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Reading Notes for Access to Academics

You can work with colleagues as long as you have a deep understanding of the content
in each chapter. Use the Key Issues Chart at the beginning of each chapter to guide your
thinking. Read and tab/underline key points in each chapter. Add descriptions, page
numbers, or lists as part of your note keeping. This is the foundation for your study for
teaching English as a second language and is very important that you come to a deep
understanding of this material.
Take notes on these key points and add missing points based on the Key Issues Chart at the
beginning of each chapter. Your notes must be sufficient for you to attain and retain the basic
information in each chapter and to effectively lead a class group discussion when asked to do so.
You will be defining, summarizing and/or describing the various key components in each chapter.

Ch. 1:
age of

1. Explain language of school (page 5)

The USE of language: how to listen, speak, read, write in order to reach goals,
and registers or specialized varieties of language
THROUGH language: learning all about the world inside and outside the
classroom. (Showing work for math, no talking during a test, etc.)
ABOUT language: what are the differences among languages, historical aspects
of language, and cultural influences on language. (Genres: autobiographies, diaries,
dictionaries. Parts of speech: subject, verb, noun, adverb, etc.)
2. Social Language (page 6-7)
Is used in everyday, casual interactions. The 3 aspects of social language are
EVERYDAY: This is a great book! You should read it. INTERCULTURAL: Please sit
down and criss-cross applesauce. INSTRUCTIONAL: You may now take out your
3. Academic Language (page 8-9)
Vocabulary: individual words or short phrases. (Constitution, essay, microscope,
Grammar: Syntax, mechanics, sentence and paragraph structure. (Punctuation,
subject-verb agreement, topic sentence)
Discourse: Cohesion and coherence in texts and across genres. (lab reports,
development of theme, ellipsis, word problems)
4. Linguistic Features/content areas- Explain (page 12-13)
Involves difficult vocabulary incorporated into texts densely packed with meaning.
5. BICS- Explain (page 13)
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) is used for talking to peers during lunch.
Informal day to day communication.

6. CALP- Explain (page 13)

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) refers to the academic dimension of
language necessary for school success. CALP would be used to describe a summary of a
book or story read.
7. Google academic language register and define
There are 5 language registers. The use of the various registers depend on the audience
and the purpose of the communication. The registers are Frozen Register: Pledge of
Allegiance (language that remains fixed/unchanged), Formal/Academic Register:
interviews, academic language in classrooms (lectures, instructions, mini-lessons),
Consultative Register: talking to a boss/supervisor/teacher (asking for assistance), Casual
Informal Register: talking with friends, slang (rough writing drafts should allow this to get
the information on the paper), Intimate Register: language of lovers, sexual harassment
(not for public information).
Ch. 2:

Language Proficiency-ability to use language accurately and appropriately in its oral and
written forms.
Language Domains- listening, speaking, writing, and reading
Can Do descriptors-provide a starting point for planning and implementing instruction
Elements of Communicative Competence- grammatical or linguistic competencies,
sociolinguistic competencies, discourse competencies, and strategic competencies.
Resources- use bilingual books

Ch. 3

Learning Strengths and Needs of EL Students List/describe

o Collecting general information survey
o Casual conversation para-educator in same 1 st language, take notes
o Wall write students respond to statements or questions by signing their
name or writing a response
o Moving questions students respond to questions or statements by
standing and taking sides

o Dialogue journals students communicate back and forth with teacher or

another student
o ESL program assess language needs
Guidelines for understanding student strengths and needs:
o Model the techniques-dialogue journal, KWL
o Try not to assume- ask questions to students or parents
o Embrace variety-use a variety of methods strategies, techniques and
Ch. 4

Explain - all teachers are language teachers In essence, all teachers are language
teachers to some extent, even if they teach the language of only one content area, as they
often do at the secondary level. Because ESL and other language teachers may not be
well versed in the vocabulary and discourses of all the content areas, regular classroom
teachers are probably best suited to teach these types of language with the support of
language educators
Objective writing statements of attainable, quantifiable, lesson outcomes that guide the
activities and assessment of the lesson.
Measurable Verbs: Link to Common core State Standards - Common Core State
Standards describe what students are to be taught over the course of a school year. A
Learning Objective is a statement that describes what students will be able to do at the end
of a lesson, as a result of instruction. The skill of a Learning Objective is the measurable
verb, or what the students will be doing.
Direct Instruction Overview - Direct Instruction is an approach to teaching. It is skillsoriented, and the teaching practices it implies are teacher-directed. It emphasizes the use
of small-group, face-to-face instruction by teachers and aides using carefully articulated
lessons in which cognitive skills are broken down into small units, sequenced deliberately,

and taught explicitly

ELD Adaptations - Meaningful and authentic activities that integrate lesson concepts with
opportunities to practice language (reading, writing, speaking, and listening)
Teaching the Language of the Discipline: Vocabulary lesson model introduced
General Assessment information across disciplines
Teaching to Language Objectives Guidelines: List and summarize
o Integrate Language and Content language objectives should be
integrated into the lesson and not taught in isolation from it
o Use Pedagogically Sound Techniques should be authentic/for a real
purpose, taught explicitly and implicitly, multimodal (graphics, reading, listening),
relevant, and based on social interaction
o Break Down the Language time sense, different spellings, different
Ch. 5

Connecting to Students: How do you do this? Summarize supporting research.

