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THE SAYING 0-' ALLAH

,

"It is the believers who are successful: those who are humble in

..,

(23): 1-2.]

HU-"Mi"I __ ,LITY-'- v .• -, p' ·"RA-"'·',. '"YE'" ,.",--,IR"__ _ , ' ill _, _ _ _ _ __

APPEDrx I-T1]

Ibn al~Qayyim on KiJIISDU'rt

Ibn ·al~Qayyim on Hypocritical Khtahil

Ibn Taym.i:yyah on The Ruling of KhIlJhiic in Pr:ayer

Tamslated&om the origmal Arabic by Abiil Rumaysah

~

DAAR US.SIIJJ-:,AH PUB·USHERS

BIR~H' _ HAM

UTH,R Ahu'I .. farajibn Rajab

13

f· PTER N'"

Khllshi'

Th, .'leaning 'of Khll1iJ'I-'t Hypocritieal Iumility The Source of Kh'N!h,tt

The first thing r be lost is N.hUS/;lr Beneficial 1<111, wl edge

The True -·la\res of AJlih

15'-·

.. -.

~8 .23 24 .2 29 37

The Prayer ,Kh.ushti'in Praye_r

Actions of prayer Iconoud, e to, Khll/hi?

40 40 43

Being .Ame:rucive in Prayer

st

CHAPTER THREE

- - - - - ---

Suppllicati ,:0

Loving me humble and poor Arro;gaRce

53 5,7

59

APPENDIX ONE

71

Ibn Taymiyyah on The Ruling of J(hullJilin Prayer

fo' D' 0 ,. 'V'ERS,65

I D,EX Of' Af:[ADfTH 1 ,0 sx OP SECTS

[".0' OPARAB'IC'\~ORDS

85 86

88,

90-96

TI-IE TH! R

He is the Imam, andHafi~" Zaya,u'l~Din. ( bdur-Ra_]:~,man ibn Ahmad ibn chdir-RailJrninibnal- .,asan ibn Muhammad mbn AbuI-Batakat Mas'ud al-Sulami al-Hanball al-Dimasbqt, His agnomen was _b6t'l~Faraj, 'and his nickname was Ibn Ra,jab, which was me nickname ofhis grandfather who was b rn in that month,

He was born in Bag'bdad in ' 36H a.nd was raised by a knowledgeable and pious family, He' died on a Monda.y night" the fourth of Rruna,4-iD~ _ 95H in al-Humariyyah Damascus.

He leaeaedaed to k kno\Jedge :&OQ1 the greatest sell lars f hi'S time. In Damascus" he studied WIde- Ibn 'Qayyim aJ~Jawziyyahi Zaynll't-Din al-"hilqi, ibn an-Naqlb, Mu~mmad ibn fsmjjiil alKhahbiz., DiiwU __ ibn Ibrihim al-cA~, ibn Qap ai-Jabal acdAJ:tmad ibn. (Abdu.~I-Hadj" al-Hanbali, In Mallib~ he heard ftumal-Fakhr I rll'min ibn Yflsuf al-N uwayn. In, Je,[usruem be heard, fr.om alI:Hifi~ al- ~ 13 1. In Egypt, he heard. fron:'!, Sadru'l-D]Il Abu.'J-Patl;t al- laydUmi and a~iru I-DiD ibn 31- · uhik.

12

lfdfiz Abii'I-Far_aj ibn Rajab al-J:Janbali

Amongst the most famous of his studentswere: Ahu'[-{Abbas AQrnad ibn Abu Bakr iblll '{AlI ai-Hanball; Abu.l~F_ad.l_Abmad fun Nasr ibn A1,rnad; Diwud ibn Sulayman al-Mawsilf; 'Abdu'lRahman ibn Ahmad ibn Mu}ztanunadal-Mll-q!i';. Zaynu'l-Dln ~Abdu']-Rabman ibn SuJaymin ibn Abii'i~Karam; Abu Dharr 31-

Z -1 __ hi _,-I Q' - _j,.. 'Al'-.j- JI Dr ib _I 'L' ha -'j B ('l_ij-- d Ah' ad 'at£:as _ ; aJ,-'al;l1 -, '~IL 11. - m .1: - rn ai- a .aID w-.a, I:; an __ '-; rna '.

Ibn$ayfU'i-Din al-I;lamam.

Ibn Rajab devoted himself to' knowledge and spent the vast majurity of his- time researching, writing, authoring, teaching, and giving legal rulings.

Many scholars praised him for his vast knowledge, asceticism and expertise in the Hanbali school of thought. ibn QiaqI Shuhbah said of him,·H.e read and became proficient in the various fields of science. He engrossed himself with the issues of the madhhab until he. mastered it. He devoted himself to the occupation of knowledge of the texts, defects and meanings of the hadith .. ·i

Ibn Hajr said of him; "Hewas highly proficient in the science -of l,tadlth in terms of the names of re'porters; their biographies, their paths of narration and awareness of their meanings.'2

Ibn Mullih, said. of him, 'He is the Shaykh, the gmeat scholar, the f:la:~" the ascetic, the Shaykb of theHaaball madhhab and heauthoredmany beneficial works.))

I Ibn QiQral_··Sbuhbah, Tirikb. vol. 3, p. 195.

13

HUMILITY[N PRAYER

He wrote many beneficial works, some of tbem outstanding such as (l1-Q(Z1J)i/idaj~](Pb,.a ftl'cFuri' about which it was said, "Itis one of the wonders Oif this age.,4 His commentary to ar-Tirmidhi is said to be the most extensive and best ever writocn so much so that al-'Itiqi;, about whom ibn Hajr said, 'H'e was the wonder of hils age'; would ask for his help when compiling his own commentary to the same book.

II Moreover be has .many valuable monogtaphse:xplairung various ah-aditb such as: Sham Haul/hl.Mo· DhnJtmi.·· 1. -aian ,UrsiJii

~ . .. J"

jlGhan'flflI; Ikh:tfJir aJ.Awlil Jhar!Jl!aJith lkhtifam ,(lJ~Mal(Jj tJ'~

A ~/ti;. Nur al-IqtibasftSharlJ WO:mah aI-Nobill' ibtl ~bba.r; and .KashftlI-KM,rhab fi W'tz1fo ijriJi Abli~l-Gh.urbah.

• In exegesis his works, include: Tajsfr Sural; ai-Ikbld,; T qfiir SUFah al-Fatil}ah; Tilfsir Su:rah a1~Najr" and al-lstighna" bi~ I~ QuratJ.

• In l:ru:adIth his works.indud,e:: Sharp' 7/81 al-l11"tfJld/:;i; Fatb,/j.;. Btirf ShQr~' $a:~t1; ai-BNkhal'i; and Ja.fIIl.a'~ 't!UJiiTIJ tva't-ijikam,

• In fiqh his works include: a/~l.ftikb"Jj ft Af;k4m al- Khartij; and ai-:Qd1V:(tid al:FiqhbIJah.

• 10. biograpmes his wotbmdillde the monumental Dh'!Y' 'alii Ta.baqiiti'I-l;l4n:eibilah.

• In exhortation his works mdude;"uta,1if aJ.:Ma'~anJ and 111- Tale.h11lif min aI-Ntir.

~ ibn 'Abdu'I-HiidJ. Dh'!'j,rala Tabl'l.lja.t ibn Rajah, p. 38.

14

CHAPTER CNE

Kh h"'-f

usn»

With the Name of Alldh} tbeAiJ~M(JrcifIJ4 the Most Merciful

It is His aid th:at we ~e.ek and "all praise is due to AUtih, Lordrf the WO'rJds.]'I

The I:Iah? and cAlWn,ah, Zayn al-Din.ibn al-Shaykh Abii'l-(Abbas Al,mad ibn Rajahtmay .AJ[Jjh fill his life with blessings, said:

This is 3! treatise we have wrirtencoecerning humility (lehlishil) ,~:nd the hearts meekness and breaking (inkisor)' before the Lord.

AU praise is due to A1JIih~ mender of hearts which have broken lit' His sake and, by His ,grace.~. forgiver of the sins of the penitent. 1 _city tbat none has; the right to be worshipped save Alllah Alone; 'II ~ has no partners and there is, nothing like Him. I testify that ~u:Qarnm,9!d! is His servant and Messenger;, He sera hlm with

I The term 'broken heart' refers, to a hean: tbat is :6Ied with hmnility, subservience, , IltiI.qui"'rude as a lif'sult of its love andawe of Allih,Mos:t Higb.

15

HU:M.1LI·TY IN lI?Rr\YER

guidance and the Religion of Truth that it mary reign supreme overall religions.~2 He gave him. me choice of being a ProphetKing ora Iessenger-Servanr 'and he chose the SU .. cion of servitude coupled with messengership.'

He C' would say, (,0 i\ll.ih, make me )il'e as one lo,,,ly and humble (miskif.I)-, make me die as one low~y and humble and resurrect me amongst the 'ranks of the ] wi; and humble n4, thereby alluding 1;0 the n .. biJilty and! exc elle nee' of this station. Peace' and blessings be upon. him, his fa01.ily, his Companions, and those who hold tightly r his rope after him.

In His B .k., i\ll.ih,Glrioll1S and Most J£gb, hasc irnmended those who are meek (11JIlkhhii) before Him, and those 'Who have broken in tlhef'a.ce of His gt'a.n.de:u:r;, rendered submissive (khddi' and humble (kbisbi) in its presc:nCre'. He, Most High,. says,

:! as lUlah says. '''1'[ is He who bas sent His Mes,!lenger \'!,fidl guidance and the RelJgj!oll or Tru'th to exalt it GYem' every other r-digioclc:\rc:n thugh me :polyilici'sm detest i'L'; [J.Towboh (9):. 33] d. lIM~iJl/J (4'J: 28 and nJ.{fujJ(6,]): 9

~ Tit:midW #235>2 onthe authority of Anas ·and he said invasghadb. ibn Mljab. #41 ,260ft the ~u:dm:ci.ty ,of Aba Sa'Idl~i!l'rn.cl 'Tabin'iru. ai~Dlli on dle·fiul:hority· of

! b-cl- L. 'b _I S-' ' _1" • ~lIL d 'I~!:·· -d "b .:1... '1..- ,J.,..':L.· - L;:h

ea W:1.l nai- .3llllt, i'IllWlm .:3.1[ .is.ruL s.oweverLlUc l.J.awUI IS ~;up;.

It was also recorded em the :GI.umori[y of Abu Salle! by J:IlfUrim #7911 wb said ~'l was , .. attn'l wil!b DhahabJ agrecirtg; itwas also mled '. a1;llQ by Smyiip.. a/-jilll" 01- ~ hir#. 145 i,alld Aillbwi. Sa~j/J ,aJ:/tiJlli' #1.261.. a1wJapl~tJJ #3081 oJ-ImiiJ #861. d. - akbiwl, alJi¥i(la1~l:fa!t11Idh #.~ 66

I'They outdid each other in ,gO' . d actioDs~ c:aUing ou:t: eo Us III yeal'oing and awe, and ihumbling tb'cmselwes to Us.',:S

"." .menand womee wbo are humble, :m,en and wo:mle.n! who give in chruity"men and women who fast, men and women 'wb.o gU9I.fd their' private parts, men and wom,en hll) remember AUih much: Alin bas prep,aced :forgi_y,enes for them

d ~ imm - ". ·.,. ... s"" '-., d' '.,Ii an an . .' ...:a .• J ,,,,' rewar .. ' -

He' describe' the believers as those wb,o have ,k.lmsbti' in the l~ st action of worship 'they perform, and perform dj]jgcocly;-

,ICIt is the' believers wbo, ue stllcces:sliul: those whe .'e humble in, their prayet~ .. ,"1

17

H M1LITY IN PRAYER

He describes those wh have been granted knowledge as people havin : kJi"u/),it when the hear His 'words rehearsed to them,

'1ICe-rtaicJ.y,. when it is recltedlto them, those who wer,cgiv,eo knowledg,e fa.n ,on their faces in prosn:attiou, saying" "Glo,ry be 10 our Lord! The :promlFJe of our .Lordis truly fu..Ifilfed!' Weeping, they faU to thegf'Ouod iln prnstration, and it increases them in. humrlility.nsi

The bask meaning of k_h'luhii' is the softness of the heart, its being g,entlle, still, submissive', broker», and yearnlng, The Messenger of AJJ:ah (ji)1 said,' f a suresythere is a. m rsel of flesh in the: body"if it is sound, the whole body will. be sound but if it is corrupt; the whole' b dy will he corrupt. It is the

h 0·"1')'

eart,

\"Qh,en the heart IS humble, so t is the hearing, seeing" head. and face; indeed allthe limbs and their actions are humbled, even speech. This, is wIly 'the Prophet (ji) would say in his b -wing

II tll-hni'(P): 107-109

" Bukhn.rl #52-20.51. ;Md Muslim, #1599

18

(rukti\ "My hearing, sight, bon,es.,a.nd marrow are humbled t)

'" 10 ... 11- ., h co d h .. C'. ""'H

.' U .. ' anomer narranon .. as, "aIL wnatevermy loot carnes ..

ne f the SalaJ saw a man fidgeting in his prayer and remarked, ~If the heart of this person was humble, so too would hi'S limbs be.' This; is reported from f;fudhayfah (racji _ ·ItJhll ~a1.1btly2 and :.-I,'id ibn al-Musayyib 13 and It is also reported from the Prophet , " but is not authentic."

Mas'jjdJ r,ep eta on the authority of a person who narrated to 'rum that ~AJi ibn Ab] Tub (rat/!J!Allabllf (a1thl'l) said 0 nceming His. aying,

''It refers to the humility of the heart, that you soften yOUl' shoulder for a Muslim (pr,aying next toyou), and. that you do not

III .fuslim '# ·1 011 rheaurhorirv of l.t\l.

II I\~mad #9'6' I on roe 3.uihoriiry of ~ Ai and it was declared ~al,.i9 by ibn ,·#I1\J7.~}mlah #607

11 1Vhlrwazi #151 and ibn al- [ub.irak. lll-Zubd #4 t '9 'with a ~a.~if isnad.

In ~., nkt, fd~Zuhd'#328, ibn a],·!vluba:mk, al·Zuhd#t 148 widl a cJa.!if isniid.

S~yt1'!1. nl.!J.urftJl-Atit11.ltbli,; ,0,1. 10. pg 557 records thar ibn ,1- mn:r said itl C( m-

=

19

HUMILTTV INPRA'f' R

look here and there in your prayer."U'

lJ\~a) ibn aJl-Sii)~b 'reported on theauthoritv of a. person that 'rAJ] (rat/iJv1 /lilbR(tmhti) said, 'J(hus.hrt refers ro the h umili ty of the heart and thar you do not look left and right,'

IAJj ] bn Abu Talhah narrated thatibn liAbbas said in commentsrv

;I! .10 6- J

to the abov verse, 'Those who are fearful and still,"?

Ibn Shawdhab narrated that al-Hasan, may Alliih, ba' 'C mercy uponhim, said, 'Humility bad takenroot in their hearts so their gaze's were lowered and their limbs. became subse:rv1en,t,tl8

Man~ur. reported that Mujihid said, "The foundation f khtlSoti' is in, the heart and quietude in prayer,'

Layth: narrated that Mujahld said, 'Parr of it'!'! is that the limbs be subservient and the gaze be lowered. When me Muslim would stand for prayer, the feat of his Lord 'would prevent hun :from turning left and right." 211

'A.~j al-Khurasanl said, 'Khllihil refers to the humility of the heart and the subservience of the limbs.'

=

meneary to tbe verse, ~en th~~ stood for prayer, tlle:y faced forward in their p~):lyer~[hey io,wel:ed.. their pe to the place ofpmstrntiofl, and they kne\\r 1f113.t 1\!I'all hsd romed '[Q them and so they did not look left or right.

