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## Converting binary to decimal

Consider the octet 11111101.
If you are familiar with counting in binary you will know that this number is 253.

## 2^7 2^6 2^5 2^4 2^3 2^2 2^1 2^0

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1

128+ 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 253

There is an easier way to convert this number to decimal. We know that the binary number
11111111 is 255 in decimal. When we look at a number like 11111101, here subtract 2 from 255
to arrive at our decimal conversion 253.

For 11101101
128+64+32+0+8+4+0+1=237 or 255- 2 -16 = 255 – 18 = 237

## if you want to get good at subnetting memorize

10000000 = 128
11000000 = 192
11100000 = 224
11110000 = 240
11111000 = 248
11111100 = 252
11111110 = 254
11111111 = 255

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP

## You can use addresses on any private LAN

You CANNOT use them on the internet, internet routers will block them!

## Which of the following are true about 172.16.0.254/16?

Explanation
The Class B network of 172.16 is a Class B Private Address Range, and the second part (0.254)

B. The question is a Class B address, if it were Class C, the mask would be 255.255.255.0
D. 172.16 is not a public IP address.

Question
Which of the following describe private IP addresses? (Choose two)
A. Addresses chosen by a company to communicate with the Internet.
B. Addresses that cannot be routed through the public Internet.
C. Addresses that can be routed through the public Internet.
D. A scheme to conserve public addresses.
E. Addresses licensed to enterprise or ISPs by an Internet registry organization.

Explanation
Private IP address space has been allocated via RFC 1918. This means the addresses are
available for any use by anyone and therefore the same private IP addresses can be reused.
However they are defined as not routable on the public Internet. They are used extensively in
private networks due to the shortage of publicly registered IP address space and therefore
network address translation is required to connect those networks to the Internet.

The IP address range has 5 different classes A to E,

## Class A address range 0 - 126

Class B address range 128 - 191
Class C address range 192 - 223
Class D address range 224 - 239
Class A

Class A has a 7-bit network number and a 24-bit local address. The highest order bit is
always set to zero. This allows 128 (2^7) class A networks.

This shows the eight network bits followed by the 24 host bits.
Class B
Class B network addresses have a 14-bit network number, a 16-bit local address, and they begin
with "10" binary. This allows 16,384 class B networks. The first two bits of a Class B address are
1 and 0, the next fourteen bits identify the network and the last sixteen the host.

128.0.0.0 to 191.254.0.0

We can divide the host portion of a Class B address into subnet and host parts. For instance, let's
split our Class B network number on the byte boundary, the eight of the host portion identifies the
subnet and the remaining bits the host, as diagramed:

## Network Subnet Host

+--------------+ +------+ +------+
| | | | | |
[10xxxxxxxxxxxxxx][xxxxxxxx][xxxxxxxx]
This arrangement allows 254 subnets each with 254 hosts.

Class C
Class C network addresses have a 21-bit network number, an 8-bit local
address, and they begin with "110" binary. This allows 2,097,152 class B
networks.

192.0.1.0 to 223.255.254.0
Class D
Class D network addresses are for multicasting

224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 multicast group

Class E
Class E network addresses being with 4 binary ones, and this is not allowed. The one
exception to this rule is the address where all the bits are ones (255.255.255.255); this is

240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.254 reserved (illegal)

Question
IP addresses use hierarchical numbering. What portion of the address that will identify the
network number?

## B. Dots between octets.

C. Class of first octet.

D. Assignments of DHCP.

Explanation
In general, IP addresses contain two fields: one for the network and another for host.
Class A addresses have a range of 1 to 126 and the network portion of the IP address is
restricted to the first eight bits (octet).
Class B address have a range of 128 -191. and the network portion of the IP address is contain in
the first 2 octets.
Class C IP addresses has a range of 192- 223 and the network portion of the IP addresses is the
first three octets of the IP address.
Class D addresses include the range of 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 and are used for multicast
Class E addresses have a range of 224.0.0.0 to 247.255.255.255 and are reserved for
experimental purposes.

A. Although the subnet mask is used network devices to determine what part of the IP use
address for the network, the subnet and the host address but it is not part of the IP address
hierarchy.
B. The dots are used for making the IP address readable by humans, but have no determination
of the network number.
D. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) provides a mechanism for allocating IP
addresses dynamically so that addresses can be reused when hosts no longer need them.
devices for known destination IP addresses network number.

A subnet mask is used to determine the number of bits used for the subnet and host portions of
the address. The mask is a 32-bit value that uses one-bits for the network and subnet portions
and zero-bits for the host portion.

If you have one address and want to create six networks from it here’s where subnetting comes in
benefits are

Reduced network traffic- with routers, most traffic stays on the local network only packets
destined for other networks pass through the router. Routers create broadcast domains the
smaller the broadcast domains the less network traffic.

## Understanding Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) also known as

supernetting

This really is a more efficient way of referring to a network. For example, if we had a network
address of 192.168.0.0 with a mask of 255.255.255.128, in CIDR notation it becomes 192.168.0.0/25.
The /25 means that the first 25 bits of the subnet mask are set to binary 1

192.168.10.32/8 this tells you what your subnet mask is the slash tells us how many bits are 1s.
Class A default subnet mask 255.0.0.0 this means the 1st byte of the subnet mask is all 1s or
11111111 which is /8

/20 255.255.240.0 4096
/21 255.255.248.0 2048
/22 255.255.252.0 1024
/23 255.255.254.0 512
/24 255.255.255.0 256
/25 255.255.255.128 128
/26 255.255.255.192 64
/27 255.255.255.224 32
/28 255.255.255.240 16
/29 255.255.255.248 8
/30 255.255.255.252 4

The first address of a subnet block (all 0s) is called the network address or network ID. The last

Example

## while 192.168.1.128/25 would include 192.168.1.128 and 192.168.1.255

Below is a mask table that makes it easy to look up the mask for a group of IP addresses.

## /25 = 255.255.255.128, Block size 256 - 128 =128

Address range for 192.168.1.0 = 0 – 127
Address range for 192.168.1.128 = 128 – 255

We stop when we reach the final address of 255 remember these addresses include the subnet

Etc..

Let's take a look at two hosts on a Class B network trying to communicate with one another.
Assume the IP address of the source host is 172.16.32.1/16 and the destination host address is
172.16.64.1/16. Because we are using the default subnet mask of /16 or 255.255.0.0,
172.16.32.1/16 and 172.16.64.1/16 are on the same network. As long as there is no change in
the network portion of the address, the two hosts are on the same network. The network portion
of the address is determined by the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0, which tells the TCP/IP stack that
the first two octets, 172.16.0.0, represent the network portion of the address.

