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Grammar

So you can read good and


write good to.

The Sentence
Contains a subject and a verb and expresses
a complete thought.
Two parts: subject and predicate

Subject: part about which something is being said


Predicate: part that says something about the subject.
Example: 1. The most dangerous saltwater fish | is
probably the great barracuda. (subject | predicate) 2.
Sleek and sharp-eyed are | the members of this
species. (predicate | subject)

Exercise 1

Simple Predicate & Complete


Predicate
Complete

Predicate = the entire


predicate of the sentence
Simple Predicate = principle (most
important) word or group of words in the
complete predicate. Known as the verb.

Dolphins communicate with each other by


high pitched whistles and grunts.
A couple of flashlights blinked in the distance.

Verb Phrase

The simple predicate, or verb, consists of more


that one word: are walking, will walk, has walked,
might have walked

Has Jane arrived yet? (has arrived)


The new stadium will accommodate many more fans. (will
accommodate)

Verb is underscored; complete predicate in bold:

The coach posted the names of the players.


He had chosen the members very carefully.
Everybody rushed to read the notice.
Some of the boys were disappointed by the news.
Exercise 2

Simple Subject & Complete


Subject
Simple

subject = main word or group of


words in the complete subject.

The speed of light is 186,000 miles a second


Complete subject: the speed of light
Simple subject: speed

Compound

nouns can be simple subject.

The Taj Mahal in India is one of the most


beautiful buildings in the world.

Simple Subject

A noun and a subject do not mean the same thing. A


noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. A
subject is the name of a part of a sentence; it is
usually a noun or pronoun.
The Subject may appear at almost any point in the
sentence.
May be easier to locate the subject if you pick out the
verb first.

The leaders of the troops were carefully chosen.

Into the house rushed the dog.

Exercise 3 and 4

Who or what was chosen?


Who or what rushed?

Subject in Unusual Position

Two types of sentences may be confusing when finding


subject
1. Beginning with There or Here

There or here may appear to be the subject. Ask yourself


who or what

There are many trees in the yard. (What are? Trees.)

2. Asking a question

Typically begin with a verb or a verb helper. Subject usually


follows the verb or verb helper.

Why are you leaving?


Will she come again?
Again, ask who or what?
Exercise 5

Compound Subjects and Verbs

Compound subject: two or more subjects connected by


and or or.

Mr. Holmes and his friends went on a fishing trip.

I have cut the grass and clipped the hedges.

Close the door.


Take this to the office.
Exercise 6&7

The subject is never a prepositional phrase!


Compound verb: two or more verbs joined by a
connecting word.
Understood subject: in a request or command the subject
is usually left out. It is understood the subject is you.

The Phrase

Phrase: a group of words that is used as a


single part of speech and does not contain a
verb and its subject.
Prepositional Phrase: group of words
beginning with a preposition and usually
ending with a noun or pronoun.

We waited at the corner.


The girl with red hair is Polly.
The letter was addressed to me.

Prepositional Phrase

The noun or pronoun that ends the


prepositional phrase is the object of the
preposition that begins the phrase.

During the long winter (p: during, o: winter)


In the last inning (p: in, o: inning)
Beyond the forest (p: beyond, o: forest)

A preposition may have a compound object.

In schools and colleges


By bus, train, or plane

Adjective Phrase

A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or


pronoun is an adjective phrase

Draw an arrow to the noun or pronoun being modified.


The rooms of the house smelled damp and musty.
Few of the villagers had ever been there before.
The girl with the trumpet in the next house keeps us
awake.
The book on the table in the hallway is mine.
Exercise 8

Adverb Phrase

A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or


another adverb

The fox escaped into its hole.


Mr. Williams was always careful with his wifes money.
The sun rises earlier in the morning now.

The wind came up during the night. (when)


We spent all day at the beach. (where)
The children combed the shore for shells. (why)
I usually travel by bus. (how)
She missed the train by a few seconds. (to what extent)

In the first few innings Fireball pitched with admirable control.


Exercise 9

Adverb phrases tell when, where, why, how, or to what extent.

Can appear at various places in a sentence.

Verbals and Verb Phrases

Three types of verbals: 1. participles 2. gerunds 3.


infinitives
Participle: verb form used as an adjective

The burning leaves smelled good.


A cracked record can ruin a needle.

Present Participle is the plain form of the verb plus ing

Past Participle is the plain from of the verb plus d or ed

Exercise 10, 11, 12

The sleeping dog groaned.


Glancing at the clouds.
Bruised by the fall, the defeated runner limped away.
Discouraged by the mishap, the boy hung his head.

Gerunds
Formed

like present participle: add ing


Gerunds are a verb form used as nouns

Walking is good exercise.


Pointing is impolite.
I enjoy playing the flute.
Watering the grass produced good results.
We avoided the rush by mailing the cards

early.
Exercise 13

Infinitives

A verb form, usually preceded by to, that is used as a


noun, adjective or adverb
Infinitives as nouns

To forgive is sometimes difficult. (subject)


Lorna attempted to flee. (direct object of verb)

She is a candidate to watch. (modifies noun)


The doctor to call is Beth. (modifies noun)

The plane was ready to go. (modifies adjective)


The tiger tensed its muscles to spring. (modifies verb)
Exercise 14

Infinitives as adjectives
Infinitives as adverbs

Appositives

A noun or pronoun that follows another noun or pronoun to


identify or explain it.