I~ ·1'· b'- I 17 3

. a· arl, VOl.. pg. ,

IH 'f:lhari. vol. ]'. pg. 8

1'1 i.c. standif1l~ 10 devout obedience (qlfflJcll)

20

Tb lleQnil1g of KhtlJhii'

Zubri said, '1 t is th quietude of the servant in hi pray'et. '21

atadah said, The kb'{'l/)li' r the heart refers t fear and lowerin - th gaze in prayer.'22

Ibn - hii _uj3:~,l)_ narrated that 'fuiaf:iid :mar Allah hav rn rc , n him, said C Deeming the words I f Allah Most High,

u" .. and humbling themselves to US.,Ull

AlJih, Mos High" ha" described the earth ~L ha\ ing khl:uhlY in II' i 'W rds,

'((Arnong his Signs, is that you see the earth laid

I, i", . r~. v l 17., P ,,3 and M.arwazi" lll:tiNl QnJr at.. gltih #141

'11,- ~. me is recorded by ibn -Mubmk. ,olZllbd#169-11:4.9 on the sum rity I - ,I j:ihid

I (I 'i, a/·I 'Rr1':, vol, I, • pg. 369 and he referenc it [ ibn hi Sha:ybab,~ r _ d r, Illl~m. d, 'ibn al-Mundhir, and ibn- by J::lirim.

21

hi MIl.ITY I PRAYER

bare and! then when We send downwatet on. It, it ,quivers and swells. "lUi

Themeaning of its quivering and swelling is: that its bareness and stillness (Ieh:ushiij has been removed and in its plac,evegetarion grows. This then shows that the khUlhii'that it had was stillness, lowness, and lack of growth. The same applies to the heart: when it has ,khusbtt" its base desires and thoughts arising from the following' of carnal lusts are Iaid to rest, and it breaks and submits to Allah, Mighty and Magnificent. Khushi? replaces the beans remoteness, haughtiness, arrogance, and lordliness. 'When it settles in the heart, the limbs" organs; and motions - even the voice- are stilled, Alia:h,Most High; hal's stated that voices have khtuhil.in His words,

~ . . ~

1/ :;,11'~.· '" .. '-:: ~~t .. !,.u, .J- I .... , .• It.J~.' ...... '."'" -;. ' "".' .

.. ~ '':'Ie~~~-r.,.~~.Ji~#I-.J

~'Voices wiD be' humbled before the AI .. Mercifu), and nothing but a whis,per' will be heard. ,;~

The humility ofvoices refers to their being stilled! and quieted" after being clamorous"

Ina similar vein, All,ill has described the' facesand sight of the

J" 78,f/1i (20): toa

"as sl3!ted by ibn 'Abbis and, recordedbySlJyii~ IJI-Dm7'~voL 10ipg. 242 and he n:fcrcf1,ces iit to ibn ,aI-Mu:ndhir and. ibn Abi l;Iatlm.

~~ ·f, fll-Clulsb!J'(lh (88): 2.(lI~Qamar(54}:: 7, al-Qa/4tn' (68); 43" and al-Mlltirti (70~,: 4.:1

22

Hyporri#cal HutniiztJ

disbelievers with khushtt on the Day of Risiog.2B This then proves that all of these limbs can have ,kbushi/~29

Hypocritical Humility

When a person affects khushi/, displaying it on his limbs while his heart is devoid of it, he has fallen prey to hypocritical khllshii' (k.JJushit nifaq) and this is what the Sahf would seek refuge from, ne of themwould say, 'Take refuge with Allah from hypocritical lehllsb.ii'~' When asked what it was, be replied, That you see the - ody bumble and submissive while the heart is not.?"

'Ilmar (rat}~l1tihu'anhll) saw a pe.rson with his head lowered

nd said, to such-and-suchraise you.r head for kl:JUsiJut does not . 'xtend beyond what is in the heart.' Whoeve.r outwardly displays more kl.JUshit than is present in. his. heartis guilty of hypocrisy on It. P of hypocdsy.31

. A"cfer to Appendix 1 for a further discussion on the meaning and import: of 4Imshlrl.

II, A.I:unad"al-Zuhd, pg. 142 and ibn ru-Mubamk,. a"l-Zuhd #143 on the authority of Abu al-Darda'.

Ji en.' haqi, Shl1/ab #;6968 records a similar statement from Sufym.

Referto Appendu 'Two. fora discussion on hypocritical kblisbii~

23

HUi\·[~L[TY 1 PRAYER

The Source of Khushil

The source of the kbuJhir mat 'lakes place in the heart is the gnosis, of Allah's greatness, magnificence, and perfection. The more gnosis a person has of A.lJih, the more kJJushi/ he has.

The hearts vary in their kbtlSlJil inaccordance to the gUOStS they have of the. One they have humbled to, and in accordance to the hearts' witnes,sing the Attributes that lead to khtlshu~, Some hearts are humbled by the strength of their perceiving His closeness to His servants and His seeing their innermost secrets which leads to being shy of Him, Most High, and constantly being aware of Him in every state of motion or stillness, Some hearts are humbled through their perceiving the magnificence of Allah" Hils greatness,andl His grandeur which leads to being in awe of Him. andmagnifyingHim, Some hearts are humbled through perceivingHis perfection 'and beauty which leads to drowning in the love of Him and the desire to meet and see Him. Some hearts are humbled through perceiving theenormity of His seizure) vengeance) and punishment which leads to fearin,g Him,

He, Glorious is He, is the mender of hearts that have broken for His sake. He, Glorious is He, comes close to hearts that are filled 'With humility to Him in the same way that He Gomes close tf~ one who is standing in prayer, privately discoursingwuhHimr'? in the same way that He carnies dose to one who rubs his face in

!~ H iii kim #861 records 0.0 the authorityof Aba Hurayrah that the Messenger of Alli\h (it) said: i'When my one of you standseo praY1 he is conversing withhis :1.1) I,d, !I() let him pay 3it~e.l1tiQn to bow he speaks to Him, ,. It was ruled ~at.ruh:l by I_I filum wi til Dhahabl a;greein& and Albaru, \r;a~fh aiJJmr #] 538

24

The Sourte oj Khushtt

the dust when prostratingr'" in the same way that He draws near to the throngs of people vis icing His House standing in abject humility at IArafah, drawing dose and bo~sting about them to the angels;" in the same way that He comes close to His servants when they invoke Him, ask of Him, and seek His forgiveness in the early hours of the morning, and He answers their supplications and grants their .re'quests.35

1:1 Muslim. #482 reco-rds on the.authority of A.hu Hilla y-rah that the Prophet (~ ; raid, "The closest -a servanr is to his Lord is wh.en b .. e is pro~sttating;"

,iii Ibn Hibban #3853 records on the authority of]abir tb~l[ the Pr_ophet (iI)

. .

Rid. "Nc other days are better wMahthan the fust ten days ofDhil.'r-l;:Iijljah.n

',l'bie narrator said, ~A man asked~ HO AlI.ah"s- Messengerl Are these days better at s.imilar number of days QfEighcing in the way of ,Allah?"; The Prophet (II) ~id, "Thesedays are better than a .. same number of days pf:fightlng forthe sake [" Allah. No other day is better with Allah than the dav of 'Arafah when He

~ ~

,ti ~scend;s to the lowest heaven and boasts of the people 011 earth to the .in.bab~tants 'f heaven, saying, 'Look at My servants who have come with gtowo hair, covered wi,th dust, exposed to the sun, to perform Hajj. They have come by every distant I'nad hopin:g for lv1 y mercy though they have not seen My punishment.' So there I'll no other day than the day of'Arafab when more people are released from the

Musl.im#134S records on the authority of I f\'i shah that the Prophet(M:) said) "There is no day on which Allah releases: more servants from [be Fire than the I uy Ilf"Arafah. He comes dose and tben boasts to the ange.lssaying, What do Ihhry want?'"

~" 'IJukhiri #1145-6321":7494 :and Muslim. #7 56/1772~ 1778 record on theanrhoriry hl,AhG, Hurayrahthatthe MesscQger of .AJllih (fi said, "Everynight, when the II: , I I' bifJcl of the :night remains, our Lord, Blessed and Exalted is He, descends to III I. lwc~t heaven and sa.ys,'b there anyone who invokes Me that I may respond? h I here anyone asking of Me that] may giv,e It to hira? Is there anyone who I.,k n~' My forgiveness that.I may fO~gWv:e him.?'"

'11,c: i~'l'llJe related to this ate covered in. some detail. by ·the author in the fourth I, Imptl"l" ~ d· his nt!:1tlitrn~y MAlldh (Published by Daar as-Surmah Publishers)

25

a u srr r.r rv IN PRAYER

There is nothing that tends to the brokenness of the' servant more than closeness and response.

Imam Ahmad, mayAUah have m,ercy on him, records in his book, al-Zubd, with his, isnad to 'Imran ibn al-Qusayr who said, 'Musa ibn 'Imran said, UMy Lord, where should I seek You?" He replied, "Seek Me with those whose hearts, have broken for My sake, Every day I come close to them by one arm-span and were it not for this, they would surely perish.n(16

Ibrahim ibn al-junaid, may Allah have mercy on him, records in his book, a:l-Mal;.a',bbaht with his isnad to Ja(far ibn Sulayman who said, 'I heard Malik ibn DInar saying, "Musa Caia.Jhis-,saltim) asked" !:My God, where should I seek You?' Allah" Mighty and Magnificent" revealed to him, 'Musa" seek Me with those whose hearts have broken for My sake for I draw closer to them by an arm-span every day;, and were it not for this, they would surely perish.?' I asked Malik. ibn DInar, "What does broken beans mean?" He replied, "I asked this, question to onewho rehearsed the scriptures and he, said that he had asked this same question to (Abdullah ibn al-Salamwho replied~~rokel1! hearts refers to those that have broken for the love of Allah, 1YI1ghty and Magnificent, rather than the love of anything else,?"

The authentic Sunnah p,roves that Allah is dose to the heart that is broken by His tribulation, patient at His decree, and content. Muslim records on the' authority ofAbii Hurayrah that the Prophet (M) said, '~Allah,. 1\fight and Magnificent, will say on the Day of Rising, '0 son of Adam, I was ill yet you did not visit Me" He will say, ~y Lord, how could I visit You while You are the Lord of the worlds!' He will reply, 'Did you not: know that

If, Al}rJUld,a/.Zuhd .. pg. 75

26

Thefirst thing to be' lost is khushi/

such-and-such a servant of mine was ill yet you did not visit him? Did you not know that, were you to have visited him, you would have found Me with him?m37

Abu Nu'ayrn records via the route of'Damrah that ibn Shawdhab said,'Allah, Most High, revealed to Miisa Calayhis~Jaldm)), "Do you know why, from all people, I chose yOU! for My message and

h?" H' li d "Nc '" Lord ,,' H li d "B

speecr ,<;' .' e rep,e" _., 0, my,. r . 'e rep e , ' .. ecause none

was as modest and humble before 1\.1e as you were.H'lS

The first thing to be lost is khushi/

This modesty and humility of his was none other than khushit, . nd that is beneficial knowledge, and that is the first thing to be raised of knowledge. Nasa'i records the hadlth of Jubayr ibn Nu£ayr (rat}fy/Ultihu fanhu) on the authority of ':Awf ibn Malik (ra't!tyAllahu Canhu) that, one day, the Messenger of .. A1Hih (:I) looked at the sky and said, "This is the vessel to-which knowledge ,win be raised." A man from the An~ar called Ziyad ibn Labid

aid, 'Messenger of Allah, how is it that knowledge will be raised flOW that it has become firm. and the hearts have preserved it?' He replied, ~'I thought that you were the most intelligent of M.ndlnab's people!" He then went on to mention the misguidance of the Jews and Christians despite their having the Book of Allah, .Mighty and Magnificent. a ubayr) said, 'So I met Shaddad ibn Aws and narrated this hadlth to him and he said; "(Awf bas spoken truthfully, should I not tell you the first part of knowledge to be

11 Muslim #2569

"Ill Allel Nu'aym, a/-,HifyalJ, vol. 6, pg. '~30

27

HlJMLlITY IN PRAYER

raised?" I replied.v'Of course!' He said, I,e Khushii~ until. the rime will come that y.ou. will not see :8 single person having it. "'39

A similar hadith is also recorded by Tirmidhl via Jub9yr ibn Nufayr on the authority of Abu al-Darda' from the Prophet (:11). The end of this hadlth has; J ubayr said, HSO I met 'Ubadah ibn al~Smutand I said to him, 'Will you not hear something from me that I heard from your brother, .Abu al-Darda'P' I narrated to him, what AbU. al-Darda' had narrated to me. He said, "Abu, ru-Dardj" has spo'kenttuthfilUy, If you wish, I will narrate to you about the first knowledge to be raised from the people: ,khushit. Soon will come a time when you will enter Q large Masjid and not see a single person having it.""'40

It is said that the version of Nas,a~ is the stronger version.

Sa'ld ibn BashIr narrated on the authority of Qatadah, on the authority of al-Hasan, may AI.Ilh have mercy on him, on the authority of Shaddad ibn Aws that me Prophet (;I) said, "The first knowledge to be raised from the people will be khushiP,,"41

3~ Nas!.iJl, t1/~J<jlbr~ vol. 3, pg. 456 a.ndAQmad #23990 and it was ruled ~~if.J by ibn Jjibban #4572 and JjakUn #337 with Dhah91bl ~eeing.

The l:mdith is also recorded by A}.imad # 1747'3 from Ziyi'd ibn LabId himself and it is munqari'.

>ill Tirmidhl #2653 and he said it was '~asan ghan1J, and it was ruled ~a1:ill:l, by -tIakim #338 'With Dhahahlegreeing,

4, Tabaclrd,! (1/~Kabir, voL 7,pg. 295 #7183 andAbfil el-Shaykh, al-Tabaqtit, voL3~ pp. 164-165 both with 4a'if isnads, however the l;I.adItb was, ruled hasan by Suyu~, aljomi'dl-$aghir#2821 and !J1al:lili.. by A1bani. ja!ii,h ai-jdmi' #2576

b is also authenth:afly reported as a statement of Shad dad ibnAws as stated by Mundhili. al-Ta,rghib #773_

=

28

The first thing to btl last is khusllit

This was also recorded hy Ahll Hairr ihn Abu Maryam 011 the uthoriry of Darnrah ibn Habib as a rnursal l:Iadith.~2 A similar . tat'ement Is also reported as the words 'Of B:udhayfah.4J

Beneficial Knowledge

Beneficial Knowledge is that which impresses itself on the heart leading to its quietude and humility, its being meek and shy before I\Jlih, and its breaking for His sake. If knowledge does. not 111\,p'ress Ulpon the he-an in this way and, instead, is merely

-,mething spoken on the tongue, it becomes the proof of Allah ·,pnst the son of Adam, which will be established against him I ndothers, Ibn Mas'fid said, 'There are people who. recite the ulan yet it does not descend beyond their throats; were irto I !:lch the heart and take root therein, it is then that it would 11 enef t, "44

~bfl aJ~Mubara~. lil-ZulJd#175 also recosds this 3!' 31 statement of Abu, Yazfd al~ ldani

''''''lbaranT) al·KtJbir. records on the authority ofAhu al-Dards' that the Messen, of ALlih (fil said" "The first thing to be raised from this nation will be , IIJ.rh£/ until you will not see ,31 single person from it having h." Mundhiri #773 , ,d the isnad was basanas did Haytharnl, Jll'!ftjjtl a;~ZfJmd'id, vol, 2, pg~ 1,36. The 11111. d was nLi,ed hasan, and the hadith, §,a1)ib by Albiru. $aplp al- Ta~hil; #542

I~ dim al-Mubarak #72 and AQmad.al~Zllbd, pg. 395

iJ bn Ahi Shaybah, vol, 13.pg. 381 andHakim #8448 with thewords, "The first I h n,H. you will lose of your religion will he khlJ'shu I' and the las t dUng you will lose , I if" lour religion will be rue pra:yet. and the rope of Islam: will be loosened knot by ! mll..:'l,Iakir.n said it was ~:lJ:u1:t and.Dhababi agreed.

~ MllHlirn #822

29

HUMLLIT

PRAYER

al-Hasan said, 'Knowledgeis of two types': knowledge that is superficial utterance upon the tongue, that is Allah~s proof against the children of Adam.; and knowledge that takes root in the heart

d th tis b £1- ial kn .' '·1 d - 1'''·5'

an atts ene c_ '. . owe ge.