Subnetting
However, if we need more than one network, because we have remote locations or we have
more hosts than we can place on a single cable? It makes sense to divide the network into
smaller networks. What if we needed to create 6 subnets from our larger, single network? In a
case like this, we would need to extend the default subnet mask by borrowing some of the bits
from the host portion of the IP address.

## The formula for determining the number of subnets = 2^n - 2 (See * )

n represents the number of bits to borrow
For six useable subnets 2 ³ - 2 = 8 - 2 = 6

To create six subnets from the 172.16.0.0/16 network we need to borrow at least 3 host bits and
add them to the network portion giving us 172.16.0.0/19
In binary, the subnet mask would be 11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000
So, our subnet mask is 255.255.224.0.

## * In the case of a custom subnet mask of 224, we create at least 6 networks.

(I say at least because the actual number depends on the hardware or the software).
It should be noted that in the past using subnet zero (00000—) and all-ones subnet (11111
—) was not allowed. This is not true nowadays. Since Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0 the
entire address space including all possible subnets is explicitly allowed.

Here are the possible network IDs in the 3rd octet for our 255.255.224.0 subnet mask

## Block size 256 – 224 = 32

subnet
1 00000000 0 (Normally not allowed according to RFC950)
2 00100000 32 172.16.32.0/19
3 01000000 64 172.16.64.0/19
4 01100000 96 172.16.96.0/19
5 10000000 128 172.16.128.0/19
6 10100000 160 172.16.160.0/19
7 11000000 192 172.16.192.0/19
8 11100000 224 (Normally not allowed according to RFC950)

Remember, we are dealing only with the 1st 3 left-most bit positions.
A subnet mask of 224 "masks" off these bits to represent the network.

Subnet Zero

Traditionally we didn't count the first and last subnet (all zeroes and all ones).

## So a subnet mask of 255.255.255.192 would give

(2^2)-2, or 2, subnets while a mask of 255.255.255.224 would give
(2^3)-2, or 6, subnets.

## So, for 192.168.201.0/26 the first subnet would be 192.168.201.64 and

the first host would be 192.168.201.65.
This is very wasteful of a scarce resource and modern software is able to utilize all definable
networks. So this traditional method is no longer used (RFC1878 describes it as obsolete).

## With subnet zero enabled.

Now the formula for determining the number of subnets = 2^n
The new CCNA and Microsoft Exams use the new method

## Now 255.255.255.192 gives 2^2, or 4, subnets and

255.255.255.224 gives 2^3, or 8, addresses.

## Note the formula to calculate the number of hosts is 2^n – 2

We – 2 as in binary the all 1’s address is reserved for ip broadcasts and all 0’s address is used to
specify a network ID.

Example

When the default subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 is used for hosts within the Class B network of
131.107.0.0, the ip addresses 131.107.1.11 and 131.107.2.11 are found on the same subnet and
they can communicate with each other via a broadcast. However when the subnet mask is
extended to 255.255.255.0 the addresses 131.107.1.11 and 131.107.2.11 are found on different
subnets. To communicate with each other hosts with addresses 131.107.1.11/24 and
131.107.2.11/24 send ip packets to the default gateway, which is then responsible for routing to
the destination subnet.

## Class B address space not subnetted

Example
Accommodating Physical Topology suppose we are designing a campus network with 200 hosts
spread over four buildings Voter Hall, Twilight Hall, Monroe Hall, Sunderland Hall. Each of these
four buildings to include 50 hosts. The ISP has allocated us the Class C network 208.147.66.0.
This means we can use 208.147.66.1 – 208.147.66.254 for hosts.

# subnets = 2^n
n represents the number of bits to borrow
For 4 useable subnets 2^2 = 4
Therefore n =2, we have borrowed 2 host bits for our network

## So our Class C /24 subnet mask is now /26

How many hosts per subnet? = 6 bits left for the host address 2^6 – 2 = 62 hosts
What are the valid subnets? 256 – subnet mask = block size
Block Size = 256 – 192 = 64

## so subnets are 0 64 128 192

What are the valid hosts? 1-62 65-126 129-190 193-254

Example
Given the subnet mask 255.255.255.224/27 what are the valid subnets, broadcasts and hosts

## Numbers of Subnets = 27- 24 = 3 bits = 2^3 = 8

Subnet mask = 11100000 = 224
Block size = 256 – 224 = 32
Hosts per subnet = 2^5 – 2 = 30
0 31 1 - 30
32 63 33 - 62
64 95 65 - 94
96 127 97 - 126
128 159 129 - 158
160 191 161 - 190
192 223 193 - 222
224 255 225 - 254
Example

172.30.32.0/24 network includes the addresses 172.30.32.0 through 172.30.32.255, and the
172.30.32.0/20 network includes the addresses 172.30.32.0 through 172.30.47.255,

## Block Size =16

0, 16, 32, 48,

Determine the subnet and broadcast address, 256 - 224 = 32 block size
0, 32, 64
The address 33 falls between two subnets 32 and 64 and must be part of the 192.168.10.32
subnet the next subnet is 64 so the broadcast address is 63, valid host range 33-62.

## Here’s another one 192.168.10.33, 255.255.255.240

256 - 240 = 16
subnets 0, 16, 32, 48 host address is between the 32 and 48 subnets
the subnet is 192.168.10.32 and the broadcast address is 47, host range 33 – 46

## One more 192.168.10.174 mask 255.255.255.240

Increment 256 – 240 = 16
0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 144, 160, 176
Host address of 174 is between 160 and 176, subnet is 160, broadcast 175, host range 161 - 174

Example

## Subnet increment (block size) 256 - 240 = 16

The subnets are calculated by incrementing the appropriate octet of the network ID by the block
size.
The "appropriate octet" is the octet in the subnet mask that is not equal to 255 or 0.

172.16.0.0 172.16.15.255
172.16.16.0 172.16.31.255
172.16.32.0 172.16.47.255
172.16.48.0 172.16.63.255
172.16.64.0 172.16.79.255
172.16.80.0 172.16.95.255
172.16.96.0 172.16.111.255
172.16.112.0 172.16.127.255
172.16.128.0 172.16.143.255
172.16.144.0 172.16.159.255
172.16.160.0 172.16.175.255
172.16.176.0 172.16.191.255
172.16.192.0 172.16.207.255
172.16.208.0 172.16.223.255
172.16.224.0 172.16.239.255
172.16.240.0 172.16.255.255

To test these values, remember that a host ID ANDed with its subnet mask should equal its
network ID. So if we pick a host in the 172.16.192.0 - 172.16.207.255 range, and AND it with
255.255.240.0, the result should be 172.16.192.0.

