You are on page 1of 119

Transformer Protection

GRID
Technical Institute

This document is the exclusive property of Alstom Grid and shall not be
transmitted by any means, copied, reproduced or modified without the prior
written consent of Alstom Grid Technical Institute. All rights reserved.

Transformer Fault Categories

1. Winding and terminal faults


2. Sustained or uncleared external faults
3. Abnormal operating conditions such as overload,
overvoltage and overfluxing
4. Core faults

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection (1)

Transformer Connections

Overcurrent Protection
Directional Protection of Parallel Transformers
Earth Faults on Transformer Windings

Unrestricted Earth Fault Protection


Restricted Earth Fault Protection
Biased Differential Protection of 2 and 3 Winding
Transformers

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection (2)

Combined Differential and Restricted Earth Fault


Protection
Protection of Auto-Transformers
Inter-Turn Faults and Buchholz Protection
Overfluxing Protection
Overload Protection
Transformer Feeder Protection

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Connections

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection (3)

A2

EP

A1

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection (4)

A2

EP

A1

> Transformer Protection

a2

ES

a1

Transformer Protection (5)

A2

IP

EP

A1

> Transformer Protection

a2

ES

a1

IS

Transformer Connections
a a2

A
C1

A2

a1
c1

C2
C B1

A2

B2

A1 a1
B1

C
C2
9

C1

> Transformer Protection

b1

c1

A1
B2 B

a2

b2

c2

b1

b2

c2
c
a

Clock face numbers refer to


position of low voltage phase neutral vector with respect to high
voltage phase - neutral vector.

Line connections made to highest


numbered winding terminal available.
Line phase designation is same as
winding.

Transformer Vector Groups

Phase displacement

Yy0
Dd0
Zd0

Phase displacement

Yy6
Dd6
Dz6

Lag phase displacement

Yd1
Dy1
Yz1

Lead phase displacement

Yd11
Dy11
Yz11

Group 1
0
Group 2
180
Group 3
30

Group 4
30

10

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Connections

Clock Face numbers refer to position of low voltage


phase-neutral vector with respect to high voltage phase
neutral vector

Line connections made to highest numbered winding


terminal available

Line phase designation is same as winding


Example 1 : Dy 11 Transformer
High
Voltage
Windings

A Phase
Windings
B Phase
Windings
C Phase
Windings

A2
B2
C2

A1

Low
Voltage
Windings

a1

a2

B1

b1

b2

C1

c1

c2

Question : How to connect windings ?


11

> Transformer Protection

Dy 11
12
11

30

12

> Transformer Protection

Dy 11

1. Draw Phase-Neutral Voltage Vectors

a
A Line Designation
30

13

> Transformer Protection

Dy 11

2. Draw Delta Connection


A

14

> Transformer Protection

Dy 11

3. Draw A Phase Windings


A
a
a2
A2
a1
A1
B

15

> Transformer Protection

Dy 11

4. Complete Connections (a)


A
a
C1

a2

A2
a1
c1 b1

C2

16

A1
B1

> Transformer Protection

B2

c2
B

b2

Dy 11

4. Complete Connections (b)

A2

B2

17

C2

> Transformer Protection

A1

a1

a2

B1

b1

b2

C1

c1

c2

11kV Distribution Transformers


Typical Fuse Ratings
Transformer rating

18

Fuse

kVA

Full load
current (A)

Rated
current (A)

Operating time at
3 x rating(s)

100

5.25

16

3.0

200

10.5

25

3.0

300

15.8

36

10.0

500

26.2

50

20.0

1000

52.5

90

30.0

> Transformer Protection

Traditional Small Transformer


Protection Package
3.3kV
200/5

1500/5

51

50

1MVA
3.3/0.44kV

51
N

64

19

> Transformer Protection

1500/5

51
N

50
N

Traditional Medium Transformer


Protection Package
11kV
51 50
64

1000/5

5MVA
11/3.3kV

51
N

64

1000/5
3.3kV

20

> Transformer Protection

Overcurrent Protection

21

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Overcurrent Protection

Requirements
Fast operation for primary short circuits
Discrimination with downstream protections
Operation within transformer withstand
Non-operation for short or long term overloads

