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1. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D V]HUYH]HW EHOV N|UQ\H]HWpQHN HJ\ yUiV LQWHQ]tY IL]LNDL PXQND


KDWiViUD EHN|YHWNH] YiOWR]iVDLW 0LO\HQ PyGV]HUHNHW HV]N|]|NHW DONDOPD]QD
DQQDN pUGHNpEHQ KRJ\ H YiOWR]iVRN WHOMHVtWPpQ\FV|NNHQW KDWiViW PHJHO]]H
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1. B.

,VPHUWHVVHD]HG]HWWVpJIRJDOPiW0LWpUWQNHG]pVHQpVHG]pVUHQGV]HUHQPLO\HQ
HG]pVHV]N|]|NHWLVPHU"0LDWHOMHVtWPpQ\pVPLND]|VV]HWHYL"

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2. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D] HPEHUL WHVW EHOV Yi]iQDN FVRQWYi]  IHOpStWpVpW -HOOHPH]]H D


FVRQWRNDW pV D] t]OHWHNHW V]HUNH]HWN pV WtSXVDLN V]HULQW ,VPHUWHVVH D YiOO-, a
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2. B.

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3. A . ,VPHUWHVVHDJHULQFRV]ORSIHOpStWpVpWpVDQQDNpOHWNRULVDMiWRVViJDLW0XWDVVRQUi
D JHULQFRV]ORS VpUOpNHQ\VpJpQHN RNDLUD D OHJJ\DNRULEE VpUOpVIRUPiN pV
iUWDOPDN WNUpEHQ 0LO\HQ HV]N|]|NHW PyGV]HUHNHW HOYHNHW DONDOPD]QD D
J\DNRUODWEDQDJHULQFYpGHOPHpUGHNpEHQ"
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3. B.

$ VSRUWROyN D] HG]WHUPL IRJODONR]iVRN DODWW NO|QE|] IiUDGiVL szakaszokon


PHQQHN NHUHV]WO 0elyek ezek a szakaszok- pV PLO\HQHN D NOV PHJQ\LOYiQXOiVDL" (N|]EHQ PLO\HQ EHOV IRO\DPDWRN MiWV]yGQDN OH D VSRUWROyEDQ" gQQHN
mint szakembernek hol kell beavatkoznia a folyamatba?

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4. A . -HOOHPH]]H D KDUiQWFVtNROW L]RPV]|YHW IHOpStWpVpW pV PN|GpVpW 0XWDVVD EH D


W|U]V L]RPFVRSRUWMDLW pV I L]PDLN PN|GpVpW V]pOHV KiWL]RP FVXNO\iVL]RP
JHULQFIHV]tWN QDJ\ PHOOL]RP IUpV]L]RP KDVL]PRN ! ,VPHUWHVVH D] HG]pV
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4. B.

,VPHUWHVVH PHO\HN D]RN D] HG]pVHOYHN DPHO\HNHW QHP KDJ\KDW ILJ\HOPHQ NtYO
HJ\HG]WHUPLHG]pVSURJUDP|VV]HiOOtWiVDNRUpVD]HG]pVHNYH]HWpVHDODWW

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5. A . 0XWDVVD EH D V]HUYH]HWEHQ WDOiOKDWy L]RPV]|YHW WtSXVRNDW pV PN|GpVEHOL


NO|QEVpJHLNHW ,VPHUWHVVH D YpJWDJRN YDODPLQW IJJHV]W|YHLN L]RPFVRSRUWMDLW
IEE L]PDLN PN|GpVpQ NHUHV]WO GHOWDL]RP NpWIHM NDUL]RP KiURPIHM
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NHUHV]WO
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5. B.

gQ PLQW RNWDWy IHOJ\HO V]DNHPEHU KRJ\DQ NH]G KR]]i HJ\ ~M VSRUWROy
HG]pVpKH] D PHJLVPHUNHGpV IRO\DPDWiWyO" 0LO\HQ LQWp]NHGpVHN-UH WDQiFVRNUD
LVPHUHWHNUHYDQV]NVpJHDVSRUWROyUyO" .pV]tWVHQYi]ODWRVDQHJ\DQDPQp]LV
ODSRWpVPDJ\DUi]]DHO
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|OW|]N|GpVLpVPDJDWDUWiVLUHQGV]DEiO\RNDW

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6. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D SpOGDNpQW PHJDGRWW PR]JiVIRUPiN HQHUJLDV]ROJiOWDWiVL MHOOHP]LW


(Pl.: 100-HV VSULQWIXWiV  SHUFHV V~O\]yV HG]pV &RRSHU WHV]W IXWiVD HJ\ yUiV
N|]HSHVWHPSyM~NHUpNSiUR]iV 
eUWHOPH]]H D] DQDHURE NV]|E IRJDOPiW pV HG]pVHN VRUiQ IHOPHUO J\DNRUODWL
MHOHQWVpJpW
6. B

Ismertesse, PLWpUWQNNRQGLFLRQiOLVNpSHVVpJHNHQpVPHO\HNH]HNDNpSHVVpJHN
%HV]pOMHQDNRQGLFLRQiOLVNpSHVVpJHNIHMOHV]WpVpQHNELROyJLDLDODSMDLUyO

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7. A .

0LO\HQ pOHWWDQL SDUDPpWHUHN YL]VJiODWiYDO NDSKDWXQN NpSHW D VSRUWROy DNWXiOLV


HG]HWWVpJpUO" 0HO\ V]HUYHN V]HUYUHQGV]HUHN PN|GpVH EHIRO\iVROMD LOOHWYH
KDWiUR]]DPHJD]DHURENDSDFLWiVpUWpNpW"
eUWHOPH]]HD]XWyODJRV]VtUpJHWpVLKDWiVIRJDOPiW

7. B.

A sSRUWOpWHVtWPpQ\EHQ W|EE VSRUWROy LV NLFVDWWDQy HUEHQ YDQ 0LW MHOHQW H]"
0LO\HQ HUIHMOHV]W PyGV]HUHNHW LVPHU YiODVV]RQ HJ\ HUIHMOHV]W HV]N|]W pV
PRQGMRQNRQNUpWSpOGiNDW

$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
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8. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D NHULQJpVL UHQGV]HU IHOpStWpVpW pV IXQNFLyMiW -HOOHPH]]H HJ\ iOOyNpSHVVpJL NHUpNSiURV  pV HJ\ ~J\QHYH]HWW HUVSRUWROy WHVWpStW  NHULQJpVL
UHQGV]HUpQHNPpUHWEHOLpVPN|GpVEHOLDGDSWiFLyMiWpVD]HVHWOHJHVNO|QEVpJHLW
0LO\HQYpUQ\RPiVYiOWR]iVRNUDV]iPtWHJ\N|]HSHVWHPSyM~IXWyHG]pVHQLOOHWYH
HJ\QDJ\HUNLIHMWpVVHOMiUyJXJJROiVJ\DNRUODWYpJUHKDMWiVDVRUiQ"
8. B.

,VPHUWHVVH PLO\HQ WpQ\H]N EHIRO\iVROKDWMiN D] HUIHMOHV]WpV KDWpNRQ\ViJiW


6RUROMRQIHO HG]WHUPL HUIHMOHV]WHV]N|]|NHWOHKHWOHJW|EEKHO\V]tQUO9HJ\H
ILJ\HOHPEH D PHJIHOHO NRU- pV FpOFVRSRUWRNDW LV LOOHWYH DMiQOMRQ PHJIHOHO
PyGV]HUHNHWV]iPXNUD

$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
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9. A . -HOOHPH]]H D OpJ]pVL V]HUYUHQGV]HU IHOpStWpVpW pV PN|GpVpW 0HO\ OpJ]L]PRN pV


VHJpGL]PRN PN|GpVHHUHGPpQ\H]L D PHOONDVWpUIRJDWYiOWR]iVDLWOpJ]pVVRUiQ pV
KRJ\DQ" 0LO\HQ YiOWR]iVRNDW PpUKHWQN WHUKHOpV DODWW D OpJ]UHQGV]HU
PN|GpVpEHQDQ\XJDOPLIXQNFLyKR]NpSHVW"
9. B.

+ROOHKHWV]HUHSHD]gQPXQNiMiEDQDJ\RUVDViJQDNPLQWNRQGLFLRQiOLVNpSHVVpJQHN" $ J\RUVDViJIHMOHV]WpV HOPpOHWL DODSMDL $ J\RUVDViJ IEE PHJMHOHQpVL


IRUPiL 0LO\HQ HG]WHUPL J\RUVDViJIHMOHV]W PyGV]HUHNHW pV HV]N|]|NHW LVPHU"
MondjRQNRQNUpWSpOGiNDW

$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
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10. A . 0LO\HQpOHWNRULVDMiWRVViJRNiOODStWKDWyNPHJDIL]LNDLWHUKHOKHWVpJWHNLQWHWpEHQ
iOWDOiEDQ" ,VPHUWHVVH D] LGVHN  pY I|O|WW  VSRUWMiQDN V]HPSRQWMDLW
MHOOHJ]HWHVVpJHLW YHV]pO\HLW 0LO\HQ PR]JiVIRUPiN DMiQODWRVDN pV PLO\HQHN
NHUOHQGNV]iPXNUD"
10. B. ,VPHUWHVVHD]iOOyNpSHVVpJIRJDOPiWpOHWWDQLKiWWHUpWIHORV]WiViWpVIHMOHV]WpVpQHN
PyGV]HUpW
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

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5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
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11. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D] HPEHUL WiSFVDWRUQD IHOpStWpVpW 0DJ\DUi]]D PHJ D] HPpV]WpV
WiSOiOpNIHOV]tYyGiVpVDNLYiODV]WiVIRJDOPDLW.|YHVVHYpJLJHJ\IHKpUMHWiSOiOpNPROHNXOD~WMiWDV]iMUHJWOHJpV]HQD]L]RPVHMWHNLJ0LO\HQPHOOpNKDWiVDOHKHWD
W~O]RWWPpUWpNIHKpUMHWiSOiOpN-NLHJpV]tWpVQHN"
11. B. ,VPHUWHVVHDSXO]XVPpUpVpVDPRGHUQSXO]XVPpUHV]N|]|NV]HUHSpWMHOHQWVpJpW
D] iOOyNpSHVVpJ IHMOHV]WpVpEHQ 0LO\HQ OHKHWVpJHL YDQQDN D SXO]XV PpUpVpUH"
+RJ\DQV]iPROMDNL HJ\VSRUWROyPD[LPiOLVSXO]XViW+5PD[ pOHWNRUDpVQHPH
LVPHUHWpEHQ",VPHUWHVVHDSXO]XVFpO]yQiNDW
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