An example
host 172.16.200.25
AND result 172.16.192.0

Trouble-Shooting

Question
Two routers named Atlanta and Brevard are connected by their serial interfaces as illustrated, but
there is no connectivity between them. The Atlanta router is known to have a correct
configuration. Given the partial configurations, identify the problem on the Brevard router that is
causing the lack of connectivity.

## A. transmission unit size too large

B. no loopback set
D. incompatible encapsulation at each end
F. incompatible bandwidth bewteen routers

Explanation
Based on exhibit both Atlanta and Brevard are directly connected over serial link .
Given that Atlanta is configured correctly and its S0 IP address is 192.168.10.1 /24
Whereas problem at Brevard is it is configure with incorrect IP address 192.168.11.2 /24. The IP
address must be corrected to 192.168.10.2 /24 so that both routers are configured for same
network and establish connectivity.
Exam Questions
You are required to divide the 172.12.0.0 network into subnets. Each subnet must have the
Furthermore, according to the requirement you must provide the maximum number of subnets.
Which network mask should you use?

Explanation

## 458 hosts required

2^8 = 256, 2^9 = 512
To obtain 458 IP addresses the number of host bits will be 9. In this maximum 512 hosts can be
assigned. Keep 9 bits for host means 4th octet and last bit of the 3rd will be 0. All network bits
before this bit MUST BE one, so we get

11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000 = 255.255.254.0

## SUBNET ZERO Question

How many subnetworks and hosts are available per subnet if you apply a /28 mask to the
210.10.2.0 class C network?

## A. 30 networks and 6 hosts

B. 6 networks and 30 hosts
C. 8 networks and 32 hosts
D. 32 networks and 18 hosts
E. 16 networks and 14 hosts
F. F non of the above

Explanation
Class C address = 255.255.255.0 = /24
/28 subnet mask leaves 4bits for networks and 4 bits for hosts

## Number of hosts 2n - 2 = 2^4 – 2 = 14

Number of networks 2n = 16

***The above example assumes that using subnet zero is legal. If subnet zero can not be
used, subtract two from the number of networks***

## If subnet zero is enabled, it is 2 ^ n = #of networks

If subnet zero is disabled, it is 2 ^ n -2 = # of networks "no ip subnet-zero" command is used,
PS: Here 'n' represents no. of bits for host portion.

But whether it is disabled or enabled, formula for calculating # of hosts in each subnet remains
the same. i.e, (2 ^ n) - 2. PS: Here 'n' represents no. of bits for host portion.

Question
You work as a network technician. You have subnetted the 213.105.72.0 network with a /28
this will provide. What should you tell her?
A. 62 networks and 2 hosts
B. 6 networks and 30 hosts
C. 8 networks and 32 hosts
D. 16 networks and 16 hosts
E. 14 networks and 14 hosts

## 4 bits added 2^4 – 2 = 16 - 2 = 14 networks

Number of hosts =2^4 - 2 = 14

Question
You work as a network technician. You have subnetted the 201.105.13.0 network with a /26
this will provide. What should you tell her?

## A. 64 networks and 4 hosts

B. 4 networks and 64 hosts
C. 2 networks and 62 hosts
D. 62 networks and 2 hosts

## /26, therefore 2 bits borrowed for network

Subnets= 2^2 - 2 = 4 - 2 = 2
2 bits for network portion therefore 6 bits left for number of hosts 2^6 - 2 = 64 – 2 = 62

Question
You work as a network consultant. You are planning a network installation for a large
organization. The design requires 100 separate subnetworks, so we have acquired a Class B
network address. What subnet mask will provide the 100 subnetworks required, if 500 usable
host addresses are required per subnet?

A. 255.255.240.0
B. 255.255.246.0
C. 255.255.252.0
D. 255.255.254.0
E. 255.255.255.0
F. 255.255.255.192

## Over 100 subnets required 2^ 6 = 64, 2^ 7= 128

Therefore number of subnets 2^7 – 2 = 128 – 2 = 126
7 extra network bits required = 11111110 = 254 = 255.255.254.0

## From Host Perspective

500 usable host addresses required 2^9 = 512 hosts therefore 9 host bits used leaving all the
network bits as 1’s gives 11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000 = 255.255.254.0

Question
You work as network consultant. Your customer has a class C network license. They require 5
usable subnets, each capable of accommodating at least 18 hosts.
Which subnet mask should you use?

Explanation
If one has to create 5 subnets, then 3 extra network bits are required for our class C address /24
2^3 -2 = 8 – 2 = 6. With 3 bits we can create 6 subnets. 11100000 = 224

Remaining 5 bits are used for Hosts. all network bits before this bit MUST BE one, so we get

11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
One can create 30 hosts using 5 bits in host field. 2^5 – 2 = 30 This matches the requirement.

Question
You have a Class B network address with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
Which of the following statements are true regarding the resulting network? (Choose two)

## A. There are 254 usable hosts per subnet.

B. There is one usable network.
C. There are 255 usable hosts per subnet.
D. There are 254 usable subnets.
E. There are 30 usable subnets.
F. There are 64 usable hosts per subnet.

## Class B /16 = 255.255.0.0 question says subnet mask is 255.255.255.0

8 bits borrowed therefore 2^8 -2 = 256 -2 = 254 subnets
Leaving 8 host bits also = 254

Question
Identify three valid host addresses in the 192.168.27.0 network with a subnet mask of
255.255.255.240.
(Choose three)

A. 192.168.27.33
B. 192.168.27.112
C. 192.168.27.119
D. 192.168.27.126
E. 192.168.27.175
F. 192.168.27.208

Explanation

240 = 11110000
A subnet mask of 255.255.255.240 divides the 4th octet we simply check the 4th octet to ensure
that the last 4 bits (the host portion) are not 0000 or 1111 a subnet or broadcast address.

## A. 33 = 00100001 a valid host

C. 119 = 01110111 a valid host
D. 126 = 1111110 a valid host.

B. 112 = 01110000. This is not a valid host address in this network. It has all host bits 0.
E. 175 = 10101111. All host bits are 1’s. This is the local broadcast address and cannot be used.
F. 208 = 11010000. This is not a valid host address in this network. It has all host bits 0.