Non-operation for magnetising inrush

22

> Transformer Protection

Use of Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection

HV

Source

LV

50
51
50 set to 1.2 - 1.3 x through fault level

23

> Transformer Protection

Transient Overreach
Concerns relay response to offset waveforms (DC
transient)
Definition

I 1 - I2
x 100
I2

I2
D.C
.

I1

24

> Transformer Protection

I1 = Steady state
rms
pick up
current
I2 = Fully offset
rms
pickup
current

Instantaneous High Set Overcurrent


Relay Applied to a Transformer

51

51

51

HV2

HV1

LV

HV1

HV2

Time

LV

IF(LV)

IF(HV)
1.2IF(LV)

25

> Transformer Protection

Curren
t

2-1-1 Distribution (1)

I3

I3

0.866 I 3

I3

26

> Transformer Protection

2-1-1 Distribution (2)

HV relay

0.4 sec
LV relay

0.866 I3
27

> Transformer Protection

I3

Parallel Transformers
Directional Relays (1)

51
67
Grid supply

Feeders
51

67
51

28

> Transformer Protection

51

Parallel Transformers
Directional Relays (2)

51
51
Grid supply

Bus
Section
Feeders

51

51
29

> Transformer Protection

51

Earth Fault Protection

30

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Earth Faults


3 p.u. turns 1 p.u. turns

IP

PR

Protective
Relay

Resistor limits E/F current to full load values

IF

Thus, primary current, IP =

For a fault at , Fault current = IFL


Effective turns ratio = 3:

3
> Transformer Protection

2
3

.I FL
. I FL

If CT ratio (on primary side) is based


on full load current of transformer, then
CT secondary circuit =

31

. I FL

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity


to Earth Faults (1)
If as multiple
of IF.L.
1.0
0.9

Star Side

0.8

IF

0.7

0.6
51

0.5

Overcurrent
Relay

0.4
0.3

Delta Side

0.2
0.1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Overcurrent Relay Setting > IF.L.


32

> Transformer Protection

p.u..

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity


to Earth Faults (2)
If as multiple
of IF.L.
10
9

Star Side

IF

7
6

51

Overcurrent
Relay

4
3

Delta Side

2
1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

p.u..

33

> Transformer Protection

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity


to Earth Faults (3)
If as multiple
of IF.L.
10
IF

IF

9
8
7
6

IP

IN

IP

5
4
3
2

IN

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


0.9 1.0

34

> Transformer Protection

p.u..

Earth Fault on Transformer Winding

I=
I

2
3

For relay operation, I > IS

e.g. If IS = 20%, then


i.e. > 59%

Differential
Relay
Setting = IS

35

Thus 59% of

> 20% for operation

winding is not protected

Differential Relay Setting


10%

% of Star Winding Protected


58%

20%

41%

30%

28%

40%
50%

17%
7%

> Transformer Protection

Unrestricted Earthfault Protection (1)

51N

51 51 51

Provides back-up protection for system


Time delay required for co-ordination

36

> Transformer Protection

Unrestricted Earthfault Protection (2)

51N

51 51 51

51N

Can provide better sensitivity


(C.T. ratio not related to full load current)
(Improved effective setting)
Provides back up protection for transformer and system
37

> Transformer Protection

Star Winding REF

Protected
Zone

REF

Relay only operates for earth faults within protected zone.