As noted in SIOP, 1) explicitly linking to students backgrounds experiences and
2) explicitly linking past learning and new concepts
How do you make academic connections?
In seeking a connection to all students, including those who are not from the state, the
teacher may think:
Specific Focus
More general ideas
Most common idea
Building Background Knowledge: Explain How and Why

Developing connections is the first step in helping students access the content and
language outlined by the lesson objectives. If students do not have any background in the
language, concepts, theme, or content that comprises the lesson, teachers can use som e
of these techniques:
Pre-teach and reinforce vocabulary
Field trips or hands on experiences
What is an anticipatory Set? How do you use them to engage learners? Provide an
An anticipatory set is a lesson introduction that is used to make connections, by integrating
them into the lesson introduction.
Using VAPA and PE Content for making connections to students explain the guidelines for
connections (p.76)
Be Deliberate: check that students have made connections and that
students are interested and prepared to engage in the lesson.
Help Students Transfer Connections Back To Their Lives: Use techniques
that encourage students to see the links throughout the lesson and / or unit.
Consider Culture: Use explicit instruction as needed to help students
understand the process and content of the connections.
Ch. 6

Student Engagement:

o Task process what happens when the learning takes place
o Task product the outcome of this process or the end result of the task
o making connections to students lives
o having students interact
o creating responsive classrooms
Pedagogical Connections teachers should think about the backgrounds and interests
of their students

while designing tasks

Elements of Task Process

o Instructional groupings - how many students work together and also with
whom they work
o Modes - teachers and students can use graphics, video, art, music,
storytelling, and other modes that incorporates student backgrounds and access
the content and language of the lesson
o Task structure - determines how students get information and how they
express themselves during the task,(open, partially structured, or highly structured)
o Time in pacing - consider how much time different students need, and
consider how to provide enough scaffolding so students can complete the task
o Scaffolding - by modeling, eliciting, probing, restating, clarifying,
questioning, and praising
o Resources/Texts - at appropriate levels, from a variety of sources
o Teacher-Student roles - should be developed with the intention that
students will be active and engaged in learning rather than recipients of it
o Procedural tools - books to pencils, visitors, blocking software, tools
shouldnt get in the way of learning
o Differentiation - allow students to make some design choices, teachers
can differentiate both task process and product
Elements of Task Product
o Audience - students more engaged when they are viewed by an audience
other than the teacher

o Modes - how students complete their products,(speaking, writing,

drawing, acting, singing, constructing, creating), teacher continues to review the
lesson objective verbs
Guidelines for connecting instruction to students lives

Listen to students talk about familiar topics, i.e. home and community
Respond to students talk and questions, make on the spot changes
Interact with students in ways that respect their speaking styles
Connect student language w/ literacy and content area knowledge

through speaking, listening, reading, and writing activities

o Encourage students to use content vocabulary to express their
o Encourage students to use their first and second languages and instructional
Ch. 7

How do you assess before, during and after a lesson?

o Before - use a component checklist based on ideas in the chapters
o During - observation and discussion with students
o After - teacher review lesson jot down the observation of individual
students or whole class, were objectives met, lesson revision.
Assessing student process and product: rubrics can be used by students to self- assess or
by other members of the classroom to comment on student process and product.
Developing assessments to measure content standard achievement: a rubric is a scoring
tool for alternative assessments. It contains criteria developed by teachers and/or students
that are linked to the content and language learning objectives.
Creating multiple opportunities for students to learn content: assessment focused on
students ways of knowing, providing them with opportunities to express their
understandings and how they came to those understandings.

Ch. 8

ELD: Language of the disciplines: Explain key points in each discipline

Unlocking the Language of Science

o Adaptations in disciplines
need practice using structure of science talk
and tools

teach roots of words for vocab

teach how to use dictionary

o Integration of PE and content Areas

can be integrated with science in the sections

of health and nutrition & the muscular systems

o Language of the discipline applied to VAPA and PE

can draw the life cycles of different animals

can do different movements that animals

can make food pyramids to show health

would do

Ch. 9

ELD: Language of the disciplines: Explain key points in each discipline

o Unlocking the Language of Mathematics

Adaptations in disciplines
help students understand math

develop math register
use everyday words to provide
modify speech

identify and highlight words with

multiple meanings

Integration of PE and content Areas

having students figure out how to

group themselves differently for games

incorporating games that require
math or counting

Language of the discipline applied to VAPA

and PE
can do different art projects that
requires symmetry
can turn math problems into art
counting the beats in music and