## Another way of looking at this question

256 – 240 = 16 block size
Net IDs 0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128,……160, 176, 192, 208
Broadcast 15, 31, 47, 63, 79, 95, 111, 127, …. 159, 175

## So we can rule 112, 175 and 208

Question
A Class C network address has been subnetted with a /27 mask.

A. 201.57.78.33
B. 201.57.78.64
C. 201.57.78.97
D. 201.57.78.97
E. 201.57.78.159
F. 201.57.78.254

Explanation
address means all the host bits are 1.
/27 class C = /24 3 bits borrowed for network so 5 bits are left for host
Last 5 bits will be 11111

Verifying each IP

Question
What is the subnetwork address for a host with IP address 201.100.5.68/28 ?

A. 201.100.5.0
B. 201.100.5.32
C. 201.100.5.64
D. 201.100.5.65
E. 201.100.5.31
F. 201.100.5.1

Explanation

## /28 = 11110000 = 240

Block size 256 – 240 = 16

## Net id - broadcast subnet valid hosts

0 - 15 0
16 - 31 1
32 - 47 2
48 - 63 3
64 - 79 4 65 to 78
80 - 95 5

## 201.100.5.68/28 is in the 201.100.5.64 subnet

or

/24 compared to /28 this gives us 4 network bits and 4 host bits

68 binary 01000100
01000000 subnet = 64

Subnet = 201.100.5.64

Question
Which of the following if addresses can be assigned to host devices (Choose two)

A. 205.7.8.32/27
B. 191.168.10.2/23
C. 127.0.0.1
D. 224.0.0.10
E. 203.123.45.47/28
F. 10.10.0.0/13

## B. /23 = 00000000 in the 4th octet

2 = 00000010 a valid host

## F. /13 = 11111000 in the 2nd octet

10 = 00001010 a valid host

A. This is a network address.

## /27 = 11100000 4th octet

32 = 00100000 network address as host bits all zeros
C. That is a loop-back address.
D. That is a Type D (Multicast) address.

## /28 = 11110000 4th octet

47 = 00101111

Question
A network host is configured as follows
Subnet mask 255.255.255.224 Default gateway 192.168.16.190
Which of the following statements describe the network to which this host is attached? (Choose
three)

## A. The default gateway is configured on a different subnet form this host.

B. The host is a member of the fifth usable subnet of the 192.168.16.0 network.
C. The subnetwork address for this host is 192.168.16.160/28.
D. The address of the next higher subnet is 192.168.16.192.
E. The address of the router interface that is attached to this subnetwork is 192.168.16.190.

Explanation
B. According to subnet mask, 5 bits are used for hosts. So each subnet contains 30 hosts .The
fifth usable subnet range is 192.168.16.160 to 192.168.16.191. Here first address is network and
later address is broad cast. Our host .183 is member of this subnetwork.
D. The next subnet address after fifth usable subnet is 192.168.16.192
E. 192.168.16.190 is the router interface in the fifth usable subnet

A. Default gateway is on the same subnet as the Host
Default gateway 190 = 10111110
Host 183 = 10110111

## C. Subnet mask is different as compared to mask defined in the question

F. There are 30 usable hosts in each subnetwork.

## 224 = 11100000, = 3 extra network bits

256 – 224 = 32 block size

0 31 0
32 63 1
64 95 2
96 127 3
128 159 4
160 191 5
192
Question
You are configuring a subnet on the branch office in Berlin.
You need to assign IP addresses to hosts in this subnet.
You have been given the subnet mask of 255.255.255.224.
Which IP address would be valid? (Choose three)

A. 15.234.118.63
B. 92.11.178.93
C. 134.178.18.56
D. 192.168.16.87
E. 201.45.116.159
F. 217.63.12.192

Explanation
B. Valid Host in subnetwork 2 ( 92.11.178.64 to 92.11.178.95)
C. Valid Host in subnetwork 1(134.178.18.32 to 134.178.18.63)
D. Valid host in subnetwork 2 (192.168.16.64 to 192.168.16.95)

## 224 = 11100000 = network id

93 = 1011101
56 = 111000
87 = 1010111
192 = 11000000 = network id

Question
What is the network address for a host with the IP address 123.200.8.68/28?

A. 123.200.8.0
B. 1231.200.8.32
C. 123.200.8.64
D. 123.200.8.65
E. 123.200.8.31
F. 123.200.8.1

Explanation
3 x 8 = 24 leaving 4th octet with four network bits
68 decimal = 01000100
11110000
Anding 01000000 = 64 decimal

## The network is 123.200.8.64.

OR
/28 = 240, block size 256 – 240 = 16
NET ID 0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80
So 68 will use the .64 subnet

A. For the network to be represented as 123.200.8 then the IP address would need a /24 at the
end. In this case /28 was used.
B, D, E, and F. In these cases with the IP address provided these options are impossible.

Question
Using a class C address range 192.168.21.12 your network needs twenty-eight subnets. Which

A. 255.255.0.28
B. 255.255.255.0
C. 255.255.255.28
D. 255.255.255.248
E. 255.255.255.252

28 subnets

## 2^5 = 32, 5 host bits borrowed 11111000

class C address + 5 bits borrowed 255.255.255.248

Question
Your ISP has provided you the following class B network range 131.107.0.0/24. Which of the
following statements is true regarding this network? (Choose two.)

## A. There are 254 usable hosts per subnet.

B. There is one usable network.
C. There are 255 usable hosts per subnet.
D. There are 254 usable subnets.
E. There are 30 usable subnets.
F. There are 62 usable hosts per subnet.

## 2^8 -2 = 256 - 2 = 254 subnets

bits left for hosts therefore 254

Question
Using a class C address you need five subnets with a maximum of 17 hosts on each of these
subnets. Which subnet mask would you use?

A. 255.255.255.192
B. 255.255.255.224
C. 255.255.255.240
D. 255.255.255.248

Explanation
5 subnets therefore 2^3 - 2 = 8 - 2 = 6 subnets (3 bits borrowed)

11100000 = 224
To check from host perspective 17 hosts
2^4 = 16
2^5 = 32

## So 5 host bits leaving us with 3 network bits again

11100000 = 224

Question
The network 131.107.0.0 needs to be divided into subnets where each subnet has the capacity of
458 IP addresses. What would be the correct subnet mask to accomplish this division keeping the
number of subnets at a maximum?

A. 255.255.0.0
B. 255.255.252.0
C. 255.255.254.0

## 2^9 =512, 9 host bits leaving therefore 7 network bits

11111110.00000000 = 254
This provides 2^7 - 2 = 128 - 2 = 126 subnet
In order for a Class B IP, such as 172.12.0.0, to have 458 IP available on each subnet then a
subnet mask of 255.255.254.0 is required.