Noun Thomas tells which brother

Appositive phrase is an appositive and its modifiers.

My older brother Thomas is twenty-one.

My aunt and uncle, the Giovannis, own a store, the Empire Shoe
Shop on Main Street.
A good all-around athlete, the boy is a promising candidate for the
decathlon, the Olympic event that tests ten different skills

Can precede the noun or pronoun explained.


Set off by commas, unless it is a single word closely related to
the preceding word. Comma is used when referring to proper
noun

Natalie, her daughter, is another good friend.


Her son Bill is my best friend. Exercise 15!

The Clause

Independent Clause: expresses a complete thought and


can stand by itself

The people grumbled more every day.


The army threatened to revolt.
The people grumbled more every day, and the army
threatened to revolt
She forgot about it, or she never intended to come.

Subordinate Clause: does not express a complete thought


and cannot stand by itself

Who was the hero of the famous novel


That he would find honor an glory
Because it is so funny. Exercise 16

Adverb Clause

A subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an


adjective, or an adverb

Tell: how, when, where, under what conditions


Kim looks as if she had heard good news. (tells how
she looks)
When we went, we left our dog in a kennel. (tells
when we left the dog)
Wherever you go, you will find other tourists. (tells
where you will find tourists)
If we win, we will be in first place. (tells under what
condition we will be in first)

Adverb Clause
Common

after
although
as
as if
so that
than
because

Subordinate Conjunctions

before
if
in order that
since
as long as
as soon as
though
Exercise 17, 18

unless
until
when
whenever
where
wherever
while

Commas

Mainly used to group words that belong together and to


separate those that do not.
Items in a series

Words in a series:

The examination proctor distributed scrap paper, test booklets,


blotter, and copies of the test.
The cat spits, bites, scratches, and sheds.

Phrases in a series:

Subordinate clauses in a series:

We have a government of the people, by the people, and for the


people.
I can go camping in Yellowstone in June if my grades are high, if
I save enough money, and if my parents approve.

Commas

Series contd

Some words appear so often paired with another that


they may be set off as one item:

bacon and eggs, lox and bagels, bread and butter

If all items in a series are joined by and or or, you


need not use commas to separate them:

We danced and sang and listened to music.


You may scrub the floor or polish the silverware or wash

the dishes.

Short independent clauses are separated by commas:

We played music, we danced, and we watched TV.

Comma

Used to separate two or more adjectives preceding a


noun

Sally was an energetic, mischievous girl.

We found an old wooden chest in the attic.

A single (and?) electric bulb illuminated the long hall.


Exercise 19, 20

When the last adjective before the noun is thought of


as part of the noun, the comma before the adjective
is omitted:
Is it right to put commas between two adjectives?
Use the word and for the comma. If it sounds wrong,
no comma needed!

Comma

Use a comma before and, but, or, nor, for


and yet when they join independent clauses

Do your homework every day, and you certainly will


pass the course
There wasnt much to be done, but there wasnt much
time in which to do it.

Independent clauses joined by and, but, or ,


nor need not be separated by a comma
when they are very short.

We knocked and Nilda opened the door.


Exercise 21

Comma

Use a comma to set off nonessential clauses and


nonessential participial phrases

Nonessential clause: subordinate clause that is not needed


for the meaning of the sentence. It serves only to add some
extra information or to explain something further.

Robert Brill, who lives across the street, graduated from


Grossmont High School last year.

Nonessential Phrases: participial phrases: ending in ed and


ing.

Arlene, picking her way carefully along the icy sidewalk,


slipped when she reached the corner.
The woman picking her way along the sidewalk is Arlene.
Carla and I, dressed as Minnie and Mickey Mouse, won first
prize at the party.
Exercise 22

Comma: Introductory

Introductory elements:
Use after words such as well, yes, no, why ect

No, you cant go.


Why, he isnt old enough to drive!

Looking at the dull television program, Liz sighed with boredom.


Determined to get along with what she had, she did not withdraw more
money from the bank.

Use after an introductory participial phrase:

Use after a succession of introductory prepositional phrases:

At the ring of the bell on the timer, you may start the test.

If you read the accounts of early travelers, you will learn about their life.
Population in the area increased; and after the tribe ceded their land, they
moved westward.
Exercise 23, Review A

Use after an introductory adverb clause (subordinate clause preceding


an independent clause)

Comma: Interrupting

Use to set off expressions that interrupt


Appositives and appositive phrases

Appositives

The Aegean Sea, the highroad of ancient Greece, is sprinkled


with small islands.
I lost my watch, a present from my mother.

Appositive phrases

Julio Falabella, a rancher near Buenos Aires, raises horses.


An intelligent girl, Jennifer was the winner of the scholarship.
Exercise 24

Comma: Interrupting

Words used in direct address are set off by


commas.

Tina, shut the window.


Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus.

Parenthetical expressions are set off by


commas

The movie, in my opinion, was terrible.


The book, on the other hand, was excellent.
Fran, I think, was elected

Comma: Conventional situations

Use to separate items in dates and addresses

After the salutation of a friendly letter and after the


closing of any letter

On June 30, 1963, my fathers business moved to 823 Main


Street, Seattle, Washington.
On Tuesday, May 24, I shall be ten years old.

Dear Aunt Kathy,


Yours truly,

Dear Hunter,
Sincerely,

After a name followed by Jr., Sr., Ph.D.

Dr. Juanita Montez, Ph.D.


John Q. Adams, Jr.

Review B, C