This; is also reported by al- Hasan, mary Allah have mercy on him, from the Prophet (ii) as a mursaittadIth.46 He also reportS it from Jabir (ra't/!JAlJahu Canhu)47 and Anas (nJt:jfyAlliihu "anhll)4S to the Prophet (a1)" but it is, not authentic as a. hadith of his

(Ii)·

Hence the Prophet (Ii) informed us that despite the knowledge: that the People of the Book were given being' readily available to them, they did not benefit from any of it since the primary go·aJ behind this knowledge 'was, missing, Le, its reaching their hearts such that they could experience the sweetness of faith and realise' its benefit of achieving fear and penitence; instead it remained superficial utterance on their tongues which served only 11:0 establish the proof against them."

~5 DarimJ #376 and ibn AbJ Shayhah, vol, 13, p .. 235 and. it is ~¢Ih,.

~{i Ibn 'Abdu'l-Barr, -ajJdmP~ vol, 1, pg; 190

·17",1... -~1l.. T-: -I...l.. 1 4 - 3 AIr.. f'o.II. rap:u" J_ anKJ.I) VO. ) pg. c"fV

~H MunaVJi. Ff!YtI ai-Qadir;, vol, 41 p:g. 391 references. it to Abu Nu'aym and Da},iaml

~I! Referro the authors Farl1 Illtll al-S(J~f(publ!ished by Daar us-Sunnah Publishers) in which hediscusses the issue of beneficial knowledge at length. He st~I£.I:.~S therein. "When knowledge is beneficial and takes rootic the heart, the heart fears Allah. submits to Him. and bumbles itself in awe, glorification. fear, love. and veneration. When this happens the som is content with the humblest oflawful W( ,rldly provisions and. this .in turn leads, it to turn away from the world and all

30

Be,?:lificial Knowicd;ge

It is for this reason that. in His Book, Allah, Glorious liS 11(,. describes the scholars as those having tear (khas}!:Jla),

"It is only the learned amongst His servants who

trul ~ " n;;;L ",.w

.y lear ,l:'LI!lan. '

"Wh.at of him who spends the night IU::nlts in prayer, prostrating and standing up,miodful of the Hereafter, hoping' for the mercy of his Lord.? Say: 'Are they the same .. those: who know and those who do not knoW?",51

temporal effects", "So beneficial knowledge is thae which engenders a goosis between the servant and his Lord and leads to this such that he comes [0 know his Lordi singJ,es him OUt .alone in belief and worship., takes comfort in Him, develops a sense of shyness (pqya' of Him, and worsbipsHUn as if he sees Him", "The fundamental matter here is that the servant uses knowledge to eng,ender a gnosis of his Lord.Whe.n this comes to fruition he v.till find Him close. When this happens; He will bring him. dose and answer his supplications .. It.is mentionedin an judeo-Chris rian narratio11., 'Son of Adam! Seek me and you will find Me, when you find Me you will find everything. However if you don't find Me, you will have ,105£ everything, I ammore beloved to yOll than anything else.'"

50 Fd_tir(35): 28

5) aJ-ZplJ.lar (39): 9

HUMlLfTV IN PRAYER

He describes the scholars of the People of the Book before us as having khNJbi/,~

"Certainly, when it is recited to them, those who were given knowledge before i,t fall on their :faces, in: prostra.tion sayin.g'" 'Glory be to out Lordl' Wieeping,tbey fallte the grottndin prostra"rlon" and it increases them in humili:ty,"J:;2

This verse eulogises those who, when they hear the Book of AUab, attain khr.tshil in their hearts" Allah" Most High" says,

''Woe to those whose heartsarebatdencd against the eemembrance of'Allah! Such people are clearly mi'sguided. Allih has sent down the Supreme Discourse, a Book consis~ent in. its fre,quent repeti .. dons. The skins of those who fear it'heir Lord

12

BenejicialKnowledge

tremble at it and then their skins and hearts yield s,oftly to the 'remembrance ofADah."SJ

The softening of the heart refers to the removal of its hardness due to the onset ofkhll$hi/ and gentlenesstherein,

AlliJh has denounced'" those whose hearts are not humbled when they hear His Book55 and ponder it,

~"Hasthe time :not arrived fot the hearts of those who have faith to yireldto the remembrance of Allih and 'to thetruth He has, sent. down, so they ate Dot like those who we're given (he' Book before fOr whom, the time seemed over long so that their heads ,becamehaId?' Many of them ate d.eviators,. ,;-.56

Ibn Mascijd (rar:Jf:;A.ilahu' ~anhll) said, 'The time between our accepting Islfun and being rebuked by tills verse was four yean.;, ~ This was recorded by Muslim.57 It was also recorded by others

" at-Zu11Jar (39): 22-23

510 One manuscript has: censured

55 One manuscript has: speech

511 .al-I;ladid (51): 16

33

HUMILITY IN PRA,YER

with me additional words" 'So the Muslims began to rebuke each other,"58

Ibn Majah records thehadith ofibn al-Zubayr (r:aif!J!A1ltihu '~fJbu) who said, There: were only four years between their accepting Islam and the revelation of this verse by which Allah rebuked them.'S9

Many of the righteous would be gravely affected when this verse was recited to them. Some would! die because their hearts burst at hearing it, and others repented and abandoned whatever they were previously doing. We have mentioned their narratives in (our) book" al .. lstighnti/ btl-Qur:an.

Allah, MGS t High, says"

"If we has sent down. this Qur'an. onto a mountam, you would have seen it hUIDbl,ed, crusbin;g: to pieces out. of feat of Allah.n"~

Abu 'Imran al-jawnl said, 'By Allah, our Lord bas directed such things to us in the Qur'sn, which.were He to have directed to

~~"N -I<- {. Y/'-'/p- -

. ass t, (J,~ J:I,R nil.

'II II 11 Majah #4192

1111 ,a/-U(I 0,.(59):.21

34

Bemjici,aJ KnOlll/edge

the mountains would have humbled and obliterated them.'" '

,Malik ibn DInar, may Allah have mercy on him, 'would recite this verse and say, "I swear to you" no servant believes In this Qur'an except that itcanses his heart to burst.,'62

It is reported that al-Hasan, may Allah have mercy on him" said, 'Son of .Adam, when Shaytanwhispers to you" enticing you. to commit a sin, or your soul desires to commit it; remind yourself of wb.at AUah has burdened! you with of His Book 'which, were a mountain to bear it" it would have been humbled! and broken. Havie you not heard his saying"

"'If we had sent down this Qur':an nntoa mountain, YOD would have seen it humbled, crushing to pieces out of fear of Allih. We make such examples for people so that hopefully they win reflec.t. ,,6] "

Allah has only propounded parables that you ponder them, ca rcfuJly consider them, and re,fraln from disobeying AJIall, MiV;h I'Y and Magnificent. You, son of Adam., have a greater duty to yic! I to the remembrance of AUih, and to what He: has burdened V()lI

. -

61 ,in one manuscript: to prostrate

. -

f1! SuyuP. tJl~DYn". vol, 14" pg. 396 references this ibn al-Mundhir.

ft) aJ-J:f(Jshr(59):~1

35

HUMILITY IN PRAYER

with of His Book and giv1en you of His laws (than. the mountains) 64 since you will be judgedand then find your final abode in Paradise or Hell,

The Prophet (ill would seek refuge with Allah from a heart 'that does not have ,khulhil as recorded by Muslim with the words, "'Allih'! I take refuge with You from knowledge that does not benefit; from a heart that bas no fear; from a soul! that is never content; and from an invocation (da(wah) that is not responded to."6.S

Thishadith is reported via many different routes.

It is reported that Ka'b aI.-A1}bar said" 'It is written in the Iojfl, "({sa" the deeds of a heart that has no fear are of no benefit, his voice is not heard, and his supplication is not raised,"

rl~ The author bas redacted this from the words of pah.-_Qak in c:ommema!ty m I,hi!'i verse. cf. SuyiiP. ni-DII", vol. 14, pg. 396

I'\r-_fl.usl!i:m #2722 on the authority ofZayd ibn Arqam ..

3-6

The Trne Sltive! of Ai/db

The True Slaves of Allah

Asad ibn Miisa said in his book" al~wa,.a~: Mubarak ibn Fa"Jal:111 narrated taus that al-Hasan, may Allah have mercy on him, W( Hlh I Isay~ 'When this call from Allah reached the believers; they h(· lleved in it, certainty quickly settled in their hearts) and, as :1 'result, their hearts, limbs, and sightwete bumbled. By ,Allah, were you to have seen them, you would have seen a people who truly 'exemplified (these verses); by Allah, they were not given 'to argumenta:don or falsehood .. They found no source of tranquillity except the Book of AJ1ah. They did not display what was not i 11

. .

their hearts. Wilen a command carne to them. from, lUlah, they

believed it and so, in the Qur'an, .Allah described them in the best of ways, saying"

<"" . ,0 ""i ~".'" of. '"

. .JI'."'."' ... ~, •• - ... "" .... " ,.." / •• •. ·~I' '. ~ :\1 .... l/o&-.

D~~ .. ;i':l·ll~'vY..;~~l~_'I..) -.S;)

- ~ ~ - ~

"The slaves of the All .. MercifW are those who walk 1! ohd· .. ' tb:··.· .' - -he "66 ,

.lIl~. yon _e eall.~ •••

al- Bagan. said, Walking lli.gbdy, ha:Wf1, in the Arabic language means walking with tranquillity and clignity.'67 Then he commented on,

Ill' This was also stated. by Mujalud:as recorded by Bayhaqr, J/lli~l1b ~/l~htltm #H'~ ""II and Abdu'l-Razziiq;, 'Vol. 2, pg. 71

Ibn IAbbis said thatltmlEans" 'In obedieneero.Allah, with decency a.nll :11 1,'1 !"'. dry.; and modestly,' Recorded by Tabarf and ibn, Abiijitlrn.j vol, 8. pg. 2H2(,

37

~JUMlllTY IN PRAYER

by saying, They were forbearing and did not 'behave ignorandy) and when 'they were' treated foolishly, they forbore." By day they would a,coompany the servants of AHah in the way mentioned;" and then He mentioned that their nights were the best of nights with his words,

- .#

~ J''''-''' ;' ..: J. ~~""'t /,,~. -:« ,.~\ ..

~{" ~~ 1~~!:.!i..:...:...J.i" ,.;. ~,!!,,'!J

", .. those who pass the nigbt p.,osttating and s't:and .. ing before their Lord." 11

They would stand before Allah on their feet, and lie their faces on the ground in prostration. to their Lord, their tears flowing down their cheeks in fear of Him. By a, single command of Allah they sp ... ent the night worslUp. ,ping Him and by a, singJe command

- -

they spent their days in humility to Him."

al- Hasan, may Allah have mac)' on him, said, 'Then He: says;

~"., .• those wDusay, ',Our Lord, avert nom us, the puni8hme:D:t of HeD, itsi ponishmeD.tiB inescapable pain..''''Il,Z

M) A sirni.lJarstatementwas made by Qatidah as recorded by ibn. AhiJ:iatim, vol. 8) pg. 2721

11 iaJ-Futqan (25): 64

38

Everything that afflicts a person and then leaves is not ghartim;, ghor:am refers to something that never leaves for as long, the heavens and the earth endure. They were truthful! By Allih besides whom there is none wo.rthy of worship" they worked deeds and did not rely on vain hopes, so, mayAllah have mercy on you, beware of these idle hopes for Afiih does not grant any good to a, servant in this world or the next merely for idle hopes,' He would say~ ~at an, excellent exhortation ie3 is, if only the hearts were: alive and thereby preserved idt74

'7J Le, the exhortation be gave before starting his commentary to these verses as the fuH narration shows.

7. Suyii!l, aI-Duff aI-Man.thilr; vel, 1 '], pp .. 206-208: and he references it toAbd ibn l;tumayd.

39

CHAPTER TWO

The Prayer'

Allah,. Most High, has legislated different types of worship that would allow khNshii'to develop 011 the bodies" which in turn arises from thekhushil 'Of the heart, its meekness and brokenness.

Khushi/ in Prayer

The greatest action of worship whichmanifests the kiJushil of the hody to Allah is the prayer (~alah). Allah has praised those who have .khushil.Ill the prayer with his words,

" ... those whoare bumble :in their prayer:. .. ,,,"'5,

i.e, those whoare humble and meek in their prayer, not knowing who is standing on their left or rlght,i6 and neither looking here or there due to their humility 'before Allah, Mmghty and

.~ (d·MII'jfilimin (23): 2

'[. ~1~ W;'IS Rtated by al-Hakam and recorded by ibn Abr Shaybah~ vel, 2; pg. 41

40

Khushit" in P'1ger

,Magnificen t.

Ibn al-Mubarak said, on the authority of Abu Ja1faf, 011 Illl" authority of Layth that Mujshid said concerning the saying III

All, -L an,

" ..• and stand in obedience to ADi.b,n'''

'Quniit, obedience, here means to stand calmly with ,khtU/;l? I'I} lower the gaz,e .and still the limbs from the awe of Allah, Mighty and Magnificent.'B He also said, '\'1Qhenany of the scholars sn Hid for p'[ayer~ he 'would be in such awe of the All-Merdfu]~ Mjghl' . and Magnificent.jhar his gaze would not swerve, he would n()oI' look here andthere, he would [lot play with stones, or do a:I1Y frivo~ous action" or tallk- i.e, to himself ~ aboutanything related to the world! unless out of forgetfulness.' iQ

Man~.Ur said that ,Mujahid) may Allah have mercy on him, said concerning the saying of Allah, Most High,

7i al-Bo,qarah (2): 238

78 Sa'tdibn Mansur #406, ibn Abi I;Iiitim. #2381, and Bsyhaqi, J~}llllb #31 t;.~ Ibn AbI J;iitim #2378 records that ibn MaluQ said, The one who is '(fllM/I" one who obeysA:JJiili. and. His Messenger.' Tabari records that ibn 7.a~( I saul. The one who is .qtinit is OGf: who does not speak in prayer" j

19 Ibid.

41

HUM1L]TV IN PRAYER.

prostration . .,so

'1 Lh b ~(' "'81

.t means ,ff(;. US, tI in prayer~ '.'

Imam AJ::unad, Nasal. and TirmidhI record the hadith of alPadl ibn 'Abbas (ra4iJAlliibu' Can,litl) that the Prophet (M) said, 'The prayer is (performed) two by two, with the tashabhud being performed after every two ra/e"cahs. You should be in a state of humility, hum ble entreaty, and! display your dire need, 81 'Then you shouldraise your hands (in supplication) and say, 'My Lord, my Lord, my Lord' three times, Whoever does not do this, it will be defective, "83

Muslim records on the authority of rUthmiin (ra.4!yAilahu f'anhu) that the Prophet (M) said, "There is no Muslim who reaches the time of an obligatory pcayer and performs its ablution, kb1~shil, and bowing well except that it will 'act as an expiation for his previous sins so long as he does, not commit a maior sin. And this applies for all times, ,~g4

Sri al-Fdl/J (48):.29

jl1 Ibn N asr, Mukhto;ar Qjytim (J1"~"I, pg. 1,6 and TibaIi with the words, "The trace does not show on the face,r:aiher it refers to khushiJ(.' Ibn al-Muba.r:ak, (Jl~Ztlhd # 174., Ibn Nasr, pg. 16, and Tabars also record that he said that verse refers to khliSbiir and modes,ty;

~;r or: 'be: in a state of quietude

~,~ Al:Imad '# 1799-17523-17525" Nasal, al~K1IImi, vol, 1, pg. 212, 450., and Tirmidhi #385.,

H was ruled qa'[f by ALbinI in his notes on Ibn Khuzaymah #1212 and by A rna Ii]'~i Tabqlq MUSiJad

~~ MUll lim #228

Kh,rhul in PmyeF'

Actions of prayer conducive to Khushuf

Amongst the actions that are conducive to ha'Vil1gkhll!bl;r~, subservience, and beokennessin the prayer is to place one hand IOn the o met when standing It is reported 'that lmim Al)mad was asked about this action and be replied "It is to be subservient

Ii.. - £' th" e A L .. _ :gh- - hI ,85

IDelure ,.... ./"'UI..!]j: __ '~;.

