractive index of
Perspex using white light, and to investigate dispersion of white light
through a prism.
HYPOTHESIS:
The refractive index will remain the same for the medium,
regardless of the angle of incidence.
If white light is emitted in Perspex, it will separate into its
components with red light refracting most and blue light refracting
least.

APPARATUS:

Light Box
Rectangular
Perspex Prism
Semi circular
Perspex prism
Triangular
Perspex prism

VARIABLES:

Power pack
Notebook
Pencil
Blank A4 sized
paper
Dark room

(google.com,
2015)

IndependentThe angle of incidentce was changed.


DependentThe angle of refraction was changed when the independent
variable was changed.
ControlledThe darkness in the room was constant.
The amount of light and power of the light beam was kept
controlled.
The prism
The width of the light beam

PROCEDURE:

Geometric Optics Practical


1. Gather all apparatus
2. Give power pack power and set power pack
to 12V
3. Set up the light box
4. Place the single slit card in the light box
5. Turn off all lights so you have a dark room
6. Place rectangular prism Perspex and using
a protractor set the Perspex at an angle of
incidence of 20o, on blank a4 sheet of
paper.
7. Trace the prism and rule a line from where
(google.com,
2015)

the light is refracted. (as seen below)


8. Measure and label the angle of incidence and angle of
refraction
9. Repeat step 4-6 with an angle of incidence of 35o, 40o, 60o and
80o
10.
Rearrange the formula nisin 1=n 2 sin 2 for n2
(refractive index of Perspex), given that n1= 1.000277
(refractive index of air)
nisin1
=n2 ,
11.
Rearranged formula is;
sin 2
12.
Find the average of n2 for all the angles, and that is your
n2 value, or the refractive index of the Perspex.

Part 2:

1.

PRE LAB:

Find out what is meant by the term refraction of light.

Geometric Optics Practical

Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where its speed
is different. The refraction of light when it passes from a fast medium to a
slow medium bends the light ray toward the normal to the boundary between
the two media.

What is the refractive index of a medium?


The refractive index is an index created with a set of values and quantities for
each medium through which light travels. These values and quantities depend
on the speed that light travels through the medium.
How can you work out the refractive index of an object?
Through Snells Law, using the formula.
What is the difference between refraction and reflection?
Refraction is the term we use when light travels through
different mediums, whereas reflection is when light bounces
off a reflective surface.
What is meant by the Critical Angle?
The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which the
total internal reflection occurs.
What is meant by Total Internal Reflection?
Total internal reflection occurs when an angle larger than the
critical angle causes light to slope along the boundary of the
medium.

REULTS:
n1 sin 1
=n2
sin 2
n1 is 1.000277
1.000277 sin 1
=n 2
sin 2
Angle of
incidence
20

Angle of
refraction
14

N1

N2

1.000277

1.414

Geometric Optics Practical

1.

2.

40
60
35
80

26
37
20
50

1.000277
1.000277
1.000277
1.000277
Average

1.467
1.439
1.678
1.286
1.4568

ANALYSIS:
Refer to your hypothesis which colour of light caused the
greatest refraction? Give evidence (from your results) which
supports your answer.

The results did not support the hypothesis of red being


refracted most and blue the least. However, red was
refracted the least and blue was refracted most as shown in
the results attached. The color red was evaluated to be 75o
from the normal and blue to be 78o from the normal, which
proves this.

What do you notice about the incident and emergent rays?

Both, the incident ray and emergent ray have an equal


angle to each other, from there normal.

3.
Which way does light refract (bend) in relation to
the normal, when it travels:
(a) from a less dense medium to a more dense medium?

When light is emitted from a less dense medium to a


more dense medium the light refracted will be more closer
to the normal.

(b) from a more dense medium to a less dense medium?

When light is emitted from a more dense medium to a


less dense medium the light refracted will be more further
away from the normal.

Geometric Optics Practical


4. (a) When light travels from a less dense to a more dense
medium, what do you notice about the value of sin i ?

When light is emitted from a less dense medium through


to a more dense medium the resultant angle will have a
smaller sine value.
(b) When light travels from a more dense to a less dense
medium, what do you notice about the value of sin i ?

When light is emitted from a more dense medium


through to a less dense medium the resultant angle will
have a larger sine value.

5.
Describe Snells Law and the Refractive Index.

Refractive index is a number, which represents the speed of


light in a particular medium.

Snells law gives the relationship between the angles of


incidence and refraction for a wave intruding on an interface
between two mediums with different indices of refraction. This
is shown by the following formula:
n1 sini=n2 sinr (Scienceworld.wolfram.com)

6.
Find the accepted value of sin i for perspex and air (for
white light).
??

7. Discuss why your experimental results varied from these


values. State how errors could be reduced in this experiment.

??

Geometric Optics Practical

1. Rearrange the formula nisin 1=n 2 sin 2 we rearrange it to


nisin1
=n2 n1 is 1.000277 so it would be
fine n2
sin 2
1.000277 sin1
=n 1
sin2

Scienceworld.wolfram.com,.'Snell'sLawFromEricWeisstein'sWorldOfPhysics'.N.p.,
2015.Web.8Aug.2015.