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6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
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12. A . ,VPHUWHVVH pV MHOOHPH]]H D] HPEHUL V]HUYH]HW V]iPiUD V]NVpJHV WiSDQ\DJRNDW
OOtWVRQ|VV]HpWUHQGHWQDSLyUiVHG]pVWYpJ]IHOQWWIpUILVSRUWROyQDN+RJ\DQ
LG]tWHQp D] pWNH]pVHNHW LOOHWYH PLO\HQ WiSDQ\DJ-|VV]HWpWHOW MDYDVROQD GpOXWiQ
KiURP yUiUD WHUYH]HWW HG]pVKH] YLV]RQ\tWYD" 0LNRU DMiQODQD WiSOiOpNNLHJpV]tWpVWpVPLO\HQIRUPiEDQ"
12. B. 0LO\HQ PyGV]HUHNNHO OHKHW IHMOHV]WHQL D] t]OHWL PR]JpNRQ\ViJ NpSHVVpJpW"
,VPHUWHVVH D] t]OHWL PR]JpNRQ\ViJ D] L]RPOD]DViJ IRJDOPiW pV IHMOHV]WpVpQHN
PyGV]HUpW0RQGMRQJ\DNRUODWLSpOGiNDWpVMHO|OM|QPHJKHO\V]tQHNHWHV]N|]|NHW
DIHMOHV]WpVOHKHWVpJpUH
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
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5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

13. A . +RJ\DQ YDOyVtWDQD PHJ WHVWV~O\FV|NNHQWpVW HJpV]VpJHV GH HOKt]RWW IHOQWW HPEHU
HVHWpEHQ" 0LO\HQ WHVWV~O\-V]DEiO\R]iVL HOYHNHW WDUW V]HP HOWW IRJ\yN~UiV
SURJUDPWHUYH]pVHVRUiQ"0LO\HQWHVWVpPD]DYDURNDWLVPHU"-HOOHPH]]HH]HNHW
13. B. (G]WHUPL N|UOPpQ\HN N|]|WW PLO\HQ MHOHQWVpJH YDQ D NRRUGLQiFLyV NpSHVVpJHNQHN"+RJ\DQpVPLO\HQPyGV]HUHNNHOOHKHWDWpUEHOLWiMpNR]yGiVNpSHVVpJpW
fejleszteni?
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

14. A . M ilyen szempontokat kell figyelembe vennie ak kor, amikor cukorbetegnek,


PDJDVYpUQ\RPiVRV-WGDV]WPiV-V~O\RVDQHOKt]RWW-YDJ\HSLOHSV]LiVEHWHJQHN
NHOOUHQGV]HUHVVSRUWIRJODONR]iVRNDWDMiQODQL"
14. B. ,VPHUWHVVHDPR]JiVpV]OHOpVpVDPR]JiVNpS]HWIRJDOPiW6SRUWRNWDWyNpQWPLO\HQ
PR]JiVWtSXVRNDWDMiQODQDHNpSHVVpJHNIHMOHV]WpVpUHpVPLpUW"
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

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5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

15. A . 0LO\HQ NOV pV EHOV RNDL OHKHWQHN D VSRUWROiV VRUiQ NLDODNXOy HJpV]VpJNiURVRGiVRNQDN" ,VPHUWHVVH D VSRUWRNWDWy V]HUHSpW D VSRUWiUWDOPDN VSRUWVpUOpVHN HONHUOpVpEHQ +RJ\DQ PDJ\DUi]Qi PHJ D EHPHOHJtWpV VpUOpVW
PHJHO]V]HUHSpWVSRUWROyMDV]iPiUD"
15. B. A PR]JiVV]HUNH]HWNV]HPSRQWMiEyOPLMHOOHP]LD]DHURELN- pVPLDVWDWLNXVDEE
MyJD yUiNDW" 0HO\HN D KDVRQOyViJRN PLN D] HOWpUpVHN D PR]JiVV]HUNH]HW V]HPSRQWMiEyO"0LDPR]JiVV]HUNH]HWIRJDOPDpVPLND]|VV]HWHYL"
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
niQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
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16. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D VHE]pVHN VRUiQ NLDODNXOy OHKHWVpJHV YpU]pVWtSXVRNDW

Az

HG]WHUHPEHQD]HJ\LNVSRUWROyPHJVpUOHUVHQYpU]VHEpWgQQHNNHOOHOOiWQLD
0LO\HQHOVVHJpO\-Q\~MWiVLPyGV]HUWDONDOPD]QDDV]DNV]HUHOOiWiVpUGHNpEHQ"
16. B. gQQHN HJ\ ~M WHFKQLNDL HOHPHW NHOO LVPHUWHWQL PHJWDQtWDQL 0LO\HQ IHMOGpVL
szakaszRNRQ NHUHV]WO W|UWpQLN D WHFKQLND HOVDMiWtWiVD" -HOOHPH]]H H]HNHW D
PR]JiVWDQXOiVLV]DNDV]RNDW
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

10/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

17. A . 0LO\HQ FVRQWiUWDOPDN LOOHWYH FVRQWVpUOpVHN HOIRUGXOiViUD V]iPtWKDW HJ\


HG]WHUHPEHQ" ,VPHUWHVVH D] t]OHWL ILFDP OpQ\HJpW pV MHOOHP] WQHWHLW 0L D
WHHQGMH t]OHWL ILFDP HVHWpQ" 0LO\HQ PyGV]HUHNNHO HV]N|]|NNHO LJ\HNV]LN
PHJHO]QLD]t]OHWHNVpUOpVHLWIRJODONR]iVDLQ"
17. B. (OUH WHUYH]]HQ PHJ HJ\ D] gQ iOWDO V]DEDGRQ YiODV]WRWW HG]pVW 0LO\HQ V]HPSRQWRNDWNHOOILJ\HOHPEHYHQQLHDJ\DNRUODWRN|VV]HiOOtWiViQiO"0LO\HQUpV]HNUH
ERQWMD D] HG]pVW MHOOHPH]]H D]RNDW $ KDQJV~O\W D WHUYH]pV V]HPSRQWMDLUa
KHO\H]]HpVQHDJ\DNRUODWDQ\DJUD
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

18. A . 0LO\HQ L]RPVpUOpVHN HOIRUGXOiViUD V]iPtWKDW HJ\ HG]WHUHPEHQ" +RJ\DQ


LVPHULIHOD]L]RPK~]yGiVWLOOHWYHL]RPV]DNDGiVW"0LWWHV]HOVVHJpO\Q\~MWiVNpQW
L]RPVpUOpVHN HVHWpEHQ" 0L D MHJHOpV KWpV HJpV]VpJWDQL KDV]QD pV PLO\HQ
IRUPiEDQ alkalmazhatja?
18. B. 0HO\HN D] HG]pVWHUYH]pV OHJIRQWRVDEE DODSHOYHL" 0LO\HQ WHUYWtSXVRNDW LVPHU"
SportRNWDWyNpQW PLO\HQ WHUYHNNHO WDOiONR]KDW D OHJJ\DNUDEEDQ" 0L D] HG]pVWHUYH]pVPHQHWH"
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]Ue

11/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

19. A . $] HG]WHUHPEHQ HJ\ VSRUWROy QDJ\ HVpVW N|YHWHQ IHNV]LN D I|OG|Q,VPHUWHVVH
KRJ\DQ iOODStWMD PHJ KRJ\ W|UWpQW-H JHULQFVpUOpV 0LO\HQ WQHWHN DODSMiQ
iOODStWMDPHJKRJ\DVSRUWROyQDNDJ\Ui]NyGiVDYDQ"0LDWHHQGDJ\Ui]NyGRWW
VpUOWWHO"0LO\HQV]|YGPpQ\iOOKDWD]DJ\Ui]NyGiVWQHWHLP|J|WW"
19. B. IsmerteVVH D NRUV]HU HG]pV MHOOHP]LW %HV]pOMHQ D] HG]pVPyGV]HUHNUO HG]pVUHQGV]HUHNUO
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 31 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

20. A . 0LWpUWQNW~OHG]HWWVpJDODWWpVKRJ\DQLVPHULI|ODWQHWHLW"0LO\HQPyGV]HUHN
DONDOPD]iViYDO VHJtWKHWL D VSRUWROy UHJHQHUiFLyMiW SLKHQpVL IRO\DPDWDLW" 0LW
pUWQNDNWtYSLKHQpVDODWWpVPLND]DNWtYSLKHQpVN|YHWHOPpQ\HL
20. B. -HOOHPH]]H D VSRUWROyYi pUpV IEE V]DNDV]DLW pV D IHONpV]OpV IRO\DPDWiW
%HV]pOMHQVSRUWiJiQDNOHKHWVpJHVFpOFVRSRUWMDLUyO!
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

12/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

$=e57e.(/e66=(03217-$,
7DQiULSpOGiQ\
1. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D V]HUYH]HW EHOV N|UQ\H]HWpQHN HJ\ yUiV LQWHQ]tY IL]LNDL PXQND
KDWiViUD EHN|YHWNH] YiOWR]iVDLW 0LO\HQ PyGV]HUHNHW HV]N|]|NHW DONDOPD]QD
DQQDN pUGHNpEHQ KRJ\ H YiOWR]iVRN WHOMHVtWPpQ\FV|NNHQW KDWiViW PHJHO]]H
YDJ\PpUVpNHOMH"-HOOHPH]]HDNRUV]HUVSRUWROyLIRO\DGpNSyWOiVJ\DNRUODWiW
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
+LSHUWHUPLD GHKLGUiFLy KHPRNRQFHQWUiFLy FV|NNHQW YpUFXNRUV]LQW VyYHV]WpV D YpU
VDYLLUiQ\EDW|UWpQHOWROyGiVD
$ YHUHMWpNH]pV OHKHWVpJpQHN EL]WRVtWiVD QDSV]DN PHJYiODV]WiV KW|WW VSRUWOpWHVtWPpQ\KDV]QD
9t]-pVVySyWOiV
9pUFXNRUV]LQWEL]WRVtWiVDHG]pVHOWWpVDODWWV]pQKLGUiW FXNRU IRJ\DV]WiViOWDO
,]RWyQLiVIRO\DGpNSyWOiVDVSRUWLWDO|VV]HWpWHOH
(OpKH]pV
1. B.

