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HKDSE Chemistry – A Modern View

Part XIII

Industrial Chemistry

Multiple Choice Questions

Chemistry: Chapter 52 Importance of industrial processes

Section 52.1

1

Which of the following substances is NOT contained in the mixture left from a

chemical reactor?

  • A. Desired products

  • B. Unconverted raw materials

  • C. Coolant

  • D. By-products

2

Which of the following substances is NOT a synthetic product?

  • A. Aspirin

  • B. Petroleum

  • C. PVC

  • D. MTBE

3

Which of the following best explains why an understanding of electrolysis has made a

significant impact on the production of synthetic products?

  • A. Electrolysis does not require an energy source.

  • B. Electrolysis can be used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  • C. Electrolysis provides a way to make non-spontaneous reactions occur.

  • D. Electrolysis can be used to produce aluminium.

4

Which of the following statements about bulk chemicals is INCORRECT?

  • A. Bulk chemicals are usually simple and basic chemicals.

  • B. Bulk chemicals are sold thousands of tonnes per year.

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C.

Hydrogen is an example of bulk chemical.

D.

All bulk chemicals are made from petroleum and natural gas.

5

Which of the following synthetic materials is usually used to make clothes?

 

A.

Polyester

B.

Wool

C.

Polyethene

D.

Cotton

6

Which of the following substances is a bulk chemical?

 

A.

Water

B.

Plastic

C.

Petroleum

D.

Ammonia

7

Which of the following chemicals can be used to produce nitrogenous fertilizers?

(1)

Ammonium chloride

(2)

Sulphuric acid

(3) Ammonia

 

A.

(1) and (2) only

B.

(1) and (3) only

C.

(2) and (3) only

D.

(1), (2) and (3)

8

Which of the following combinations concerning the consumer product and the

chemical of which it is made is correct?

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Consumer product

 

Chemical

 

A.

Disposable foam food box

 

PVC

B.

Wrapping film for food

 

Nylon

C.

Shower curtain

Polypropene

D.

Contact lens

 

Perspex

9

Which of the following is NOT a bulk chemical?

 
 

A.

Petroleum

B.

Ammonia

C.

Sulphuric acid

D.

Chlorine

10

Which of the following combinations concerning the chemicals and their production

processes are correct?

 
   

Chemical

Production process

 

(1)

 

Ammonia

Haber process

(2)

Sulphuric acid

Contact process

(3)

 

Vitamin C

Reichstein process

 

A.

(1) and (2) only

B.

(1) and (3) only

C.

(2) and (3) only

D.

(1), (2) and (3)

11

Which of the following substances is NOT a bulk chemical?

 
 

A.

Sulphuric acid

B.

Sodium chloride

C.

Water

D.

Methanol

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12

Which of the following are the general functions of water which is used in an

industrial process? (1) Coolant (2) Solvent (3) Catalyst

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

Section 52.2

13

Which of the following statements is NOT an advantage of using petrochemical

industry for manufacturing products?

  • A. It increases job opportunities for the people living near the chemical plant.

  • B. It improves traffic network around the place where the chemical plant is built.

  • C. It makes full use of a particular fraction from petroleum.

  • D. It produces a wide range of products.

14

Which of the following substances is used to produce ethene in petrochemical chemistry?

  • A. Ethanol

  • B. Glucose

  • C. Petroleum

  • D. Polyethene

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15

Which of the following substances is NOT made from petrochemicals?

 
  • A. Detergent

  • B. Textile

  • C. Drug

  • D. Brine

16

Which of the following statement(s) about petrochemical industry is/are correct?

(1)

Petrochemical industry is an industry that produces petrol.

(2)

Petrochemical industry produces chemicals from petroleum or natural gas.

(3)

Ethene, benzene and chlorine are useful petrochemicals to produce synthetic products.

  • A. (1) only

  • B. (2) only

  • C. (1) and (3) only

  • D. (2) and (3) only

17

Which of the following statements are the advantages of using petrochemical industry

for manufacturing products?

(1)

Large-scale production lowers the production cost of each product.

(2)

Make full use of natural resources.

(3)

A wide variety of products are produced.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

Section 52.3

18

Which of the following statements concerning the production of ascorbic acid is

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correct?

  • A. Reichstein process is the only method for the production of ascorbic acid.

  • B. Sucrose is used as feedstock.

  • C. Bacteria are used for fermentation in the production process.

  • D. Reichstein process is a one-stage process.

19

Which of the following is a method for the manufacturing of vitamin C?

  • A. Haber process

  • B. Electrolysis

  • C. Reichstein process

  • D. Carbon reduction

20

Which of the following is NOT the symptom caused by the deficiency of vitamin C?

  • A. Poor wound healing

  • B. Night blindness

  • C. Bleeding or inflamed gums

  • D. Loose teech

21

Which of the following statements about vitamin C is correct?

  • A. The chemical name for vitamin C is acetic acid.

  • B. The intermediate compound formed in Reichstein process is called KGA.

  • C. The overall production cost of vitamin C by two-stage fermentation process is higher when compared to Reichstein process.

  • D. The overall yield of vitamin C from glucose in Reichstein process is similar to that in two-stage fermentation process.

