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Rebecca Dunn

History Notes

Reforms and Changes in America

Election of 1900
-McKinley, and Vice Presidential candidate Theodore Roosevelt, easily defeated William J.
Bryan. New York political bosses have Theodore Roosevelt nominated for V.P (felt as if that was
a powerless position).
-Assassination of president McKinley (September 6, 1901). He was shot but essentially dies
from infection resulted from surgery.
-Roosevelt becomes the youngest to serve at age 42.

W.E.B Dubois
-Black leader in the early 1900s who fought for civil rights.
-Founder of the Niagara movement
Niagara Movement- demanded for African Americans to receive all their civil right at once.
Helped create NAACP. (National association for the advancement of colored people).

Booker T. Washington
-founder of the Tuskegee Institute.
-trained African Americans to be better farmers and mechanics.
-self-respect, self-education, and self-help would give Blacks the opportunities they desired.

Muckrakers -journalist and novelist who invested and exposed corruption and illegal activity.

Upton Sinclair
-Wrote The Jungle described as the miseries of workers in the stock yard and
rotten meat packed for sale
-Meat Inspection Act
-Pure Food and Drug Act
-Pure Food Legislation (All passed in 1906)

Consumer Protection
-Meat Inspection Act 1906. Allowed Federal Officers to inspect meat in Interstate
Commerce. Check to see if meat came from sanitary conditions and healthy animals
-Pure Food and Drug Act. The manufacturing and sale of impure food, drugs, and
liquors was forbidden. Labels on patent medicine had to list the contents

Political and Social Reforms
-16th Amendment-Made the Federal Income Tax Legal
-17th Amendment- Allowed for the direct election of senators by voters (In the past, senators have
been elected by State Legislatures

Voting Changes
Initiative- Voters can propose a law by petition and have it voted on by the people
Direct Primary- Enabled voters to nominate their partys candidates for the general election
Recall - By petition, voters can force an official to stand for reelection at any time
Referendum- The initiative is put on the ballot for voters to pass of defeat

Womens Suffrage
-Progressives were fighting for a womans right to vote (suffrage)
-First state was Wyoming

Political Reform
-Roosevelt favored more reforms:
1. Income and Inheritance taxes
2. Federal rules for the stock market
3. More effective control of business
-The trend was for government to become more involved

Municipal Reform
-City manager: A trained manager hired to run the city (not a politician) (could be fired)
-The city manager replaced the mayor

State Reform
-Robert Battling Bob Lafollette- Elected governor of Wisconsin in 1900
-Enacted progressive measures:

Direct Primary
Railroad commission
Civil service
Restriction on Lobbying

Trust Busting
-Northern Securities Case
-A holding company that dominated the railroads of the Northwest
-Roosevelt sued under Anti-Trust Act
-The supreme court ordered the company dissolved
-This is the beginning of the Trust Busting era

Roosevelts Trust Busting Philosophy

-Moved against other unpopular trusts: beef, oil, tobacco
-Felt the government should break up large corporations only when they hurt the public

-Roosevelt increased National Forests by almost 150 million acres
-Created U.S forest service, headed by Gifford Pinchot
-Pinchot planned reforesting- The planting of trees along with the cutting of trees.
-Roosevelt fired Pinchot

Roosevelts Domestic Program Square Deal

-Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902

-Workers didnt receive a pay raise in 20 years
-Roosevelt brought the striking workers and the owners together
-Roosevelt showed how the federal government could help
-Government action was considered to be fair to both labor and management
-Coal miners- 9 hour days and a 10% raise

Taft Administration at Home

Election of 1908
-William Howard Taft, the secretary of war was Roosevelts hand-picked successor.
-Taft wanted to be in Supreme Court, but his wife pushed him towards presidency
-Taft easily defeats William Jennings Bryan

Taft as a Progressive
-Most thought Taft would follow Roosevelt in fighting for reform
-Many progressives felt he did not fight for reform and were disappointed

Taft and Trust Busting

-Did not make the distinction between good and bad trusts like Roosevelt
-Taft- Indict (bring criminal charges against) all trusts, and allow courts to decide which trusts
were good and bad

Payne-Aldrich Tariff
-High tariffs were becoming a problem
-Tariff= taxes on goods coming in and out of the country
-Consumer prices were rising; Taft promised to lower tariffs
-The Payne-Aldrich Tariff actually raised the tariff on many items
-This upset progressives
Election of 1912 (the primaries)

-The Republican party was badly split

-The issue of conservation of natural resources caused a split between Roosevelt and Taft
-Democratic nominee: Woodrow Wilson- Governor of New Jersey
-Republican nominee: William Howard Taft
-Progressive Republicans were very upset Taft won the nomination
-Progressive Republicans persuade Roosevelt to run on a third party ticket (Bull Moose party)

The Results
-Wilson won fairly easy
-Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, giving Wilson the Victory

Wilsons Domestic Program: New Freedom

-Underwood tariff
-The Underwood-Simmons tariff reduced taxes about 11% from the Payne-Aldrich tariff
-The public supported the cut in tariffs

Federal Reserve Act

-12 Districts
-Created a more flexible currency Federal Reserve Note
-Also, helped prevent a run on the banks
-People would literally run to the bank to get their money out

Federal Reserve System

-All national banks had to become a member of the federal reserve system
-Federal Reserve Banks held member banks reserves, and lent money to member banks when
-Each was supervised by a Federal Reserve Board- Appointed by the President
-Divided the country is 12 districts, each with a federal reserve bank
Clayton Anti-Trust Act

-Gave unions the right to exist

-Manufacturers could not charge different customers different prices

Federal Trade Commission

-Created to monitor business
-Could issue cease and desist orders against companies engaged in unfair trade practices