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Technology 9 Unit 1 Assignment

1. Describe the following sources that can be used to produce


electricity:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

Turbines in nuclear plants


Hydroelectric stations
Fossil fuels
Solar panels/collectors
Windmills
Batteries
Hydrogen cells

2. The following diagram shows how electricity is distributed from a


power source to homes and business.

Describe the purpose of each of the following items in the


diagram:
i.
ii.
iii.

Transformer
Substation
Explain why electricity is carried at very high voltages
during transmission.

Technology 9 Unit 1 Assignment

1.
a. The turbines in nuclear power plants are used for converting the
energy from the high pressure steam to mechanical energy in the form
of shaft rotation so that the generator will turn.
b. The use of hydroelectricity, is used for taking the energy of fast
moving water. To extract and make into electricity for use by us.
c. Fossil fuels, are used by extracting them from the earth. To burn for
energy.
d. Solar panels work by taking the energy from the suns rays. And
repurposing it to be used by us as electricity.
e. The use of windmills, is by taking energy created by spinning blades.
And repurposing it to be used as electricity.
f. Batteries are used by extracting the energy from them, through the
positive and negative charges. To use in anything really.
g. Hydrogen fuel cells have long been used in the space program to
provide electricity and drinking water for the astronauts.
2.
a.
A transformer is used to bring voltage up or down in an AC
electrical circuit. A transformer can be used to convert AC power to DC
power. There are transformers all over every house, they are inside the
black plastic case which you plug into the wall to recharge your cell
phone or other devices.
b.
Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or
perform any of several other important functions. Between the
generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through
several substations at different voltage levels.
c.
Wire resistance causes losses in eletric power transmission. If
you keep resistance constant, losses are linearly proportional to
voltage, but proportional to the square of the current. So if you double
the voltage, for the same power you have half the current, and power
dissipation is effectively halved for the same power.
Another important reason is weight. In order to transmit more current,
and keep losses under control, one would need a bigger wire, with a
larger sectional area. Such a wire would weight a lot more than the
thinner wire that can transmit lower currents. Heavier cables use more
metal, are more expensive, and limit the cable span (the distance
between the towers), requiring more towers to be transmitted over the
same distance.