,VPHUWHVVHD]HG]HWWVpJIRJDOPiW0LWpUWQNHG]pVHQpVHG]pVUHQGV]HUHQPLO\HQ
HG]pVHV]N|]|NHWLVPHU"0LDWHOMHVtWPpQ\pVPLND]|VV]HWHYL"

K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
(G]HWWVpJGHILQtFLyMDPRWRULNXVSV]LFKLNDLpOHWWDQL|VV]HWHYLWHVWDONDW
EdzettspJHOOHQU]pVHSUyEiNWHV]WHN
$]HG]pVIRJDOPDpVIWHUOHWHi
(G]pVUHQGV]HUpVHG]pVPyGV]HUIRJDOPD
(G]pVHV]N|]|NWHUPpV]HWHULKLJLpQpWHVWJ\DNRUODWRN
.iURVHG]pVHV]N|]|NGRSSLQJ
7HOMHVtWNpSHVVpJ- pVNpV]VpJ
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

13/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

2. A .

Ismertesse az emberi WHVW EHOV Yi]iQDN FVRQWYi]  IHOpStWpVpW -HOOHPH]]H D


FVRQWRNDW pV D] t]OHWHNHW V]HUNH]HWN pV WtSXVDLN V]HULQW ,VPHUWHVVH D YiOO-, a
FVtS- pV D WpUGt]OHW PN|GpVpW RO\DQ NRQNUpW PR]GXODWRNRQ NHUHV]WO PHO\HN
H]HQt]OHWHNEHQOpWUHM|KHWQHN$]t]OHWYpGHOHPMHOHQWVpJH

$WpWHOKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]FVRQWYi]
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
7HVWWiMDN NRSRQ\D IHM  YiOO|Y V]DEDG IHOV YpJWDJ W|U]V PHGHQFH V]DEDG DOVy
YpJWDJ
&VRQWRNWtSXVDLDODNpVV]HUNH]HWV]HULQW
]OHWHN WtSXVDL WHQJHO\V]iP V]HULQW DODN pV EHQQN OpWUHM|Y PR]JiVRN
V]DEDGViJIRNDV]HULQW
9iOOt]OHWL PR]JiVRN DEGXNFLy-DGGXNFLy DQWH-UHWUR IOH[Ly URWDFLy FLUNXPGXNFLy
PDJ\DUXOLVPHJQHYH]KHWN
&VtSt]OHWL PR]JiVRN DEGXNFLy-DGGXNFLy IOH[Ly-H[WHQ]Ly URWiFLy FLUNXPGXNFLy
(mDJ\DUXOLVPHJQHYH]KHWN
7pUGt]OHWL PR]JiVRN IOH[Ly-H[WHQ]Ly NLURWiFLy-EHURWiFLy PDJ\DUXO LV PHJQHYH]KHWN
$] t]OHWL SRUF pV V]DODJUHQGV]HU iUWDOPDLQDN pV VpUOpVHLQHN PHJHO]pVH YpGIHOV]HUHOpVHNPHJIHOHOHG]pVPyGV]HUHNDONDOPD]iViYDO
2. B.

9iODVV]RQNLHJ\HG]WHUHPEHQPHJWDOiOKDWyHV]N|]WpVPRGHOOH]]HKRJ\KRJ\DQ
YiOWR]WDWQiDWHUKHOpVWDYiODV]WRWWHV]N|]VHJtWVpJpYHO7pUMHQNLD]HG]pVWHUKHOpV
DODSNpUGpVHLUHpVDWHUKHOpV|VV]HWHYLUH

$WpWHOKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJ VHJpGHV]N|]UH
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
,QJHULQJHUNV]|E
.OVpVEHOVHG]pVWHUKHOpV
$]DONDOPD]NRGiVJ|UEpMHDV]XSHUNRPSHQ]iFLyHOYH
$WHUKHOpV|VV]HWHYLLQWHQ]LWiVDODFVRQ\N|]HSHVV]XEPD[LPiOLVPD[LPiOLVKDWiU
WHUKHOpV
,QJHUVUVpJ
,GWDUWDm
Terjedelem
7HUMHGHOHPpVLQWHQ]LWiVDUiQ\D
14/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

3. A . ,VPHUWHVVHDJHULQFRV]ORSIHOpStWpVpWpVDQQDNpOHWNRULVDMiWRVViJDLW0XWDVVRQUi
D JHULQFRV]ORS VpUOpNHQ\VpJpQHN RNDLUD D OHJJ\DNRULEE VpUOpVIRUPiN pV
iUWDOPDN WNUpEHQ 0LO\HQ HV]N|]|NHW PyGV]HUHNHt, elveket alkalmazna a
J\DNRUODWEDQDJHULQFYpGHOPHpUGHNpEHQ"
$WpWHOKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]FVRQWYi]
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$FVLJRO\iNMHOOHP]pVHV]iPWHVWWiMpVV]HUNH]HWV]HPSRQWMiEyONO|Q|VWHNLQWHWWHOD
FVLJRO\iNN|]|WWLSRUFNRURQJV]HUNH]HWpUH
$JHULQFRV]ORSPR]JiVDLKDMOtWiVRNURWiFLyUXJy]yPR]JiV
$IJJOHJHVpVURWiFLyVPR]GXODWRNSRUFNRURQJRWNiURVtWyKDWiVa
)HMOGpVEHQOHYJHULQFRV]ORSWHUKHOpVpQHNNRUOiWDL
*HULQFVpUY FVLJRO\DtY V]DNDGiV OXPEiJy JHULQF J|UEOHWHLQHN PHJYiOWR]iVD
6FKHXHUPDQQEHWHJVpJ
0pO\ KiWL]PRN IHMOHV]WpVpQHN IRQWRVViJD V~O\HPHO |Y KDV]QiODW FpOMD pV V]DEiO\DL
GHUpNpVKiWWiPDV]RVIHODGDWYpJUHKDMWiVYHV]pO\HVIHODGDWRNNHUOpVHWLOWiVD
3. B.

$ VSRUWROyN D ILWQHV]WHUPL IRJODONR]iVRN DODWW NO|QE|] IiUDGiVL szakaszokon


PHQQHN NHUHV]WO 0elyek ezek a szakaszok- pV PLO\HQHN D NOV PHJQ\LOYiQXOiVDL" (N|]EHQ PLO\HQ EHOV IRO\DPDWRN MiWV]yGQDN OH D VSRUWROyEDQ" gQQHN
mint szakembernek hol kell beavatkoznia a folyamatba?

$WpWHOKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$]HOIiUDGiVV]DNDV]DLDODSPXQNDEtUiVIi]LVDNLHJ\HQOtWHWWIi]LVNLHJ\HQOtWHWOHQIi]LV
$]HOIiUDGiVWQHWHL
$W~OHG]HWWVpJIRJDOPDpVDV]LPSWyPiN
6HO\H-iQRVVWUHVV]HOPpOHWH
7~ONRPSHQ]iFLyHOHYH
$ONDOPD]NRGiVPHJKDWiUR]iVD
(G]pVWHUKHOpVpVDONDOPD]NRGiV|VV]HIJJpVH

15/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

4. A . -HOOHPH]]H D KDUiQWFVtNROW L]RPV]|YHW IHOpStWpVpW pV PN|GpVpW 0XWDVVD EH D


W|U]V L]RPFVRSRUWMDLW pV I L]PDLN PN|GpVpW V]pOHV KiWL]RP FVXNO\iVL]RP
JHULQFIHV]tWN QDJ\ PHOOL]RP IUpV]L]RP KDVL]PRN ! ,VPHUWHVVH D] HG]pV
KDWiViUDEHN|YHWNH]OHKHWVpJHVL]RPDGDSWiFLyVYiOWR]iVRNDW
$WpWHOKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]FVRQWYi]L]RPWpUNpS
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
+DUiQWFVtNROWL]RPDNDUDWODJRVPN|GWHWpVQDJ\NRQWUDNFLyVHUUHODWtYHIiUDGpNRQ\
,]RP V]HUNH]HWL pV HQ]LPIHKpUMpN DNWLQ PLR]LQ WURSRPLR]LQ WURSRQLQ PLRJORELQ 
MHOHQWVpJH
0HOOL]PRNKDVL]PRNKiWL]PRN IHOOHWHVpVPpO\FVRSRUW
MozdulaWRNPR]JiVRNPHO\HNHWDNpUGpV]iUyMHOpEHQOHYL]PRNYpJUHKDMWDQDN
9|U|VpVIHKpUL]RPURVW
,]PRKLSHUWUyILD PLRJORELQV]LQW Q|YHNHGpV PLWRNRQGULXPV]iP Q|YHNHGpV HQ]LPDNWtYLWiVQ|YHNHGpV $73-i]DHUREpVDQHUREHQ]LPHN NDSLOODUL]iFLyIRNR]yGiV
4. B.