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22

Which of the following is the desired product of Reichstein process?

  • A. KGA

  • B. Ascorbic acid

  • C. Sorbitol

  • D. Sorbose

Each question below consists of two separate statements. Decide whether each of the two statements is true or false; if both are true, then decide whether or not the second statement is a correct explanation of the first statement. Then select one option from A to D according to the following table:

  • A. Both statements are true and the 2nd statement is a correct explanation of the 1st statement.

  • B. Both statements are true and the 2nd statement is NOT a correct explanation of the 1st statement.

  • C. The 1st statement is false but the 2nd statement is true.

  • D. Both statements are false.

Section 52.1

23

Urea-formaldehyde can be used to build houses.

 

Urea-formaldehyde is a man-made polymer.

24

Calcium carbonate is an example of natural raw material.

 

Natural raw materials are substances that are fed into the chemical reactor and converted to the desired product.

25

Iron ore is an example of natural raw material.

 

Oxides of iron can be obtained from iron ore.

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Section 52.2

26

Plastics are made from petrochemicals only.

 

Polyethene, polypropene and polyvinyl chloride are made from petrochemicals.

Chemistry: Chapter 53 Rate equation

 

Section 53.1

27

Which of the following is the correct unit of rate constant for an overall first order reaction?

 
  • A. mol 1 dm 3 s 1

  • B. 1

s

  • C. mol dm 3 s 1

  • D. mol 1 dm 3 s 1

28

Which of the following statements concerning rate equation is/are INCORRECT?

(1)

The orders of reaction with respect to the reactant can be any real numbers.

  • A. (1) only

(2)

Rate equation can only be written for irreversible reactions.

(3)

Rate equation shows the quantitative relationship between concentration and rate

constant.

  • B. (2) only

  • C. (1) and (3) only

  • D. (2) and (3) only

29

What is the overall order of reaction for the following reaction?

H +

2A + B products

  • A. Zeroth

  • B. First

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  • C. Second

  • D. Cannot be determined.

Section 53.2

30

An experiment was carried out to study the following reaction:

 

A + B C The following data was recorded from the experiment.

 

[A] (mol dm 3 )

Rate (mol dm 3 s 1 )

× 10 3

  • 1 × 10 4

2

× 10 3

  • 2 × 10 4

4

× 10 3

  • 3 × 10 4

6

× 10 3

  • 4 × 10 4

8

Given that [B] is in largely excess in the reaction mixture. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above data?

 
  • A. The rate is directly proportional to [A].

 
  • B. The rate is directly proportional to [A] 2 .

  • C. The rate is inversely proportional to [A].

  • D. The rate is inversely proportional to [A] 2 .

31

The rate equation of a second order reaction was found to be

rate = k[A] 2 where k is the rate constant of the reaction. Which of the following statements are correct?

(1)

(2)

(3)

The rate of reaction increased when the temperature was increased. When the rate of reaction is plotted against [A] 2 , a straight line passing through

the origin is obtained. The half-life of A can be calculated by

0.693

k

.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

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  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

32

The half-life of a radioactive isotope is 2010 yr. What is the rate constant of the decay?

 
  • A. 3.45 × 10 5 yr 1

  • B. 3.45 × 10 4 yr 1

  • C. 4.98 × 10 5 yr 1

  • D. 4.98 × 10 4 yr 1

33

Hydrogen iodide gas decomposes on a hot gold surface at high pressures:

2HI(g) H 2 (g) + I 2 (g) It is found that the reaction rate is independent of the concentration of HI(g). We can deduce that the reaction is

 
  • A. first order with respect to HI(g).

  • B. zeroth order with respect to I 2 (g).

  • C. first order with respect to H 2 (g).

  • D. zeroth order with respect to HI(g).

34

Which of the following statements concerning rate constant are correct?

(1)

It is temperature dependent.

(2)

A smaller value of rate constant indicates a slower reaction.

(3)

Its value may be equal to the rate of reaction.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

35

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Which of the following statements concerning the rate constant at a certain temperature is/are correct?

(1)

It depends on the temperature of reaction.

(2)

It depends on the size of reactants.

(3)

It depends on the concentration of reactants.

  • A. (1) only

  • B. (2) only

  • C. (1) and (3) only

  • D. (2) and (3) only

36

The rate equation for a reaction was found to be rate = 3.36 × 10 2 [A] Which of the following graphs concerning the reaction is correct?

 
  • A. Rate

A. Rate B. Rate
 
  • B. Rate

A. Rate B. Rate

[A]

[A]

 
  • C. Rate

C. Rate D. Rate
 
  • D. Rate

C. Rate D. Rate

[A]

2

[A]

37

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The

decomposition of SO 2 Cl 2 (l) to SO 2 (g)

and Cl 2 (g) is a first order reaction. The

rate constant of the decomposition is 0.169 hr 1 . What is the half-life of SO 2 Cl 2 ?

  • A. 0.2 hr

  • B. 0.4 hr

  • C. 4.1 hr

  • D. 8.2 hr

38

A reaction was found to be a third order reaction. Which of the following is the

correct unit of rate constant?

