WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a technology that focuses on providing data over long distances in a wireless mode, very similar to the cellular mobile concept. WiMAX is capable of offering speeds up to 2 Mbps, which is approximately 25 times faster than the regular dial-up connection and unlike a dial-up, a WiMAX connection is switched on from the moment you start your pc
• WIMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access ):
– Protocol of communication network without wire, based on the standard IEEE 802.16 – Allows communications over long distances than WiFi, and a greater bandwidth. Cover approximately 40km.
• Field of application:
– Better price points for both home and business customers. – WIMAX allow competitors joint access to any subscriber in areas without preexisting physical cable or telephone networks – would allow gamers access to ad hoc local networks of other players with the same gear- without any internet access.
IEEE Standards View of Wireless Network Technologies
New standard for Fixed broadband Wireless. Trying to do for MAN what Wi-Fi did for LAN.
70 Mbps ~50 Km 802.16a/e
Includes 802.11a/b/g. Products must be Approved for Interoperability by the Wi-Fi Alliance.
11-54 Mbps ~100m 802.11a/b/g
~1.5 Mbps <10 m 802.15.1 (Bluetooth)
• Goal of WIMAX:
Provide high-speed Internet access to home and business subscribers, without wires.
• Frequency range:
10-66 GHz and sub 11 GHz
– – – – Legacy voice systems Voice over IP TCP/IP Applications with different QoS requirements.
• During a communication, all the information coming from a SS go to the BS and are retransmit to the right SS. • Base stations (BS) can handle thousands of subscriber stations (SS). • Two type of link are defined: – The downlink: From the BS to the SS. – The uplink: From the SS to the BS.
Infrastructure of WIMAX
• A WIMAX tower: similar in concept to a cell-phone tower. A single WIMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area (~8,000 km).
• A WIMAX receiver : The receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card, or could be built into a laptop.
A WIMAX tower
An example of WIMAX receiver : PCMCIA card
WiMAX System Parts
• WiMAX tower – Similar in concept to a cell-phone tower
• Can provide coverage to a very large area -- as big as 3,000 square miles
• A WiMAX receiver
– The receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card, or they could be built into a laptop the way WiFi access is today
WiMAX System Parts
• A tower station can connect directly to the Internet using a high-bandwidth, wired connection • It can also connect to another WiMAX tower using a line-of-sight, microwave link.
– Often referred to as a backhaul – Allows WiMAX to provide coverage to remote rural areas.
Two forms of wireless service
– A small antenna on your computer connects to the tower – 2 GHz to 11 GHz frequency range – Limited to a 4-to-6 mile radius
Two forms of wireless service
• Line-of-sight service
– A fixed dish antenna points straight at the WiMAX tower from a rooftop or pole. – 66 GHz frequency range – Higher frequencies, there is less interference and lots more bandwidth – 30-mile radius
– 30-mile radius from base station
– 70 megabits per second
• Line-of-sight not needed between user and base station
• In practical terms, WiMAX would operate similar to WiFi but at higher speeds, over greater distances and for a greater number of users.
WiFi hotspot replacement
• Cities might pay to have WiMAX base stations set up in key areas for business and commerce and then allow people to use them for free.
– Similar to free WiFi hotspots, but wider range
• Some companies might set up WiMAX transmitters and then make people pay for access.
– Similar to paid WiFi hotspots, but wider range
Evolution of Wireless Standards
The Wi-Fi Alliance is a nonprofit international association formed to certify interoperability of WLAN products based on IEEE 802.11 specification. http://www.wi-fi.org The WiMAX Forum is a non-profit corporation with a goal of promoting deployment of broadband wireless access networks. Forum member companies support the industry-wide acceptance of the IEEE 802.16 standard. http://www.wimaxforum.org
WiMax VS. WiFi
WiMAX should be able to handle up to 70Mbps The biggest difference isn't speed!! WiFi's range is about 100 feet (30 m) WiMAX range is about 30 miles (50 km) with wireless access WiMAX(10-66 GHz frequency) WiFi(5GHz frequency maximum)
Wi-Fi & WiMAX
(IEEE 802.11 & IEEE 802.16a)
•Wide (20MHz) channels
frequency•1.5 MHz to 20 MHz width channels. Channel bandwidths can be chosen by operator
•MAC designed to support •MAC designed to support 10’s of users thousands of users.
802.16a is designed for subscriber density
Channel Bandwidth 802.11
Maximum Data Rate
Selectable channel bandwidths between 1.25 and 20 MHz
* Assuming a 14 MHz channel
802.16a is designed for metropolitan performance
Disadvantages of WiMAX
Line-of-sight (LOS) is required for long distance (5-30 mile) connections Certain conditions —terrain, weather and large buildings—can act to reduce the maximum range Other wireless electronics can interfere with the WiMAX connection & cause a reduction in data throughput licensed airwave frequencies are limited availability. Unlicensed airwaves are free but all can use them— difficult to control service quality as other users of the same band could cause interference
Advantages of WiMAX
Full support for WMAN service Improved user connectivity Longer Ranges High Throughput Higher Quality of Service (QoS) Ensures Interoperability Line of sight not required 802.16e version allows for Mobility Easy Installation lower cost CPE
Wimax in Pakistan
Two wimax provider in pakistan Mobilink infinity Wateen telecom
Wireless architecture: pointto-point and point-tomultipoint
Point-to-Point(P2P) Point to point is used where there are two points of interest: one sender and one receiver. This is also a scenario for backhaul or the transport from the data source (data center, co-lo facility, fiber POP, Central Office, etc) to the subscriber or for a point for distribution using point to multipoint architecture. Backhaul radios comprise an industry of their own within the wireless industry.
WiMAX antennas, just like the antennas for car radio, cell phone, FM radio, or TV, are designed to optimize performance for a given application.
Omni Directional Antenna
Omni Directional Antenna
• An omni-directional antenna broadcasts 360 degrees from the base station • Omni directional antennas are used for point-to-multipoint configurations. The main drawback to an omni directional antenna is that its energy is greatly diffused in broad-casting 360 degrees
• Sector antennas are focused on smaller sectors • A sector antenna, by focusing the beam in a more focused area, offers greater range and throughput with less energy.
• Panel antennas are most often used for point-to-point applications • Panel antennas are usually a flat panel of about one foot square. They can also be a configuration where potentially the WiMAX radio is contained in the square antenna enclosure.
WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access by the WiMAX Forum, formed in April 2001 to promote conformance and interoperability of the standard IEEE 802.16. The Forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL'. With WiMAX, WiFi-like data rates are easily supported, but the issue of interference is lessened. WiMAX operates on both licensed and non-licensed frequencies, providing a regulated environment.