'(AJJibnMubammad al-Mi?1'l, the preacher, may iUlih have mercy IOn. him, said, (I have not heard anything better of knowledge than this,'

It is reported 'that B,ish.ra~~afl, m,ay Allah have mercy on him" said, 'For (o,rty years have 1 wished [0 place one hand on the other mn the prayer and d.-e only thing that prevented me from doing so was that Lwouldlave then shown a kbllslJit greater' than that in my hem.'

Mu~ammad ibn Nasr ;al-ManvazI, may AJlan have mercy o,n him. records with his isnid to AJ'u Hurayrah (r:cuji_jAlldhN CanDu) that he said) 'NIanldnd will be: gathered on the Day of Rising in accordance totheir performance of tilt pr2yer,' one of the narrators depicted this by grasping' his lefr kand with his tight, and inclining his h ead 86

_ ,ea .. ,'

He also records with his isnad to Abu S,ilibal-Sammio, may Aruih have mercy on him, 'that he said, "People will be resurrected

!IS Um I:i:a.i(~ FtlllJlll·Bl1n~, vol 2" P&. 224" said, The scholars said: the significance ofthJ:sposrure m 'ch.a[ it is that tsJen by the humble petitioner, [tis more likely to prevent~ fidgeting and is mOre: cOldlllclv,eto kbJlslJlt."

8to Ibn, All] Shaybah, vol. 1,3., pg. 543,

43

H L1 MILl. fr 1 N PRAYER.

on the Day of Rising like ths'and he placed one of his. hands on the other,

Understanding this meaning leads the one praying to remember the time when he will stand bclo:re Allilh~Most High, to be :judged.

Dhu'l-Nun, may Allih haVe mercy on him, would s:ay when describing the servants (of AlJah),'1f only you could see one of them when they stood for pfllyer, standing in their place of pfayer~ it would cross his mind thatplace was the place in which AlJjh would raise man to stand befQ!e the Lord of the W{)Ii'Ids., he 'Would be completely taken aback aoo. his very sanity would be shaken.' TWs was recorded by Abu ~u(aym,tn.ay A1Hih have mercy on him ..

Amongst the actions is theservants' fa.cing forwards to Allah, Mighty and Magnificent, and his not turning away to ,my other. This is of two types: the firstis his heart not turning away from the One he IS discoursing ,\~tb, and its being totally devoted to the Lord,Mighry- and Magnificent ..

Muslim records 0[1 the aud10rity oeArnr ibncA basah (rar!lyAilabu ~nhu) that the Prophet (ai) mentioned the excellence and reward of ablution and then said, "SO' if he then stanch: and p:r.ays, praising and enlogising All1il, :magnifyingHim as is befitting, and devoting his heart to AIHih, he will finish the prayer in a 'state like the day no which his mother ga ve birth to him.?"

87 Muslim #832

Abu Dawild #425 records that tht Messenger of A]]lih (II! said, "Five prayers which All:ah hasmade obligatory. 'Xboevefperforms the ablution well for them,

44

The second is his not looking left and right, instead resrric 1111111'; his gaze to the place of prostratio n ,,88 This is one of the ncces:-',Ir, outcomes of the .khuJ'hiir in the heart 'and its [lot turning 3'W~:I!Y. This is wihy, when one of 'the Salsf saw a. person fidgeting in the prayer, he remarked, 'Ifthe heart of this person had khttshtf'. hrs limbs wou1d dSlo show khll.shir.. r This has been rnenrioned p'revio u:sly.

Tabariinl records the Q.adith of ibn Slrin 0.0 the authority of Abu HuraY:Iah (Fa'r/gAllihu fan'hu) 'who said" 'The Prophet (til 'would look left and .right in prayer and then Allah], Mighty and Ma,gnificent, revealed,

''''Ie is the be:Ue,vers who arc :8uccessful:: tb.ose who are bumble in tbelr prayclt:., .• "8'9

So the Messenger of.All:ih (It) bumbled himself and would no

pray-sth.em 0111. time, performsthe bowingpropefI:, andhas perfecc kbIlJbi.~. it is .3 prOmls'e from AI:lJih that.he wil:] be forgivea, bur wboever does not do this has no such promise: if Allah wishes. H!t'wilJ f6~v'e him" and j:fHe wishes. Hewii~ punish him .. ~~ It was ruled ~.~ by Albarn, $a/!rh al-}tiflli #3,242 ..

81 ~ikim, records on the aumodtyoCA.'ishah mat ~me Messeng,er of ,Ulah (c used to :pmy with his bead tileed forward .and his gaze lower·ed, looking ~i the ground." ij'llkim said lit was ~~ with Dhahabi apeeing as did AlbblY" _,W;.lii'1 jaMb" pg.. 89'

.1;h1dm #17161 records on. 'dle' authority of!A'isbah that ''When the Pnlpllc..·1 (31) eateeedthe Ka1bah,. his eyes never ~eft theplace of his pI>o.srra.tinn unl'illl hi." eame out agmn." f:iikim said it was ~.~. with Dhahabi,:agreleing~ as-did 1\llllliini. ,~I Inmi', vo],2, pg; 73.

45

H _ MILl'[)r' L FRf\YER

longer look ~e& 01" right.;

Others have recorded this from ibn Sirin,may AIl'ih have m,ercy on. him, as a mursal [eport" and this is more authentic."

Ibn Mijar. records the QadiIth of Umm Sal amah (rarJbrA:llti:bu ran'hi), the mother of the believers, w.ho said, 'Durj1ntl; the time ofthe Prophet (ai), when thepeople stood for prayer, their gaze 'would not go beyond the place of his feet. Then the' Messenger of Allah (;I) psssedaway, and Abu, Bake (became t he' leader). When, me people stood for: prayer, their _ga,ze would 11'( H go beyond the place of their foseheads fon the ground). Then .Abu Bakr (ra4iyAiJahNr:a,nlxu) passed away and 'Umar (rflt/lvUlablt f{'ltJhll) (became the leader). When the people stood 6()l" pra) er, rheir ,gaze wouJd not go beyond the place of the QibllJo., Theil 'J" lthmin ibn. (Affan (rat!fyAllahu 'anhll) became the leader and the tribulation happened and people began looking left and riglllt."':·

Bukhirl records on the authority of ,cA'i.shal,r"j (r·atlbv UlOhll ~d"hi) who said." "I asked the Prophet 'M) abolllt J(Jukin~ (lu::re and ,there) in. pmyet' and he said, "It is a snatching aW3}r that Sha,y~al1 st-eal!s

fr I I . thl - -e ... ""..,.~, II I .. ""91

_ o.m ~ . ,e s ·r 1~·Al!..:!,I~", prayer:.

Imam ~mad" Abu Da:wud, and Nisil .reolrdi the t):adith of Abu Dharr (rat/tjAlltihll ~(JlJlJu) that the Prophet ( said, nAllih will lfemainture:ing to the s,erva:nt in his prayer for as ]ongas he

46

does notlook away. If he looks a:way, He-will turn away.· .. '1

Imam. A:Qm.ad and! Tirmidlhi record the hadnh of al-Harirh Ihn al-Ash<,ari that the Prophet (M) said, "All.ah ordered Yahya rlrn Zakariyyah with five statements, that he act by them and en luiu the Children of Israel to act b.y them," one of them. was) "and I enjoin you to the prayer for AlJih sets His f3!c:e to the face of :lli~. servant for as long as he does not look away. So when you pt·u y. do not look (here and therie).~'!))

There are manyhadiths of this meaning.

(A~I' said, 1, beard Abii Hurayrah saying, "When you pray,. de) not look (here and there) because he is privately talking to hi!' Lord. His Lord is in' front of him and he is privasely talking Ii) him" so do. not mil (here and therej.?' 'A rat,. may Allan have mercy on him, went on to say, ~I t has reached us that the Lord" Mighty and Magnificenr, says, "Son of Adam, to whom. do you Look away to? I am better for you than the one you look aw·ay to, m"I!"

\)4 ~ad #21508, Abu Da:wGcil #909.j Nasa1 #1196

It was, ruled '~al;ll~ by ibn Khuzaymah #481 ~48~, .f::I:alcim #862 with Dhah ahl agr;eeingi. and hasan by AJbam, $o/J~h ate Ta1£hib # 554 ..

95 AQm:ad # 17170-'1 7800 and Ti.on:idhJ #2863-2864 who said it was q~san ~mh III gh1rib.

It was ruled ~a:Qii9. by ibn Khuzaymah #1895, ibn Hibban #6233., 1,lrlkii"11 #:1534 with Dbahabi agreeing, and Alhw. ,$aPi.h 41;.. Totghib#5S2

% Abdu)]-Razzaq #3210 and ibf,l Abi Shaybah. vol, 2, pg,41

Ibn Abi Shaybah. vol, 2, pg. 40 records that ibn Mas'jj,d said, 'A.llah rcu n'lIll<' facmgthe eervanrfor as [ongas he is rome p,rayerpr:ovided he does nul :-;p(':.iI, 1)1 look away. I'

47

H U MI LIT YIN 'P R A 'f E R

Bazzar and others reo.oid this as 'a hadlth of the Prophet (;I) but it is moreauthentic as a saying of (Ara'.

Abu 'Imran al-Jawru;~llta.y Allah have mercy on him; said, 'Allah, Mighty and Magnicencrevealed to Mu,sa ('alay};iJ-saltim). "Musa, when you stand before Me, then stand as a servant who is lowly and subservient, censure your self for it is most deserving of censure, and talk to Ne with a trembling heart and a truthful tongue."

Amongst these actiOlls is the bowing (rukii) for this deed, outwardly, shows subsevienoe, It is for this reason that the Arabs would scorn this deed and not perform it to the point that some of them tried to pledge allegiance to the Prophet (~ that they would fall to the ground directly from, the standing postu.re" i.e. they-would directly go 10 prostration without bowing" this is how' Imam AI.unad, may Allah have mercy on him, and the researching scholars explained the phrase they employed.

Allah, Most High, says,

GG~~ ~r~,~(~t)

"When they ,alttold to bow, they do not bow,""

Submissiveness is ,completed in the bowing through the hearts' submitting to AILah and its being subservient to Him .. As such the servant fulfils internal and external submissiveness to Allah, Mighty and Magnificem This is why the Prophet (at) would say in his bowing, ('My bearing, sight, bones, marrow, and whatever

48

~4cti{)nj:of prqyer ,conducive to KhuJhii'

my foot carries are humbled to )':ou,"I)!:l'Here he stated that hi~ khushil in the state of bo"Wing bad encompassed all his limbs" from the heart down. The heart is the greatest of these organs! indeed it is the king of the organs and limbs, so when it has khUJ/:ijj(, the limbs will also havekhllJhil~

Amongst these actions is the prostration (!q.}dah)~ this action comprises the greasest outward manifestation of the servants subservience to' his Lord; Mighty and Magnificent. The servant places hishighest and most noble limb in the lowest position it can be in; he place:s it in. the mud, rubbing itthetein. This conduces the breaking of the he:a:rt" its meekness, and humility to AUah, :Mightyaod Magnificent.

It is forthis reason that the' -recompense of the believer when he does it is that Allah will draw him closer for "The closesta servant is to his Lord is when he is prostrating," as is authentically reported from, me Prophet (~."")

Allah, .Most High, says,

'0ty,jj~~~

'''Prostrat1e and draw close"ntoo

The polytheists, thosewho were too arrogant to WOIShjp Allahl would scorn the prostration (as they did the bowing), Some ()f

'* Ahmad #960 on the' acthority of (Ali: and it W:;1l8 declared ~abrb by ibn Khuzaymah #607

9') .MlJslim#482 on the authority of Abu Hurayrah,

iOCJ af.:Alaq (96):, 19

49

HUMll.ITYI P"RAYER

them woM. say, (1 find it abhorrent to pros trare because: for my psterior~'OuJdI end up being higher thanmel' and others would take a, h~ful of pebbles and! raise it to th,leir foreheads, suffidng with tba.!nstead of pro s w:ti:n.g;

ARih 'CGt Ibas down because he was too arrogant .(0 prostrare to onev!nm Allah ordered him to prostrate to. This is why he cries whu the beli,eving servaut prostrates s.ayin) 'He ordered the son 6fAdam to prostrate and he did for' which he isgntnted. P'aradise;lwa.s ordered to prostrate' but I disobeyed (Him) for which I 'ill have the Fire, '101

When in the posture of bowing or p.rostration,thes,ervant complet~ his state of kbush.u'f, meekness,9lncl. subservience to his Lord~, describing Him, with the Attributes of might" grandeur" greatneS1iand bighn,ess. It is as if he is saying" 'Subservience and. meekne, are descriptions ofme whereas highness" gran de ur, and gtealne'ss are descriptions of YOU,ll It is for this reason that .it is }.egisb~ for the servant to say in his bowing. "Glory be to my Lord, th:Great," and in his prostration "Glory be to my Lord, the Mi, tligh.~'I02 Sometimes, in prostration, the Prophet (M)

would S~I ~'Glory be to the One who. bas :all kingdo,m, power, ,greatne~l and grandeur .. ';1'!J3

It is rtported tbat oneoig~:t, be (8) said inhis prostration, UI say as .Ill}rbroiliel' .Diwiid (~aIoyhU~/t1JiinJ) said: I rub my face in the dnst to thy Master" my Master deservesthat faces be rubbed in

Ill1 M' .. Ii~. ",,01' tilt ~'L" 'fAb' I _ H"' h

' ", UOWllfifo .. on 'f e aUrnOOty 0' ',u. .'uitayra '.

IIIl ,"Lm.'~ 4il2'~'9' 00' A"b'~' D'-' -d #873- d" N - ... #'1 ""'5'0 .;L th' • f

.fl..l9.', ~#Ja I . u.:t:'W'll' ~, an, I as::u ,- 'n' ' OOU1:e au onry 0

! (\wf ,ibf]~alik arnd it is ~~~.

50

BeilJg Attentive in Prayer

... L . d . r . H'· ~.c . nltJ4 I.Ue ... ust J10r ~ '.JS race ..

Being Attentive in Pray .. ·'er

. -

al-l:iasan~m,ay AJIahhave mercy Ofll rum, said". 'When you stand in prayer~ stand in due obedience as Allah has. ordered you, beware of negligence and Looking (here and there). beware that Allah be looking at you while yO'u 'are looking at something else, asking Allah for Paradise and taking refuge with Him from. the Fire, yet your heart is heedless, not knowingwhat the tongue is saying,' It was recorded by Muhammad ibnNasr al-Marwazi, may Allah have

him 105

mercy on .: -

He also records with his isnad to 'Uthman ibn Abu Dahrash who said, 'It has reached me that the Messenger of Allah (~) prayed a prayer in which he recited loudly;, Wben he had finished he asked, "Did I forget anything of this chapter?" They replied) 'We do not know" Ubayy ibn. Ka'b said" "Yes you did; this and this, verse." The Messenger of Allah (ji) said, ''Wbat is the matter with people! The Book of Allah is recited to then] yet they tl(~ not know what was recited. and whatwas notl This is how the gre:atness ofAUah left the hearts of the Children of Israel: their bodies were present but their hearts were absent. Allah does 111)( accept the action of a servant until his heart is present with his body.~"106

1n4Bayhaqi, SbJ)lab #3356

III{; MarwazJ #157 with a qa'Ifisnad.

51

HUMILITY .IN PRAYER

There are many narrations of this meaning,

'Isam ibn YuslIlf, m.ayAJlah have mercy on him, passed by Hatim al-Asamm who was talking in his gathering. He asked. 'I:iatim" have you made YOU! prayer good?' He replied" "tes.' He asked, 'How do you pray?' He replied, ~I stand at the' command, I walk in fear, I commence with the intention, I perform thetakbirbearing in mind His greatness, I recite at a measured pace:, carefully and with contemplation, 1 bow with knusbii', I prostrate in meekness, I sit and read the whole ta.rhahhud, and then I perform the Jakim in accordance to the Sunnah, I pray with sincerity to Allah,M1ghty and Magnificent, and yet I tear that it will not be accepted of me; however I 'will! preserve ]1: as much as I can until I die: Hesaid, 'Keep talking for you have indeed excelled in your prayer. ?11J7

Ill" Refer to Appendix Tbree fora: discussion on the ruling ofha.ving khllshf/ La the prayer.