  • A. mol dm 3 s 1

  • B. dm 3 mol 1 s 1

  • C. dm 6 mol 2 s 1

  • D. mol 2 dm 6 s 2

39

For a first order reaction, the half-life of the reactant is found to be 30 min. What is

the rate constant of the reaction?

  • A. 2.31 × 10 2 s 1

  • B. 2.31 × 10 2 hr 1

  • C. 3.85 × 10 4 s 1

  • D. 3.85 × 10 4 hr 1

40

The rate constant of a second order reaction is found to be 3.78 dm 3 mol 1 s 1 at a certain temperature. What will be the rate constant if the concentration of one of the reactants is halved at that temperature?

  • A. 0.945 dm 3 mol 1 s

1

  • B. 1.89 dm 3 mol 1 s

1

  • C. 3.78 dm 3 mol 1 s

1

  • D. 7.56 dm 3 mol 1 s

1

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41

The rate equation for a reaction was found to be rate = k[H 2 (g)][NO(g)] 2 Which of the following statements concerning this reaction MUST be correct?

  • A. The chemical equation for the reaction is H 2 (g) + 2NO(g) products.

  • B. The reaction is a one-step reaction.

  • C. The reaction is a second order reaction.

  • D. The reaction is a third order reaction.

42

The half-life of 214 Bi is 19.7 min. If there is 0.001 g of 214 Bi initially, what is the mass

of 214 Bi after 59.1 min?

  • A. 1.25 × 10 4 g

  • B. 2.50 × 10 4 g

  • C. 3.33 × 10 4 g

  • D. 5.00 × 10 4 g

43

The half-life of radioactive 55 Cr is 1.8 hr. The delivery of a sample of this isotope

from the reactor to your laboratory requires about 10.8 hr. What is the minimum

amount of such material that should be shipped, so that you can receive 1.0 mg of

  • 55 Cr?

    • A. 128 mg

    • B. 64 mg

    • C. 32 mg

    • D. 11 mg

44

At 100C, nitrogen dioxide decomposes to nitrogen monoxide and oxygen according to the following equation:

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NO 2 (g) NO(g) +

1

2

O 2 (g)

A plot of rate of reaction against [NO 2 (g)] 2 is shown below.

Rate

HKDSE Chemistry – A Modern View Part XIII Industrial Chemistry NO (g)  NO(g) + 1

[NO 2 (g)] 2

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?

  • A. The reaction is a first order reaction.

  • B. The reaction is a second order reaction.

  • C. The rate constant can be determined from the slope of the line.

  • D. The unit of rate constant is mol 1 dm 3 s 1 .

45

The rate equation of the reaction, 2NO(g) + Cl 2 (g) 2NOCl(g), is rate = k[NO(g)] 2 [Cl 2 (g)] The value of rate constant can be increased by

(1)

increasing the temperature.

(2)

increasing the concentration of NO(g).

(3)

increasing the concentration of Cl 2 (g).

  • A. (1) only

  • B. (2) only

  • C. (1) and (3) only

  • D. (2) and (3) only

46

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3

2

The rate equation for a reaction is rate = k[C]

. If the rate of reaction is 0.020 mol

dm 3 s 1 when [C] = 1.0 mol dm 3 , what is the rate of reaction when [C] = 0.60 mol dm

3

?

  • A. 0.0093 mol dm 3 s 1

  • B. 0.012 mol dm 3 s 1

  • C. 0.033 mol dm 3 s 1

  • D. 0.040 mol dm 3 s 1

Section 53.3

47

You are given some information about the following reaction at 298 K:

  • X + Y products

Experiment

Initial concentration (mol dm 3 )

Initial rate

[X]

[Y]

(mol dm 3 s 1 )

1

0.9

0.9

R 1

2

0.9

3.6

R 2

3

1.8

0.9

R 3

4

1.8

1.8

R 4

If the rate equation of this reaction is: rate = k[X] 2 [Y], where k is the rate constant. Which of the following sequences is correct?

  • A. R 3

R 1 <

R 2

=

R 4

<

 
  • B. R 4

R 1 <

R 2

=

R 3

<

  • C. R 1

<

R 4

<

R 3

<

R 2

  • D. R 2 < R 1

R 3 < R 4 =

 

48

You are given some information about the following reaction at 298 K:

 
  • X + Y products

 

Experiment

Initial concentration (mol dm 3 )

Initial rate

[X]

[Y]

(mol dm 3 s 1 )

     
   

1

2.25

  • 2.00 12.0

 

2

4.00

  • 3.00 54.0

 

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1

The rate equation of this reaction is: rate = k[X] 2 [Y] z , where k is the rate constant. Deduce the order of reaction with respect to Y.

 

A.

1

 

4

 

B.

1

 

3

 

C.

3

D.

4

49

The rate equation for a reaction is found to be:

rate = k[A] x [B] y Which of the following statements are correct?

(1)

The overall order of reaction is x + y.

(2)

If [A] is largely greater than [B], and if y equals zero, the graph of rate against

(3)

[B] will give a horizontal straight line. If [A] is doubled while [B] is halved, the rate of reaction must remain unchanged.

A.

(1) and (2) only

B.

(1) and (3) only

C.