Uses high impedance principle.
Stability level : usually maximum through fault level of
transformer
38

> Transformer Protection

Restricted E/F Protection


Low Voltage Windings (1)
A B C N

LV restricted E/F
protection trips
both HV and LV breaker
Recommended setting : 10%
rated

39

> Transformer Protection

Restricted E/F Protection


Low Voltage Windings (2)
A B C N

LV restricted E/F protection trips both HV and LV breaker


Recommended setting : 10% rated

40

> Transformer Protection

Delta Winding Restricted Earth Fault

Source

Protected zone
REF

Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current to


system

Stability : Consider max LV fault level


Recommended setting : less than 30% minimum earth fault
level
41

> Transformer Protection

High Impedance Principle


Protected
Circuit
ZM

RCT

RCT

RL

IF

RL

IS

VS
RL

ZM

RST
R

Voltage Across Relay Circuit

RL

VS = IF (RCT + 2RL)

Stabilising resistor RST limits spill current to IS (relay setting)


RST = VS - RR
where RR = relay burden
IS
CT knee point
VKP = 2VS = 2IF (RCT + 2RL)
42

> Transformer Protection

Non-Linear Resistors (Metrosils)

During internal faults the high impedance relay circuit constitutes


an excessive burden to the CTs.

A very high voltage develops across the relay circuit and the CTs.
Causes damage to insulation of CT, secondary winding and
relay.
Magnitude of peak voltage VP is given by an approximate formula
(based on experimental results)
VP = 2 2VK (VF - VK)
Where VF = Swgr. Fault Rating in amps x Z of relay circuit
CT ratio

Metrosil required if VP > 3kV

43

> Transformer Protection

Non-Linear Resistors (Metrosils)


IOP

RST
VM

VS
RR

Metrosil Characteristic
V = CI

Suitable values of C & chosen based on :


Max secondary current under fault conditions
Relay setting voltage
44

> Transformer Protection

REF Protection Example

1MVA
(5%)
11000V
415V

1600/1
RCT = 4.9

Calculate :
1) Setting voltage (VS)

80MVA

2) Value of stabilising
resistor required
3) Effective setting
1600/1
RCT =
4.8

RS

2 Core 7/0.67mm
(7.41/km)
100m Long

45

> Transformer Protection

MCAG14
IS = 0.1
Amp

4) Peak voltage
developed by CTs
for internal fault

Solution (1)
Earth fault calculation :Using 80MVA base
Source impedance = 1 p.u.
Transformer impedance = 0.05 x 80 = 4 p.u.
1
Total impedance = 14

1 P.U.
1

p.u.

4
I1 = 1 = 0.0714 p.u.
14

I1

Base current = 80 x 106


3 x 415

4
I2
4
I0
Sequence Diagram
46

> Transformer Protection

= 111296 Amps

IF

= 3 x 0.0714 x 111296
= 23840 Amps (primary)
= 14.9 Amps (secondary)

Solution (2)

(1) Setting voltage


VS = IF (RCT + 2RL)
Assuming earth CT saturates,

RCT = 4.8 ohms


2RL = 2 x 100 x 7.41 x 10-3 = 1.482 ohms
Setting voltage = 14.9 (4.8 + 1.482)
= 93.6 Volts

(2) Stabilising Resistor (RS)


RS = VS - 1
IS IS2

Where IS = relay current setting

RS = 93.6 - 1 = 836 ohms


0.1
0.12

47

> Transformer Protection

Solution (3)

Weber/m2 (Tesla)
(multiply by Kv to obtain RMS
secondary volts)

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

0.04

0.08

0.12

AT/mm
(multiply by Ki to obtain total
exciting current in Amps)
48

> Transformer Protection

Kv

Ki

Line &
Neutral CT

158

0.341

Earth CT

236

0.275

Solution (4)
(3) Effective setting IP = CT ratio x (IS + IMAG)
Line & Neutral CTs
Flux density at 93.6V = 93.6 = 0.592 Tesla
158
From graph, mag. Force at 0.592 Tesla = 0.015 AT/mm

