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Chapter 3 Lecture

Human Geography: Places and


Regions in Global Context
Sixth Edition

Population Geography

Wendy A. Mitteager
State University of New York, Oneonta

Key Concepts

Census
Demographics
Population Dynamics
Movement of Population
Population Patterns
Sustainable Development
Figure 3.1 Biometric census taking in
India, 2011

Good Book!

Demography
Characteristics of a
human population
Gender, race, age, income,
disabilities, education, etc

Census
Vital records
Limitations

Figure 3.2 Accuracy of


the 1990 U.S. census

Apply your knowledge: Give an example, other than the


Iraq case, of how the census is more than just counting
people.

Population Distribution

Figure 3.3 World population density, 2010

Population Distribution, (cont'd)


Geographic reasons
Environmental &
physical factors
Political & economic
experiences
Cultural
characteristics

Examine at many
scales
Global, national,
regional, metropolitan

Figure 3.4 Population distribution of Egypt

A New Sense of Identity, USA

[Insert Figure 3.A]

Figure 3.B Mixed-race Americans, by region

Figure 3.A Mixed-race


Americans

Population Density and Composition


Crude (arithmetic)
density
Nutritional density
Agricultural density
Figure 3.5 Mexico City, a classic high-density
urban settlement

Health Care Density

Figure 3.6 Countries with a high proportion of old people face unique challenges. This map
shows the ratio of physicians to the population by nation.

Age-Sex Pyramids

Shape of pyramid
is dependent on proportion of
people in each
age cohort
Dependency ratio

Figure 3.7 Population of Germany by age


and sex, 2000

Age-Sex Pyramids, (cont'd)

Figure 3.8 Population Pyramids of Core and Peripheral


Countries

Apply your knowledge: Why do researchers divide the


population of a country into youth, middle, and old-age
cohorts? What do these categories indicate about the
potential of a country's population?

U.S. Population
Baby Boom generation
Born 1946-1964

Demographic, political,
and economic factors
Suburbanization

Aging of the core


countries
Impacts on younger
Americans
The Net Generation

Figure 3.D Improved health care leading to


longer life expectancies

U.S. Population, (cont'd)

Figure 3.9 U.S. baby boomers, 1960-2040

Birth (or Fertility) Rates


Crude birthrate (CBR)
Total fertility rate (TFR)
Doubling time

Table 3.3 TFR provides more insight into the


potential of a population

Death (or Mortality) Rates


Crude death rate (CDR)
Infant mortality rate
Life expectancy

Figure 3.12 World crude death rates, 2009 &


2010

Death (or Mortality) Rates, (cont'd)

Figure 3.14 World infant mortality rates 2009

World Rates of Natural Increase, 2009

Figure 3.13

HIV Infection, 2010

Figure 3.15

Apply your knowledge: How does the level of wealth of


a country affect its ability to respond to health issues like
HIV/AIDS, infant mortality, or life expectancy?

Demographic Transition Theory

Figure 3.16 Demographic


transition model

Figure 3.17 World trends in birth and


death rates, 1775-2050

Demographic Transition Theory, (cont'd)

Apply your knowledge: Why would a country be


concerned about its population being too small? What
might a country gain by increasing or decreasing the
birthrate?

Mobility and Migration


Emigration
Immigration
International &
internal migration
Permanent &
temporary

Gross & net migration


Push and pull factors

Voluntary migration
Guest workers
Undocumented
workers

Forced migration
Refugees
Internally displaced
persons (IDPs)

Mobility and Migration, (cont'd)

Figure 3.18 Global voluntary migration, 2005

Mobility and Migration, (cont'd)


Great Recession and
undocumented
workers
Transnational migrants
Eco-migration

Figure 3.19 Controversy surrounds


immigration over the U.S./Mexico border. The
Samaritans' mission is to end immigration
related death and suffering.

Mobility and Migration, (cont'd)

Figure 3.E Internally displaced persons, 2007

Mobility and Migration, (cont'd)

Figure 3.21 Iraqi diaspora before 2003


and since

Figure 3.22 Palestinian refugees


in the Middle East

Mobility and Migration, (cont'd)

Figure 3.23 Changing demographic center of


the U.S. 1790-2010

Figure 3.24 U.S. Rustbelt -- where population

was impacted by the movement of


corporations

Population Debates and Policies


Population and
Resources
Malthus
Neo-Malthusians

Population policy
Figure 3.27 World population
projections

Figure 3.29 Educating girls in

Afghanistan

Population Issues
Sustainable
Development
Gender Issues
Neoliberalism

Apply your knowledge: What do you consider to be


the most pressing issue with respect to global
population growth? Why?

Future Geographies
2011 population:
nearly 7 billion
Projected to
increase
9.3 billion by 2050
Core vs. periphery
growth

What will happen in


the future?
How will urban
systems keep up?

Figure 3.31 Shanghai, China: one of


the world's largest cities at 14 million

End of Chapter 3