(2) and (3) only

D.

(1), (2) and (3)

50

The rate equation for a reaction was found to be:

rate = k[A] x when the concentration of A was doubled, the rate of reaction quadrupled. Deduce the value of x.

 

A.

0

B.

1

C.

2

D.

3

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51

Consider the following reactions:

A + B products The rate equation for the reaction was found to be:

rate = k[A][B] 2

Which of the following statements concerning this reaction is INCORRECT?

  • A. It is a third order reaction.

  • B. The reaction is first order with respect to [A].

  • C. A graph of rate against [B] is a straight line passing through the origin.

  • D. Under the same [A] and the temperature, the reaction rate nonupled (i.e. increased by nine times) when [B] was tripled.

52

The rate equation for a reaction was found to be

rate = 0.357[A] 2 [B] 3

Assume the unit of reaction rate is mol dm 3 s 1 . Which of the following statements MUST be correct?

  • A. The reactant side of the chemical equation is 2A + 3B.

  • B. The unit of rate constant is mol 4 dm 12 s 1 .

  • C. The reaction rate doubled when [A] was doubled while keeping [B] constant.

  • D. The reaction rate remained unchanged when [A] was increased by three times and that of [B] was decreased by half.

53

The rate equation for a reaction was

rate = 5[X][Y] 2

Assume the unit of reaction rate is mol dm 3 s 1 . Which of the following statements MUST be correct?

  • A. The half-life of the reaction is 1.39 hr.

  • B. A plot of [Y] against time is a straight line.

  • C. The reaction rate increased by six times when both [X] and [Y] were doubled.

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  • D. The unit of rate constant is mol 2 dm 6 s 1 .

54

You are given some information about the following reaction at 298 K.

A + B + C D + E

 

Initial concentration (mol dm 3 )

Initial rate (× 10 5

Experiment

[A]

[B]

[C]

mol dm 3 s 1 )

 

1

0.10

0.05

0.04

0.48

 

2

0.20

0.05

0.08

1.92

 

3

0.10

0.15

0.04

1.44

 

4

0.20

0.10

0.02

0.24

What is the rate equation for the above reaction?

 
 
  • A. Rate = k[A][B][C]

 
 

1

 
  • B. Rate = k[A] 2 [B] 2 [C]

 
  • C. Rate = k[A] 0 [B][C] 2

 

1

 
  • D. Rate = k[A] 2 [B][C] 2

 

55

An experiment was carried out to study the following reaction.

 

X(g) + Y(g) Z(g) The table below lists the results of the experiment.

 

Experiment

Initial concentration (mol dm 3 )

Initial rate

 

[X(g)]

[Y(g)]

(mol dm 3 s 1 )

     
   

1

  • 0.400 2.00

 
  • 6.20 × 10 3

2

  • 0.800 2.00

 
  • 2.48 × 10 2

3

  • 0.400 4.00

 
  • 1.24 × 10 2

4

  • 0.500 1.50

 

To be calculated

Calculate the initial rate of reaction in Experiment 4.

  • A. 4.36 × 10 3 mol dm 3 s 1

  • B. 5.81 × 10 3 mol dm 3 s 1

  • C. 7.28 × 10 3 mol dm 3 s 1

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  • D. 9.69 × 10 3 mol dm 3 s 1

56

The rate equation for the reaction, 2H 2 (g) + 2NO(g) N 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(l), is rate = k[H 2 (g)][NO(g)] 2 If [H 2 (g)] is halved and [NO(g)] is doubled, the rate of reaction will

  • A. increase by four times.

  • B. remain the same.

  • C. increase by six times.

  • D. increase by two times.

Each question below consists of two separate statements. Decide whether each of the two statements is true or false; if both are true, then decide whether or not the second statement is a correct explanation of the first statement. Then select one option from A to D according to the following table:

  • A. Both statements are true and the 2nd statement is a correct explanation of the 1st statement.

  • B. Both statements are true and the 2nd statement is NOT a correct explanation of the 1st statement.

  • C. The 1st statement is false but the 2nd statement is true.

  • D. Both statements are false.

Section 53.1

57

The order of reaction with respect to a reactant must be an integer.

 

The order of reaction with respect to a particular reactant is equal to the stoichiometric coefficient of that reactant in the chemical equation.

58

The order of reaction with respect to a

 

The overall order of reaction is the sum

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reactant can be a fraction.

 

of the orders of reaction with respect to each reactant in the chemical equation.

Section 53.2

 

59

Rate constant is inversely proportional to half-life for the first order reaction.

 

The half-life is independent of the initial concentration of reactant for the first order reaction.

Chemistry: Chapter 54 Activation energy

 

Section 54.1

60

Which of the following statements about exothermic reaction is/are correct?

(1)

Energy is required to break bonds of the reactants and start the reaction.

(2)

The energy of the products is greater than that of the reactants.

(3)

The activation energy of exothermic reaction is higher than that of endothermic reaction.

  • A. (1) only

  • B. (2) only

  • C. (1) and (3) only

  • D. (2) and (3) only

61

The energy profile for a single step reaction, A

HKDSE Chemistry – A Modern View Part XIII Industrial Chemistry reactant can be a fraction. of

B is shown below:

A B Reaction coordinate Energy
A
B
Reaction coordinate
Energy

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What is the activation energy of the reaction B A?

