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IntegumentarySystemLabReport

HillaryGonzalez

StructureandFunctionoftheSkin
In1614,theItalianphysiologistSantorioSanctorius(15611636)quantifiedchangesin
bodymassduetothisperspiration,whichoccursbyosmoticdiffusionthroughtheepidermis.
However,separateandindependentwaterlossescanoccurthroughtheactivationofsweatglands
whenexposedtothermal,psychogenicandexercisestresses.Thefirstidentificationofthe
eccrinesweatporesisoftenattributedtotheItalianphysiologistMarcelloMalpighi(16281694,
althoughEmpedocles(495435BCE)wascertainlyawareoftheirexistencesome2,000years
earlier,andtheEnglishmicroscopistNehemiahGrew(16411712)describedtheepidermal
ridgesandsweatporesofthehandsandfeetin1684.Theprecisecontrolofsweatglandsfrom
theseglabroussurfaceshas,untilrecently,remainedunresolved.Thesweatglandsthemselves
werediscoveredin1833bytheCzechphysiologistJohannesPurkinj(17871869),withtheir
descriptionprovidedbyWendt,oneofhisstudents.Withinadecade,theGermananatomistKarl
Krause(17971868)undertookthefirstrecordedevaluationofregionalsweatglanddensities.
TheprotectivecellsoftheEpidermisconsistsofkeratinocytes,melanocytes,Langerhanscells.
Keratinocytesaretightlypackedandconnectedtodesmosomes,originatefromstratumbasale
andproducekeratin.Melanocytesarespiderlikecellsthatproducemelaninwhichformsa
pigmentshieldthatprotectsthenucleusfromtheUVrays,theyarefoundinthestratumbasale
andspinosum.Langerhanscellsarestarshapedcellsfrombonemarrow.Functiontoactivatethe
immunesystemasmacrophages.

Figure1
*MicroscopicStructureof
theEpidermis.
*Microscopicstructureofa
melanocytecell.
*Microscopicstructure
DesmosomesinStratum
Spinosum

Thermoregulation
Thetemperatureofthesurfaceoftheskinvarieswiththeenvironmentaltemperature,
withthetemperatureofthebodyandwithconditionsintheskinandintheestructureslying
beneathit.Inacomfortableenvironment,thetemperatureoftheskinsurfacevariesindifferent
regionsofthebody.Thetemperatureoftheepidermissurfaceusuallyvariesbetween33.5and
36.9C.(92.3and98.4F.)Thetemperatureoftheskinsurfaceisloweroversuperficialveins
thanitisoversuperficialarteries.Itisloweroverprotrudingandmarkedlycurvedparts,suchas
thenose,ears,fingersandtoes.Thetemperatureoftheskinishigherovermusclesthanover
boneortendons,overanactiveorganthanoveroneatrest.Asarule,stoutpersonsusually
(becauseoftheirthickerlayerofsubcutaneousfat)haveahighertemperature.Theregulationof
bodytemperatureiscarriedoutbythehypothalamusinconjunctionwiththeskeletalmuscle.
Thesystemworkssimilartothethermostatinbuildings.Normalbodytemperatureis37
C(98.6F).Thistemperatureisproducedasaresultofmetabolicactivitieswhichproduceheatin
thebody.Duringthecoldwhenheatlossisexcessive,thebloodvesselconstrict,thereforeless
bloodtothesurface,themusclecontractfrequently(whenbodystartstoshiver)toproduceheat.
Inthesummer,thevesselsdilatemorebloodtotheskinsurface,moreheatloss,sweatpores
openandproduceperspirationthatcoolthesurfaceasheatislost
Conclusion:Themoresweatglandsthattherewerearegionshouldhavesignifiedafaster
recoverytimeduetocapillaries.Ifresultsdidnotrepresentthistherecouldhavebeen
experimentalerrorssuchas:iodinerunningtogetherorduetoestimationifthereweretoomany
sweatglands.

SensoryReceptionFunction
Touchisdefinedasdirectcontactbetweentwophysicalbodies.Inneuroscience,touch
describesthespecialsensebywhichcontactwiththebodyisperceivedintheconsciousmind.
Touchallowsustorecogniseobjectsheldinthehand,andusethemastools.Becausetheskinis
elastic,itformsamirrorimageofobjectcontours,allowingustoperceivetheirsize,shapeand
texture.Ourhumansenseoftouchismosthighlydevelopedinthehandwhereitservesa
cognitivefunctionwhenexperiencingobjects.Themechanicaldeformationisdetectedby
receptorsthatsignalwherecontactismade,theamountofforcethatisexertedandthespeedof
motionagainstthesurface.Contactisexperiencedaslighttouchorpressure,orevenpain,
dependingonhowmuchforceisexerted.Sensationsoftouchareoftenaccompaniedby
temperaturesensationsofwarmthorcold,orbypainfuloritchingsensations,becausethe
receptorsfortouchareintermixedintheskinwithothersenseorgansthatdetectthermalenergy
orchemicalsreleasedbytissuedamageorappliedtotheskin.Weexperiencetheseasdistinct
sensorymodalitiesbecausetheinformationisprocessedbydifferentsetsofneuronsinthe
centralnervoussystem,andconveyedtothecerebralcortexinseparateanatomicalpathways.The
neurobiologicalprocessesthatunderliesensationsoftouchareinitiatedbymechanoreceptors
thattransformphysicaldeformationoftheskinintoelectricalsignalsproportionaltotheapplied
forces.Theinformationisconveyedtothecentralnervoussystembytheperipheralnervesasa
pulsecodeofactionpotentials.Topographicallyorganisedascendinganatomicalpathways
transmittactileinformationtothecerebralcortexwhereitisanalysedbytheconsciousmindto
perceivethespecificobjectthat
istouched.
Figure4
Homunculus
representation
ofsensory
receptorsinmy
body.
Figure5
Distance
between
Receptorsin6
bodyregions.

MyconclusionisthatwheretherearereceptorscloserinproximityinmybodyIcanidentify
whetherornotanobjectistouchingmeandthecharacteristicsoftheobject.

References
CoolingofTheHumanBody.(n.d.).RetrievedSeptember23,2015.
Gardner,E.(n.d.).Touch.RetrievedSeptember26,2015.
THEINTEGUMENTARYSYSTEM.(n.d.).RetrievedSeptember30,2015.
THETEMPERATUREOFTHESKINSURFACE.(n.d.).RetrievedSeptember30,2015.
Taylor,N.,&MachadoMoreira,C.(n.d.).Regionalvariationsintransepidermalwaterloss,
eccrinesweatglanddensity,sweatsecretionratesandelectrolytecompositioninrestingand
exercisinghumans.RetrievedSeptember25,2015.
TheHomunculusMapper|MapYourOwnBrainin10MinutesorLess.(n.d.).Retrieved
September29,2015.