Mag. Current = 0.015 x 0.341 = 0.0051 Amps


Earth CT
Flux density at 93.6V = 93.6 = 0.396 Tesla
236

From graph, mag. Force at 0.396 Tesla = 0.012 AT/mm


Mag. Current = 0.012 x 0.275 = 0.0033 Amps
Thus, effective setting = 1600 x (0.1 + [(4 x 0.0051) + 0.0033])
Effective setting = 198 Amps
Transformer full load current = 1391 Amps
Effective setting = 198 x 100% = 14.2% x rated
1391
49

> Transformer Protection

Solution (5)

(4)

Peak voltage = 22VK (VF - VK)


VF = 14.9 x VS = 14.9 x 936 = 13946 Volts
IS
For Earth CT, VK = 1.4 x 236 = 330 Volts (from graph)
VPEAK = 22 x 330 x (13946 - 330)
= 6kV

Thus, Metrosil voltage limiter will be required.

50

> Transformer Protection

Parallel Transformers
T1

N A B C

Bus Section

T2

415 Volt
Switchboard
51

> Transformer Protection

Parallel Transformers
CT in Earth

N A BC

T1

51N

Bus Section
Open

T2

51N

52

> Transformer Protection

415 Volt
Switchboard

Parallel Transformers CT in
Earth and Neutral
N A BC

T1

51N

Bus Section
Open

T2

51N

53

> Transformer Protection

415 Volt
Switchboard

Parallel Transformers
Residual Connections
NA BC

T1

F2

Bus section
Will maloperate if bus section is open
for fault at F1 T2

F1

415 volt switchboard


No maloperation for fault at F2 (but setting must be
greater than load neutral current)
54

> Transformer Protection

Traditional Large Transformer


Protection Package
33kV

51 50
200/5

10MVA
33/11kV

51
N

600/5

64

600/5
5/5A

55

> Transformer Protection

87

Differential Protection

56

> Transformer Protection

Differential Protection
Overall differential protection may be justified for
larger transformers (generally > 5MVA).
Provides fast operation on any winding

Measuring principle :
Based on the same circulating current principle as the
restricted earth fault protection
However, it employs the biasing technique, to maintain
stability for heavy through fault current

Biasing allows mismatch between CT outputs.


It is essential for transformers with tap changing
facility.
Another important requirement of transformer
differential protection is immunity to magnetising in
rush current.
57

> Transformer Protection

Biased Differential Scheme

Differential
Current

I1

BIAS

BIAS I
2

I1 - I2

OPERATE

I1 - I2

RESTRAIN

OPERATE

I1 + I2
2

58

> Transformer Protection

Mean Through
Current

Differential Protection

PROTECTED ZONE

HV

LV

Correct application of differential protection requires CT ratio


and winding connections to match those of transformer.
CT secondary circuit should be a replica of primary system.
Consider :
(1)
(2)
(3)
59

> Transformer Protection

Difference in current magnitude


Phase shift
Zero sequence currents

Differential Connections

P1

P2

A2

A1

60

> Transformer Protection

a1

a2

P2

P1

Use of Interposing CT
P1

S1

P2

A2

A1 a1

P1

S2

S1 P1

R
R
R

Interposing CT provides :
Vector correction
Ratio correction
Zero sequence compensation
> Transformer Protection

P2

S2

S2

61

a2

P2

S1

2 Winding Transformer Differential Protection (1)


150/5
P2
P1
S1

15MVA
66kV / 11kV
A2

A1 a1

a2

800/5
P2
P1
S2

S2

S1

Dy1

Given above: Need to consider (1) Winding full load current


(2) Effect of tap changer (if any)
(3) C.T. polarities
Assuming no tap changer
Full load currents:66kV: 131 Amp = 4.37 Amps secondary
11kV: 787 Amp = 4.92 Amps secondary
However, require 11kV C.T.s to be connected in
Thus, secondary current = 3 x 4.92 = 8.52A

