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REG NO: 18014384001



Technology has changed the way we communicate, socialise and
work in ways that would have been unimaginable years ago. Todays children
are well equipped with the new technologies and they are called digital
natives. Teachers are digital immigrants standing on shifting sands as new
technologies appear regularly on the classroom horizon. Ongoing professional
learning is essential for teachers to enable them to keep abreast of new and
emerging technologies. Professional learning also needs to address the changes
in pedagogical practices needed to support the integration of technology into the
classroom in such a way that it impacts positively on student learning. To reflect
on the rapid changes in the technology, teachers should change their way of
teaching by integrating pedagogical knowledge with technological knowledge.
Acquiring techno-pedagogical proficiency will make teaching and learning a
pleasurable exercise as it would lessen the pressure on the teachers and enable
the students to develop deeper domain of knowledge. The education system is
now witnessing a paradigm shift from the traditional chalk-and-board teaching
methodology to digitizing the pedagogical approach through technical devices.
Such a transformation would not only increase the capability of the teachers but
also widen the knowledge base of students so as make them competitive in the
international arena.


In education, teachers facilitate student learning. The
objectives of learning is typically accomplished through either an informal or
formal approach to learning, including a course of study and lesson plan that
teaches skills, knowledge and thinking skills. Different ways to teach are often

referred to as pedagogy. When deciding what teaching method to use teachers

consider students' background knowledge, environment, and their learning goals
as well as standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority. Most
of the teachers follow the traditional ways of teaching. But, the increasing use
of technology, specifically the rise of the internet over the past decade, has
begun to shape the way teachers approach their roles in the classroom. Since
teachers can affect how students perceive the course materials, it has been found
that teachers who showed enthusiasm to use technology in class integrated with
their pedagogical skills can produce a positive learning experience to the
students. Therefore, it is important for teachers to have pedagogical skills and
technological knowledge along with content knowledge. Teachers should act as
a techno pedagogue in this present era of technology revolution. Technological
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) helps the teachers by giving proper
guidance on classroom teaching as a techno pedagogue. TPACK

is a

framework to understand and describe the kinds of knowledge needed by

a teacher for effective pedagogical practice in a technology enhanced learning
environment. The idea of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) was first
described by Lee Shulman in 1986 and TPACK builds on those core ideas
through the inclusion of technology. Punya Mishra and Matthew J. Koehler,
professors at Michigan State University, have done extensive work in
constructing the TPACK framework.
Dozens of methods have been proposed for this development of
TPACK, and they vary in their effectiveness. Among various approaches, an
emphasis upon how teachers integrate technology in their practice is more
important than the emphasis upon what teachers integrate in their practice. For
example, approaches that develop technological knowledge [TK] in isolation,
where technology literacy is the goal, fail to assist teachers in the development
of the educational uses of those tools. Similarly, approaches that develop only

pedagogy or content- or even pedagogical content knowledge-do not capture the

scope and unique flavour of knowledge needed to effectively teach with
Other methods of developing TPACK have avoided these problems
by focusing on different approaches to developing the connected, contextualized
knowledge described in the TPACK framework. In the following sections, we
describe two unique approaches: learning technology by design and activity
types. For other proposed methods of developing TPACK, interested readers can
read Angeli and Valanides (2009); Brush and saye (2009); and Niess, Van Zee,
and Gillow-Wiles (2010).Naming their approach Activity types to reflect the
kinds of domain-driven learning activities that teachers and student do everyday
in their classrooms, Haarris&Hoefer (2011) build knowledge about technology
onto teachers existing understanding. In this approach, teachers first formulate
goals for student learning. Then, they choose activity types appropriate for the
specified goals. Finally, they select specific technologies based upon their
choice of activity types. Research indicates that activity types help teachers to
make careful, strategic decisions around the integration of technology in their
In the TPACK framework, what teachers need to know is
characterized by three broad knowledge bases-technology, pedagogy, and
content-and the interactions between and among these knowledge bases. In this
approach, technology in teaching is characterized as something well beyond
isolated knowledge of specific hardware or software. Rather, technology that is
introduced into teaching contexts causes the representation of new concepts
and requires developing sensitivity to the dynamic, transactional relationship
between all three components. Good teaching with technology, therefore,
cannot be achieved by simply adding a new piece of technology upon existing

structures. Good teaching, with technology, requires a shift in existing

pedagogical and content domains.
The TPACK framework also emphasizes the role of the
context within teaching and learning occurs.lgnoring context leads to generic
solution to the problem of teaching. Teaching is a context-bound activity, and
teachers with developed TPACK use technology to design learning experiences
tailored for specific pedagogies, crafted for specific content, as instantiated in
specific learning contexts. In section below we describe each of the components
of the TPACK framework and, most importantly, their interactions with each

Technological knowledge[TK]
TK includes an understanding of how to use computer software and
hardware, presentation tools such as document presenters and projects, and
other technologies used in educational contexts. Most importantly, TK covers
the ability to adapt to and learn new technologies. It is important to note that TK
exists in a state of flux, due to the rapid rate of change in technology and due to
the protean nature of technology. For instance, modern computer hardware and
software become quickly obsolete, and computers can be used for a variety of
pedagogical tasks, such as research, communication, and media consumption
and creation

Content knowledge [CK]

Ck refers to the knowledge or specific nature of a discipline or subject varies greatly between different educational contexts, and teachers are
expected to master the content they teach. Content knowledge is also important
because it determines the discipline-specific modes of thinking unique to each

Pedagogical knowledge [PK]

PK describes the general purpose knowledge unique to teaching. It is
the set of skills that teachers must develop in order to manage and organize
teaching and learning activities for intended learning outcomes. This knowledge
involves, but is not limited to, an understanding of classroom management
activities, the role of student motivation, lesson planning, and assessment of

The technological revolution has prompted a fundamental shift in
our understanding of pedagogy and its related practices. Traditionally, teaching
did not require that the instructor also be a learner, but only an expert.
Technology is a literacy need by the teachers of this era as students are well
equipped with modern technologies. Therefore, teachers should act as a techno
pedagogue by incorporating modern technologies in teaching. Teachers have an
inevitable role as a techno pedagogue to improve students achievement by
introducing new gadgets for learning.

Aggarwal J C, Principles, Methods & techniques of Teaching-Vikas
Publishing House(2001)