,VPHUWHVVH PHO\HN D]RN D] HG]pVHOYHN DPHO\HNHW QHP KDJ\KDW ILJ\HOPHQ NtYO
HJ\HG]WHUPLHG]pVSURJUDP|VV]HiOOtWiVDNRUpVD]HG]pVHNYH]HWpVHDODWW

$WpWHOKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$]HG]pVHOYHNfogalma
$IRNR]yGyWHUKHOpVHOYH
(JpV]pYHVWHUKHOpVIRQWRVViJD
7HUKHOpVLFLNOXVRNpYHVFLNOXVRNPLNUR-, makro- pVPH]RFLNOXV
6SRUWIRUPD pV IRUPDLG]tWpV IRJDOPD KRJ\DQ MHOHQLN H] PHJ D ILWQHV]WHUPL
N|UOPpQ\HNN|]|WW&pORNPHJKDWiUR]iVD

16/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

5. A . 0XWDVVD EH D V]HUYH]HWEHQ WDOiOKDWy L]RPV]|YHW WtSXVRNDW pV PN|GpVEHOL


NO|QEVpJHLNHW ,VPHUWHVVH D YpJWDJRN YDODPLQW IJJHV]W|YHLN L]RPFVRSRUWMDLW
IEE L]PDLN PN|GpVpQ NHUHV]WO GHOWDL]RP NpWIHM NDUL]RP KiURPIHM
NDUL]RP IDUL]PRN QpJ\IHM FRPEL]RP NpWIHM FRPEL]RP KiURPIHM OiEV]iUL]RP  eUWHOPH]]H D V]LQHUJLVWD pV DQWDJRQLVWD L]RPPN|GpV IRJDOPiW SpOGiNRQ
NHUHV]WO
$WpWHOKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]FVRQWYi]L]RPWpUNpS
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
+DUiQWFVtNROW L]RP DNDUDWODJRV PN|GWHWpV QDJ\ NRQWUDNFLyV HU UHODWtY
IiUDGpNRQ\ViJ
6LPDL]RP ]VLJHUHN IDOiEDQ DNDUDWODQ PN|GWHWpV NLV NRQWUDNFLyV HU NLWDUWy
PXQNDYpJ]NpSHVVpJ
6]tYizom (DV]tYIDOiEDQHUWHOMHVNRQWUDNFLyNLWDUWyPN|GpVDNDUDWODQPN|GWHWpV
$ ]iUyMHOEHQ OHY L]PRN iOWDO YpJUHKDMWRWW PR]GXODWRN J\DNRUODWL SpOGiNNDO SO
DEGXNFLyDGHOtaL]RPiOWDO ROGDOHPHOpVV~O\]yYDO
Szinergizmus-DQWDJRQL]PXV D PN|GpVVHO |VV]HIJJ IRJDOPDN HJ\ DGRWW L]RPSiU
HVHWpEHQPLQGLJDPR]GXODWIJJYpQ\pEHQpUWHOPH]KHWN
SOV]pOHVKiWL]RPpVDQDJ\PHOOL]RPOHKHWQHNV]LQHUJLVWiN IHMV]HFVDSiV VRUiQGH
OHKHWQHNDQDWJRQLVWiNLV IHNYHQ\RPiVVRUiQ
5. B.

gQ PLQW RNWDWy IHOJ\HO V]DNHPEHU KRJ\DQ NH]G KR]]i HJ\ ~M VSRUWROy
HG]pVpKH] D PHJLVPHUNHGpV IRO\DPDWiWyO" 0LO\HQ LQWp]NHGpVHNre, WDQiFVRNUD
LVPHUHWHNUHYDQV]NVpJHDVSRUWROyUyO" .pV]tWVHQYi]ODWRVDQHJ\DQDPQp]LV
ODSRWpVPDJ\DUi]]DHO
,VPHUWHVVH D VSRUWOpWHVtWPpQ\EHQ |Q V]HULQW QpONO|]KHWHWOHQ EDOHVHWYpGHOPL-,
|OW|]N|GpVL pVPDJDWDUWiVLUHQGV]DEiO\RNDW

$WpWHOKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
(G]LDQDPQp]LVODSNpUGpVHLNRUQHPEHWHJVpJHNFpOFVRSRUWPHJKDWiUR]iV
7HV]WHNSUyEiNHOMiUiVRN
(G]V]HPpO\HPDJDWDUWiVD|OW|]HWH

17/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

6. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D SpOGDNpQW PHJDGRWW PR]JiVIRUPiN HQHUJLDV]ROJiOWDWiVL MHOOHP]LW


(Pl.: 100-HV VSULQWIXWiV  SHUFHV V~O\]yV HG]pV &RRSHU WHV]W IXWiVD HJ\ yUiV
N|]HSHVWHPSyM~NHUpNSiUR]iV 
eUWHOPH]]H D] DQDHURE NV]|E IRJDOPiW pV HG]pVHN VRUiQ IHOPHUO Jyakorlati
MHOHQWVpJpW
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
100 m-HVVSULQWWLV]WiQDODNWDFLGDQDHURE
SHUFHVV~O\]yVHG]pVDODSYHWHQODNWDFLGDQDHURE
&RRSHUWHV]WYHJ\HVHQHUJLDV]ROJiOWDWiVG|QWHQV]pQKLGUiWDODS~D]XWROVySHUFEHQ
GRPLQiQVDQODNWDFLGDQDHrob
yUiVNHUpNSiUR]iV YHJ\HV DHURE HQHUJLDV]ROJiOWDWiV-SHUFXWiQG|QWHQ]VtUR[LGiFLyVDODS~
$QDHURE NV]|E D]RQ LQWHQ]LWiVL V]LQW PHO\ I|O|WW GRPLQiQVDQ DQDHURE HQHUJLDV]ROJiOWDWiVV]NVpJHVD]R[LGDWtYHQHUJLDQ\HUpVPiUQHPNLHOpJtW
Az aQDHURE ]yQiEDQ YDOy HG]pV DQDHURE NV]|E I|O|WW  U|YLG LGHJLJ WDUWKDWy PLYHO
WHMVDYWHUPHOpVVHO MiU D VSRUWROy L]RP]DWD HOPHUHYHGLN D WHOMHVtWPpQ\ URKDPRVDQ
URPOLNFVDNU|YLGV]DNDV]RNEDQWHUKHOKHWDVSRUWROyD]DQDHURE]yQiMiEDQD]HG]pV
alatti regeQHUiFLyLVV]NVpJHV
6. B

Ismertesse, PLWpUWQNNRQGLFLRQiOLVNpSHVVpJHNHQpVPHO\HNH]HNDNpSHVVpJHN
%HV]pOMHQDNRQGLFLRQiOLVNpSHVVpJHNIHMOHV]WpVpQHNELROyJLDLDODSMDLUyO

K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$]HUQOpWIRJDOPD
.OV

WHUKHOpVHN

KDWiViUD

YpJEHPHQ

EHOV

DGDSWiFLys

folyamatok,

V]XSHUNRPSHQ]iFLy
$]L]PRNpVV]HUNH]HWNNRQWUDNWLOLWiVURVWWtSXVRNDQ\DJFVHUHLGHJLPSXO]XV- OHDGiV
|VV]HK~]yGiVWHOOD]XOiVWNLYiOWyIRO\DPDWRN
$] HU D J\RUVDViJ D] iOOyNpSHVVpJ pV D] t]OHWL PR]JpNRQ\Vig IRJDOPD Yi]ODWRV
LVPHUWHWpVH
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

18/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

7. A .

0LO\HQ pOHWWDQL SDUDPpWHUHN YL]VJiODWiYDO NDSKDWXQN NpSHW D VSRUWROy DNWXiOLV


HG]HWWVpJpUO" 0HO\ V]HUYHN V]HUYUHQGV]HUHN PN|GpVH EHIRO\iVROMD LOOHWve
KDWiUR]]DPHJD]DHURENDSDFLWiVpUWpNpW"
eUWHOPH]]HD]XWyODJRV]VtUpJHWpVLKDWiVIRJDOPiW

K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
6]tYSXO]XVV]iPpUWpNHNSXO]XVPHJQ\XJYiVYpUQ\RPiVpUWpNHN
/pJ]pVOpJ]pVV]iPOpJ]pVPpO\VpJSHUFYHQWLOOiFLy
$Q\DJFVHUHYpUWHMVDYV]LQWYpUS+pUWpN
$HURE NDSDFLWiVW D V]HUYH]HW iOWDO HJ\ SHUF DODWW IHOKDV]QiOW R[LJpQPHQQ\LVpJ
PD[LPXPD DV]tY PN|GpVHD] pUUHQGV]HUiOODSRWDDYpU|VV]HWpWHOHD OpJ]V]HUYL
IXQNFLypVD]L]RP]DWDQ\DJFVHUHIRO\DPDWDLKDWiUR]]iNPHJDODSYHWHQ
8WyODJRV ]VtUpJHWpVL KDWiV DODWW D WHUKHOpVW N|YHW HG]pV YHUVHQ\ XWiQ  HPHONHGHWW
V]LQW ]VtUR[LGiFLyV IRO\DPDWRNDW pUWMN PHO\ D V]HUYH]HW UHVWLW~FLyV IRO\DPDWDLQDN
HUHGPpQ\H
7. B.

A sSRUWOpWHVtWPpQ\EHQ W|EE VSRUWROy LV NLFVDWWDQy HUEHQ YDQ 0LW jelent ez?
0LO\HQ HUIHMOHV]W PyGV]HUHNHW LVPHU YiODVV]RQ HJ\ HUIHMOHV]W HV]N|]W pV
PRQGMRQNRQNUpWSpOGiNDW

K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :

.RQGtFLRQiOLVNpSHVVpJHNPHJKDWiUR]iVDMHOOHP]pVH
(UIRJDOPD
$]DNWtYpVSDVV]tYPR]JDWyUHQGV]HU
0D[LPiOLVHUIHMOHV]WpVH
DX[WyQLiV

L]RPHWULiV
izokinetikus
PD[LPiOLVH[FHQWULNXVNRQWUDNFLyNPyGV]HUH
HOHNWURPRVL]RPLQJHUOpVPyGV]HUH
*\RUVDViJLHUIHMOHV]WpVHDIHMOHV]WpVPyGV]HUH
DX[WyQLiVPyGV]HU
SOLRPHWULiVPyGV]HU
H[SOR]tYIHMOHV]WpVLPyGV]HU
(U-iOOyNpSHVVpJ IHMOHV]WpVHDIHMOHV]WpVPyGV]HUH
6SRUWROyNpOHWNRULVDMiWRVViJDL
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
19/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

8. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D NHULQJpVL UHQGV]HU IHOpStWpVpW pV IXQNFLyMiW -HOOHPH]]H HJ\ iOOyNpSHVVpJL NHUpNSiURV  pV HJ\ ~J\QHYH]HWW HUVSRUWROy WHVWpStW  NHULQJpVL
UHQGV]HUpQHNPpUHWEHOLpVPN|GpVEHOLDGDSWiFLyMiWpVD]HVHWOHJHVNO|QEVpJHLW
0LO\HQYpUQ\RPiVYiOWR]iVRNUDV]iPtWHJ\N|]HSHVWHPSyM~IXWyHG]pVHQLOOHWYH
HJ\QDJ\HUNLIHMWpVVHOMiUyJXJJROiVJ\DNRUODWYpJUHKDMWiVDVRUiQ"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
1pJ\UHJV]tYELOOHQW\NNLVpVQDJ\YpUN|UIHOpStWpVHpUWtSXVRN
$V]tYV]tYy-Q\RPySXPSDIXQNFLyMa
3XO]XVV]iPRN pEUHGpVL Q\XJDOPL PXQNDSXO]XV  SXO]XVWpUIRJDW SHUFWpUIRJDW
YpUQ\RPiV
9iUKDWyPD[LPiOLVSXO]XVNLV]iPtWiVD
.HUpNSiURVQDJ\REEUHJYDVWDJDEEV]tYIDO FV|NNHQW Q\XJDOPL SXO]XVV]iP PDJDV
PD[LPiOLVSHUFWpUIRJDWNLYiOyNDSLOODUL]iFLy
THVWpStW PpUVpNHOWHQ QDJ\REE UHJ NLIHMH]HWWHQ YDVWDJDEE V]tYIDO PpUVpNHOWHQ
QDJ\REE SHUFWpUIRJDW HQ\KpQ HPHONHGHWW Q\XJDOPL YpUQ\RPiV PpUVpNHOW
NDSLOODUL]iFLy
.|]HSHV IXWiV HVHWpQ ODVVDQ pV PpUVpNHOWHQ HPHONHG V]LV]WROpV pUWpN YiOWR]DWODQ
YDJ\FV|NNHQGLDV]WROpVpUWpN
*XJJROiVV~O\]yYDOJ\DNRUODWHVHWpQKLUWHOHQHUVHQQ|YHNYV]LV]WROpVpVGLDV]WROpV
pUWpNHJ\WW
8. B.