RATIO CORRECTION IS REQUIRED


62

> Transformer Protection

2 Winding Transformer Differential Protection (2)


800/5

150/5
P1
S1

P2

A2

A1 a1

a2

P2

S2

P1

S2

4.37A

4.92A

S1

S2 P1

(2.56)

S1

P2

(5)

R
R

It is usual to connect 11kV C.T.s in


and utilise a
/
interposing C.T.
(this method reduces lead VA burden on the line C.T.s)
Current from 66kV side = 4.37 Amp
Thus, current required from
winding of int. C.T. = 4.37 Amp
Current input to
winding of int. C.T. = 4.92 Amp
Required int C.T. ratio = 4.92 / 4.37 = 4.92 / 2.52
3
May also be expressed as : 5 / 2.56
63

> Transformer Protection

Effect of Tap Changer

e.g. Assume 66kV +5%, -15%


Interposing C.T. ratio should be based on mid tap position
Mid Tap (-5%)

= 62.7 kV

Primary current (15 MVA)

= 138 Amp

Secondary current

= 4.6 Amp

Interposing C.T. ratio required = 4.92 / 4.6


3
(
/
)
= 4.92 / 2.66
May also be expressed as : 5 / 2.7
Compared with 5 / 2.56 based on nominal voltage

64

> Transformer Protection

Autotransformer Differential Protection (1)

1200:5

B
C

800:5

175/145/30 MVA
230/115/13.8 kV
YNynd1
230kV
+5%/-15%
19 taps

2000:5

c
Grounding
transformer
inside the
protection zone
a

a
B

b
B

c
B

Yd11 software
interposing CT

Ydy0 software
interposing CT

Ydy0 software
interposing CT

65

> Transformer Protection

P645

Autotransformer Differential Protection (2)

(b) Differential protection

Use the mid tap position for the HV nominal


voltage:
Mid tap position =
(a) System configuration

66

> Transformer Protection

(5 15 )
2
230 = 218 .5kV
100

100

Autotransformer Differential Protection (3)

Calculation of Full Load Currents:

IFLC,HV

175 10 6
=
= 462 .41A
3 218 .5 103

IFLC,TV

175 106
=
= 7321 .47 A
3
3 13.8 10

IFLC,LV

175 10 6
=
= 878.58 A
3
3 115 10

Calculation of ratio correction factors:

K amp ,HV

Inom,HV
800
=
=
= 1.730
IFLC,HV 462 .41

K amp ,TV =

67

Inom,LV
2000
=
= 0.273
IFLC,LV 7321 .47

> Transformer Protection

K amp ,LV

Inom,LV
1200
=
=
= 1.366
IFLC,LV 878 .58

Autotransformer Differential Protection (4)


No mal-operation due to tap changer errors:
2.5
Bias characteristic
CT and tap changer errors

2
nominal MVA, tap 1

Idiff/Inom

nominal MVA, tap 19

1.5
66.7% of nominal MVA, tap 1
66.7% of nominal MVA, tap 19

0.5

0
0

68

> Transformer Protection

0.5

1.5

2
Ibias/Inom

2.5

3.5

Autotransformer Differential Protection Delta


not connected (1)
175/175/30MVA
230/115/13.8kV
YNynd1
230kV - +5%/-15% - 19 taps
1200:5

1200:5

1200:5

a
A

a
b

a
B

Yy0 software interposing CT

Yy0 software interposing CT


a

Yy0 software interposing CT


D

P643

69

> Transformer Protection

Autotransformer Differential Protection Delta


not connected (2)