52

CHAPTER THREE

Supplication

Am_ongst the actions of worship that are conducive to subservience andkhushil' to Allah, Mighty and Magnificent, IS the supplication (dJ/a),.108: t\ll:a:h, Most High, says,

"Call on your Lord humbly and sc;;,credy."lOi

'''Tbey outdid each other in good actions, calling out, to Us in yeatningand awe, and humbling

'ii'll! DuB: to call out, to summon. Kha~bi, Sh(/11al-D~ri; pg.4said, "Themeaniru; of w/d isthe servants asking his Lord for His help and continued suppml. ,lib. essence is thera persclfl shows his need of AJiUh and ,expresses his inabilirv II, change any matter himself or having anypoweeand abillity. This characrerisnc rv the mark of servitude and exemplifies it, Dt/ti also carries with Jt the mcaniu,L!.' d praising ,AHah_andatttiburing to Him genel:'Osmty and graoe .. '

:109 al-A'rdf (l),! 55

53

HUMILITY IN PRAYER

themselves to U S."11,0

One of the deeds that displays subservience.in supplication is raising the hands, It is authentically reported that the: Prophet (~ raised ibis; hands. when supplicating on many occasions, the most significant of which was the supplication for rain in which he raised them till the whiteness of his armpits was visible.'!' Similarly he would. raise his hands high on the eve of 'Arafah, 'when at lArafah.

Tabararu, m_ay Allih have mercy on him} records the QadItb of ibn (Abbas who g,aid, 'I saw the Prophet Iji)I supplicating at ( Arafah and his hands were at the level of his chest, like a pau.per begging tor food,'·1,12

One of the fearful! would sit at night (in supplication)" still, head bowed, and extending his hands forward like a, beggar. This is one of the most emphatic displays of subservience and need ..

The need of the heart, and its breaking before AJiah,Mighty and Magnificent, is alsomanifested in supplication coupled with its awareness of its dire want and destitution, It is in proportion to this yearning and need that the supplication is answered.

AQmad and TirmidhI record that the Prophet (ii) said, "'Allah does not.answer a supplication arising from a heedless and negligent

I'll Bukhalli#1031-3565-6341 3!n.dMusllm #895 on the authority of Anas.

112 Tabar.~ru" al·;/lwsa!#2.892 and Haythaml, vol, 10" pg. 1618 said that the isnad containeda cla~ff narratos,

54

Supplication

hean"m3

Subservience is also displayed through the tongue in its actual request and supplication, and in its persistence therein, Awza:1, may Allah have mercy on him, said, <It was said: The best supplication is the one in which one is persistent and humbl .. entreats Him.'

Tabarani records on the authority of ibn (Abbas (rat;lbv1iltilm fanh.umaj that the Prophet (M) supplicated on the Day of 'Arafah, (~O Allah, You can see where I am and hear my words; nothing of my affair is hidden from You. I am wretched and poor,. seeking succour and refuge, fearful and apprehensive, and one ackaowledginghis sin. I ask You as the indigent asks, and I humbly petition You as a lowly sinner, I invoke You as one who is fearful and blind, with the supplication of onewhose neck has submitted to You and whose body has humbled to YOU; whose nose has been rubbed in the dust, and! whose tears are flowing copiously. o Allah, do not make me one who is disappointed when. calling IOn You and be good, kind, and 'merciful. to m.e.O the besr of those who are asked, the best of those who givel'?"

Doe of them would sayin his supplication, 'By Your might and my subservience; by Your self-sufficiency and my need.'

Tawu.s, may.Allah have mercy on him, said,'One rught, ilAU ibn

1.13 Al).mad #665.5 on the authority of'Abdullih ibn (AmI' and Tirmidbl #3479 Of! the autbori.ty of Abu Hurayrah and. Ti.rmidhi said it was gharlb.; both isnsds aile q.a~"jlf.

It was declared hassn by· Albiol, (Ji~$a(;ibah #594.~t1!)i/" al- Targhib #. 1653

5S

HUr.vIILI'fY IN PRAYD.R

al- Has an, :mayAllah have mercy on him, entered his private room and prayed" I beard him s'ay in prostration, "Your servant is at Your courtyard, one in abject need of You is at Your courtyard, one needy of You is at Your courtyard petitioning You at Your courtyard." So ~ memorised thesewords and I have never supplicated with them at the time of distress except that I was relieved of it.' It was recorded by ibn Abi al-Dunya,

Ibn Bakwayh, the ~u.fi., may Allah havemercy on him, narrated with his isnsd that one of the servants performed eighty pilgrimages on foot. 'While he was performing the: /awtif saying, 'My beloved, my beloved)' a caller cried out, 'Are you not 'content that. YDU sbo,uJd be one who is humble ana poor such that you too be beloved?' He fainred on hearing this andafterwards would say, 'One needy of YOU!, one needy of You!' I have repented from saying, "My belovedl"

56

Loving the hf.!m:blt mId poor

Loving the humble and poor

Ibn Majah records the hadith of Abu Sa'Idal-Khudri (flu/b.· r 11ti1J:li 'fanhu) that the Prophet (it) said, "0 Ailab"make melive as (me lowly and humble: (miskin), make me rue as one lowly and humble, and resurrect me amongst the ranks of the lowly and humble."! 1.5

Tirmidhl records a similar hadlth on the authority of Anas (rar:jiJAiltihu ~anhu) and adds, ~(A)ishah (rcu/f.yA.lliihtl ccmh(i) asked, uMe:ssenger of Allah, why do you say this?" He replied, "Because they will enter Paradise fony years before the rich. tAli'S bah, never turn away one who is 1'001" even if you only find half a date to give him .. (.A."ishah love the poor and keep them dose for Allah will bring you dose on the Day of Rising. m

Abu Dharr said, The Messenger of Allah (;I) advised me to love the poot and to keep dose' to them .. ' This was recorded by Imam Ahmad! and others.!"

..

In the storyabout the dream, narrated by Mu'adh (rar!bv~UMIJtI (anhu),the Prophet (M)I said, ~~I ask You for the performance of

i i5 Tinnidh:r #2352 on the authority of Anas and he said it was ghMW! ibn .M1j:'lh #4126 on theauthority of Abu Sa'ld, and Tabararn, al:_DtI~d on the authority (11- "Ubadah ihnal.-Siim1r, all with ~a.!ifisnads, however the l~adlth is ~a.I;ill:!.

It was also recorded on me' authority of Abu Sa:'id by I:Jakim #7911 who said it was ~~ with Dhahabl agreeing; irwas also ruled :~al:W! by SuyCi~,al-}iim/ til Saghir#14.54, and Alba.ru,. $ap.ip aI-jdrni'·#1.261, lJl-Salii/Jeth #308, (J1-lnvlP#861. cr. SakhaWI, MaqJ.sid'at-lfas4tlab #166

1.16 AJ;unad #2]415~.21517 and Nasa'l, al-/(Pbra. vol, 6, pg. 96 It was declared .~.~ by ibn f:Iibban ##9 and Arnalu~

HUMILITY ~N PRl\YER

good., the abandonment of evil,ano the love of the poo:r .. "'11?

The word .miskin in these l-tadiths and those like them refers to one whose heart is needy of Allah, submissive and humble to Him, and his after shows this. This state is frequently found amongst thosewho ate poor in terms of monetary wealth, for wealth often causes a person to transgress. The hadlth of Anas (r__ar/jyAllahu fanhu) supportS this explanation, except that its isnad is da'If

N asa.l records the hadlth of Aba Dharr (tcu#JA.lkihu tanhu) that the Prophet (M) said. "True: poverty is the poverty of the self and true richness is the richness of the heart. "-118

The $a1:rlh. records that the Prophet (fi)sald, "True richness

._' -

~'I!. lies in ",1L. ri -k_ f·L s_·'Il'·nI19

OWY- _ . __ , I. U~:e _CIU!l:esS 0 LUe:. 01. -"

This is why Imam Al;tmad, ibn 'Uyaynah, ibn Wahb; and a group of the Imams stated that the poverty that the Prophet (ai) sought refuge 'from was the poverty of the self. Hence the one whose heart 1sm dire need of Alllah" 'Mighty and M·agruficent, and! is

111 Abroad #22109 and Tirmidhi #3235 and he said it was hasan ~abIb

The author has a treatise in e~lanation ofthis lJ8dith entirled llehnjdrdl-AwM Sharplkhfi!ti_f1J at.Maul aI~A %1 [a forthcoming publication of Daar al-Sunnah under' tbe tide. "Tbe .Het1tmnl! Di.pNte1.

us Nas.3,.l,. al-KNbrd on the authority of Abu Dbarr,

Ibn Hibban #685 also records it on the authority of Ahu Dharr with the words. "True richness is the richness of me heart and true poverty ]s the poverty of the heart." Arna'Gt said that the isnad was~aI)lJl:t. meeting the criteria of Mus.um.r;:;f. IrjlUn.i, .lCzhJ (l1-Khafo~#1809

Il~ Bukhsri #6446 and Muslim #1051 on rhe authority o[Abii Hurayeab.

58

Lo.tJing the humble and poor

humble to Him is a .miskin, even if he be rich in monetary wCRl1 h. This is because the need of the heart must display on the limbs. VVhoever is humble outwardly and displaysneed, but his heart i~ not humble, nor is it needy, is an arrogant tyrant.

Arrogance

Nasa'i and others record that the Prophet ('Ii) walked downa street 'where there was a black woman. A man saidto her, 'Make way!' She: said, 'Ifhe wishes he can walk P:lst my right, and if he wishes hecanwalk past my left.' The Messenger of Alllah (Ii) said, "Let her be, she is a tyrant." They said, "But Messenger of AWU],. she 15 just a pauperl' He replied, HIt is in her heart.·Il:w

al-Hasan, may .A.llah have m.e!cy on him, said, 'Some people have modesty in their clothes and arrogance in their hearts. They wear woolen garments, yet, by Allah, while wearing them, one of them has more arrogance than a person (reclining) 0:1.1 a raised couch or a person wearing embroidered silk .. "

It is authentically reported that the Prophet (;I) denied that wearing nice clothes and shoeswasarrogance and said, '"Arrogance is to reject the truthand to look down on people ."! 2.j

Ila Na$a~J al-Kubni., vol, 6; pg; .1.43 on the authority of Abu Burdah from his :fa.mel; and he stated that there was an unknown. narrator in the isnad.

H.a.ythamI, vol, 1. pg. 99, also references it to Tabariim, oJ~AJllsatand AhOYa'la #3276 on the authority of An as and shows mat the isnsdhas aqa'[fnarl.'aror. He states that Baz.zar #3579 also records it and that he declaees it ell!f dllle to the priesence of another narrator.

12:1 Muslim #91 on theauthority of ibnMas'ud,

59

HUMILITY IN PRAYER

This hadith makes it clear that wearing nice clothes is not arrogance and! that arrogance is in the heart, i,e, its obdurately not submitting to the truth) looking down on people; and scorning them. "Whoeve:rthiniks highly of himself, and, asa result, scorns people and refuses to' submit to the truth, such 81 person is the one 'willa is arrogant, even ifhis clothes and shoes be simple and worn out" However, whoever leaves wearing nice clothes out of true humility to .Allah for fear that be may fall prey to arrogance has done well, Ibn (Ulnar (rat/fyAJLabu tznhu) would do this and the saying of the Prophet (M) concerning the checkered shirt he wore, "It has distracted me from my prayer,,"12:2 also proves this,

The Prophet: eM) chose the station of servitude rather than kingship. On the Day of Conquest, a man stood 'before him (:I)" trembling, so he said, "Go easYJ' lam not a king,~ Lam just the $.00 of a Qurayshi woman who used to eat strips of dried meat."I23

It is authentically reported that he (Ii) said, "Do not fhlseLy praise me as the Christians falsely praised the son of Mary, 1: am only a servant, so s;ay:servant of Allah and His Messenger,"?"

122 Bukhiirl #373-7.52-581.7 and Musilirn #556 onthe autbocity of~A'ishah

11:3. Ibn Maj:.1lh #331.2 on th.eauthodty of Abll Mas'ud,

J:likim #4366 said it was ~·~with Dhehablagreeing, tlaLcim #3733 also records it 00 the authority of Jw' ibn '(Abdullah and he said it was ,a1;tiQ 'With Dhahabi agt"eciog.lt was ruled .~~ by Albini, ,(JJ~JtJ!)ip(Jb #] 876

124 Bukhw #3445-68130 on the authorityoeUrnar.

Ibn [;iIlajr, FOip" voL 12, pg. 181 said, 'Itni'is to praise someone falsely .. " ~A1r alQarll, Sharh Mishktil#4897 said. '. ~tr-tlis to go to an extreme IDpwsing. .: the under-

60

nogancr

Imam. Al:tmad,Inay AJffih have mercy on him, said: Muhanuu.u! ibn Fuqaylnarnted to us; on the authority of 'Umarah; 'i )11111'1 authority of .Abu. Zur'ah who said: I am sure that it W::l~. ;\hll Hll!ayrah (ra4iYAlkihu ',miJtI) who said, 'Jibril sat with the -PT!' )'plll('1 (fiJ and looked to the sky to see an angel descending, he !tlltl. "This angel bas notdescended since the day itwas created .. ·'·' \X/hell1 be bad. descended. he said, ""0' Muhammad! 'tour Lor-d has SL'IH me to you ~ should Hemake you a Prophet-King or a ervanr Messenger?" JibrI] said, "01 Muhammad! Be humble before Y( Ill!' Lord,' He said,·'Xa.ther a Servant-Messenger" 'I~

Standing of [his is that pwsing him in other ways is permissible." ',\11 al·e)'III, S/)a-,.fJJhtl1CJhiJil, vol. 2. pg, 161 said about hJiswords. "I tlfll ()II/y hinfnJ(ml". ;', 'Mcar III t~', [ have 00 quaJ1ty other than liliuu of servitude and raessengership: rhls is thrrt';1 of per~ecrion that a created being can reach" so do mot say anrthi:llg ab! 11..11 me rh.u negsees thesetwoatesibutes and do nor believe that I ha.v·c::a I:fmality other thall these ·tvJO .. , the Q:adim inclicate that ][' is pcrmJs,sible to describe him with .'Un thjng' that does notreachthe boundaries of Lordship •. mbilb!1Jlah. and >( ;.~ ,& .. 1 i 11-', u!ibm,ah, '

lZ5 A1;rmad #-71.60 and ibn 1:iibbiil #6365

:Haytban-U) AtJOjma'al-ZafJ1,tid .. vol, 9, $)g, 19· and Albaru. Taf;qiq Bitlrh'lill-l'/-. \f.rI • .,;1111 that its isnad was ~a~ mee:l:itl.g the cdteria of Bukhirl and Muslim

Ibn Ta.ymiyy:ah said, 'The Messenger-Sereanr is one who on])' docs t I.'~I.I 1J.IIIl I! he :Is commanded, hence e--.re:rythin.g be does Is worship of AJlab;i'lC' is a 11llu· seevant, dispensing the order of the One who sent: rum as is. csmh:l 11',111.".( I! III Bukhiri#31.17 that he " ~ said, "By AllihJ I do notgrantanybodr.!UlirthinJ.-l; 1111 'I prevenunybody tto.m.ll!flything. Iam.onlyadismhutor;.] pl.'\oc thi1"lg.'w!"l'r, I .uu ordered,' j Mea:run~ , do nor give except where I am ordered ro gh't: am I I dl Illj II prevent except where Lamordered '[0. peevent, ,lonJy obey Allflh i n this." J 'III '. j', m conerase 'to the Prophet~KiJlg who is allowed to dispense with 8( mlL' ,'I Il.ill I ... 1', he wills, MJan, SaiYS about such a. PfOpbet~King. Sulaym:iril" '''0'0080 WfS/~,bjl'dt-","I:" IIim ,Iiu mild ."rowing gentlY' by ,,~ co.mmmuJ w'he.rev.erhe dtr,~ ctrd, mul.('''/M~ the· .devils lqfjinn}' .. e,very' builder ,and diver tmd ·others ,bfJIllllJ tORt'llu'/' m slMcle&s. [We lai4}. This is Ou,.,gift~. ~()·.grllllt or witlJ:I"old 1I1itll()1I1 ,f.u:m.um"

61

I-.lUMIl.ITY IN PRAYER

One of the mursal reports of Ya1;Iya ibn Abu Kathir, may.A.llah have mercy on him, has that the Prophet ()I) said, ''1 eat what a slave eats, I sit as a slave sits" lam. merely a slave,' This was recorded bY' ibn Sa'(d" Ta/;'tlqal.'l'l.6

He also records via the route of Abu, Ma'shar, on the authority of al-Maqban, on the authority 'Of 'A'ishah (racfiyAllabu fanho) that the Prophet (M) said, "An angel came to me and said, "Your Lord extends the saiJm to you and says, "If youwish~, you may be a Prophet-King, and if youwish, you may be a Servant-Messenger."? Jibrill indicated that I should humble my self so I said, '~A ProphetServant.": \\'ishah said, 'After that, the Prophet (~ never ate while recliningandhe would say, "I eat as a slave eats and I sit as a. slave sits.m12i

One of themnrsal reports ofZuhri, may Allah have mercy on him, has, 'It has reached us that an angel came to the Prophet (11) that had previously nevercome to him accompanied byJibrll. jibril was silent and (he angel said, ""'{OUI' Lord has given you the choice of being a Prophet-King or a Prophet-Servant;" The Prophet (Ii) looked at JibrIl Calqyhis-salam) as if seeking advice,

=

[Sid (38): 36r39], meaning 'give "as yOIU wish and withhold.as you wish, eitherway you will not be j~.dged.,' The P.:tophet-JGng does what AUan has obligated!. upon him and leaves what MalI has prohibited, ltlld is free to act :II!S be wills with regards the worldly alilthority and wealth granted! bun withoutincurring any sin. However the Servant-Messenger does not give to anyoneor withhold from anyone,exeept by the order of his Lord .. .as suchall his actions eonstirure WO,[ship of AJlab. Exalted is He.' cf Ibn Taymiyym~ al-Ff'rqdn, pg~ 92 [pUibliisbed by Daar tI)'S~Sunnah1Ptlbl!ishers. BUrningham 2001.]