,VPHUWHVVH PLO\HQ WpQ\H]N EHIRO\iVROKDWMiN D] HUIHMOHV]WpV KDWpNRQ\ViJiW


6RUROMRQIHO HG]WHUPL HUIHMOHV]WHV]N|]|NHWOHKHWOHJW|EEKHO\V]tQUO9HJ\H
ILJ\HOHPEH D PHJIHOHO NRU- pV FpOFVRSRUWRNDW LV LOOHWYH DMiQOMRQ PHJIHOHO
PyGV]HUHNHWV]iPXNUD

K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$]HUIHMOHV]WpVKDWpNRQ\ViJiWEHIRO\iVROyWpQ\H]N
kpSHVVpJLV]LQW

didaktikai szempontok

pOHWNRU

QHPLVpJ

DGDSWiFLy
(UIHMOHV]WJ\DNRUODWRNpVPyGV]HUHN
(UIHMOHV]WHV]N|]|N

bioritmus
N|UQ\H]HWLWpQ\H]N
WiSOiONR]iV
pszichikai szempontok

eOHWNRULVDMiWRVViJRND]HUIHMOHV]WpVEHQ
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
20/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

9. A . -HOOHPH]]H D OpJ]pVL V]HUYUHQGV]HU IHOpStWpVpW pV PN|GpVpW 0HO\ OpJ]L]PRN pV


VHJpGL]PRN PN|GpVHHUHGPpQ\H]L D PHOONDVWpUIRJDWYiOWR]iVDLWOpJ]pVVRUiQ pV
KRJ\DQ" 0LO\HQ YiOWR]iVRNDW PpUKHWQN WHUKHOpV DODWW D OpJ]UHQGV]HU
PN|GpVpEHQDQ\XJDOPLIXQNFLyKR]NpSHVW"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$PHOONDVFVRQWRVpVL]PRVV]HUNH]HWIHOVpVDOVyOpJXWDNWGPHOOKiUW\D
%HOpJ]L]PRNUHNHV]L]RPNOVERUGDN|]WLL]RP V]pOHVKiWL]RPPLQWVHJpGL]RP
.LOpJ]L]PRNEHOVERUGDN|]WLL]RP KDVL]PRNPLQWVHJpGL]mok)
%HOpJ]pVNRUDUHNHV]OHVOO\HGDERUGiNPHJHPHONHGQHNFV|NNHQDPHOONDVRQEHOOL
Q\RPiV
.LOpJ]pVNRUD]HOOHQNH]IRO\DPDW]DMOLN
$NXW WHUKHOpVNRU IRNR]yGy OpJ]pVV]iP PD[ -SHUF  Q|YHNY OpJ]pVPpO\VpJ
(max. 1.5-OLWHUSHUF pVIRNR]yGySHUFYHQWLOOiFLy PD[-200 liter/perc)
9. B.

+ROOHKHWV]HUHSHD]gQPXQNiMiEDQDJ\RUVDViJQDNPLQWNRQGLFLRQiOLVNpSHVVpJQHN" $ J\RUVDViJIHMOHV]WpV HOPpOHWL DODSMDL $ J\RUVDViJ IEE PHJMHOHQpVL


IRUPiL 0LO\HQ HG]WHUPL J\RUVDViJIHMOHV]W PyGV]HUHNHW pV HV]N|]|NHW LVPHU"
0RQGMRQNRQNUpWSpOGiNDW

K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$J\RUVDViJIRJDOPD
$PR]GXODWJ\RUVDViJ
*\RUVXOiVLNpSHVVpJ
/RNRPWRULNXVKHO\]HWYiOWR]WDWyJ\RUVDViJ
*\RUVDViJLiOOyNpSHVVpJ
*\RUVHU
5HDNFLyLGHJ\V]HU- pVYiODV]WiVRVUHDNFLyLG
(J\V]HUpV|VV]HWHWWUHDNFLyN
Helyzet J\RUVDViJDQWLFLSiFLyVNpV]VpJ
7DQXOiVLJ\RUVDViJ
,VPpWOpVHVPyGV]HUWHFKQLNDLIHMOHV]WpV PHJIHOHOSLKHQLGEHLNWDWiVD
eOHWNRULVDMiWRVViJRN
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

21/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

10. A . 0LO\HQpOHWNRULVDMiWRVViJRNiOODStWKDWyNPHJDIL]LNDLWHUKHOKHWVpJWHNLQWHWpEHQ
iOWDOiEDQ" ,VPHUWHVVH D] LGVHN  pY I|O|WW  VSRUWMiQDN V]HPSRQWMDLW MHOOHJ]HWHVVpJHLWYHV]pO\HLW0LO\HQPR]JiVIRUPiNDMiQODWRVDNpVPLO\HQHNNHUOHQGN
V]iPuk ra?
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
*\HUPHNHN  pYHV NRU DODWW  V]yUDNR]WDWy KD OHKHW WiUVDViJEDQ NRUWiUVDN N|]|WW 
]KHW MiWpNRV PR]JiVRN $ PD[LPiOLV HU NLYpWHOpYHO PLQGHQ NpSHVVpJ MyO
IHMOHV]WKHW %iU D VpUOpVYHV]pO\ D UXJDOPDV V]|YHWL UHQGV]HU PLDWt kisebb, a
IHMOGEHQOHYJHULQFHWpVt]OHWHNHWNtPpOPR]JiVIRUPiNDWKHO\H]]NHOQ\EH
,GVHN pYI|O|WW .tVpUEHWHJVpJHNNL]iUiVD DQDPQp]LV $MyN|]pU]HWKDWiUDLQ
EHOO PD[LPiOLV WHUKHOpVHN PHOO]pVpYHO JHULQF pV t]OHWNtPpO PR]JiVRN YL]es
N|]HJ HOQ\EHQ $ IRNR]DWRVViJ HOYpQHN N|YHWNH]HWHV EHWDUWiVD D EHPHOHJtWpV
KDQJV~O\RV YpJUHKDMWiVD D WHVW MHO]pVHLQHN ILJ\HOHPEHYpWHOH D FV~FVWHUKHOpVHN
NHUOpVH .tPpOHWHV Q\~MWyJ\DNRUODWRN LQWHJUiOiVD D] HG]pVHkbe, folyamatos
pulzuskontroll.
A tHOMHVtWPpQ\RULHQWiOW HG]L JRQGRONRGiV KHO\HWW HJpV]VpJPHJU]pV-centrikus
KR]]iiOOiVV]NVpJHV
10. B. ,VPHUWHVVHD]iOOyNpSHVVpJIRJDOPiWpOHWWDQLKiWWHUpWIHORV]WiViWpVIHMOHV]WpVpQHN
PyGV]HUpW
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
.RQGLFLRQiOLVNpSHVVpJHNPHJKDWiUR]iVDMHOOHP]pVH
OOyNpSHVVpJIRJDOPDPHJMHOHQpVLIRUPiMD
$]iOOyNpSHVVpJLHG]pVpOHWWDQLKiWWHUH
$]iOOyNpSHVVpJELROyJLDLHQHUJHWLNDLKiWWHUH
aerob alaktacid
anaerob laktacid - HQHUJLDQ\HUpV
R[LGDWtY
OOyNpSHVVpJLWHOMHVtWPpQ\PHJKDWiUR]yWpQ\H]L
OOyNpSHVVpJLLQGH[
OOyNpSHVVpJIHMOHV]WpVpQHNPyGV]HUHL- DHUREpVDQDHUREKDWiV~PyGV]HUHN
7DUWyVLQWHUYDOOXPRVpV)DUWOHNPyGV]HUHN
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
22/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

11. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D] HPEHUL WiSFVDWRUQD IHOpStWpVpW 0DJ\DUi]]D PHJ D] HPpV]WpV
WiSOiOpNIHOV]tYyGiVpVDNLYiODV]WiVIRJDOPDLW.|YHVVHYpJLJHJ\IHKpUMHWiSOiOpNPROHNXOD~WMiWDV]iMUHJWOHJpV]HQD]L]RPVHMWHNLJ0LO\HQPHOOpNKDWiVDOHKHWD
W~O]RWWPpUWpNIHKpUMHWiSOiOpN-NLHJpV]tWpVQHN"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
6]iMUHJ JDUDW Q\HOFV J\RPRU YpNRQ\EpO SDWNyEpO pKEpO FVtSEpO  YDVWDJEpO
(felsziOOyKDUiQWOHV]iOOy YpJEpO
(PpV]WpV |VV]HWHWW WiSDQ\DJ PROHNXOiN NLVHEE DOHJ\VpJHNUH YDOy NpPLDL ERQWiVD
HPpV]WHQ]LPHNVHJtWVpJpYHODWiSFVDWRUQDUHJHLEHQ
)HOV]tYyGiVDWiSDQ\DJPROHNXOiNiWMXWiVDDWiSFVDWRUQiEyODYpUNHULQJpVEH
.LYiODV]WiVERPOiVWHUPpNHNHOWiYROtWiVDDV]HUYH]HWEODWiSFVDWRUQDIDOiQ NHUHV]WO
DV]pNOHWWHOUtWYH
$ IHKpUMH ~WMD V]iMUHJ JDUDW Q\HOFV J\RPRU LWW UpV]OHJHVHQ HPpV]WGLN 
YpNRQ\EpO WHOMHVHQ PHJHPpV]WGLN pV IHOV]tYyGLN  YpUNHULQJpssel az izomsejthez
V]iOOtWyGLN
0HOOpNKDWiVKDVPHQpVHVHWHQNpQWDOOHUJLiVUHDNFLy
11. B. ,VPHUWHVVHDSXO]XVPpUpVpVDPRGHUQSXO]XVPpUHV]N|]|NV]HUHSpWMHOHQWVpJpW
D] iOOyNpSHVVpJ IHMOHV]WpVpEHQ 0LO\HQ OHKHWVpJHL YDQQDN D SXO]XV PpUpVpUH"
+RJ\DQV]iPROMDNL HJ\VSRUWROyPD[LPiOLVSXO]XViW+5PD[ pOHWNRUDpVQHPH
LVPHUHWpEHQ",VPHUWHVVHDSXO]XVFpO]yQiNDW
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
A pulzus fogalmDMHO|OpVHD]HG]pVSURJUDPEDQ
$SXO]XVPLQWDWHUKHOpVLQWHQ]LWiVPpUpVpQHNHV]N|]H
Nyugalmi-pEUHGpVL-, munkapulzus
3XO]XVFpO]yQiN
eEUHGpVLSXO]XVQ\XJDOPLSXO]XVPD[LPiOLVSXO]XV
0HJQ\XJYiVLSXO]XVSXO]XVPHJQ\XJYiVNO|QEVpJH
WODJSXO]XV
+5PD[pV+55.DUYRQHQNpSOHWPyGV]HU
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