Question
What is the decimal and hexadecimal equivalent of the binary number 01010101?

A. Decimal : 85 Hexadecimal : 55
B. Decimal : 125 Hexadecimal : 65
C. Decimal : 165 Hexadecimal : 75
D. Decimal : 205 Hexadecimal : 85

Explanation
01010101 binary equals 85 (64+16+4+1) decimal
0101 (leftmost 4 bits) equals 5 hexadecimal.
0101 (rightmost 4 bits) equals 5 hexadecimal.

Question
You are configuring an IP printer that is connected to your network. You would like to use the last
IP address that is on your subnet for this printer. You run ipconfig on your personal computer and

A. 172.20.7.255
B. 172.20.7.197
C. 172.20.7.190
D. 172.20.7.129
E. 172.20.255.255

Explanation
To determine the last available host draw a vertical line just after the last contiguous subnet mask
1 bit. On the next line write the address that it to the left of the line and then to the right of the line
place all 1s in the remaining spaces until the last free space. Place a 0 in this place. Convert the
binary to decimal and this will be the last available host.
In this case the binary would be: 10101100 00010100 00000111 10 111110
This converts to 172.20.7.190

or

ip 172.20.7.160 SM 255.255.255.192
256 – 192 = 64
0 63
64 127
128 191 160 is in this subnet last ip address is 190
192 255
255

A. This is the IP that would be used to send a broadcast to all host of the 172.20.7 subnet.
B. With the facts of this question this is not a valid IP.
D. This is the IP address used to send a message to all hosts on the 172.20.7 network.

10100000
11000000 (and)
10000000 = 128 network id + 1 for the broadcast =129

Question
Assuming that our network is using an older version of UNIX what is the maximum number of
subnets that can be assigned to networks when using the address 131.107.0.0 with a subnet

A. 16
B. 32
C. 30
D. 14
E. It is an invalid subnet mask for the Network

240 = 11110000
4 bits therefore subnets = 2^4 - 2 = 16 -2 = 14

Question
Using a class C address 192.168.10.X what would the subnet mask be if we needed two subnets
with a maximum of 35 hosts on each subnet?

A. 255.255.255.192
B. 255.255.255.224
C. 255.255.255.240
D. 255.255.255.248

## 2^6 -2 = 64 hosts 6 bits for host address 2 bits for network

11000000 = 192

Question
Which IP address range is allowable given an IP address of 131.107.2.56 and 28-bits of
subnetting?

A. 131.107.2.48 to 131.107.2.63
B. 131.107.2.48 to 131.107.2.62
C. 131.107.2.49 to 131.107.2.62
D. 131.107.2.49 to 131.107.2.63
E. 131.107.2.55 to 131.107.2.126

/28 – /24 = 4 extra network bits 11110000 = 240, block size 256 – 240 = 16

Subnets host

131.107.2.0 15 1-14
.16 31 17-30
.32 47 33-46
.48 63 49-62
.64 79 63-78

Explanation
We have a subnet mask of 28 bits of ones followed by 4 bits of zeros, or 255.255.255.240, and
gives a range 16, or 14 hosts per subnet (16-2 because we subtract out the two ranges of all
zeros and all ones)
This will yield subnets,
131.107.2.0
131.107.2.16
131.107.2.32
131.107.2.48
131.107.2.64

## So, we can fit a network of 131.107.2.48-131.107.2.63

131.107.2.48 is the network, and the all zeros range.
131.107.2.63 is the broadcast, and is the all ones range.
So, we can't user 48 or 63, and the valid host address range would be 49-62.
C is correct.

A, B, D, and E. These are not the proper ranges with the information provided in the question.

Question
131.107.21.12
Your network plan requires no more than 126 hosts on a subnet that includes this address. When
you configure the IP address in Cisco IOS software, which value should you use as the subnet

A. 255.255.0.0

B. 255.255.128.0

C. 255.255.255.128

D. 255.255.255.252

Explanation
126 hosts 2^7 - 2 = 126
7 bits in the host address therefore one bit in the network address 100000000 = 128
In the fourth octet of the subnet mask, we have 1 bit for the network, and 7 bits for the host. This
high order NETWORK bit is the 128 bit, all network bits before this bit MUST BE one, so we get
255.255.255.128
A, B, and D. They do not provide a maximum of 126 hosts.

Question
You have an IP of 156.233.42.56 with a subnet mask of 7 bits. How many hosts and subnets are
possible?

## A. 126 hosts and 510 subnets

B. 128 subnets and 512 hosts
C. 510 hosts and 126 subnets
D. 512 subnets and 128 hosts

Explanation
Class B network the default subnet mask is 16 bits long.
There is additional 7 bits to the default subnet mask. The total number of bits in subnet are 16+7
= 23.
This leaves us with 32-23 =9 bits for assigning to hosts.
7 bits of subnet mask corresponds to (2^7-2)=128-2 = 126 subnets.
9 bits belonging to host addresses correspond to (2^9-2)=512-2 = 510 hosts.
Question

The subnet mask used on this Ethernet segment is /27, which translates to 255.255.255.224
(11111111,11111111,11111111,11100000)

## valid hosts on the 192.168.5.33/27 subnet are

0, 32, 64
The address 33 falls between two subnets 32 and 64 and must be part of the 192.168.5.32
subnet the next subnet is 64 so the broadcast address is 63, valid host range 33-62
Therefore only choice C falls within the useable IP range.

Question
Given the choices below, which address
A. 224.1.5.2
B. FFFF. FFFF. FFFF.
C. 192.168.24.59/30
D. 255.255.255.255
E. 172.31.128.255/18

Explanation
unicast is simply an address that points to one particular host, as opposed
to multiple, or even all hosts like a multicast or broadcast.

A. 224.1.5.2
Since the first octet of this address is 224 it falls in the multicast range
so it is not a unicast address.
B. FFFF. FFFF. FFFF.

## This is the target MAC address of a broadcast, so again, not a unicast.

C. 192.168.24.59/30

This one is here to trick you. If you work out the subnet it is 192.168.24.56
through 192.168.24.59. Since 192.168.24.59 is the last IP in the range, it is
actually referes to all of the hosts in the subnet and not just one.

D. 255.255.255.255
This represents a broadcast address sent to anyone who is listening on a
shared network segment.

E. 172.31.128.255/18

Again, if we work out the subnet here the range includes 172.31.128.0 through
172.31.191.255. Since 172.31.128.255 falls in between those two numbers, it
is a host IP. In other words, it refers to one particular host, making it a

Explanation
172.16.45.14/30
/30 so /24 1st 3 octets taken up leaving 6bits for the network

172.16.45.?