(b) Differential protection

(a) System configuration

70

> Transformer Protection

Connections Check
Arbitrary Current Distribution
P1
S1

P2

A2

A1 a1

P1
S2

R
R
R

> Transformer Protection

P2

S2

S2

71

a2

S1

P1

P2

S1

Connections Check
Add Delta Winding Current
P1
S1

P2

A2

A1 a1

P1
S2

R
R
R

> Transformer Protection

P2

S2

S2

72

a2

S1

P1

P2

S1

Connections Check
Complete Primary Distribution
P1
S1

P2

A2

A1 a1

P1
S2

R
R
R

> Transformer Protection

P2

S2

S2

73

a2

S1

P1

P2

S1

Connections Check
Complete Secondary Distribution
P1
S1

P2

A2

A1 a1

P1
S2

R
R
R

> Transformer Protection

P2

S2

S2

74

a2

S1

P1

P2

S1

In-Zone Earthing Transformer


P1

P2

A1

A2

a1

a2
P2

P1

S2 S1

S2 S1 T2 T1 P1 P2

75

> Transformer Protection

P1

P2

A1

In-Zone Earthing Transformer


Alternative (1)
a2

A2

a1

P2

P1

S2 S1

S2 S1 P1 P2

76

> Transformer Protection

In-Zone Earthing Transformer


Alternative (2)
300/1

EARTHING
TRANSF.

900/1

TO DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY
77

> Transformer Protection

In-Zone Earthing Transformer


Alternative (3)
300/1

EARTHING
TRANSF.

300/1

1/0.33
TO DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY
78

> Transformer Protection

Combined Differential and


Restricted Earth Fault Protection
A1 a1

A2

a2

P1

P2

S1

P1

S1

S2

P2
REF

P2

S2

P1
S1
S2

To differential relay
79

> Transformer Protection

Combined Differential and


Earth Fault Protection
Using Summation Auxiliary Current Transformer

Restricted earth
fault relay
64

Bias windings

87

80

> Transformer Protection

87

87

Differential relay
operating windings

T1

PHASE a
PHASE b

PHASE c

A
A

G
T1

G G

BEF
T2

T3
J

T4

Rb
2

H H H
Rb
2
Rb
2

Ro

Ro

Ro

OVERALL DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY
81

> Transformer Protection

Three Winding Transformer

300/5

63MVA
132KV

25MVA
11KV

1600/5

50MVA
33KV

1000/5

4.59

5.51

10.33

2.88

2.88

All interposing C.T. ratios refer to


common MVA base (63MVA)
82

> Transformer Protection

Traditional Use of Interposing CT


Dy1(-30)

Yd11(+30)

R
R

Interposing CT provides :
Vector correction
Ratio correction
Zero sequence compensation
83

> Transformer Protection

Integral Vectorial and Ratio


Compensation
Power transformer

Numeric
Relay

Ratio
correction

Vectorial
correction

Virtual interposing CT

84

> Transformer Protection

Differential
element

Virtual interposing CT

Transformer Magnetising
Characteristic
Twice
Normal
Flux

Normal
Flux

Normal
No Load
Current
No Load Current
at Twice Normal
Flux
85

> Transformer Protection

Magnetising Inrush Current


Steady State

+ m

Im

- m

86

> Transformer Protection

Magnetising Inrush Current


Switch on at Voltage Zero - No residual flux

Im

2m

87

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Differential Protection


Effect of Magnetising Current

Appears on one side of transformer only


Seen as fault by differential relay
Normal steady state magnetising current is less than
relay setting
Transient magnetising inrush could cause relay to
operate

88

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Differential Protection


Effect of Magnetising Inrush

SOLUTION 1 : TIME DELAY

Allows magnetising current to die away before relay can


operate

Slow operation for genuine transformer faults

89

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Differential Protection


Effect of Magnetising Inrush

SOLUTION 2 : 2ND (and 5TH) HARMONIC RESTRAINT

Makes relay immune to magnetising inrush


Slower operation may result for genuine transformer faults
if CT saturation occurs.

90

CT saturation detection algorithm to avoid long operating


times

External fault detection algorithm to maintain stability during


external faults.