 

A.

30 kJ mol 1

 

B.

20 kJ mol 1

C.

30 kJ mol 1

D.

50 kJ mol 1

62

Which of the following is the correct energy profile of an exothermic reaction?

 

A.

Energy

A. Energy
 
 

Reaction coordinate

 

B.

Energy

B. Energy
 

Reaction coordinate

 

C.

Energy

C. Energy
 

Reaction coordinate

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D.

Energy

D. Energy
 
 

Reaction coordinate

63

Which of the following statements concerning activation energy is/are correct?

(1)

It is the maximum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

(2)

It is the difference in energy between the reactants and the transition state.

(3)

It is the difference in energy between the products and the transition state.

A.

(1) only

 

B.

(2) only

C.

(1) and (3) only

D.

(2) and (3) only

64

Which of the following statements about the species that exists at the point of

maximum energy in the energy profile are correct?

 

(1)

It contains partially broken and completely formed bonds.

(2)

It is very unstable and can never be isolated.

(3)

It is formed in the transition state of a chemical reaction.

A.

(1) and (2) only

 

B.

(1) and (3) only

C.

(2) and (3) only

D.

(1), (2) and (3)

65

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Which of the following statements is correct?

  • A. Activation energy determines the rate of a reaction.

  • B. When the reactant particles collide at sufficiently high speed, reaction occurs.

  • C. A reversible reaction possesses one single value of activation energy.

  • D. Activation energy determines the amount of energy in breaking and forming bonds.

66

Which of the following statements concerning an energy profile is INCORRECT?

 
  • A. It shows the energy change of chemical species during a reaction.

  • B. The enthalpy change of the reaction can be obtained from the energy profile.

  • C. Only one transition state is observed.

  • D. The activated complex cannot be isolated.

67

Consider the following reaction,

2SO (g)  O (g) 2SO (g) Δ H =  196 kJ Which of the

2SO 2 (g) O 2 (g) 2SO 3 (g) ΔH = 196 kJ Which of the following statements is correct?

mol 1

 
  • A. The energy of the reactants is less than that of the product.

  • B. The activation energy of the backward reaction is greater than that of the forward reaction.

  • C. The activation energy is lower when the temperature is lower.

  • D. The rate constant of backward reaction is larger than that of the forward reaction.

68

Which of the following statements concerning the energy profile is correct?

  • A. The x-axis represents energy, while the y-axis represents reaction coordinate.

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  • B. The species that exists at the point of maximum energy is called the activated complex.

  • C. The activated complex contains partially broken bonds only.

  • D. The difference in energy between the reactants and the transition state is the enthalpy change, ΔH of the reaction.

69

A reaction is endothermic when

 
  • A. the energy of the reactants is greater than that of the products.

  • B. the energy of the reactants is less than that of the products.

  • C. the activation energy of the reaction is greater than that of the reactants.

  • D. the activation energy of the reaction is less than that of the reactants.

70

Which of the following are the requirements for a reaction to occur?

(1)

The reactant particles have to collide.

(2)

The reactant particles must be correctly orientated to one another.

(3)

The reactant particles have to posses energy equal to or greater than the activation energy.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

D.

(1), (2) and (3)

71

Which of the following statements concerning a one-step exothermic reaction are correct?

(1)

The energy of the products is less than that of the reactants.

(2)

The energy of the activated complex is greater than that of the products.

(3)

The activation energy is the energy difference between the reactants and the transition state.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

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  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

Section 54.2

72

Which of the following statements concerning the area under MaxwellBoltzmann

distribution curve is correct?

  • A. It is equal to the total number of particles in the system.

  • B. It is equal to the total energy of particles in the system.

  • C. It is equal to the average number of particles in the system.

  • D. It is equal to the average energy of particles in the system.

73

Which of the following statements concerning the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

curves at different temperatures, i.e. T 1 > T 2 is INCORRECT?

  • A. The areas under the two curves are the same.

  • B. The most probable kinetic energy at T 2 is higher than that at T 1 .

  • C. The average kinetic energy is on the right of the maximum point of both curves.

  • D. The maximum kinetic energy of particles at T 1 is higher than that at T 2 .

74

What is the activation energy of the following backward reaction?

HKDSE Chemistry – A Modern View Part XIII Industrial Chemistry B. (1) and (3) only C.

N 2 O 4 (g) 2NO 2 (g)

(Given: ΔH = +54.0 kJ mol 1 and E a = 57.2 kJ mol 1 )

  • A. 3.2 kJ mol 1

  • B. 54.0 kJ mol 1

  • C. 57.2 kJ mol 1

  • D. 111.2 kJ mol 1

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75

Which of the following statements about the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution curve

is/are correct when temperature rises?

(1)

The area under the curve increases.

(2)

The curve is flattened.

(3)

The number of particles with the most probable kinetic energy increases.

 
  • A. (1) only

  • B. (2) only

 
  • C. (1) and (3) only

D.

(2) and (3) only

76

Which of the following statements concerning the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

curve is correct?