14 in binary 8,4,2,1
1110
So last octet is 00001110
11111100
Anding 00001100 = 12

172.16.45.12

Or another way

## 11111100 = 253, block size 256 – 253 = 3

NET ID’s
0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15

## Therefore .14 is in the .12 subnet

Explanation

/28 = 240
256 - 240 = 16 block size
0, 16, 32 subnets

Explanation 10 subnets
2^n - 2 = number of subnets / hosts

## 2^3 – 2 = 6 not enough subnets

2^4 - 2 = 14 number of networks, 14 number of hosts
2^5 – 2 = 30 number of subnets ok leaves 2^3 - 2 = 6 number of hosts not ok

## Therefore number of bits = 4, 11110000 = 240

Explanation
/22 therefore 2 x 8 =16 leaving 6 bits in the 3 octet for network portion

## 11010010 210 in binary

11111100
= 11010000 208
The network consists of 5 subnets
Using 3 bits for the network address 2^n – 2 = 2^3 - 2 = 6 we get 6 subnets leaving us with 5 bits
for hosts 2^5 -2 = 30

11100000 = 224

## 2^n -2 = at least 459

2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 host bits giving us 2^9 - 2 = 510 hosts
9 hosts bits so the last octet is all zeros (8 bits) and the last octet in the 3rd is also zero
111111110 = 254

Explanation
256 - 224 = 32
Every network boundary is multiples of 32
0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 224, = each subnet
Any ip address not one of theses numbers is a valid host ip address

Explanation
256- 240 = 16
0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 144, 160, 176, 192, 208
15, 31, 47, 63, 79, 95, 111, 127, 143, 159, 175, 191, 207

## 2, 11 and 13 are valid hosts

Explanation
/24
2^n =subnets 2^0 = 1,

18 hosts
2, 4, 8, 16, 32 = 5 host bits
Therefore 3 extra network bits 11100000 = 224
Default subnet mask for class C = 255.255.255.0 therefore answer is 255.255.255.224
A. B and C is wrong as the 3rd octet cannot be divided up when using class C
Explanation
A class C network with 26 bit mask requires 2 bits for the network address leaving 6 bits for host
addresses. 2^2 for the network = 4 and 2^6 -2 = 62 hosts
Note 2^2 for calculating subnets 2^2-2 therefore ip zero is in force.

Class B = /16

## From subnet perspective

300 required, so 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512
An extra 9 network bits required /16 + 9 = /25
11111111.10000000 = 255.128

## From host perspective

50 hosts 5^2 = 32, 6^2 = 64, so 6 host bits required
This means 2 network bits are used 11000000 = 192

Explanation
300 subnets wanted 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512
300 subnets have 9 network bits leaving 7 host bits = 126 hosts
11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000
= 255.255.255.128
Add another bit to give 10 network bits, this gives 1022 subnets and 6 bits for hosts = 62 hosts
11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000
= 255.255.255.192
Explanation
172.16.209.10/22

.16.209
.11010001.00001010 /22 2x8 =16 leaving 6 more 1’s in the 3rs octet
.11111100.00000000
.11010000.00000000 Anding gives us 208

Or

## /22 = 11111111.11111111.11111100 = 255.255.253

256 – 253 = 3 block size
Net ID’s 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24

Explanation
115.64.4.0 = 01110011.01000000.00000100.00000000
subnet mask /22 11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000 = 255.255.252.0
anding 01110011.01000000.00000100.00000000 = subnet number 115.64.4.0

therefore valid address range 115.64.4.1 – 115.64.7.254

Explanation

## /20 = 11111111.11111111.11110000.0 = 240

256 – 240 = 16 the increment of the subnets 0, 16, 32, 48, 64 remember -1 for the broadcast

The switch ip address 172.16.80.90 is in the 172.16.80.0 subnet 172.16.95.255 is the broadcast
Explanation
/27 = /24 leaving three 1’s in the 4th octet 11100000 = 224
256 -224 = 32 subnet increments
0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192 = subnets
Explanation

192.168.126.49/30
6 bits borrowed leaving 11111100 2 bits for hosts 2^2-2 =2 hosts

192.168.126.127/26
2 bits borrowed leaving 11000000 6 bits for hosts 2^6-2 = 62 hosts

192.168.126.67/29
5 bits borrowed leaving 11111000 3 bits for hosts 2^3-2 = 6 hosts

192.168.126.2/27
3 bits borrowed leaving 11100000 5 bits for hosts 5^2-2 = 30 hosts

Explanation

## 5 subnets highest number of hosts required is 16

2^n = 2 x 2 x 2 = 8 subnets this uses 3 network bits and 5 hosts bits = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 30 hosts
Since we only require 5 different subnets with at most 16 users this will suffice.
3 network bits = 11100000 = 224

Explanation
224 = 1110000 = 5 host bits 2^5 -2 = 30 hosts

Question
servers on your network. For the network 192.168.20.24/29 the router is assigned to the first
usable host address, while the last usable host address goes to your Sales server. Which one of
the following commands would you enter into the IP properties box of the sales server?

Explanation
/29 bits. 5 bits in the 4th octet. This equates to 255.255.255.248. This network has 3 bits for
hosts. 2^3 - 2 = (2*2*2 - 2 = 6) host addresses. 192.168.20.24 is the network address. Therefore
to the router, which serves as the gateway for the network. The last available host address would
be 192.168.20.30 (192.168.20.24+6). This address is assigned to the server. The broadcast

Question
You've been assigned a single Class C address. From this, you need 8 subnets, and your subnet
mask is 255.255.255.224. Which one of the following configuration commands would you have to
use before you begin?

A. Router(config)# ip classless
B. Router(config)# ip subnet-zero
C. Router(config)# ip version 6
D. Router(config)# no ip classful
E. Router(config)# ip unnumbered
F. Router(config)# ip all-nets

Explanation

To get 8 subnets from a class C address, and a mask of 255.255.255.224 use the reserved
subnet space. To do this, you need the command 'ip subnet-zero.' This will allow the router to use
the very first subnet, which is normally reserved and unused as the network address. Prior to
Cisco IOS® Software Release 12.0, Cisco routers, by default, did not allow an IP address
belonging to subnet zero to be configured on an interface. However, if a network engineer
working with a Cisco IOS software release older than 12.0 finds it safe to use subnet zero, the ip
subnet-zero command in the global configuration mode can be used to overcome this restriction.
As of Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0, Cisco routers now have ip subnet-zero enabled by
default, but if the network engineer feels that it is unsafe to use subnet zero, the no ip subnet-zero
command can be used to restrict the use of subnet zero addresses. In versions prior to Cisco IOS
Software Release 8.3, the service subnet-zero command was used.

