SEMINAR REPORT ON
TECHNOLOGY BEHIND CRICKET BROADCASTING
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER IN COMPUTER APPLICATION
MCA 3rd Semester Reg. No: 20MCA/08 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Submitted to:Mrs.Sanjibani Sudha Pattnayak. Mrs.Debaswapna Mishra.
CENTER FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDIES ORISSA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR
It gives me immense pleasure to salute the personalities those who have helped me in preparing this seminar report. I am especially indebted to my department and my teachers who all have given their ideas and valuable time in preparing the report. They stood behind me as a friend rather than a guide. I am deeply indebted to our H.O.D. Mr. Abhimanyu dash, Mrs. S.S Pattnayak , Mrs. Debaswapna Mishra & other teachers for their valuable guidance & encouragement. I would like to express my sincere thanks to my friends who let me to present myself to the other students and has helped me in documenting the report. Last but not the least I am thankful to my friends and colleagues who have given their valuable ideas in completing the report.
Deviprasad sahoo MCA – 3rd semester Roll No:20MCA/08
1 2 3
Abstract …………………………………… 4 Introduction ………………………………. 5 OB Van…………………………………… 6
Video management………………... 6 Sound management………………... 6 Video store………………………… 7 Cameras…………………………… 8 The graphics………………………. 8 The sound…………………………. 9
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Hawk eye camera………………………… 9 Virtual advertisement……………………. 11 Virtual spectator…………………………. 12 IT at stumps …………………………….. 13 IT at stand………………………………... 14 Analyzing team performance …………… 15 Conclusion……………………………….. 17 References……………………………….. 18
TECHNOLOGY BEHIND CRICKET BROADCASTING
Thousands of miles away Tendulkar played a cover drive and the very next moment (actually it’s 4 seconds after he hit it) you saw in on your screen. Have you ever thought how it happens? Ever thought how the pictures travel millions of miles and comes to you? It is the technology behind it which gives us the live telecast of the match. The outside Broadcasting or OB Van for short is the heart of any cricket telecast. All signals both video and audio come to the OB Van, are processed there and then broadcasted. From the OB Van the feed including the graphics are broadcasted to a satellite, not to your house; not yet they are sent to an “Earth station “. The station can be nearby in the same vicinity or could be millions of miles away. You may wonder why they can’t directly broadcast it to your home. Among others, there’s one simple reason: The broadcaster needs to do business and the business comes from advertisements. So the Earth Station takes care of this task. Other tasks may also include inserting the logo of the channel on the screen. The feed is then fed to various cable operators through a satellite again. And finally the feed comes to your house. And you thought a flick of a switch on your remote would start a cricket match!
Thousands of miles away Tendulkar played a cover drive and the very next moment (actually it’s 4 seconds after he hit it) you saw in on your screen. Have you ever thought how it happens? Ever thought how the pictures travel millions of miles and comes to you? These days we take it for granted that whenever / wherever any cricket match is played we can enjoy it in the comfort of our living room couch. The kind of technology that goes into making this possible is not funny, and not to mention the human skill and effort required along with it. Here’s how it all
Outside Broadcast Van(OB Van)
The outside Broadcasting or OB Van for short is the heart of any cricket telecast. All signals both video and audio come to the OB Van, are processed there and then broadcasted. A typical OB van could be divided into three major parts. Video Management Sound Management Video Store
The first part takes up the major part of the van, and is where the director sits with technician. They have a video mixer and a wall of monitors in front of them. The monitors accommodate all the video feeds from various sources, which could be graphics from graphic workstations; video feeds from cameras and videotapes, slow motion replays. The wall of monitors also contains two other monitors other than those form the video feeds – the Preview monitor and Program monitor. The latter contains the dirty feed (mixture of video and graphics), which is broadcasted to the Earth station. The former shows the clean feed (only the video feed without the graphics) that is seen before broadcast. The video mixer may be accompanied by two or more computer operators for scoring the games and giving appropriate graphic feeds to be layered over the video feeds.
The next portion is where the sound is managed. The sound engineer has a sound mixer, which is being fed with all the audio feeds from various sources like: commentators, the stump microphone, field mocks, etc. He has them in different channels and can control them individually. He is also supplied with a dirty feed monitor to help him with the synchronization of sound on instructions from the director.