23/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

12. A . ,VPHUWHVVH pV MHOOHPH]]H D] HPEHUL V]HUYH]HW V]iPiUD V]NVpJHV WiSDQ\DJRNDW
OOtWVRQ|VV]HpWUHQGHWQDSLyUiVHG]pVWYpJ]IHOQWWIpUILVSRUWROyQDN+Rgyan
LG]tWHQp D] pWNH]pVHNHW LOOHWYH PLO\HQ WiSDQ\DJ-|VV]HWpWHOW MDYDVROQD GpOXWiQ
KiURP yUiUD WHUYH]HWW HG]pVKH] YLV]RQ\tWYD" 0LNRU DMiQODQD WiSOiOpNNLHJpV]tWpVWpVPLO\HQIRUPiEDQ"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
.DORULJpQWiSDQ\DJRN
IHKpUMpNQHPUDNWiUR]yGyNQDSL-DONDORPPDOIRJ\DV]WDQGyNQDSL
1.5- JWWNJ PHQQ\LVpJEHQ V]NVpJHVHN D] L]RP]DW pStWpVpQHN QpONO|]hetetlen komponensei
V]pQKLGUiWRN HJ\V]HU pV |VV]HWHWW FXNURN NLV PpUWpNEHQ UDNWiUR]yGyDN I
HQHUJLDV]ROJiOWDWyNQDSL-15 g/ttkg PHQQ\LVpJEHQV]NVpJHVHNDYpUFXNRUV]LQWVWDELOL]iOyLHOK~]yGyHG]pVHNVRUiQLVSyWODQGyN
]VtURNQDJ\HQHUJLDWDUWDOP~DNUDNWiUR]yGyNHOK~]yGyWHUKHOpVHNYDODPLQWD
UHJHQHUiFLyVIRO\DPDWRNGRPLQiQVHQHUJLDV]ROJiOWDWyL
1RQNDORULJpQHNYLWDPLQRNiVYiQ\LVyNYt]
eWUHQG QDSL - pWNH]pV YHJ\HV IHKpUMH- pV V]pQKLGUiWG~V pWUHQG HG]pV HOWW -1.5
yUiYDO V]NVpJHV pWNH]QL HG]pVW N|YHWHQ -40 perc m~OYD V]LQWpQ (VWH N|QQ\
IHKpUMHG~VYDFVRUD(G]pVHNDODWWIRO\DGpNSyWOiV VyYt]FXNRU
6SRUWROyL WiSOiOpN-NLHJpV]tWpV VSHFLiOLV FpORN W|PHJQ|YHOpV UHJHQHUiFLy-VHUNHQWpV 
pUGHNpEHQ KD D KDJ\RPiQ\RV pWUHQG QHP KR] NLHOpJtW HUHGPpQ\W $] DMiQORWW
Gy]LVRNDWEHWDUWYDFVDNIHOQWWVSRUWROyNV]iPiUDEHYL]VJiOWWHUPpNHNHWIRJ\DV]WYD
Vitaminok multi forPiEDQ
12. B. 0LO\HQ PyGV]HUHNNHO OHKHW IHMOHV]WHQL D] t]OHWL PR]JpNRQ\ViJ NpSHVVpJpW"
,VPHUWHVVH D] t]OHWL PR]JpNRQ\ViJ D] L]RPOD]DViJ IRJDOPiW pV IHMOHV]WpVpQHN
PyGV]HUpW0RQGMRQJ\DNRUODWLSpOGiNDWpVMHO|OM|QPHJKHO\V]tQHNHWHV]N|]|NHW
a fejleszWpVOHKHWVpJpUH
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :

,]PRNt]OHWHNV]DODJRN UXJDOPDVViJDPR]JiVWHUMHGHOPH
$]t]OHWLPR]JpNRQ\ViJIHMOHV]WpVpQHNHOIHOWpWHOHL
eOHWWDQLKiWWpU DNWtYSDVV]tYPR]JDWyUHQGV]HU
%HOV WpQ\H]N t]OHWL WHQJHO\HN FVRQWYpJHN t]OHWL tok, rugalmas szalagok, az
HOPR]GXOiVW NLYiOWyL]RPN|WHJHN
.OVWpQ\H]KPpUVpNOHW QDSV]DNpOHWNRULVDMiWRVViJRN
6WUHWFKLQJGLQDPLNXVpVVWDWLNXV
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
24/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

13. A . +RJ\DQ YDOyVtWDQD PHJ WHVWV~O\FV|NNHQWpVW HJpV]VpJHV GH HOKt]RWW IHOQWW HPEHU
HVHWpEHQ" 0LO\HQ WHVWV~O\-V]DEiO\R]iVL HOYHNHW WDUW V]HP HOWW IRJ\yN~UiV
SURJUDPWHUYH]pVHVRUiQ"0LO\HQWHVWVpPD]DYDURNDWLVPHU"-HOOHPH]]HH]HNHW
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
0yGV]HUWiSOiONR]iVLUHIRUPRNpVUHQGV]HUHVWHVWPR]JiV
(OV]|UPHQQ\LVpJLFV|NNHQWpVPDMGDWiSOiONR]iVPLQVpJLYiOWR]WDWiVD
&V|NNHQWHQLDV]pQKLGUiW FXNRUEHYLWHOW Q|YHOQLDIHKpUMHWDUWDOPDW
$QDVVROiVpVD]HVWLpWNH]pVHNNLLNWDWiVD
0R]JiVSURJUDPEHLOOHV]WpVHD]pOHWPyGUpV]pYpWpWHOH
(OVNpQWDHUREMHOOHJPR]JiVDMyN|]pU]HWKDWiUDLQEHOONRUOiWR]RWWLGWDUWDPEDQ
)RNR]DWRVDQ Q|YHOKHW D] HG]pVHN LGWDUWDPD D] HG]HWWVpJ Q|YHNHGpVpQHN
IJJYpQ\pEHQNpVEEHUVtWSURJUDPPDONLHJpV]tWHQL
(OYHN IRNR]DWRVViJDW~O]iVRNNHUOpVHHJ\V]HUUHHJ\SDUDPpWHUYiOWR]WDWiVD YDJ\
WiSOiONR]iVYDJ\HG]pV HJ\ROGDO~GLpWDNHUOpVHIRJ\DV]WyJ\yJ\V]HUHNWLOWiVD
$QRUH[LD RUYRVL NH]HOpVW LJpQ\O EHWHJVpJ LUUDFLRQiOLV pKH]pVHV IRJ\yN~UD LUUHiOLV
WHVWNpS DEHWHJNyUyVDQVRYiQ\WHVWpWLVN|YpUQHNOiWMD
,QYHU] DQRUH[LD W~O]RWW WHVWPpUHWHN L]RP]DW  LUiQWL YiJ\ GRSSLQJV]HUHNNHO YDOy
YLVV]DpOpVH[WUpPWHVWW|PHJ
13. B. (G]WHUPL N|UOPpQ\HN N|]|WW PLO\HQ MHOHQWVpJH YDQ D NRRUGLQiFLyV
NpSHVVpJHNQHN" +RJ\DQ pV PLO\HQ PyGV]HUHNNHO OHKHW D WpUEHOL WiMpNR]yGiV
NpSHVVpJpWIHMOHV]WHQL"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
.RRUGLQiFLyVNpSHVVpJHNIRJDOPD
0R]JiVNRRUGLQiFLyHOPpOHWLDODSMDL
0R]JiVV]HUNH]HWIRJDOPD
7pUEHOLWiMpNR]yGiVIRJDOPD
7pU HJ\HQV~O\N|UQ\H]HW
.LQHV]WHWLNXV YDJ\ PR]JiVpU]pNHOpV OiWiV WDSLQWiV YHV]WLEXOiULV UHQGV]HU PR]JiVV]DEiO\R]iV
0R]JiVNpS]HWPR]JiVpU]pNHOpV
6]yEHOLLQIRUPiFLyN
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
25/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