'126 ' ]' 1 ']71 vo .. ,.~ pg,.:J .

62

A rroga1U:e

and he indicated that he should be humble 'so the ~l'S:'H:"r1 ,''.('1 Ilj:

Allah (M) said, "cA Plophet:-Servant.""I28

Zuhrl said, They would think that from that time tin the d~n' he, Iefi thisworld the' Prophet (fi) never ate in a redilllng posture.'

A1;tmad and Titmidhi' record on the 'authority of Abu, U rnamah (ratliJAllihN 'anb:u) [that the Prophet (Ii) said, "My Lord oFfen.:d DO make the plain and pebbles f Mecca gold but I said, '"'o.I11Y Lordl Rather I (would prefer) to eat my fill one day IDd to go hungry another," or be said "three days or similar words, "'When Igo hungry, I would turn to' You in humble entreaty and remember You, and when lam full, I would thank You, and praise' You.""1,111

One of the Gnostics said, 'rwboeve.r claims servitude, yet some personal objective and gain remainsthat he 1 oksto, he has belied his claim, Servitude can only truly be attached to one whose personal objectives, have vanished and. only the objectives c fhi:-;

, aster remain in his mind. His only name would be that attached to His" his only description. would be one ofcommunion wit h Hsn, If he is summoned in His name, 'he answers bv wav ~it

. .

servitude. He ha,5,D - Dame or designation Iefrand he onl"

responds, tone whocalls .bim, to the servitude of ills Masr '1'." then he read tb e following couplets

t28 Ibid.

\::i';; M,tmad #22190 and Ti.rmlclhi #234'7 wbosaid it'Was~asan. Thcw(lnlll~~ I II "three days" is recorded by Tab:uraru. aj·Lbfr'#78.35

AJhanI, Ti:If;qiq Bidtiy()I1I'I·J'fi~ pg, 63 ruled the :fi'r5t parl of the ryadlth Ii. I III authentic due to supporting: witnesses and rhe second part commencing Willi "I would be full ... '· to be munkar; Arnalii,~ salid thu the is.nad W,lS ~li1!.~if iidd:!I'J

63

HUMILITY IN PRAYER

o <Amr. with my Zah[ca;) am I bestirred Or this both listener and the seer know; Call me only 'her servant,'

For that is the most truthful of my names,

This is the end of tills treatise.

Ali praise' is due to Allab.

Peace al1'd blessings be on our master; Mupammad, his familY,

and his Conpaniofls.

64

APPENDIX I '& II

on Khush,u(

on Hypocritical Khushu(

Imam ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah 'may Allah have mercy upon him.

6S

.APPENDIX I

Ibnal-Qayyim on Khushii(

Allah, Most High~ says,

''':Hasthe time notatrived fot the hearts IOf those who have faith to yi.e1d to the remembrance of Allih and. to the 'truth He has sent down, so tbey are not like those wh.o were given the Book before for whomthe time seemed over long 80 that their kearts, became hard.? .Many of them are devia·tor.s.n'l30

Ibn Mas'ud (ratfoYAllavJI '~llh:u) said, 'The time between our accepting Islam and. being rebuked by this verse was four years.' '131 Ibn (Abhas said" 'Allah granted time and leeway to the hearts of

! JQ .a/~ !:ladid (57); 16

D1 Muslim #-3027

66

the believers, then, at the turn of the thirteenth year af1.er rill" revelation had started. He rebuked them,'!"

Allah, Most High, says"

"It is the believers who ate successfelrthose who

. 1..., 'bI '. '. .ill.... " . , ,,133

are Rum..e ill wen player ...

Linguis ti cally, khushit means sinking, subservience, and. snll ness. All.ab, Most High, says,

C'Voices \ViU be humbled beforetheAll ... Merciful :andnothing but awhisper will be :hccard."l34

i.e, stilled and humbled. 10 this respect, the earth has been described as havingkb'Jtshur, i.e. its being ,dry, bare, and low and not: being elevated with plant and vegetation. Allah, Most High, says,

_"'",..;,./ ""' ...... "~,~ ~.;!f;, .". ,,#",' .. ~ ,;,oF~"..~; ,

~1:J( ~ W_)'I !;,lih ~~~Il.5)'~'%~I:~J

- ~

il!1P~~~ ... ~,!"..!I!

'~JJ~flt

"Among Irls Signs is tbat: you see the earth laid. bare and then: when We send down water 00 it" it

132 Suyiiti~ a/",DIIfT,vol14, pg, 277 who references it to ibn Abi Hatim ~1I1d ilu I :Mardawayb.

1.3.) ai-Mtlimintin (23): 1-.2

134 TdHa(20): 108

67

HUMILITY IN FRAYER

(Technically), lehusbuc refers to the heart standing before the Lord in submissiveness, subservience, and focusing on Him.

It is also said that khushtt is 11:0 submit to the truth, however (the truth is that) this is one of its results. Therefore, amongst the signs of khushil:is that when. the servant opposes the truth and is reminded of it, he accepts and willing returns to it.

It is said thatkhuJhttis the abating of the flam,es of lusts inthe servants' breast and the dissipation. of their smoke; replacing in their stead the blaze of the greatness (of .t\llab) in the heart ..

Junaid said, 'Khushit is the humbling ofhearts to the One who knows the unseen.'

The Gnostics have agreed that the seat ofkhuJhir is the heart and that its fruits sprout on the limbs and they display it. The Prophet (M) saw a mao playing with his. beard while praying and remarked, "If the heart of thisperson was humble, so too would

hi 1:_ ... D.·. b· '" 136

S .wu :s .. e .

The Prophet (M) said" ".Taqwi137 is here," pointing to his breast,

m FUNi/at (41): 39

137 TaiJrW;:. to ward off evil,

Talq ibn ~abIb said upon being asked about ltlf}lIlti. That you penorrn,the obedience of Allah upon a .. lightfrom Allah, hoping for the reward of Atlih. You leave disobedience to Allah upon, a light from .Mlib~ fearing the punishment of Allih.;

=

68

and he said "this throe rimes.UB

One of-the Gnostics said, 'Fine conduct Of} the outer is ,,1 dt':111 iadiearion of fine conduct on the inward. ne of them saw :1 person showing khushi/ OIl hisshoulders aad body and said. '( ~

h ..JI L t.l ,I. -f - b ' .. h '. b ,,(. I ·

sue -ana-suen, II(j}II$oums . ere) pOlnt111g to " ss I, reast, 'not nerc,

'pointing to his shoulders.

One' of the Companions, Hudhayfah, woukl say,!Take n~:fugl" with Allih from bypoceitical khushi/.' 'Whenas.k:ed what il[ \I a~~ he replied" "That you see the body humble and submissive while the heart is not. )'13~j

'Umsr (rat/iYAlla1Ju ,rannu) saw a, ,person with, his neck 'bowed in prayer and said "0 such-and-such raise your bead for kh.usbil lies

=

Recorded by ibn aiI-M!Ubiirak"al-Zuhtl'l4'473 with a ~aQil:l isnarl,

Ibn aJ-Qayyim"ar-RiJdhlJ aJ·TaD,ik!J!yaiJ. p, 27~ said, "This is the best that has been said eoncemiag the definition of la'lllli .for indeed every action mUST hIIV\' <I beginning cause ro ~t and an objoctive.An:action can never be considered [( I ~.ll: o'b&lience' and I: cause to draw one closer to AUab Wltil i:1:S pomr of commence mel1tand cause' be unadulrera:tfd faithjrlot habit. not base desires, not rhe '\'Isil for praise and po5iciol'l.~ nororhersueh things. Its objective must be the rewanl that lies \Vith AUih and Hisgood-pleasure, this, being the definition or ib!is,.;h, This is. why we often find me combined mention of these Nl'O, fOlmdacions SU'l'11 as [0 his I&) saying,'WhoeVier fasts the m.onth of Ram.a4in out of fai-r11 ltnd

.: t,';: _ '-,I. ,~

~Qu ••••

His saying, 'upon a light &om Ail.ath' points to me f1fs[ foundaucu which : .. faith. Hi,s saying. ''hoping for die reward of AIIih' :poMtS 'to the second fuund.1 don whiehls i!;tiJtib. ~

I . Muslim. #2564 om the 'authority of Abu HUtl,yrah.

119 Ai:t01ad" al .. Zllhd" pg .. 'm 42 and ibn .al~Mubkak, at"Ztlhd # t 43 on m hea UI huru \ of Abu ai-Darda'.

69

HLTM.~LIT'Y IN PRAYER.

not on the neck but in the heart,'

(_A]ishah (ratj'fyA/iahli ftmha,) saw some youth trying to walk with an air of quietude" so sheasked, 'Who are they?"Her co.llleagues replied, "Ascetics.' She said, 'When 'Umar ibn al-Khartsb walked" he walked rapid.ly;.when he spoke, he was heard; when he struck. someone, iii: hurt; when he fed (the poor), he made sure they ate to their fill; he was the trueasceticl'

FU4ayl ibn [lya~ said, "It used to be disliked for a. person to displa.y more khurh'if than was in his heart.'

Hudhayfah said, 'The first thing you 'will Jose of' your religion will bekhuJhii~ and the last thing you will lose of your religion will be the prayer, and it is well possible that there is no good in a person who. prays, and soon will come a time when you shall enter a, large Masjidand not see a single person with !ehushi/'

Sahl said, 'The person 'whose heart has khushil will not go near Shaytan, tl,4O

I~ Ibn al-Qayyim, Madarijai-Slilikin. vol, 1.pp; 417-4~.s

70

APPENDIX II

Ibnal-Qayyim on Hypocritical Khushi/

The difference between (true) khll$hu' engendered by faithand the hypo critic all khllshfjr is that the former takes place in the heart to AJJih and is conduced by veneration, magnifica.cion) 'Sobriety, dlignjtyJ and shyness. The heart breaks for Allah, combining dread, bashfulness, love, and shynesswith the perception of AUah;~ blessings and one's own transgressions. This necessarily engen· ders khushil in the heart which is then followed by kblls!Jii' IOn the limbs.

HYPOcr:itiiCa1lehllShil, on the other hand, appears on the limbs: it is amere pretencejheperson affecting something that is n< ~t there since the heart: is void of khllIhllt. One of the COmpaJ1i.0I1~ would say, 'I take refuge with Alllb from hypocritical k,htulul'.' Wihen asked what it was, he replied, 'That you see the body hum ble and. submissive while the heart is not. 11.411

The one who has khushu·r for the sake of Allah is a servan L; ill the' breast of whom the Hames of desires have abated and ,I hcii

I~l Abmad~ (J/~Zlthd~ pg, 142 and ibn al-Mubarak, a:/-Zuhd #143 on the ";U.lII!lII!H of Abu. al-DMda",

71

HllMIlLlTY]N PRAYER

smoke has dissipated, replacing in their stead radiance. The blaze of the greatness (of Allah) has been ignited) and the lusts of the soul have died in the face of fear and sobriety which have, in turn, stilled the limbs and ,qmetened the heart The heart is content and at peate with Allah, and it remembers Him; engulfedin the effusion of tranquillity descending from its Lord, it becomes meek and humble (mukhhil). 'The heart which is meek is the heart which is at peace and rest for the land which is tlIukj;bil is, land which is low-lying to which water flows and settles. The same applies to the heart: when. it is ttJUkbbit, i.e. it bas achieved kJ:u,-si)i/, it becomes like this piece of low-laying land to which water flows and settles.

The sign of such a heart is that (its owner) will prostrate before Allah out of magnification and abject humility) broken before Him, never (desiring) to raise his head till. the day he meets Him. This' is , .. he u,"~JSh'Uf e-Olf'. - dered . b . £-lith.

._ bll._ tt;fJ~ -nb~n--- . __ ya __

The arrogant heart" on the other hand, heaves and swells in its arrogance like a fast flowing river. It is likean elevared portion of the [and at which water never settles. This is hypocritical khushilf: the person feigns quietude: and affects stillness of limb byway of ostentation. In reality, his soul is raging with lusts and desires; outwardly he displays khuJhu(~ but inwardly the valley serpent and jung]e lion lurk between his shoulders, waiting to pounce, on the prey;, 142

142'11- al Q' . .. . J o·-'h· 3'46-347'

.IJ'D.' . -.,ayyun, tlJ-nJl .. j pp. . _' _ .'

72

APPENDIX III

The Ruling of Khushu( in Prayer

Shaykhu'l-Islam ibn Taymiyyah may AJ1~lh have mercy upon him.

73

A.PPENDIX m

Shaykhu'l-Islam ibn Taymiyyah said:

Allih, Mos t High, says,

U: •• "but tha.t i.s a very bard thlng, except for the hwnble ,,'" 1·43

This signifies the: censure of those who do not have kh.ushdtf• Similar .statements indicating censure are,

''We onlyappob1ted the direction you used to face .in order to know those who foDow the: Messen ..

74

Ibn Taymfjyah on Tbe Rsiing of KhUJhi' in Prayer

g'er from. those who turn round on their heels" Thongb in u:utb it is a very hard thing - except for those Allah has guided.''''"

"~hat y'no. call die polytheists, to follow is very' bard :for them. n14S

The Book of Allah. Mghty and Magnificent, shows that whoever finds whar Allilh loves hard to bear is hlamtewotthy in ih e religion and receives Allah's displeasure. Censure and displeasure only come: ones way 'when an obligation is ]eft or '3, prohibition is committed. Therefore if those who do not have khushu( ate, censured, its obligation. is proven.

It is known that the reference to kh.ushit in His sa.ying,

"' .... but that is a, veryh.ardl thing, except 'for the. humble. ",1%

must incorporate .khuJhii' in the prayer, otherwise the meaning becomes nonsensical, since itwould mean that faltih is hard except for one wh.o has khushif outside of it and not in it, as such it would! mean thae it is bard for those who have lehushit in the prayer but not hard for those who have it outside of the prayerl

1~5 al-Sbura (42): 13

I -. al-BaqartJi) (2): 45

75

The verse would then become pointless. As such, this verse then proves that k!;Rshtlis obhgatory in the prayet.

