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CodySchoppe

SkeletalSystemLabReport
Part1Introduction
Bones must have been a very curious subject, because of how they were
named and how they were thought of. Some bones were named using some
derived latin word and some were named by early American Indians. Some were
even named by the Greeks. I guess bones have always been an interesting thing.
For my bones I picked the Mandible, Rib, and Phalanges. The Mandible is a bone
in the lower jaw. The word Mandible is derived from the Latin word mandibulum
meaning lower job. The Rib protects the lungs and comes from the Anglo Saxon
term ribb meaning strip or beam. The Phalanges are the small bones in the fingers.
Phalangesisderivedfromthephalanx.

MandibleRibsPhalanges

CopyrightTheWorldsofDavidDarling

CodySchoppe

Part2Histology

CompactBone

Trabeculae

Periosteum

CodySchoppe

Part3BoneMatrix
Bonesareatissuethatmakevertebratesdistinctfromanyotherlivingthing
onearth.Bonesareextremelystrong,almostasstrongascastiron.Boneshowever
getpushedtotheirlimitsandbreak.Whenbonesbreaktheyhavetogothrougha
regenerationprocesscalledmineralization.Osteoclastscomeinanddoaprocess
calledresorption,andthentheosteoblastscomeinandformnewbonethrougha
processcalledformation.Allofthenewformedbonestructurehardensthrougha
processcalledmineralization.

There are lots of factors and things that keep yourbones healthysuchas the
correct nutrients and correct amount of exercise. Many factors can also weaken
yourbonessuchascertainmedications,lackofexercise,andlackofnutrition.
The chart to the
left simulates
some of the
effects that lack
of nutrition,lack
of exercise, and
certain drugs
can have on
your bones.
It just shows that by eating right and getting the proper amount of
exercise can do for your bones. Hormones also cause changes in your bone
structure.Bonesareimportant,soweshouldtakecareofthem.

CodySchoppe

Part4CurrentBoneResearch

Thereis muchresearchgoingonintheboneworld.Itis interestingto seethis


research.

In nature macromolecules are released into the bone system where they go
throughaprocesscalled morphogenesis and undergo selftemplating. As they go
through these processes they start
creating and repairing bone
structure. Use of phagebased
nanofibers determined the structure
of these systems. A single process
called selftemplating assembly
makes supramolecular structures
showing complex hellcall twists.
With this information bones or
hierarchical structures inamorecontrolled manner.Thefigureto aboveexplains the
process in a simple manner. (a) is an illustration of phage structure. (b) is an
illustrationofhellcalselftemplatingassemblyofphageparticles.

CodySchoppe

Part5ForensicCaseStudy

AModernForensicCaseFile

Malepelviswithevidenceofcharring.Imagecourtesy:SmithsonianInstitution

Male of a male body were found buried withoutanautopsyafterahousefire


left them charred, because his death was said to be accidental. Evidence found
several years later lead to exhumation of the bodyto determinethatthedeathwas a
homicide.

Additionally to the numerous bone injuries at least seven


unhealed cuts were left. Change in the color of the bones
showsthathewasburned.

The sex of the individualwas found dueto thelargebrow


ridges, mastoid process, square chin, narrow sciatic
notch,andsubpubicangle.
Malecranium.Imagecourtesy:SmithsonianInstitution