14. A . M ilyen szempontokat kell figyelembe vennie ak kor, amikor cukorbetegnek,


PDJDVYpUQ\RPiVRV-WGDV]WPiV-V~O\RVDQHOKt]RWW-YDJ\HSLOHSV]LiVEHWHJQHN
NHOOUHQGV]HUHVVSRUWIRJODONR]iVRNDWDMiQODQL"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
0DJDVYpUQ\RPiVFXNRUEHWHJVpJWGDV]WPDDOOHUJLDHOKt]iVEHWHJVpJ
&VDNDNH]HORUYRVtUiVRVHQJHGpO\HELUWRNiEDQHG]KHWN NLYpYHDOOHUJLD
5HQGV]HUHV IpOpYHQWH IHOOYL]VJiODWV]NVpJHV
&XNRUEHWHJDWiSOiONR]iVLQ]XOLQDGiVHG]pV|VV]HKDQJROiVDRUYRViOWDO IOHJDHURE
WHUKHOpVNHYpVVpYHV]pO\HVPR]JiVIRUPikkal
0DJDV YpUQ\RPiV J\yJ\V]HUHVHQ UHQGH]HWW YpUQ\RPiVpUWpN HVHWpQ DHURE W~OV~O\~
HG]pVHNPD[LPiOLVSUpVHOpVHNNHUOpVH
(OKt]RWWDHUREW~OV~O\~t]OHWNtPpOGLpWiYDO|VV]HN|W|WWSURJUDP
$V]WPD HOQ\~MWRWW EHPHOHJtWpVVHO IRNR]DWRV WHUKHOpVQ|YHOpVVHO V]iUD] SRURV
N|UQ\H]HWHWNHUOYHWHUKHOKHW
(SLOHSV]LD YHV]pO\HV PR]JiVRNDW KHO\V]tQHNHW PD[LPiOLV LQWHQ]LWiVRNDW NHUOYH
WHUKHOKHWN
14. B. ,VPHUWHVVHDPR]JiVpV]OHOpVpVDPR]JiVNpS]HWIRJDOPiW6SRUWRNWDWyNpQWPLO\HQ
PR]JiVWtSXVRNDWDMiQODQDHNpSHVVpJHNIHMOHV]WpVpUHpVPLpUW"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$PR]JiVNRRUGLQiFLyHOPpOHWLDODSMDL
$PR]JiVNRRUGLQiFLyIMHOOHP]L
$PR]JiVV]HUNH]HWIRJDOPD
.RRUGLQiFLyVNpSHVVpJHNMHOOHP]LN
MozgiVpU]pNHOpVNpSHVVpJMHOOHP]pVH
0R]JiVpV]OHOpVPR]JiVNpS]HWfogalma
0R]JiVV]DEiO\R]iVIRO\DPDWD
Durva szakasz
Finom szakasz
.UHDWtYILQRPNRRUGLQiFLyPHJV]LOiUGXOiVD
0R]JiVHPOpNH]HWLQIRUPiFLyIHOYpWHOIHOGROJR]iV
+LEDMDYtWiV
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

26/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

15. A . 0LO\HQ NOV pV EHOV RNDL OHKHWQHN D VSRUWROiV VRUiQ NLDODNXOy HJpV]VpJNiURVRGiVRNQDN" ,VPHUWHVVH D VSRUWRNWDWy V]HUHSpW D VSRUWiUWDOPDN VSRUWVpUOpVHN HONHUOpVpEHQ +RJ\DQ PDJ\DUi]Qi PHJ D EHPHOHJtWpV VpUOpVW
PHJHO]V]HUHSpWVSRUWROyMDV]iPiUD"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
.OVRNRNKHO\V]tQVSRUWWiUVVSRUWHV]N|]UXKi]DWLGMiUiVHG]
%HOV RNRN pOHWNRU IiUDGWViJ EHPHOHJtWpV KLiQ\D HG]HWWVpJ KLiQ\D EHWHJVpJ
GRSSLQJKDV]QiODW
A VSRUWV]DNHPEHUDIHQWLRNRNDWIHOLVPHULILJ\HOHPEHYHV]LpVHQQHNIJJYpQ\pben
WHUYH]LVSRUWROyNSURJUDPMDLW
%HPHOHJtWpVYpUHORV]OiVDWHUKHOpVQHNPHJIHOHOHQYiOWR]LNDWHVWEHQMDYXOD]t]OHW
QHGYHVVpJWDUWDOPD FV|NNHQ D] L]PRN tQDN ULJLGLWiVD UiKDQJROyGXQN D] WHUKHOpVUH
EHMiUDWMXN D VSRUWiJVSHFLILNXV PR]GXODWVRUDLQNDW MDYXO D] L]RP]DW R[LJpQHOOiWiVD
beinduODKWpV YHUHMWpNH]pViOWDO
15. B. $PR]JiVV]HUNH]HWNV]HPSRQWMiEyOPLMHOOHP]LD]DHURELN- pVPLDVWDWLNXVDEE
MyJD yUiNDW" 0HO\HN D KDVRQOyViJRN PLN D] HOWpUpVHN D PR]JiVV]HUNH]HW V]HPSRQWMiEyO"0LDPR]JiVV]HUNH]HWIRJDOPDpVPLND]|VV]HWHYL"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$PR]JiVNRRUGLQiFLyHOPpOHWLDODSMDL
0R]JiVV]HUNH]HWIRJDOPD
0R]JiVHOHPHN
7pUEHOLMHOOHP]N
,GEHOLMHOOHP]N
'LQDPLNDLMHOOHP]N
$PR]JiVRNYpJUHKDMWiViQDNIi]LVDLHONpV]tW-IpVEHIHMH]Ii]LV
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

27/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

16. A . ,VPHUWHVVH D VHE]pVHN VRUiQ NLDODNXOy OHKHWVpJHV YpU]pVWtSXVRNDW $]


HG]WHUHPEHQD]HJ\LNVSRUWROyPHJVpUOHUVHQYpU]VHEpWgQQHNNHOOHOOiWQLD
M ilyen HOVVHJpO\-Q\~MWiVLPyGV]HUWDONDOPD]QDDV]DNV]HUHOOiWiVpUGHNpEHQ"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
9pQiVYpU]pVV|WpWV]tQODVV~IRO\DPDWRVYpU]pV
+DMV]iOHUHVYpU]pVV]LYiUJyKDPDU|QPDJiWyOHOiOOyYpU]pV
$UWpULiVYpU]pVONWHWHQVSULFFHOpOpQNSLURVKHYHVYpU]pV
9pU]pVFVLOODStWiVQ\RPyN|WpV
6HEWLV]WtWiVKLGURJpQSHUR[LGEHWDGLQe
$VHEN|UQ\pNpQHNWLV]WtWiVDVHEEHQ]LQDONRKRO
6HEN|W|]pVUDJWDSDV]Jp]ODS PXOOODS Jp]SyO\D
5|J]tWpVQ\XJDORPEDKHO\H]pV
)iMGDORPFVLOODSWiV J\yJ\V]HUHN
6]HQQ\H]HWWVHEHVHWpQWHWDQXV]YpGROWiV
16. B. gQQHN HJ\ ~M WHFKQLNDL HOHPHW NHOO LVPHUWHWQL PHJWDQtWDQL 0LO\HQ IHMOGpVL
V]DNDV]RNRQ NHUHV]WO W|UWpQLN D WHFKQLND HOVDMiWtWiVD" -HOOHPH]]H H]HNHW D
PR]JiVWDQXOiVLV]DNDV]RNDW
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
A PR]JiVWDQXOiVIHMOGpVpQHNiOORPiVDL

$GXUYDNRRUGLQiFLyNLDODNXOiVD

$ILQRPNRRUGLQiFLyNLDODNXOiVD

$NUHDWtYILQRPNRRUGLQiFLyPHJV]LOiUGXOiVDDONDOPD]iVD

$GXUYDNRRUGLQiFLyNLDODNXOiVD
o

DWDQXOiVIi]LVDLIHODGDWPHJpUWpVH

PR]JiVHONpS]HOpVH

HOVSUyEiONR]iV

$GXUYDNRRUGLQiFLyVDMiWRVMHOOHP]L
$ILQRPNRRUGLQiFLyV]DNDV]DL
$NUHDWtYILQRPNRRUGLQiFLyPHJV]LOiUGXOiVD
+LEDMDYtWiVDKLEDMDYtWiVPyGV]HUHL
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
28/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

17. A . 0LO\HQ FVRQWiUWDOPDN LOOHWYH FVRQWVpUOpVHN HOIRUGXOiViUD V]iPtWKDW HJ\


HG]WHUHPEHQ" ,VPHUWHVVH D] t]OHWL ILFDP OpQ\HJpW pV MHOOHP] WQHWHLW 0L D
WHHQGMH t]OHWL ILFDP HVHWpQ" 0LO\HQ PyGV]HUHNNHO HV]N|]|NNHO LJ\HNV]LN
PHJHO]QLD]t]OHWHNVpUOpVHLWIRJODONR]iVDLQ"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
&VRQWKiUW\DJ\XOODGiVFVRQW]~]yGiVFVRQWW|UpV
]OHWL ILFDP D] t]OHW IiMGDOPDV UXJDOPDVDQ U|J]tWHWW QHP PR]JDWKDWy DODNEHOL
GHIRUPLWiVOiWKDWyUDMWD
$]t]OHWLYpJHNHOPR]GXOQDNpVHOPR]GXOWKHO\]HWNEHQU|J]OQHN
7|EEQ\LUH szalag-pVWRNV]DNDGiVVDOMiU
7LORVPR]JDWQLPHJSUyEiOQLYLVV]DKHO\H]QL
5|J]tWpVKWpVRUYRVpUWHVtWpVH
$VSRUWROyWHUKHOKHWVpJpWJ\HVVpJpWILJ\HOHPEHYHYIHODGDWRN
$N|UQ\H]HWLIHOWpWHOHNEL]WRVtWiVD SOPHJIHOHOWDODM
6]NVpJHVHWpQU|J]tWVHJpGHV]N|]|NDONDOPD]iVD SOIiVOLJXPLKDULVQ\DVWE
6pUOWHQQHPYpJH]KHWHG]pV
6]NVpJV]HULQWVHJtWWiUVDWLVDONDOPD]KDWXQN
17. B. (OUH WHUYH]]HQ PHJ HJ\ D] gQ iOWDO V]DEDGRQ YiODV]WRWW HG]pVW 0LO\HQ V]HPpontokat kell figyelembe vennie a g\DNRUODWRN|VV]HiOOtWiViQiO"0LO\HQUpV]HNUH
ERQWMD D] HG]pVW MHOOHPH]]H D]RNDW $ KDQJV~O\W D WHUYH]pV V]HPSRQWMDLUD
KHO\H]]HpVQHDJ\DNRUODWDQ\DJUD
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :

$]HG]pVHQUpV]WYHYNNRUDQHPHHONpS]HWWVpJH
$EHPHOHJtWpVFpOMDKDWiVDIDMWiLEHPHOHJtWpVWPHJHO]Q\~MWiV
$]iOWDOiQRVEHPHOHJtWpVKDWIHJ\VpJHEORNNMD 0HW]LQJ
$VSHFLiOLVVSRUWiJLEHPHOHJtWpVOHJIRQWRVDEEV]DEiO\D