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Differential Protection


Effect of Magnetising Inrush

SOLUTION 3 : GAP MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE

Inhibits relay operation during magnetising inrush


Operate speed for genuine transformer faults unaffected by
significant CT saturation

91

> Transformer Protection

Protection of Auto-Transformer by
High Impedance Differential Relays
(a) Earth Fault Scheme

A
B
C

87

92

> Transformer Protection

High impedance
relay

Protection of Auto-Transformer by
High Impedance Differential Relays
(b) Phase and Earth Fault Scheme

A
B
C
a
b
c
87 87 87

n
93

> Transformer Protection

Inter-Turn Fault Protection

94

> Transformer Protection

Inter-Turn Fault

CT
E
Load
Shorted
turn

Nominal turns ratio


Fault turns ratio
Current ratio

- 11,000 / 240
- 11,000 / 1
- 1 / 11,000

Requires Buchholz relay

95

> Transformer Protection

Interturn Fault Current / Number


of Turns Short Circuited
100

10
Fault current in short
circuited turns

80

Fault current
(multiples of
rated current)

60

6
Primary input current

40

20

0
5

10

15

20

25

Turn short-circuited (percentage of winding)

96

> Transformer Protection

Primary current
(multiples of
rated current)

Buchholz Relay Installation

3 x internal pipe
diameter (minimum)

Conservator

5 x internal pipe
diameter (minimum)

Oil conservator
3 minimum

Transformer

97

> Transformer Protection

Buchholz Relay

Petcock
Counter balance
weight

Alarm bucket

Mercury switch

Oil level

To oil
conservator

From transformer

Trip bucket

Aperture adjuster
Drain plug

98

> Transformer Protection

Deflector plate

Overfluxing Protection

99

> Transformer Protection

Overfluxing
Generator transformers
Grid transformers
Usually only a problem during run-up or shut down, but can be
caused by loss of load / load shedding etc.

Flux V
f
Effects of overfluxing :

Increase in magnetising current


Increase in winding temperature
Increase in noise and vibration

Overheating of laminations and metal parts (caused by


stray flux)

Protective relay responds to V/f ratio

Stage 1 - lower A.V.R.


Stage 2 - Trip field
100

> Transformer Protection

Overfluxing Basic Theory

V = kf

2m

CAUSES

Low frequency
High voltage

Geomagnetic disturbances
EFFECTS

Tripping of differential element (Transient overfluxing)


Damage to transformers (Prolonged overfluxing)

101

> Transformer Protection

Ie

V/Hz Overfluxing Protection

V K
f
Trip and alarm outputs for clearing prolonged overfluxing
Alarm : Definite time characteristic to initiate corrective action
Trip : IDMT or DT characteristic to clear overfluxing condition

Settings
Pick-up 1.5 to 3.0 i.e.

110V x 1.05 = 2.31


50Hz

DT setting range 0.1 to 60 seconds

102

> Transformer Protection

V/Hz Characteristics
Enables co-ordination with plant withstand characteristics

t = TMS

(M - 1)2
10000

t=TMS/(M-1)2

operating time (s)

1000

100
TMS = 12
TMS = 8

10

TMS= 4
TMS = 2
TMS = 1

1
1.05

1.15

1.25

1.35

1.45

1.55

M = (V/f)/Setting
P4283ENa

103

> Transformer Protection

Overfluxing Relay

Ex

VT

AVR

104

> Transformer Protection

R
L

Application of Overfluxing Relay

Circuit breaker
position repeat relay
RL1-1

VAA relay
Lower AVR

DC

DC
Inhibit AVR
raise
Alarm

RL2-1
Alarm
RL2-2

105

> Transformer Protection

Generator field circuit


breaker trip coil

Thermal Overload Protection

106

> Transformer Protection

Ageing Acceleration Factor

Effect of Overload on Transformer


Insulation Life
10000
1000
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
0

110
50
100
150
200
Hottest Spot Temperature (C)