The last portion of the van is the Video store. The video store has a collection of Video Tapes (VTs) and could also have an EVS system. The VTs are
a collection of pre-made CG videos to be used upon wicket fall, etc. These may also contain feeds from previous matches, which could be used for comparison. EVS is live event system (slow motion disk based editor) used for slowmotion pictures and replays in the match.
Who manages all this ?:
Here the director is the boss, and managing all this is no mean feat. In reality he is the man who decides what you see. All people involve are in direct contact with each other using headsets for communication. An interesting fact here regarding being in touch: Harsha Bhogle may be listening more to director’s remark then he is actually commenting on the match. Can you believe that. From the OB Van the feed including the graphics are broadcasted to a satellite, not to your house; not yet they are sent to an “Earth station “. The station can be nearby in the same vicinity or could be millions of miles away. You may wonder why can’t they directly broadcast it to your home. Among others, there’s one simple reason: The broadcaster needs to do business and the business comes from advertisements. So the Earth Station takes care of this task. Other tasks may also include inserting the logo of the channel on the screen. The feed is then fed to various cable operators through a satellite again. And finally the feed comes to your house. And you thought a flick of a switch on your remote would start a cricket match!
Starting with the video capturing , there are at least 16-21cameras used on the cricket field placed at different locations to bring you the various views. These could be as small as a stump camera and as advanced as the super slow motion camera used behind the bowlers arm to provide high quality replays. All cameras
are connected to a video mixer inside the out – Broadcast (OB) van. The director and the operator sitting on the mixer can switch to any of these cameras while broadcasting.
Graphics is one of the most exciting parts of the whole match production saga and uses computers in more ways than one. A skilled data entry operator records each ball bowled in a cricket match on custom made software, made specifically for a broadcast company. For instance, ESPN STAR sports uses a software called
It typically uses 3-4 machines. One is a laptop PC
running Win 2K(any network enabled OS) for keeping track of the score. It’s connected to a MS-SQL server database via TCP/IP. The other computers are an AD-HOC machine and Score-Ticker Machine. The layout for this graphics is predefined and the information updated dynamically form the data base on the server. The other machine i.e. The ADHOC machine gives you the entire special graphics that you see on the screen. These may include play statistics, wagon wheels showing where the player scored his run, etc. All these graphics are generated dynamically from the data capture by the scoring laptop. Not only that but the operator can key in the data and make an AD-HOC graphic based on the data provided to him by the scorer. The graphic are then send to the vision mixer in either analog or digital format. This is then supper imposed on the live action happening on the field. The system can also use a moving graphic instead of the live broad cast.
Imagine a match without Sidhuisms. The sound in the broad cast of a cricket match is as important as the video if not more. There are various sound sources
that are controlled by a sound controller using an audio mixer, in various channels located in the OB Van and then broadcasted. The sound sources may include the commentators, the stump microphones, the sound sparks, (e.g. Graphic displayed when a wicket falls etc, or CG when a new batsman comes to play), microphones on the fields etc. The person controlling the sound also has access to the final feed which is being broadcasted. As we have seen above there is a lot happening all together. The cameras giving the video feed, the graphic machines providing all the indulging graphics, replace, super slow motion, historic data base management etc.
How Hawk Eye Works
This technology uses a special image-processing system that helps umpires take LBW decisions One of the most difficult, and sometimes controversial, decisions that an umpire has to take on the cricket field is for LBW (leg-before wicket). To take the final call on a batsman, the umpire has to juggle with many variables—
Whether the ball pitched outside the leg stump, hit the batsman in line with the stumps or whether it would have hit the stumps, and most importantly whether the player was making a genuine effort to play the shot. Hawk Eye aims to aid the umpire by giving inputs on the physics of the ball by tracking and predicting its motion. It uses a special image-processing system from Roke Manor Research (a Siemens R & D company) and commercial off-theshelf hardware along with six specially placed cameras. Hawk Eye incorporates both image analysis and radar technology. The six fixed JAI monochrome cameras, with 120 MHz frame rate, are placed around the playing field (see picture). They track the ball’s entire trajectory, right from the point where it is released from the bowler’s hand to the point the ball is considered dead. This is updated 100 times every second. The cameras are used in two sets, and a multichannel frame grabber handles each set. The images captured are then processed by software to produce a 3-D image. The future path is predicted using a parametric model. The system is able to locate the ball in 3-D and can predict the motion with a claimed accuracy of 5mm. Some of the esoteric statistics that can be generated by this system are: the areas where a particular bowler pitched and how much swing or spin a particular bowler generated. In some cases where the system’s accuracy is questionable, it just gives a “can’t help” message to ensure its accuracy never goes below acceptable limits.