 
 
  • A. The most probable kinetic energy is on the right of the average kinetic energy.

  • B. The curve can be symmetric.

  • C. The area under the curve represents the total energy of the particles.

  • D. The maximum point of the curve is shifted to the left and gets higher when temperature decreases.

77

Which of the following statements is correct?

  • A. Activation energy of an endothermic reaction becomes lower when temperature decreases.

  • B. The area under the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve increases at a higher temperature.

  • C. The lower the activation energy, the faster the reaction.

  • D. An increase in reaction rate with a rise in temperature is mainly due to the increase in chance of collisions between particles.

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78

When temperature increases, the rate of reaction increases because

  • A. the chance of collisions between the reactant particles increases.

  • B. the number of reactant particles possessing energy equal to or greater than the activation energy increases.

  • C. the reaction is endothermic.

  • D. the reaction is exothermic.

79

Which of the following statements about the following Maxwell-Boltzmann

distribution curve is INCORRECT? T 1 T 2 Number of particles
distribution curve is INCORRECT?
T 1
T 2
Number of particles
  • A. T 2 is higher than T 1 .

Kinetic energy

  • B. The activation energy of the reaction at T 1 is different from that at T 2 .

  • C. More reactant particles have energy equal to or greater than the activation energy at T 2 .

  • D. The areas under the curves at T 1 and T 2 are the same.

80

Consider the following Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves at T 1 and T 2

respectively, where T 1 < T 2 .

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T 1 T 2 E a Kinetic energy Number of particles
T 1
T 2
E a
Kinetic energy
Number of particles

Which of the following statements about the curve are correct?

(1)

The most probable kinetic energy at T 1 is smaller than that at T 2 .

(2)

More particles have energy equal to or greater than E a at T 2 .

(3)

The area under the curve at T 2 is larger than that at T 1 .

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

81

Which of the following statements are correct?

(1)

At a higher temperature, the activation energy of a reaction decreases.

(2)

The energy profile provides information about the enthalpy change of a reaction.

(3)

The activated complex is formed in the transition state of a reaction.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

82

Which of the following statements concerning the Maxwell-Boltzman distribution

curve is INCORRECT?

  • A. It shows the number of particles with energy equal to or greater than the activation energy of the reaction.

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  • B. The average kinetic energy is at the maximum point of the curve.

  • C. The area under the curve remains unchanged at any temperatures.

  • D. It is a plot of the number of particles having a particular amount of energy.

Section 54.3

83

Consider the following reaction:

 

X 2 2X

The rate constants for the above reaction at 30C and 100C are 0.5 × 10 10 s 1 and

22

× 10 10 s 1 respectively.

Calculate the activation energy of the reaction.

(Given: R = 8.314 J K 1 mol 1 )

 
  • A. 318.0 kJ mol 1

  • B. 50.7 kJ mol 1

  • C. 22.1 kJ mol 1

  • D. 6.10 kJ mol 1

84

For a chemical reaction at 30C, the rate constant and the activation energy are 0.5 ×

10

10 s 1 and 50.8 kJ mol 1 respectively.

Calculate the corresponding Arrhenius constant.

(Given: R = 8.314 J K 1 mol 1 )

 
  • A. 0.0286

  • B. 0.0375

  • C. 0.0497

  • D. 0.0608

85

Consider the following reaction:

A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g) A series of experiments were carried out to study the reaction rates at different temperatures. The experimental results are shown in the table below:

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Temperature (K)

Rate constant (mol dm 3 s 1 )

5000

5.49

× 10 6

000

  • 10 × 10 8

9.86

000

  • 15 × 10 9

5.57

000

  • 18 × 10 9

9.92

What is the activation energy of the reaction? (Given: R = 8.314 J K 1 mol 1 )

  • A. 25.9 kJ mol 1

  • B. 51.8 kJ mol 1

  • C. 187.4 kJ mol 1

  • D. 431.1 kJ mol 1

86

What is the activation energy for a particular reaction if the rate doubles when the

temperature is raised from 25C to 35C? (Given: R = 8.314 J K 1 mol 1 )

  • A. 6.35 kJ mol 1

  • B. 23.0 kJ mol 1

  • C. 34.7 kJ mol 1

  • D. 52.8 kJ mol 1

87

The Arrhenius equation,

k

E

a

Ae

RT

shows the relationship between temperature and

reaction rate. Which of the following conditions will lead to the slowest reaction?

  • A. high T and large E a

  • B. high T and small E a

  • C. low T and large E a

  • D. low T and small E a

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88

The activation energy of a certain reaction is 87 kJ mol 1 . What is the ratio of the rate constants for the reaction when the temperature is decreased from 37°C to 15°C? (Given: R = 8.314 J K 1 mol 1 )

 
  • A. k 37C

:

k 15C

= 1.00 : 1

  • B. k 37C

:

k 15C

= 1.12 : 1

  • C. k 37C

:

k 15C

= 13.2 : 1

  • D. k 37C : k 15C = 379 : 1

89

Consider the following reaction:

 

2N 2 O(g) 2N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) The rate constants of the above reaction at 270C and 350C are 1.3 × 10 11 s 1 and 4.5 × 10 10 s 1 respectively. What is the activation energy of the reaction? (Given: R = 8.314 J K 1 mol 1 )

 
  • A. 15.0 kJ mol 1

 
  • B. 54.1 kJ mol 1

  • C. 68.0 kJ mol 1

  • D. 124.5 kJ mol 1

90

Many reactions occur more rapidly at high temperatures than at low temperatures.