Temperature principal variable that affects thermal life


This curve applies for distribution and power transformers

107

> Transformer Protection

250

Overheating Protection

Trip

I load

Alarm

TD
setting
Top oil of
power
transformer

On

Fan
control

I load
Off
On

Pump
control
Off

Temp. indication

Heater
Local

Thermal
replica

108

> Transformer Protection

Temperature
sensing resistor

Remote

Overload Protection

Overcurrent protection designed for fault condition


Thermal replica provides better protection for overload

Current based
Flexible characteristics
Single or dual time constant
Reset facility
Non-volatile

Time

Current

109

> Transformer Protection

Thermal Overload
Dual Characteristic (1)
Trip time (s)
10000

Single
characteristic:
= 120 mins

1000

Dual
characteristic

100

10

110

2
3
4
5
6
Current (multiple of thermal setting)

> Transformer Protection

Single
characteristic:
= 5 mins

Thermal Trip Time


Dual Characteristic (2)
I 2

q

P
IREF

TripTime = ln
2

I K q
TRIP
I REF

where

= heating time constant

I = actual current measured by relay

IREF = continuous current rating of protected plant

qP

qTRIP

= previous thermal state

= trip threshold

K = multiplier (for actual temperature)


111

> Transformer Protection

Thermal Overload
IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 (1)
Oil exponent
Top oil
time constant

Ratio of load loss


to no load loss

Top oil
Temperature

Hot spot
Temperature

Square of current

112

> Transformer Protection

TO

I2

Coolant (oil/air)
Temperature a

R
m
a

Winding time
constant

Winding
exponent

Thermal Trip Time


IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 (2)
Top oil temperature, TO. Calculated or measured (CLIO or RTD)
TO = A TO

The calculation of TO, top oil rise over ambient, considers:

An oil time constant, TO


The ratio of load loss at rated load to no load loss, R
An oil exponent, n
Top oil rise over ambient temperature at rated load, TO,R

Hot spot temperature, H is a calculated value only.

=
H

TO

The calculation of H, hot spot over top oil, considers:

A winding time constant, w


Winding hottest spot rise over top oil temperature at rated load. H,R
Winding exponent, m
RMS current values are used to replicate winding hottest
temperature
113

> Transformer Protection

spot

Transformer Feeders

114

> Transformer Protection

Protection of Parallel
Transformer Feeders
Higher voltage
busbar
Z

OC

OC

FTS

FTS
REF

REF

DP

DP

Bh

Bh

WT

WT

REF

DOC

REF

SBEF
2 stage

SBEF
2 stage

OC

OC

Load
115

> Transformer Protection

Lower voltage
busbar

Load

DOC

Protection of Transformer Feeders

CTs

CTs

HV LV

CTs

CTs

TRIP

Feeder
Differential
Protection

PILOTS

Feeder
Differential
Protection

Transformer
Differential
Protection

UNSTABILISE

TRIP
TRIP

116

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Feeders
FEEDER

PW

PILOTS

PW

For use where no breaker separates the transformer from the


feeder.
Transformer inrush current must be considered.
Inrush is a transient condition which may occur at the instant
of transformer energisation.

Mag. Inrush current is not a fault condition


Protection must remain stable.

117

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Feeder Protection


Dy11
A
B

P1
S1

P2

P2

S2

23
24
25
26
27
28

II

ii

III

iii

MCTH

MBCI

27
28

MFAC
14

19
17

17

PILOTS

18
19

18 17
19
1

+ MVTW
02

13
14
-

118

> Transformer Protection

S1

A
B
C

17

19

23
24
25
26
27
28

S2

MCTH 23

17

P1

MBCI
18

24
25
26
27
28
23
24
25
26
27
28

P543/ P545 - Protection


of Transformer Feeders

Power transformer

P540
Scheme

Ratio
correction

Vectorial
correction
Virtual interposing CT

119

> Transformer Protection

Virtual interposing CT