Ch. 10

ELD: Language of the disciplines: Explain key points in each discipline

o English texts have an abundance of idioms, figurative
language, imagery, and symbolism, which present many challenges for ELL
o Listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and visual
o Affirm and build on the different literacy practices that
students develop in and out of school
o The focus of learning to read, later changes to the focus of
reading to learn.
o Students benefit from varied and extensive vocabulary

Adaptations in disciplines
o Teach Academic Language
o Connect what the EL student already knows and build on
their linguistic and cultural resources.
o Explicit and systematic instruction that takes into account
oral and written practices.
o Use sentence starters for scaffolding conversations or
constructing opinion papers, report a partners perspective, prediction,
expository essay etc. Have these on a poster in the classroom.
o Focus on pre-write, writing process, collaborative writing,
summarize, teach writing strategies (plan, revise, and edit compositions.)
o Vocabulary Word Studies
o Graphic Organizers, concept maps, acting it out, word
games/word play, vocabulary journal, teach root words, word sorts, focus on
cognates, vocabulary guides, and Key Word method help teach vocabulary.
o Expose student the various forms of discourse
(autobiography, monologue, poem, response logs etc.)
o When reading: choral reading, guided reading, literature
circles, readers theater, shared reading with big books, story mapping,
language experience approach, predictable and pattern books, cognitive
mapping, individual student conferences, learning logs, literature response
journals, and think-aloud are various readings strategies that benefit literacy
o Create a language rich environment by providing
opportunities to hear and use language for meaningful purposes. Continually
use modeling, provide feedback, create a stress-free environment (lowaffective filter)
o Theoretical orientation, meaningful literacy, and culturally
relevant literacy practices, additive perspective on language, and emphasis
on academic language should also be practiced.
o Pre-reading activities: anticipation guides, establish a
purpose for reading, graphic organizers, KWL charts, making predictions,

preview/simplified text summary etc.)

Integration of PE and content Areas: students can keep a journal of their
PE activities, students can write essay reports regarding the benefits of a specific
warm up.
Language of the discipline applied to VAPA and PE: Students can
participate in a readers theatre, can go over the various elements of plot, theme,
etc. Students can create a story map for a play and discuss the various elements of
that particular play.
Ch. 11

ELD: Language of the disciplines: Explain key points in each discipline

Includes many disciples (archeology, history, philosophy and
Social Studies is most difficult content area for English language
learners because they are unfamiliar with the topics, in relation to history
Many terms in social studies are abstract, hard to translate and
culturally based.
Textbooks assume students have a great day of background
Several strategies and approaches are available to enhance the
learning experience for ELL students.
Adaptations in disciplines
Develop social supportive classroom
Link unfamiliar with familiar by tapping students
previous knowledge (KWL Chart)
Use Collaborative groups for tackling complex
reading materials.
Level the field by making the students teachers and
the teachers learners.
Build on the Funds of knowledge of students,
families, and communities.
Promote an oral history approach
Explicit teaching of academic skills
Offer explicit instruction of learning strategies.
Plan for academic classroom discussions.
Allow for repetition of terms, phrases and
grammatical and thinking processes, which is conducive to the acquisition

of those terms and processes.

Encourage students to think quickly, respond,
organize their thoughts into sentences and ask for clarification.
Allow students to observe how others think and use
language to describe their thinking.
Encourage students to practice how to ask questions
and request clarification.
Use deliberate instruction about how to navigate
Use graphic organizers
Reducing cognitive load and increasing accessibility of complex
content knowledge
Use Role-play to make abstract concepts concrete.
Preview reading assignments.
Provide or encourage students to locate materials
and information in their native language.
Use cognates with your Spanish speaking students.
Integration of PE and content Areas:
Use role play to introduce a specific PE skill or concept in other content areas. Model
instruction. Teach students to ask for clarification when they do not understand a concept.
Language of the discipline applied to VAPA and PE: Students can engage in various
readers theatre presentations that connect to historical events for example the griots in
West African history (storytellers), students can use their bodys to reenact a tribal dance in
the same unit.
Ch. 12

Review and discuss learning for EL students across all disciplines.

Creating a New Lesson
Find and create the learning targets.
Make initial connections.
Create engaging tasks.
Guidelines for creating and adapting lessons
Do not reinvent the wheel.
List 5 key points that are new learning that you will use in instructional practice from this


Define terms for the students

Provide a model for the students to follow.
Provide the instructions both in spoken and written form.
Have the students make a personal connection to what they are learning. (KWL

Have students share ideas with their peers.

Reflect: How will you bring this research in to your professional practice?
I am going to try and implement several different teaching methods as I produce each lesson
throughout my career. I would like to make sure that I introduce the vocabulary words before
each lesson, build on the students prior knowledge to help incorporate the lesson with things
they may already know (KWL chart), and include opportunities for the students to share their
ideas with their peers. I will do my best to introduce the material in various ways to connect
with all types of learning abilities.