'The obligation of having khltJhilin prayer is also proven. by His sayIng,

"It is the believers who aresuccessn..w those who al,t': humble in their' prayer; those who turn a::way £rum, wotthless talk; those who paytbe alms-'tax; those who guard the:iir privat.e pans .. except &001 their wives 'or those they own as sla:vcs, in whicb case they 'are not blamewortby; but. those who desiteanytbing more than that are people who havegone beyond 'the limits .. those who honour th,eirtrosts and their oontracts; those whols:afeguard their prayer;, such people are the inheritors who will ,inherit Firdaw:s:;1 remaining in it time .. lessty, forever. m4.,

Allah) Glorious and Most High, .inf()rms us that it is these who

76

Ibn T qymfJJah on The .Roling of Khushuf in Preyer

will inherit Firdaws therebyshowing that others will not do so; as such, this proves the obligation of having the: qualities mentinned therein. This is because, 'were they recommendations, Firdawscould still be attained without them, since Paradise can be: attained by the performance of obligaiory deeds without the recommended. It is fot this reason that only obligations aremenboned in these verses.

Khllshi? is obligatory and comprises quietude' and humility. In this respect is the saying: of 'Umar (rar!!YAllahli t'anhu) when he saw a. _person fidgetilng in his prayer, "If the heart of this person was bumble, so too would his limbs be," meaning they would be stilled and submissive.

Allah, Most High, says,

~tj;~;I;GDu~l; ·~~~\jr,j]~l~~,;~;

t.",P"~ *"'ati'.i!II

~.JJ~J-a'

"Among his Signs is that you see theeanh laid bare and thenwbenWe send down water 0.0 it, Jt quivers and sw'eIls,. n:!!41

Hera.He informs us that after' having had khushii~ the' earth quivers and swells, i.e, raises. (with vegetation), this then. proves that its. kbushil was stillness and lowness.

Ids for this reason that the Prophet (8) would say in his ibowing) "'0 Allah, to You have I bowed, in You have I believed, and to You have I submitredirny :hearing) sight, bones, and marrow are

77

HUM1LITY IN PRAYER

humbled to Y:OIll," as recorded by Muslim.':" Here: he described himself with /eh:ushil because the one bowing is still and in a po:s ture ofb.umility ... '.

KhuJ'hit is obligatory;, as such the one who pecks on the ground like a crow when p,):iosrrating has not displayed ,khNShil therein. Similarly, one who does not fu1!ly return to (the standing posture) from, bowing, before going down for prostration, has not been calm and still. Calmness (sukli,n) is the exact same thing as tranquility (juma'nfnah).. The person who was not: cairn in his bowing or his prostration has not shown khusbu in them. The

~ -

person who does not have. kbushli' is sinful as we have just

explained.

Amongst the proofs that kbll!hu(is obligatory is that the Prophet (!I) threatened people who left it, as in the case of a person who raises his gaze to the sky; this motion and this looking is, at odds tok,hushii', Anas (ratjiJAlitihtl fanhu) records that the Prophet (~ said, "What is the matter with people that they raise their gazes in their prayers?)' He severely reprimanded those who did it saying, "They must stop or their sight will be snatched awayI"ISO Jabir ibn Sarnurah .reports that 'The Messenger of Allah (~I entered! the Masjid to see people praying while looking up at the sky and said." "People must stop looking up' at the sky or their sight will not return to tbeml."",151 The' first was recorded by Bu,khid :and! the second by Muslim, and both are recorded by .Abii Dawiid, N asali, and mba Mail,ab.

14'l Muslim #7n on the :authority of 'I Ali.

'~llBukbm #750

LS! Muslim #111'

78

Ib'l TQ_)I'11Jfy)'ab 011 The &1£:"1, of KlJUihii'i,1 J+l!,,'rr

Ibn Sma said, 'The Messenger of Allih (fi) would look up III :pr,ayer and when A1J.ah, l\1ighty and Magaificenr, revealed,

, ~c'S;;~i;:~~~,~JI \5~j:iTC¥:ii

c~l:t 18, thebelieversi wb.oare sueeessfal; those who are humbleIn their p,r:a:yef .•. :",I!l

his sight never left theplace of his prostration.' This was recorded by A[.lmad, a/~NiJikh wa'1-1Jlla,fJlukh.Now, because raising ones, sight to the sky goes against kb1lJhH~'J the Prophet (: ) prohibited it and threatened the one who did it.

A.s regards lookingaround, thisreduces kiJJI!hu' but does [1(),I' Dle,gate it This is wby looking around decreases (the reward) of p[aye[;Bukh~irw) Abu Diwud1 and N'3.sa,'i record that CAI'jsbah (r-a4i:YAlldhll fan:ho) said, asked the Prophet (j{l about lookin~ (here and there) in plaYler and he said, "It is a, snatching away thail Shayt:an steals from the servants' p:r:ayeI.U)1S~ Aha Dawild and N~a'Sa'l record the l:tadIth of AbG/l~Abwa~, from Abu Dharr (ratjfyAJl4hu 'afthu) 'tha..t the Prophet (iI)s'aid, nAHin will remain tunrlng to me servant in his prayer for as long as he does not look a-way. If he looks away, He' 'Wi.J1 turn arway.ulS4

There is no harm in looking around if there is a need [0 de) so, Abu Di\V11d records on the :autbod1t}r of SaW! ibn l:I~aJjyytl.h.

132 al.MI/ifIJifJJin (23): 1-2

I S~ Bukhmi #7$1-32.91

i~ A~d #21508,. Aba. Dirid#909" Nasa'i#l ~.9'6

It: was ruled ~a~ by ibn Kh,uz3J}rmth. #481 -482, 'tla,kim #862 wil h I )i 1:111 ,j i 111 agrecin~ and hasan by Albini, $api/J 0/· Targbib #554,

79

'The ifJOflltlh was called for prayer - i.e, iliemomiDg p_myier- and the Messenger ofAliih (ji) commenced praying, and kept looking at the mountain path.' Abu Da:wGd said, "He had sent a horseman there to k>ee:psuardby night.·l5S,

In a 'simi]arveiin. is his tiking~,Umamah bilu Abial-rAs ibn 31-

i· .,

Raor from. his daughter"Zarynab;,156 his opening the door for

(A'ishah; IS his desoending the pulpit to teach the people prayer; 1>8 his stepping 'bac,k during the 'eclipse p'Iayer;,159 his holding Shaydn and squeezing his, neckwhen hetried to, sever his (8), prayer;l60 his, command to kill snakes and scorpions whiJ,e in prnye,r;161 his command '~O push back and6ght the one who is walldng in, front of one pmying;I'62 his, command for women to dap their handls;16~l

L~· • • , 1M d .. L h .. .. L

,(lIS, monoamg ill p,rayer" ," - ana otner sue - actions m p!rayer U-Hlt

ISS .Abil DawQd, #$"]6

l!it· Abu DiwUd #91 a on rile 3Ju,mority of Abu Qa.md~ ..

'1159 AbUI Diwfid #t 178 on the iumo.rity ofJibir

Ibti ~d #3926 00. du~:authorlty of ibn Mas,tad with. a ,~la'!if isn.id.

BukhiD #46,i -4808 and Muslim #541 record :asimibI \1adi1h onmcauthorlty of Abu HuraymLt.

i~1 Abu. DaWliid #921

163 .A·. b'- .. D ... ~. .. - d -149.3·9· .. u,· aWUJff, .

16~ Abij, DawUd #943

80

are done for a need, If, .howe rer, they are done: without need, they would be regarded as mere fidgeeiag which negateskhu:rbli' and is prohibited in praye£

The obligation of khushii']s also pro'vel11 by tihel]adith 'reported by Tamim al- Ta~ from Jibir ibn Samurah (rar!fyAllcihll '~t1hlJ) who said, The: Messenger of Allah (M) entered in upon us and the people were raisin' rheir hands - the narrator, Zuhayr ibn MuCawiyah said that he thought that was in the prayer - and he said, ~~'hat is the matter that] self: you. raising your bands as i they are the tails of headstrong horses) becalm in the prayer. ,. This was recorded bv Muslim, ba DawGtd, and Nasa~."a;s Thev

~ .

also record on the authority of'UbaydWlih ibn al-Qibtiyyahfrorn

Jibir ibn Sarnurshwho srud,WhcD we would pra} behind the Messenger of Allih (ji)and performed the SdiaflJ, we would wal/le our hands to the right and to the left, 'When the Messeqget of .Allah (;I) had completed the prayer, he said, 'WM,t is thematter with you that he moves, his hands as if tbeywere tails ofheadstrong horses, it suffices you to do this - and he pointed with his fin, er .- and to say the salo,,]' to his brother on the right: and le,f't"'~IM Anothe:r nareation bas, "Does it not. suffice one of you - or me of the·m - ro keep his hand. on his rlUgh and say the .sali'1l1 to his brother on his right and ]eft?" 'I 6 The wording of Muslim bas, We prayed with the .Messenger of Iillih (ii), when we said the Ja'iam we would motion with our hands saying, "Peace be with you."Th.e Messenger of AJ1ih (M)loQked at us md said ~~lat is th·e matter' 'with you that you motion with your bands il' if they

I6SM,·ll:. ',-Ul1'9"1 A' b- 'D- -d' ,u1· 1'1100'1 'N' -,",./1..11','0-"

. ~u.sll,l!m ff ., '. u. aJWU, er . II ,,' ,:t5a:1 ff 0"1;

1M Musllm #120, Abu Dswiid #998. asil #1185

11\7 Aha D!w(ld. #999

81

were the tails of headstrong horses. When, one of you s,ays the salciH,},', let hlm face ibis neighbour and not motion with the hand.""I68

Here the Prophet (M) ordered calmness in the' pfaJ1icr, the' whole pra.yer;and calmness cannot come about without tranquility. Who,eve:r is not t:canqw,I is, norcalm and! the command fOf' calmnessaccords to ,Alllah"s command for khIlJhii~.,."I6'9'

\With regards to the report in which "Umar ibn, al-Kha~b said, 'I m_ake: plans for the :army whilst I am praying/ this was because 'Umar wascommanded to engage jnJihid and" since be was me leader of the believers he was also the' [eaderofJihid. Therefore" in, some, .respects, he was like the one who prays the prayer of fear when. the enemy has been sigh~ed, regaridle-ss of wihe::me'f actual fighting is happening or not, He was commanded 'to, pra.y and to engage in Jfuad~ 'So he had to ICarty out 'both duties to the best o·f his ability. Allib says~

co "ou who believe! When you meet a troop, stand mm andllemember A1Jih t,cpeal,edly soth.a.tbope~

:i1W )'Vl'!itlJu( FrJ1iiJ'ti~ vol, 22, p:p., .S53-S64. He proceeds '[0 mention many more proofs, aad 'me in teresred reader can refer to his kLjmlt.,

82

fully you will be successful.'170

.It is known that one cannot achieve the same tranquil]: I v if) I heart d!uringJihad as attained at times of peace and security, ~o II it happens that a person's prayer is lacking because of Jjh~hl, till" does, not impute the completion of a persons prayer or ohl'dl ence.

Forthis reason. prayer at times of danger is Lmghter than pray"":!' at times of peace. \Vhen AUah mentioned the prayer at times 01 danger" He said,

' ... but when. you are safe agaiin, .pe~rCorm prayer in the normal way. Verily, the prayer is prescribed

- --- ..-

for the believees at speeltled dmes.nn

Hence the onewho is commanded to establish prayer at times of peace is not commanded to dlo soin the same mannerat times of danger.

Moreover, people are or varying- levels in this regard .. If a person's faith is strong, he will have the proper presence of mind when he prays, even if he thinks of other matters, Allah had placed the truth firmly in 'Umar's heart and on his tongue, and hL' was one who was inspired, so there is nothing strange in a petsl ')11 of his calibre making plans for the army whilst, at the same time,

11~ ~ a/-AltaL (8): 45

171 al-Nisj:t(4)::103

83

focusing on his pray,er. He 'was able to do this, whilst others ate not, but undoubtedly when be did not have these concerns to think about" his focus on the 'prayer 'would be gteater,.Likewise, no doubt the prayer of the Prophet (ji)) in terms of' outward actions, at times of safety was more perfect than at times of danger. 1f1 in the prayer of fear, MalI has made allowances with regard! to some. of the outward obligations ofthe prayer, what then about theinternal aspects?

In conclusion, a person who is pressed. for time thinking about some obligatory matter whilst be is, praying]s not the same as his thinking about some matter that is not obliga't)ory. It may be that 'IUmar could not ~ve thought to making plans for the army except at that rime because hewas the leader of the nation with. many 'Obligations and responsibilities. Anyone could 6nd himself in ;3! similar situation in accordance to his position. People always think, about things during prayer that they do not think of at other times, and some .of this could come from ShaYtan. A man told one of the Salaf that he had buried! some money but he bad forgotten where he had buried it. He told him, 'Goand pray,' so he went and prayed, and he remembered where: it was. Itwas asked of him, 'How did you know that would happen?' He said, (I know that the Shaj1a.n will not leave him, alone when he ptays without reminding him of what concerns rum, and the most pressing concern on this persons mind was where he buried his money.' The intelligent servant, however, will strive to attain. perfect presence of mind in prayer,. just as he strives to do everything else that he: iscommanded to do well. There is no might or motion except in Allah; the Most High, the .A!mighty;~'1.72

112 ,Mqjtmi' .aJ-Fat:dwa, vol, 22, pp, 61 0+

84

&J'T..imr_pak . ,C,On9WC~ of :Mu~:lJimm~d lbn K~r:t:ir.n (d, 2:i~1 ! J, I 'I !~.\ divided Into man r sllb~ eets and W1e1lP:: .mmous for m:hl!.:'l1 hl""I~ in of AIIlh to H1s creation (ttWlhiJ) "

!~Jihazlk~ ·~QiUQ ..... reF.'S of Wii~in. ibn II A!li' :~J-G·h~:ilzal Whit-l, ah:lll"U!j ~lln I i:h~' ci!rii2h 0:[ ~'a;500 tu-:aa~d" Ther :liIega;ted rhe A.mibtll!.:'1 i II ADD, fur fda; of I kerung Hi-mool His crea~~tm. ~rel dflllll~!,"11 :Eii:s. Names, From :lWlongsi: ,thci:r bd.ilf:·fs was thar :tl p'nd" I who committal a major sin \V~:; neither ~, belit:\!~'r 'lur ~i ,II i~ beli.e~, pliJhet or a SltJtDQ,n betw-ee.n :th.e D:wQSI90' n!l; bu i 1,1" 'WOuld. be ()on~d to Hc1.I.firc orever, T6cJ w(;:rt; trom ;,1 ~~ Cliok: 3Jt'1d 'rue of the MI.lIAl.k:lJHm©ina:IIIJJ. gave: precedence II I thcir iri:te~iecr!l! OV€1:' 'the' divil;1J~ ~t5"

BJiilliJyrJJ; .Ii.. :SC~l 0"£ the Sht-a! the' f01Jlk)'lJ,ilj!us of b.m-:'i fbn ,j'a' £1.:t.,

" l1t~ were of the '~f 'I:rul~ d,ie legal '~~li~re m.ef<:i[1 '~ii1a 'pe.:rfklal express.io:n..;s; ,ean"jdng'iU!rrc4:'me OIlgS; _~~[.'O'p~e w~t is ol1t\w[diI. I I;nu:lc[stood of 'thei'1!'l'i C".l\:il.mple!l lit': w~d'l: thelJf expt-an.!.tiOIl--S, 0;[ 'P:ai"!ldi:se, Hell and 'tne ~t Day.

l:laiiJ,itfyy(}b.~ 1\ ter:m, fJ:cqlJ.elldy ue:d by du:ifi~owro~ to n:fer 'tto AhVu:f1-5Lm.1l1l.h .. we. AllPI-l;b.d!,t:h rbose who tlfiirmcd the AtwJ)!!l~ of AUih. The first t(l I(I.~ thls term WilS 'Am~'i'l:lfi ILUbaid 'll1-MI1"t~ w.bo said dli3.t 'Abdulll:!b, ,ibn 'Urn-,ll' bin, gJ-

Kh~tfab '~5 ;Jl :t£«mm.

QprJ4'rtqdh: 'These whfJ' held the belief tn:!J.t: mal] hll Cj anpl;["11 tt,e;e d in ill that he does and th'Jt AJillah Im.5 1110 I;Cll1iuull.iWI him.