It should be noted that even though it was discouraged, the entire address space including
subnet zero and the all-ones subnet have always been usable. The use of the all-ones subnet
was explicitly allowed and the use of subnet zero is explicitly allowed since Cisco IOS Software
Release 12.0. Even prior to Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0, subnet zero could be used by
entering the ip subnet-zero global configuration command. On the issue of using subnet zero and
the all-ones subnet, RFC 1878 states, "This practice (of excluding all-zeros and all-ones subnets)
is obsolete. Modern software will be able to utilize all definable networks." Today, the use of
subnet zero and the all-ones subnet is generally accepted and most vendors support their use.
However, on certain networks, particularly the ones using legacy software, the use of subnet zero
and the all-ones subnet can lead to problems.
Question
Three routers are connected as shown

Taking the information shown above, which command line below would correctly configure serial
port0 on router2 with the LAST usable host addresses on the 192.216.32.32 subnet?

## A. router2(config-if)# ip address 192.216.32.63 255.255.255.248

B. router2(config-if)# ip address 192.216.32.38 255.255.255.240
C. router2(config-if)# ip address 192.216.32.39 255.255.255.248
D. router2(config-if)# ip address 192.216.32.63 255.255.255.248 no shut
E. router2(config-if)# ip address 192.216.32.39 255.255.255.248 no shut
F. router2(config-if)# ip address 192.216.32.38 255.255.255.248

Explanation
F is correct as the last usable IP address on this subnet is 192.216.32.38. The subnet mask for
a /29 is 255.255.255.248

11000000.11011000.00100000.00100111 192.216.32.39 Address range = 192.216.32.33 -
192.216.32.38

Or

256 – 248 = 8
Net ID 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40
Broadcast 7, 15, 23, 31 39
Last useable host 6, 14, 22, 30, 38

Question

## What is a valid possible IP address configuration for Host A?

A. IP 192.168.100.31 255.255.255.240 default-gateway 192.168.100.18
B. IP 192.168.100.30 255.255.255.240 default-gateway 172.16.1.1
C. IP 192.168.100.20 255.255.255.240 default-gateway 192.168.100.17
D. IP 192.168.100.21 255.255.255.248 default-gateway 192.168.100.17
E. IP 192.168.100.19 255.255.255.248 default-gateway 172.16.1.1

## Explanation: The network mask for a /28 is 255.255.255.240.

The default gateway is always the IP address of the router on the local subnet, and the valid IP
range for this network is 192.168.100.17 - 192.168.100.30.
C is the only one that meets all of these.

A. The IP address 192.168.100.31 is the broadcast address. It cannot be used for the host. B.
The default gateway should be the fist exit point for the network that the host is on. In this case it
should be the router interface address 192.168.100.17.
D. The network uses a 28 bit subnet mask (11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000). This
equates to 255.255.255.240, not 255.255.255.248.
E. The network uses a 28 bit subnet mask (11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000). This
equates to 255.255.255.240, not 255.255.255.248. Also, the default gateway should be the fist
exit point for the network that the host is on. In this case it should be the router interface address
192.168.100.17.

Question

Based on the information above, which of the following would be a valid IP address of the PC?

A. 192.168.5.55
B. 192.168.5.47
C. 192.168.5.40
D. 192.168.5.32
E. 192.168.5.14

Explanation
192.168.5.33/28, /28 =240
256 – 240 = 16 block size
Subnets 0, 16, 32, 48
Valid host range 33 – 47 the last address 47 is the broadcast address. The router interface E0
has the IP address 192.168.5.33. Therefore it is on the 2nd network (192.169.5.32/28). The host
must also be on this network. Valid IP addresses for hosts on this network are: 192.168.5.33-
192.168.5.46.

A. 192.168.5.55 is on network 192.168.5.48. It is not on the same network as the router interface.
D. This is the network address.
E. This is not a valid address for a 28 bit subnet mask. The first network address should be
192.168.5.16.

Question
You are on the network design team and have the task of networking three locations together.
Your team will be using the address range 192.168.55.0. RIP v2 will be used as the routing
protocol, and "ip subnet-zero" will be configured. Your goal is to fulfill the address needs of the
network while conserving unused addresses for potential future growth.

With these goals in mind, drag the host addresses on the left side to the correct router interface
on the right side. Not all the addresses are going to be used, and one of the routers is already
partially configured.

Explanation
192.168.55.57/27 3 x 8 =24 leaving 3 network bits 11100000 5 host bits 2^5 -2 = 30 hosts
192.168.55.29/28 4 network bits 4 host bits 2^4 -2 = 14 hosts
192.168.55.1/30 6 network bits 2 host bits 2^2 -2 = 2 hosts
192.168.55.132/25 1 network bit 7 host bits 2^7 -2 = 126 hosts
192.168.55.0/30 6 network bits 2 host bits 2^2 -2 = 2 hosts
192.168.55.127/26 2 network bits 62 hosts

Question

What command would you use to configure the correct IP address and subnet mask on R2's
serial interface?

## A. R2(config-if)# ip address 172.16.17.1 255.255.255.0

B. R2(config-if)# ip address 172.16.18.2 255.255.252.0
C. R2(config-if)# ip address 172.16.17.2 255.255.255.252
D. R2(config-if)# ip address 172.16.16.0 255.255.255.0

Explanation
/22 = 11111111.11111111.11111100.0 = 255.255.252.0

Question
You work as a technician. You are configuring a Cisco router. You want to configure the IP
address on an interface. Which command should you use?

B. router(config-if)#142.8.2.1 0.0.3.255

the IP address for interfaces. Only choice C uses the correct syntax.

Question
Which command will assign the last usable IP address from the 192.168.32.128/28 subnetwork to
a router interface?

## A. RA(config-if)# ip address 192.168.32.142 255.255.255.240

B. RA(config-if)# ip address 192.168.32.143 255.255.255.240
C. RA(config-if)# ip address 192.168.32.158 255.255.255.240
D. RA(config-if)# ip address 192.168.32.145 255.255.255.240
E. RA(config-if)# ip address 192.168.32.144 255.255.255.240
F. RA(config-if)# ip address 192.168.32.158 255.255.255.240

Explanation
/28 = 240, block size = 256 – 240 = 16
0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 144
Last ip = 142

Question

A network administrator is adding host 3 to the network shown in the exhibit. Which IP address
can be assigned this host on this network?