Besides aiding the umpire in taking a decision, the Hawk Eye is also used to give a more enhanced feed to TV viewers. Who can forget all those virtual replays shown from various angels of a player being called for an LBW? The application of Hawk Eye goes much beyond cricket. The company, Roke Manor, is also developing similar technologies for tennis, football, baseball and snooker.
In future ads you see on stadium billboards may not really exist, but are inserted virtually
Virtual advertising is the electronic insertion of advertising images during live TV broadcasts of sports and entertainment events.
In this, digital images, advertisements, and logos are super-imposed on live video or inserted into a completed movie or television show.
The advantage of such a system is that different advertisements can be inserted for different regions thereby giving the broadcaster more advertisers. For example, electronic boards can replace peripheral boards in a stadium and show a Pepsi board in India and Coco-Cola in Europe. While the viewers of the video broadcasts will see the board shown to them specifically, the actual board may be totally different or may not be present at all. They can also be used to insert synthesized messages onto the playing field or other empty spaces.
All this is possible with virtual advertising. The technology has been used in Major League Baseball in the US and may soon be used in cricket games also. Imaging Allan Donald running on a virtual advertisement strip while taking his run up or Sachine Tendulkar hitting a six directly into a virtual glass of some cola product.
Virtual advertisements have to be inserted at specific points in the video, like the billboards on the field. So there has to be a way to locate and track designated insertion locations in the live video. All this work is done is real time so that the viewers could see the video live with the virtual advertisements. To locate insertion points in the video, pattern recognition techniques are used. These techniques analyze the video and look for patterns in the video. These patterns are then compared with the stored patterns of the desired locations. Once there is a pattern match, these points in the video are located in replaced by virtual advertisements.
Requirements: To create the digital advertisements of products, standard off-the-shelf 3D, Alias Power Animator, Wavefront, 3D Studio MAX, Shockwave 3D player, Macromedia Shockwave player, Intel internet 3D graphics, a scalable 3D engine for generating graphic Web content. For the hardware, dedicated video processors are used with high performance graphic workstations like the Silicon Graphics ONYX2. These enable the real time rendering and processing of video.
Using 3-D graphics to broadcast additional match information
If your remember, some time back when India was being thrashed by the Kiwis in Newzeland, some new type of graphics were being shown on TV. Instead of tardy 2-D wagon wheels for the shots played, it showed color-coded 3-D views of a wagon wheel. This actually showed the path taken by the ball before it crossed the boundary, and the placement of fielders on the ground depicting a ‘theoretical’ area of influence. These views were fairly realistic representations, generated by a 3-D rendering machine called Virtual Spectator.
Before a match starts, an aerial photograph of the ground and the surrounding area is taken. Pictures are also taken by somebody standing on the pitch. These photographs are then used to make a 3-D model of the stadium in 3D studio MAX. People wearing team colors are also photographed. This is mapped to 3-D player models created on the screen. The Virtual Spectator system consists of two machines. One is used to record live data from the match, like score, fielders’ positions, where the ball was hit and how high it bounced. The data-entry operator sits in high position to get the whole view of the ground. The other machine is used to provide feed to the broadcaster, and its operator works out the various graphics based on data coming from the first machine. These graphics may include field placements on the screen, proposed field placements, wagon wheels, etc. The graphics are fed to the broadcaster through a BNC cable using digital down converter that takes the DVI monitor feed from the computer and grabs a particular area of the screen and converts it to industry standard SDI. The BNC cable comes to the video mixer directly and that director uses the feed as needed. The software used is written in C++ with MFC ( Microsoft Foundation Classes) for the interface and Open GL for graphics. Both machines used are 2.4 GHz P4 processors with GeForce 4 graphic cards for great graphic results. Animation research Ltd, a New Zealand company has developed the product.