Qpmwijtl: 1\ SO~ boMing thc same: beJiir::f·~ the Bapnir,':i.M; .lIbl fullow~ of ~b~'m~:!'I!, lbD"lJ O~~.

'. .

. '" . __ ,,;;) t:.._ - • _ 1:..: !be

j@;artJ)Y1h: H:IUo"-wets (3cf the s@ec!. o~ ~w~, ibn ",~[V,~n 1[I_!.i-!S ._~

lleJ wat :a.l] ~ct:i!Om;, :!u:e dc~ed by' AlI~h !l!od. man bas Oil) cOI.lttd Qvet drem ~t all, .~Ii:LS·relld he: is fooccd to do w.l:t.itt he does,

Falmif.;r 'iIi'husc lP!hiIo~()pht::r5 \\11:1<1.') preJm,Ql'tod die 'W'is~l€m1" ij!'I: 1,111" Greekil, .~h-e w,eek phuQ8op'.hen who did [Jot believe in Iii; :Resurrnc::tinn as it ]5 mc:ntlQned in the Book-end . :Ur!T1:'Lh. I" ill did they :affirm me Names and Aiuib:u'[e!l of All; II. I' rl Ij i ~ anlcmgst their- Ieadees wa-s. Ao:s,tot1c, dliC· '5tud~nt of !Phl!4 I ,IJI ~II from. amOIl,g'St their lattetpropooe.m:s VIaS al-'Atril!"!. : I m I I ~'! I S:]Ila..

Jnhmj»'M,:'fuUm.w[S of]ilhm ib~)~·af,,,,,i:l'l tfIJ his dr;~J 1Yf:tl:nc NMUe:s :!Iud .A'Itt~b-liAte!li of Aliih.

f:/;tdil'k A. (!tx~ iiltt_ri~tJ/~ to tile llr'oplle[ (M) dsset'ibing Rli;;; lIctlnrh, word!i, ch:~dlPtion:s. 'Wld tadE tIIp..p·~o"i'1ils, h consiets of i"";'f~ P[ ~r !ian'S, meoody of mc:' .~.t (lIl\irnJ) :mJ m:e isfJin, iltllmv lhe It':r.m I~ also l!1i1:~. eo refir to' a rat lImi'blJrtI!::d. tt.. :I. C f.iiiip:a:ai~ nr II! 'I~ifJt,

Index of Arabic Words

l:J?f~ pI, f?fffti'l.,' ~tlfldllli M.ilste~~ wl'J:trn.olily referral to one wbu, ha~ :ru.e.I!l].or:~sed 'flt least loo.OCi{ii b adf a:lu.

A;u:~-.I: ·p!um.1 of lilliir" ·m¢.::l1l!l,. iIi!l~:, !OY,:lI1 'r:omp1ni~l;I. PI'!l:J\rn ;the ward wi!d.Jah ID~:!lling ki}'!kIlJ :fI!f1.Q doo;:;nf:s,.,. me. O-p'I'l0:5j~e of crittlfity,

HtMtJfJf ,good, fair, A !.ll>ldTd'l whose lflltid .!:st.l):[lIti:n;u(i\l!!tjl linked of JlibI. mor.dl~1 ll.qn,iight nsreseors 'bU( !Q;Tro5'e pw;is'or.l (JahtJ fans .s.I'i;Otl. of the !r.«i!uir-.eme:iIlq; (!f thE!' ~.~.11) i~arlirclh; oo.nrn:~liIil1lg ao i:rr~gul.llrit:'l (~ aril'd no h.3il{kn dl!:'fec~ (lIJ~). It ~atJltLl esnbe ~::m klJ :lI'l'Id of it8eJ.f, Or oof:tlnm '11 defeer but ~,~u, b~ ruled 110' be: so due Ifll suP1po:rtiing ,e¥idenc.es.

&~ . .hr ba:mltf. sd-anllJs, 1\ b~ltriet' d).!!!t i rec!lt.'lI bcl:'M!ei'1 me deeeased HId iIh!$ I.1f~ ·p'f.eW:illtirng b:hn fn1nli n.mI:;lihug and a groc:nc iie.r~mre 00 th~ LiE~ lnt.!t cC!mml::ooes tlf~er de:lotb.

1J;tfdJ~ d.tU!lO'\'{!;i:l.oa, ·i!ih-at 'wru'Cb is .A.ew~~,·htl:rodtJ«d. moo the ~£)fi o,f ADih.

.!~ilim· lJene.'fICi:n>Cill, C"Ji,I;~U!;I1~ lh ·\,,rarsbil' All!i.h as ,~f Q~!!: i!t ~dnJ4:

I,:fiim, I:mld bm'iing. thai .e"j'e:.n ~l1olllgh. lJ.n~ sees Himrwt, H.e !M.o[:5. the seC'II'4fi.l,.

nil',;; .8Upp1iC!lmion. ·in"'l)C:llDnl'!,. iit is an 9£mn o·f wl1:l~~F '!hat roay ,~y ·be cl!hrutrd ,to' lU!ii.h. It:i..<; 'CIt: ['1.1.;'1) '1fie8! 5upp,.lli:aIiQriJ. !:hOO'IJgh wor-swp {tlllt1 'i'/mJdk) ;u.i.d SWpphcllidon of re~~ ldll4l11:ti!~h). ne il.irS't· 1J'fiC of dii'ti CiU1! be. 'l.!lndl:rsr od when Orle wKh::;f!itlliR'llst'biil ~iIj' ~C(. Ol[ worship .iii- d.one ·'i!.~·IJ 1 the ufiS:ti1~~ :p'l.i.;'l !h!l.!t' }\n~b ac~pt ili1iit rI.>ecioo of \'lro[!ihip- :;JI..nd d'~~ .dii!kiue: ID ,dr.a:w dos,'fl:' to iilIDi~ and .~ 11.winH;i~, p1'(''3jllf!:. Heaee e .... ;:'I'"'j :aCtiD.1! of wW'shi~:iJ> 1l! 11¥- Qf requ-c:s.t. (C! Mijh. The :second type ·ofJI1j;<Ji is wm:ro.by one e:xp.lfidlily a£!ks his; Leed of som.ethi~ 'SUch ~ '0 ~~I Grnt'i[ ·me. ~d ill lhjii 'W'Odd ~-d tll1c Hem::lf.lU! The 'S-eccmd'type indudes In!!: ·~t 't:iP~. and me flut: type: :lII.ece~:!iii:ilJres the ·s.econd ~,

})J)/rjj; siifi;;:,crity. to st.u:ip D.IlLe:5.I:!~~ I) '\lIOwli,piug 'n}'I::l!~'l'ide.'l ALl:iiih :s~ch mQt ~'i'>erytlhing orne do-c:s: :i;~ ·p~[tor.med· (Ioru'Y l'O d:rllW d,(~'St': I.' H ~ Hiitn. :lind ror His. i'iea5n~.1t' f.5, to puiify O[!I:!~ ·1ii.Clti:of.l."!l &om. l1Ji'1~! bll t the: Crot;;lI!Wf ,havillg a :smcf: ill mttlnjuom ~[Jy d~ftttQr ~d ·-de'8lre. The Q:nc: '"",hl} ba;~ tmc: i~ (m~) 'Will be: free of ~!_

1~'Ii! 'Th~ .ftr.m be.11>ef; oofl"pl;;1i!: a,!;lmi)-wl~~~me.iu .~"M ~~'Cepti1IlCil: f~f all that ~h 11100 Hi4! Me.s.sm,gcr have g:.O'ITIn't3ind~dto haee flUl!) in, S'lJbmj~_og to' i.t Ibll),rh inw:ndly Wld ouilWard..ly: ~t t~ the :lCC.I..:pt :IDee and bclid of·the hi:':i.rt that ind.l.ldes me: :ll.Crioru: of IDche:a:rl, md boor; dti.1lreiine 'Lt ;::nwm~S(:1> lib;:: efllEJbilIDsbme~u nt Iti1e ~Uli' re~. n.iS.Es why !:ll!.> hm.Jnil!.~. :S~;i!.£ Llsed:t:t.l ~~ ·P-i!.II~ IS l'I1~' stittr.:rnC".!!It of tile he~.t:[ anti. [Oogne;, action .p,~ the hesrr, ~UJlJrl,I~' :arnd lim'bs.' Hene'!; jt cUmp.rises SmreIDe.Ill; .action and blilj~., j,t III eteases tJb:roLJ,g'h vibcdirn;;:t: iif.!ld decr'~ii.Se~ dJWllIgD, clliobedkll ii' ]t·indttd~.s 'the!. beliefs of fuitb. itl.'ii m,;t!:lllls: !Ind. t'l];<I;iUit:1"Il ,I n~:1 I hi

{)4'ifi.l1oel>lk;!h-e: ~ad!th th:u k!J nt:ii:h~f>' ::;;:iJ]JlI" .C}C}~ '~IiIi.i'ilJJ, ~Ii:~m.~ ijt _mils to m«1 one: or: their n!qoi.w:virntB.it 'is trlf ~ ~ of ~,~r· i.ty. dte mose S1IWC"Ii-C:: of whir:h ooi~gn:iR\,I,.'4q·. fahricwte:d"

90

91.

HU~fll;"ITY iN Pij,\Yl::fi:.

b,rIIifi,' SI,.IPiXu1:., :Ihe chain of :lI!i:lwo:rlucs on whi.cll a '1lal.':t'>Ilit5!P1lI 'is baud, hukilJg the ~ca :iU,mLiDl"" Ocr:lll mtt;},ootl ttl th.ern:l!:: it il> nl:cihtllrod '~I), he iE the Propnl:it (jt)r m}'J:ml:. else, n.uca.tor" b~t OOmH)t,.

SIlk)' P:ilL-.d_tQ:!;.!'i~)'[:fI, TrCehitlri~fIIlly -us'l:d to rreftt' to t!h~ Ix:!;1. ~i;'rI~'I;U 11,'1' I'~ Mll:!Jli-m:s, the- 11rBililhlll:'I:'g!:=ncmd.ort: fne. $a/Jiili.ah, th ii' ?:iNIIfI~ ,11'11.111'01 'ltlb< TiiN'iirt due 1:0 lb.!:' hrnditli, ''Tlu~' best of 'Peqp~ !lift: Nfl ' ! ~I I •• tioo~ tlrein the;: Q~C; 't.hl!ii fonows, d](~n dll~ OJ1~' thst {~jllU~li~,"

KiJa¥ successoes, A p::f,Cfe!1oe_ 'to tlhnS~'Q,thu' foJlt:n<\\N!O a 'PRlh m:h;:;L' (him, wt:, pi~u.h, II::! f t!I:iii: S:abf.

~iib: pl, ,km!4lJf: Sl!i.t"L':essOO'" 'llep!iI:S>e.I)l'ariV\!:., The, S(LiC~!\{»'S of th~ P1iQphl:!t (ji'I. bend (It the. ]sUnuc sb.tc, ,AJst) '1:::111,100 ~1~lr aJ.MU''millifJ Qir l.l::atl,er of 1:1.;: ~dj.¢\~

J~/rk.:' :ilI~D~t;ui :m, uechm, JJr ,refJ::ti-IDg to dUN(cring :il. ,~t til, r b Ii m I •• -\.IJ.:iiih Alone t(~ WI1i)l:hc. nhaU{ of .e.reJaril),[J, dthl:t COlnl'l!c·a-h. !.I jYolImillly" lr t.iilJ, -e :major (ce!'uO~lil1g a person from rh'c I jill,,,!' lsI'm) or :mj!l1ol" (11111' Uft )\,~ng 3. person fro~n the fpld !If Isl;qI1iJ

SNmuz/;: w,a~ p;U'h. ~nle lIctiQn~ 1,1K~tds, descftptic.Ift~. ;;:ol'l1m~n~k r1i'i' hibiriullSl srtd t::l!cin ~rp-I't 'VilISt,r tho;:: PrClph'C'f (jI).

KJ.fo;' d~L'iJa.I; reJectioliL, hl.di:ng; iiei:inm,CJtiIIL:y refemng to i!3l:s'belief. II call be 'm;JfQ[' (remmrilJg aper:!101'li fl'O,ml:ih1: fold. of bu'mJ or 'InirK11: (nQt'l'cnIO\.mg 11 peCS[Il! from the fdld or' ],!;illm).

{l#'IJift The ::lerna! W~, r[]' AlIih n;vl:a.lod to !ilK Propht::J: (M;) ~ the Ambie lilll:b"'ll;!IIgc tfl'f,(iugh tbill: l]u::d~Eln,1 ol,m'll Angd Gab-del ~d the ,g!e1liit~t': ,m1ra.clc -be!itOVO"'oo him. it OOitosl,sts ofl ],4- cMprers eo~c;l!t'iS I;l';!i:.h ,al.F~tii,ia!-t :rod. ~Ildiif]ig w-klit. gil· is;

RJp~ s:1i,o~4!l,_'lIg off., n:iitdl;tQrlQ:lil~ a:n ~a:mp,le of whJ';~ ,llff:5 in person b\:!i~dfyi.ng 'aiCOOIlS 'Of W[]['8.rup b~~;il,u'~e be kflD'WlS fropl~:m: WiUCtJ-

,

:JJ-l,g.

"JPtj",_j:, the basic me:l!fl i:llg Qf 'whkb. !~ ~I:ttiilllg tii blltrfer oet'\\'Cil~rt t'W<, IitJ. ru:ii is 'Why i[ is ,said rhat {_lm ttiatjd with l'lis: ~hicld:. 1,(:" 11t' ':L'I LI, :2$ iii, oor--r.'b!:t bfl--W~!iii him $lTid the one who wis h,-'1I hun t:I, ,,~. ThC'-fcrouit' is. as i.f the !'m('whu hili! ilkp'a (mNl.til'ipl i'lH~ Li:i-toJ 1'1'" fulDowung ~c CmFilin.,1-ndsflf r\mIi~ ru:u!I i1.\'Vidi:n;g His rruhihi n r u .U ,~ bain:i!:!l' ~t:'\!.~ hjftlSeiJi iUld ~h(: IPWlI5bme.m. Hence I~j· h;i., ,pmll:nred aed fmt:illcxl t1i:m~ltilga.i~[ mp:iniisilrme!u I ~( 1\11~lh I!hoou,gb his OOIJ~;llg Him.

J4tn~ ,w~et;. :9!ll,tht:ni::i.c:, .z\ :b~d'i11n 'whieh hi!!S ~ cootiDLiO'Ll!Sl':!, nIDke.:i iPtm. ef iii.]!!:!; 'Iln(tilrdy' upright a.-ml 'p~e ~0:!'!9; oDnw.riing IliJ ~city (lJ}Ji/J)) Of' '~jddeIDl d~kct; (ilkrb). Henee flv·.: ~cliti!Omii !b!IVt'; robe mee !he' iJ;f1iid 'being' COt1MUQu.s!,V Ijlli~d~ me jlJ$tiee (W~ of me: filttri.OOI! the: pr~dsion (~ of '!!he: :ii'la~[Or: iv; .11I0t 'bein,1lt Jhiit.-1/): <tnd .i.1:S- nor cOillm.il'1ing ~n 'iiw. Th~ ~adl:lili, 'cruI "be: ~_H,J in and of iwdf. Oii:' ht can i:loom.i!n .~ defect I:rnt 50tlU b:= ,ruled 'an

Tit-wfJitl.; tWfl,t:ati't'ln .. 'rr.!Qnm:heistn.,Mtt: bdi .. f in the ab:!:ulut ().lr'II;,"",;. at .Almh, It :its.rQ bclie"i'e rh3( $h None is dle ere.BllpJ', H' 10m I w.', iiCiI.cl. ,5Umlncr. of the ',!rc;lr{ds; ir IS to believe 'thaI' A]I~h ,\:I"ilL' .II T ii~:rvc:s to 00 !/!,Iol]Shipfn:;d:, {lnd ([ ,j ro beJ1e,I';t;: t~l\1! !-11t: I.~" ml~'I'11 ;!Ina reir~ecl Nam~ and A'E;tt:lbm,~ rh:itl {~r Irnn:;:cl'I'lll ;111 \'I'liu II,' tb::u Mt a.il ~m~iI1'C. • .

92