Which of the following statements concerning the above phenomenon is/are correct?

(1)

At lower temperature, the activation energy of the reaction decreases.

  • A. (1) only

(2)

At lower temperature, the rate constant of the reaction decreases.

(3)

At lower temperature, less reactant particles have energy equal to or greater than

the activation energy.

  • B. (2) only

  • C. (1) and (3) only

  • D. (2) and (3) only

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91 It is known that Arrhenius equation relates temperature, rate constant and activation 1 energy together.
91
It is known that Arrhenius equation relates temperature, rate constant and activation
1
energy together. By plotting a graph of log k against
, activation energy and
T
Arrhenius constant can be determined from the graph. Which of the following
combinations is correct?
slope of the graph is equal to
A.
B.
E a
E a
R
y‐intercept is equal to
A
A
E a
C.
log A
R
E
a
D.
log A
2.3 R
92
Use the following data to determine the activation energy for the reaction below:
A + B  C
Temperature (C)
Rate constant (mol dm 3 s 1 )
350
0.096
400
0.400
(Given: R = 8.314 J K 1 mol 1 )
A.
5.20 kJ mol 1
B.
11.95 kJ mol 1
C.
43.21 kJ mol 1
D.
99.38 kJ mol 1
93

The rate of a reaction at 120C is five times faster than that at 80C. What is the activation energy of the reaction?

  • A. 3.21 kJ mol 1

  • B. 5.58 kJ mol 1

  • C. 20.2 kJ mol 1

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  • D. 46.4 kJ mol 1

94

Consider the following reaction:

A B If the rate of the above reaction at 520 K was four times faster than that at 500 K, what is the activation energy of the reaction? (Given: R = 8.314 J K 1 mol 1 )

  • A. 7.8 kJ mol 1

  • B. 18.0 kJ mol 1

  • C. 65.1 kJ mol 1

  • D. 149.7 kJ mol 1

95

At 25C, the rate constant for the reaction A B + C is 0.0503 s 1 . At 60C, the rate constant is 6.71 s 1 . Determine the activation energy, E a for this reaction. (Given: R = 8.314 J K 1 mol 1 )

  • A. 6.0 kJ mol 1

  • B. 13.9 kJ mol 1

  • C. 50.1 kJ mol 1

  • D. 115.2 kJ mol 1

96

Which of the following statements concerning the Arrhenius equation are correct?

(1)

It relates temperature, rate constant and activation energy together.

(2)

It is used to explain the effect of change in temperature on reaction rate.

(3)

It is used to determine the activation energy of a reaction.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

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  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

Each question below consists of two separate statements. Decide whether each of the two statements is true or false; if both are true, then decide whether or not the second statement is a correct explanation of the first statement. Then select one option from A to D according to the following table:

  • A. Both statements are true and the 2nd statement is a correct explanation of the 1st statement.

  • B. Both statements are true and the 2nd statement is NOT a correct explanation of the 1st statement.

  • C. The 1st statement is false but the 2nd statement is true.

  • D. Both statements are false.

Sections 54.154.3

97

An increase in temperature increases reaction rate.

 

Where there is an increase in temperature, the exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation increases.

98

An increase in temperature increases reaction rate.

 

At higher temperatures, the number of particles with energy equal to or greater than the activation energy increases.

99

The Arrhenius equation is applicable to either exothermic or endothermic reactions.

 

The Arrhenius equation indicates that an increase in temperature increases reaction rate.

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Chemistry: Chapter 55 Catalysis and industrial processes

Section 55.1

100

Which of the following statements concerning catalysts is INCORRECT?

 
  • A. They do not affect the yield of products.

  • B. They provide an alternative reaction pathway with a different activation energy.

  • C. All catalysts can increase the rate of reaction.

  • D. The reaction rate increases with increasing amount of catalyst until a limit is reached where larger amounts of catalyst have no further effect on the reaction rate.

101

Which of the following statements concerning a catalyst is/are correct?

(1)

It reacts with one of the reactants to form a product.

(2)

The amount of catalyst remains unchanged at the end of the reaction.

(3)

The greater the amount of catalyst used, the faster the reaction.

  • A. (1) only

  • B. (2) only

  • C. (1) and (3) only

  • D. (2) and (3) only

102

Which of the following combinations concerning the energy profile of an endothermic reaction is correct?

 

Species with the highest energy

Species with the lowest energy

A.

The activated complex

The products

B.

The activated complex

The reactants

C.

The reactants

The products

D.

The intermediate

The reactants

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Section 55.2

103

The diagram below is the energy profile of a reaction in the absence of a catalyst. Which of the following quantities indicated in the diagram are NOT affected by the presence of a catalyst?