A. 192.1.1.14
B. 192.1.1.18
C. 192.1.1.20
D. 192.1.1.30
E. 192.1.1.31
F. 192.1.1.36

Explanation

## Net ID 0, 16, 32, 48

Hosts 1-14, 16-30, 32-46

## Only choices B and D are possible as C 192.1.1.20 is already used by host 1

Question

The routers in this network are running RIPv2. Which addressing scheme would satisfy the needs
of this network yet waste the fewest addresses?

A. Network 1: 192.168.10.0/26
Network 2: 192.168.10.64/26
Network 3: 192.168.10.128/26
B. Network 1: 192.168.10.0/26
Network 2: 192.168.10.64/28
Network 3: 192.168.10.80/29

C. Network 1: 192.168.10.0/26
Network 2: 192.168.10.64/27
Network 3: 192.168.10.96/28

D. Network 1: 192.168.10.0/27
Network 2: 192.168.10.64/28
Network 3: 192.168.10.96/29

Explanation

## Network 1. Required Number of hosts 50

2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64
= 6 host bits, 6^2 -2 = 64 -2 = 62 hosts
Leaves 2 network bits
/24 + 2 = /26

## Network 2. Required Number of Hosts 20

2, 4, 8, 16, 32
= 5 host bits = 30 hosts this leaves 3 network bits
24 + 3 = /27

## Network 3. Required Number of Hosts 10

2, 4, 8, 16
= 4 host bits = 14 hosts this leaves 4 network bits
24 + 4 = /28

Question
Based on the information above, which IP address should be assigned to the host?

A. 192.168.5.5
B. 192.168.5.32
C. 192.168.5.40
D. 192.168.5.63
E. 192.168.5.75

Explanation: Host address should be in same subnet of Connected Router's Interface. In exhibit
Router's ethernet address is in 192.168.5.33/27 subnet then host address should be also in same
subnet.

## /27, 11100000 = 224,

256 – 224 = 32 block size
Net id 0, 32, 64, 96
Hosts 1-30, 32-62, 64-94

## so only answer C is correct as .40 is also in the same subnet.

Question
DRAG DROP We are redesigning the network that connects three locations. The administrator
gave the networking team 192.168.3.0 to use for addressing the entire network. After subnetting
subnet-zero and use RIP v2 as the routing protocol. As a member of the networking team, you
must address the network and at the same time conserve unused addresses for future growth.
With those goals in mind, drag the host addresses on the left to the correct router interface. One
of the routers is partially configured. Not all of the host address addresses on the left are
necessary.

Explanation

## 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128

13 hosts so 4 host bits are required, 4 network bits used = 11110000 = /28
42 hosts so 6 host bits are required, 2 network bits used = 11000000 = /26
111 hosts so 7 host bits are required, 1 network bit used = 10000000 = /25

For the WAN connection between routers, S0/1 if you use the /30 bits for Network address you
will get 2 usable host address.

Question
ABC is redesigning the network that connects its three locations. The administrator gave the
network team 192.168.15.0 to use for addressing the entire network. After subnetting the
subnet-zero and use RIP v2 as the routing protocol. As a member of the networking team, you
must address the network and at the same time conserve unused addresses for future growth.
With those goals in mind, drag the host addresses on the left to the correct router interface. One
of the routers is partially configured. Not all of the host addresses on the left are necessary.

Explanation

## 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128

118 hosts so 7 host bits are required, 1 network bit used = 10000000 = /25
59 hosts so 6 host bits are required, 2 network bits used = 11000000 = /26
9 hosts so 4 host bits are required, 4 network bits used = 11110000 = /28

For the WAN connection between routers, S0/0 if you use the /30 bits for Network address you
will get 2 usable host address.

Question
A Class C network address has been subnetted with a /27 mask. Which of the following

A. 201.57.78.64
B. 201.57.78.87
C. 201.57.78.33
D. 201.57.78.254
E. 201.57.78.159
F. 201.57.78.97

Explanation: A subnet mask of /27 (255.255.255.224) will have 3 bits used for the network portion
and 5 bits for the host portion. This will create 2^3 = 8 networks with 2^5 = 32 hosts per network.
From this we know that the number of subnets will be a multiple of 32, making the subnets:
201.57.78.32
201.57.78.64
201.57.78.96
201.57.78.128
201.57.78.160
201.57.78.192
201.57.78.224
201.57.78.256

Since the broadcast address is always the last IP address in the subnet we need to only subtract
1 from each of the IP addresses above to find the broadcast. From the list above we see that
201.57.78.159 is the only available option, as this is the broadcast address for the network
previous to the 201.57.78.160 network.

Question

## What IP address should be assigned to Workstation A?

A. 192.168.1.159/28
B. 192.168.1.160/28
C. 192.168.1.145/28
D. 192.168.1.144/28
E. 192.168.1.143/28

Explanation. The available subnets and IP ranges that are available using a /28
(255.255.255.240) subnet mask is shown below

Based on this information, we need to choose an IP address within the 145-158 range, since the
IP address of the Fa0/0 on the router is 192.168.1.158, leaving only answer choice C as feasible.

Question
Refer to the exhibit. What are the broadcast addresses for each subnet?

A.
QA - 172.16.1.127
Development - 172.16.2.255
Sales - 172.16.32.255
B.
QA - 172.16.1.255
Development - 172.16.3.255
Sales - 172.16.63.255

C.
QA - 172.16.1.127
Development - 172.16.3.255
Sales - 172.16.63.255

D.
QA - 172.16.1.255
Development - 172.16.2.255
Sales - 172.16.32.255

QA - 172.16.1.127
Development - 172.16.3.255
Sales - 172.16.63.255

Explanation

## Net ID’s 0, 15 Broadcasts

16, 31
32, 47

172.16.0.0 – 172.16.15.255
172.16.16.0 – 172.16.31.255
172.16.32.0 - 172.16.47.255

QA 172.16.1.64/26

/26 = 255.255.255.192
256 -192 = 64 blocksize

## Net ID’s 0 Broadcasts 63

64 127

172.16.1.0 172.16.1.63
172.16.1.64 172.16.1.127
Question
Refer to the exhibit. What is the first usable IP address that can be assigned to the WGROUP3
switch?

A. 172.16.50.96/27

B. 172.16.50.97/27

C. 172.16.50.98/27

D. 172.16.50.99/27

172.16.50.97/27

Explanation

/27 = 255.255.255.224
Blocksize = 32