Of Bats and Stumps:
How would it feel to be a stump and see a speeding bowl comes strait on to your face? TV has left nothing to imagination, thanks to stump cameras. These are micro-cameras placed inside the stumps, giving couch potatoes the experience of being where no spectator on the cricket field can ever imagine being. IN many cricket fields, there’s wire traveling underground, connecting the camera to other TV equipments or even PCs, to remotely control them. Many international cricket grounds have this facility. transmission are also used. Cordless cameras with radio or microwave Wired transmission is preferred over wireless
transmission because the players tend to come in the way in the case of the latter. The first stump camera installation was done by the BBC the early 1990s. They placed a Hitachi KP-D8s camera in the middle stump. This was a color camera that used 410,000 pixel CCD with micro lenses, and offered a horizontal resolution of 470 TV lines. The size of the camers, 42 cubic cm (80 gms) makes it possible for it to be inserted into the stumps. If one camera is not enough, then two can be placed, one with a wide-angle lens and the other with a narrow angle lens, giving the TV broad caster four different views to choose from.
These Hitachi cameras can connect to PCs over a RW232C line (serial port), and can then be remotely controlled using a software application specifically written for them. The protocol is also available on request to write custom applications. The Hitachi KP-D8s camera, for instance uses a social program written in Microsoft VC++ 5.0 for
controlling it. The software works on Win 95/NT machines, and lets you control several parameters like white balance and picture control. You can even control its electric shutter speed from it. IT at the Stands:
You would be forgiven for thinking that technology has been put into place only for cricketers and that too on the greens. Nothing could be farther from truth at South Africa 2003. On the field or off it, in the stadium or in you living room, you can’t escape IT anymore, Interesting is the crowd-control mechanism in operation in South Africa. For the first time manual ticketing has been replaced by automated ones. The main companies involved in developing this are Dimension Data and Choice Technologies. Dimension developed the back-office operations software as well as the POS (point of sale) interfaces. Allowing the fans to enter the stadium is the job of intelligent turnstiles made by Turnstar. Based on a 386 processor with 8MB memory, these turnstiles act as intelligent doorkeepers keeping tack of and allowing people to enter and leave the stadium. The turnstiles can scan the barcodes on the tickets and keep updating a central database over a LAN. If at any point, should the LAN connectivity fail, the turnstiles can connect peer-to-peer.
Analyzing Team Performance:
Complex information-management systems are used to analyze each player’s performance in a match When a short ball is bowled to Ganguly in his rib cage, he is more likely to play it to backward short leg. So a fielder is placed accordingly at backward short leg. This is just a hypothical example of the information used by various cricket
teams. Imagine having this kind of detailed information about each player a team is playing against. Enter information management system for cricket.
The information in these system is gathered in the same manner as the TV broadcasters captured it with some auditions here and there because of difference in application. We will look at the information management system-e-cricket pro by phoenix global solutions being used by the Indian cricket team. So lets dig and find out what e-cricket pro is all about and how it helps the player and team. As with other cricket analysis software, e-cricket pro also needs a very skilled data entry operator with a good knowledge of cricket to feed the data live during a cricket match. The system used is a P4 based laptop with 256 Mb RAM and External video capture box. There are various modules in the software, the major ones being the data capture, record to media and a report generation. At the start of the match all details including pitch condition, whether, toss etc, are recorded. When the match starts the detail of each and every ball are recorded. As soon as the bowler comes to bowl the video recording is stated which ends when the bowl is dead. This done the operator stats with a series of clicks GUI, recording each and every detail about the ball including parameters like swing, comfort zone, stroke type and run scored.
Each ball takes around 4 to 8 mouse clicks to record. Once recorded the data is stored in an Oracle database at the back end. During the lunch brake or at the end of the match the players and the coach can view and analyze the data. The most important part of it is being able to query the videos database. The database can be queried on various parameters and even gives an option of replays, frame-by-frame video and split screen video. These video can later the burnt on a CD for various needs and for various players.
A lot of tools and lot of options but are they being utilized to the fullest? Only the performance of the Indian cricket team can answer that.
Though here I discussed only about Cricket. IT takes crucial role in broadcasting of each &
every live event. As we know till we have no taste of any thing what we have missed. We can now feel what we missed in the past, the excitement of stroke play by our legendry players. Now we can feel that IT is the backbone of live telecast.
www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.howstuffsworks.com