)UpV] D]HG]pVMHOOHJHV]HULQWLVRUUHQG
0R]JiVWHFKQLNDWDNWLNDRNWDWiVDJ\DNRUROiVD
2., *\RUVDViJIHMOHV]WpV
6SHFLiOLVHUIHMOHV]WpV
OWDOiQRVHUIHMOHV]WpV
6SHFLiOLViOOyNpSHVVpJIHMOHV]WpV
OWDOiQRViOOyNpSHVVpJIHMOHV]WpV
&VLOODStWiVOHYH]HWpVUHJHQHUiOyHG]pVPXQNDHG]pVNLHJpV]tWHOMiUiVRN
$]HG]pVWtSXVUDMHOOHP]IHOpStWpVV]HUNH]HW
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
29/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

18. A . 0LO\HQ L]RPVpUOpVHN HOIRUGXOiViUD V]iPtWKDW HJ\ HG]WHUHPEHQ" +RJ\DQ


LVPHULIHOD]L]RPK~]yGiVWLOOHWYHL]RPV]DNDGiVW"0LWWHV]HOVVHJpO\Q\~MWiVNpQW
L]RPVpUOpVHN HVHWpEHQ" 0L D MHJHOpV KWpV HJpV]VpJWDQL KDV]QD pV PLO\HQ
IRUPiEDQDONDOPD]KDWMD"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
,]RPK~]yGiVL]RP]~]yGiVUpV]OHJHVpVNRPSOHWWL]RPV]DNDGiV
$] L]RP IiMGDOPDV GX]]DGW PR]JiVUD Q\RPiVUD pU]pNHQ\ IiM 6~O\RV HVHWEHQ
alakbeli GHIRUPLWiVLVOiWKDWy+LUWHOHQNLDODNXOyVpUOpVIRUPD
(OOiWiV D]RQQDOL KWpV MHJHOpV Q\RPiVW NHOO J\DNRUROQL D VpUOW L]RPUD pV IiVOL]QL
NHOO NRPSUHVV]Ly $VSRUWROiVWQHPV]DEDGIRO\WDWQLQ\XJDORPEDV]NVpJHVKHO\H]QL
$MHJHOpVIiMGDOPDWFVLOODStWFV|NNHQWLDEHYpU]pVWpVJ\XOODGiVFV|NNHQWKDWiV~
-pJNRFNiNNDOMpJ]VHOpYHOIDJ\DV]WyVSUDy-YHOKWEONLYHWWWiUJJ\DO
18. B. 0HO\HN D] HG]pVWHUYH]pV OHJIRQWRVDEE DODSHOYHL" 0LO\HQ WHUYWtSXVRNDW LVPHU"
SportRNWDWyNpQW PLO\HQ WHUYHNNHO WDOiONR]KDW D OHJJ\DNUDEEDQ" 0L D] HG]pVWHUYH]pVPHQHWH"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$WHUYH]pVFpOMDalapelvei
7HUYWtSXVRNNHUHWWHUYpYLHG]pVWHUYRSHUDWtY FVHOHNYpVLWHUYHG]pVPLQWD
$]HG]pVWHUYH]pVPHQHWHiOODSRWHOHP]pVFpOIRUPiOiVSHULRGL]iFLy
$]LGV]DNRNFpONLW]pVHL
&LNOLNXVViJHJ\NHWWKiUPDVFLNOXVUDRV]WKDWy
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]
QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

30/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

19. A . $] HG]WHUHPEHQ HJ\ VSRUWROy QDJ\ HVpVW N|YHWHQ IHNV]LN D I|OG|Q,VPHUWHVVH
KRJ\DQ iOODStWMD PHJ KRJ\ W|UWpQW-e JHULQFVpUOpV 0LO\HQ WQHWHN DODSMiQ
iOODStWMDPHJKRJ\DVSRUWROyQDNDJ\Ui]NyGiVDYDQ"0LDWHHQGDJ\Ui]NyGRWW
VpUOWWHO"0LO\HQV]|YGPpQ\iOOKDWD]DJ\Ui]NyGiVWQHWHLP|J|WW"
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
0HJNHOOYL]VJiOQLKRJ\DVpUOWWXGMD-e mozgatni DYpJWDJMDLWLOOHWYHpU]L-HNHWKD
PHJQ\RPMiNPHJW|JHWLN
$J\Ui]NyGiVWQHWHLIHMIiMiVV]pGOpVKiQ\LQJHUKiQ\iVDOXV]pNRQ\ViJOiWiV]DYDU
NHWWVOiWiV PHPyULD]DYDUHV]PpOHWYHV]WpV
7HHQGQ\XJDORPEDKHO\H]pVPHQWKtYiVYDJ\FpO]RWWDQNyUKi]EDV]iOOtWiV
6]|YGPpQ\NRSRQ\DULYpU]pV
19. B. ,VPHUWHVVH D NRUV]HU HG]pV MHOOHP]LW %HV]pOMHQ D] HG]pVPyGV]HUHNUO HG]pVUHQGV]HUHNUO
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
$]HG]pVIWHUOHWHL
$ IL]LNDL SV]LFKLNDL WHUKHOpVHN WHUYV]HU DGDJROiVD pV IRNR]iVD D] HJ\pQ
PN|GpVLV]LQWMpQHNHPHOpVHpUGHNpEHQ
0HJKDWiUR]RWW PR]JiVRNQDN YDODPHO\ VSRUWiJ PR]JiVDQ\DJiQDN WHUYV]HU
RNWDWiVD
1HYHOKDWiVRNDONDOPD]iVDDNHGYH]V]HPpO\LVpJDODNtWiVDpUGHNpEHQ
$] pOHWPyG FpOV]HU IRUPiOiVD D IHONpV]OpV N|YHWHOPpQ\HLQHk figyelembeYpWHOpYHO
$]HG]pVMHOOHP]L
$VSRUWROyHJ\pQLOHJIRNR]DWRVDQMREEHUHGPpQ\WDNDUHOpUQL HEEON|YHWNH]LND]
LJpQ\V]LQW
$NpS]pVWNO|QE|]pUGHNHNLUiQ\tWMiN
$]HG]pVDVSRUWROyYDODPHQQ\LpOHWWHUOHWpEHEHKDWROPHUWV]DEiO\R]yIXQNFLyYi
YiOLN
EJ\PiVUipSOpVD]HG]pVHNN|]|WW
$]HG]pVD]pOHWNRUIJJYpQ\pEHQYiOWR]Lk
$]HG]pVUHQGV]HU
$ UHQGV]HUIHOWpWHOHNQHN PHJIHOHOHQ V]HUYH]HWW pV YH]HWHWW HG]pV DODSHOHPHLQHN
HUQOpWLWHFKQLNDLWDNWLNDLHG]pVYHUVHQ\-HONpV]tWpVpUWpNHOpVVWE |VV]HVVpJH
D]HOHPHNN|]|WWIHQQiOOyN|OFV|QKDWiVRNNDO
$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH
31/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

20. A . 0LWpUWQNW~OHG]HWWVpJDODWWpVKRJ\DQLVPHULI|ODWQHWHLW"0LO\HQPyGV]HUHN
DONDOPD]iViYDO VHJtWKHWL D VSRUWROy UHJHQHUiFLyMiW SLKHQpVL IRO\DPDWDLW" 0LW
pUWQNDNWtYSLKHQpVDODWWpVPLND]DNWtYSLKHQpVN|YHWHOPpQ\HL
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :
%DVHGRZRLG WtSXV~ W~OHG]HWWVpJ V]LPSDWLNXV W~OV~O\  DOYiV]DYDU Q\XJWDODQViJ
HOK~]yGySXO]XVPHJQ\XJYiVWHVWV~O\FV|NNHQpV emelkedett n\XJDOPLSXO]XVV]iP
$GGLVRQRLG WtSXV SDUDV]LPSDWLNXV W~OV~O\  DOXV]pNRQ\ViJ IiUDGWViJ J\HQJHVpJ
QRUPiOSXO]XVV]iP
3DVV]tYSLKHQpV DOYiVPLQVpJ DNWtYSLKHQpVV]DXQi]iVPDVV]i]V
$NWtYSLKHQpVPiVPR]JiVIRUPDPiVKHO\V]tQHQpVPiVN|]HJEHQ SOYt]EHQ QHP
HG]pVMHOOHJJHOV]yUDNR]WDWyIRUPiEDQ
20. B. -HOOHPH]]H D VSRUWROyYi pUpV IEE V]DNDV]DLW pV D IHONpV]OpV IRO\DPDWiW
%HV]pOMHQVSRUWiJiQDNOHKHWVpJHVFpOFVRSRUWMDLUyO!
K ulcsszavak, fogalmak :

$QDWyPLDLpVpOHWWDQLMHOOHP]NYi]Lzomzat, FVRQWUHQGV]HUMHOOHP]L
,GHJUHQGV]HULKRUPRQiOLVpVHJ\pENOVWHUKHOpVLWpQ\H]N
$]DNFHOHUiFLyIRJDOPD
$ONDWWtSXVRN
(OVV]DNDV]DODSR]yMHOOHJLGWDUWDPVSRUWiJLMHOOHP]L
DQDWyPLDLpVPR]JiVIHMOGpVIPXWDWyL
WHOMHVtWNpSHVVpJDODSMDL
fizikai, ps]LFKLNDLWXODMGRQViJRNIHMOHV]WpVH
WHFKQLNDLNpS]pV
WDNWLNDLNpS]pV

VSRUWV]HUpOHWYH]HWpV
0iVRGLNV]DNDV]IHONpV]OpVVSHFLiOLVV]DNDV]D
pOVSRUWLGV]DND
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IL]LNDLNpSHVVpJHNVSRUWWHFKQLNDWDNWLNDNpV]VpJPDJDVV]LQWUHHPHOpVH
eOVSRUWRWEHIRO\iVROyWpQ\H]N
&pOFVRSRUWRN ,GVHN IHMOHV]WpVH ILDWDORN pV J\HUPHNHN D ILWQHV] OpWHVtWPpQ\HNEHQ
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$WpWHOHNKH]KDV]QiOKDWyVHJpGHV]N|]QLQFVV]NVpJVHJpGHV]N|]UH

32/33

5pV]V]DNNpSHVtWpV: 6SRUWRNWDWy DVSRUWiJPHJMHO|OpVpYHO


6]yEHOLYL]VJDWHYpNHQ\VpJ
$YL]VJDIHODGDWPHJQHYH]pVH(JpV]VpJJ\HG]pVHOPpOHW

e57e.(/e6


Feladat

...............................................
GiWXP

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DOitUiV

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