I III II Energy
I
III
II
Energy

Reaction coordinate

  • A. I and II only

  • B. I and III only

  • C. II and III only

  • D. I, II and III

104

Which of the following statements about catalysts is INCORRECT?

  • A. They are needed in very small amounts.

  • B. They are very specific in action.

  • C. They increase the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy of the reaction.

  • D. They remain chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction.

105

Which of the following species is the one at the trough between two transition states in an energy profile of a reaction?

  • A. Reactant

  • B. Activated complex

  • C. Intermediate

  • D. Product

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106

Which of the following statements concerning a reaction in the presence of a catalyst

 

is correct?

  • A. The most probable kinetic energy on the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve shifts to the right if a catalyst is used in the reaction.

  • B. The activation energy of the uncatalysed reaction is lowered.

  • C. The yield of the reaction increases.

  • D. The reaction proceeds through a different pathway.

107

Which of the following statements concerning catalysts is/are correct?

(1)

They can increase the yield of a reaction.

(2)

They do not affect the enthalpy change of a reaction.

(3)

They are in solid phase only.

  • A. (1) only

  • B. (2) only

  • C. (1) and (3) only

  • D. (2) and (3) only

Section 55.3

108

Which of the following curves represents the effect of positive catalyst on the

equilibrium reaction?

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A B Reaction without catalyst C D Concentration of product
A
B
Reaction without catalyst
C
D
Concentration of product

Time

109

Which of the following are the effects of catalyst on an exothermic reaction?

(1)

It speeds up the reaction.

(2)

It slows down the reaction.

(3)

It increases the yield of products.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

110

Which of the following quantities of an equilibrium reaction are NOT changed in the

presence of a catalyst at constant temperature?

(1)

The activation energy of the reaction without the presence of the catalyst.

(2)

The equilibrium concentrations of the products.

(3)

The enthalpy change of the reaction.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

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111

Consider an exothermic reversible reaction. After adding a catalyst to the reaction,

 
  • A. the rate of forward reaction is increased by a larger extent.

  • B. the reaction becomes more exothermic.

  • C. the equilibrium concentrations of the reactants remain unchanged.

  • D. the rate of backward reaction rate is decreased.

112

Which of the following statements concerning a catalyst is INCORRECT?

 
  • A. It increases the rates of both forward and backward reactions in an equilibrium to the same extent.

  • B. It shortens the time for the reaction to reach equilibrium.

  • C. It does not affect the enthalpy change of the reaction.

  • D. It lowers the activation energy of the reaction.

113

Which of the following statements concerning the catalysts is/are correct?

(1)

They remain chemically unchanged during a reaction.

(2)

They increase the rates of forward and backward reactions in an equilibrium to

(3)

the same extent. They do not affect the equilibrium position.

  • A. (1) only

  • B. (2) only

  • C. (1) and (3) only

  • D. (2) and (3) only

Section 55.4

114

Which of the following statements concerning homogeneous catalysts are correct?

(1)

They are in the same phase with the solvent.

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(2)

Concentrated sulphuric acid used in the esterification is one of the examples of homogeneous catalysts.

(3)

They can alter the rate of reaction by providing alternative reaction pathway with a different activation energy.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

115

In a catalytic converter, the poisonous gaseous pollutants are converted to harmless

gases. Which of the following statements are INCORRECT?

(1)

Platinum is used as a homogeneous catalyst in the conversion.

(2)

The catalyst provides a surface for the absorption of the reactants.

(3)

The harmless gases are carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

116

Propan-1-ol can be converted to propene by passing its vapour over a heated catalyst

at around 350C. Which of the following statements concerning the heated catalyst are correct?

(1)

It is an aluminium oxide.

(2)

It acts as a heterogeneous catalyst in the reaction.

(3)

It provides a surface area for the adsorption of the reactants.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

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117

Which of the following statements about the reaction below is correct?

 

Fe 2+ (aq)

S 2 O 8 2 (aq) + 2I (aq)

2SO 4 2 (aq) + I 2 (aq)

  • A. Fe 2+ (aq) is oxidized to Fe 3+ (aq) at the end of the reaction.

 
  • B. Fe 2+ (aq) is a heterogeneous catalyst.

  • C. Fe 2+ (aq) is reduced by S 2 O 8 2 (aq) to Fe(s).

  • D. Fe 2+ (aq) is regenerated at the end of the reaction.

118

Which of the following statements about a catalytic converter are correct?

(1)

It converts gaseous pollutant, nitrogen monoxide to nitrogen.

(2)

It contains platinum which is a heterogeneous catalyst.

(3)

It is installed in the exhaust system of the cars.

  • A. (1) and (2) only

  • B. (1) and (3) only

  • C. (2) and (3) only

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

119

Which of the following reactions involves the use of a homogeneous catalyst?

 
  • A. Contact process

  • B. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution into water and oxygen

  • C. Reaction between peroxodisulphate ions and iodide ions

  • D. Reaction between hydrogen and propene

120

A two-step reaction is shown below:

Step 1: X + Y Z Step 2: Y + Z W + X + V Which of the following are correct?

(1)

X is a catalyst.

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(2)

Z is an intermediate.

(3)

The overall chemical equation is 2Y W + V.

  • A. (1) and (2) only