Lei!

NOI DAU

Cu6n "Ngu phap tie'ng Anh" nay duoc bien soan nham muc dich phuc V1J. viec hoc tieng Anh trong cac trudng Dai hQC va Trung hoc chuyen nghiep d6ng thdi cling nham dong gop vao viec hoc tie'ng Anh cua hoc sinh cac truong ph6 thong, cac lop tai chuc va cac ban tt;l hoc, No co tinh chat cua m(>t cuon Ngii phap ti{ng Anh ca ban va thuc hanh, n9i dung chu ye'u nham gidi thieu nhirng quy u1.c co ban va thong dung, kern theo nhieu bai t:}p d~ giiip nguoi hoc van dung duoc cac quy tiic trong viec ren luyen ky nang noi, nghe, doc, viet tieng Anh. Do do sach nay chua de c~p de'n nhung van de phuc tap, it g~p va it dung, cling khong di sau vao ngil phap ly thuyet. Mat khac, d€ dam bao "Tfnh chat Vift Nam va hifn dai", cluing toi cung chii y dua VaG kinh nghiem thuc te' day tie'ng Anh cho nguoi Vi~t ket hop voi nhirng thanh tuu cua ngon ngil h9C va phuong phap giang day ngoai ngu hien dai d~ trinh bay cac van de ngu phap mgt each don gian, ngan gon nhung ro rang, de hi~u, de nhd, thich hop vdi d6i tuong ngudi Vi~t.

Ve mat thuat ngfi, chung toi chu trucng dung nhirng thuat ngil tie'ng Vi~t va tieng Anh cua ngu phap truyen thong, c6 chon loc va tinh gian trong s6 nhung thuat ngil da quen dung, d~ nguoi hoc khoi bd ngd.

VCli nhung .dac di~m nhu tren, chung toi hy vong cu6n ~ach· se dap ung dti'Qc yeu cau cua dong dao cac ban hQC tieng Anh. No

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co th~ dung lam giao trinh day ngu phap d trong lop, lam tai lieu on t~p va tham khao ngu phap cha h9C sinh va giao vien,

Sau day chung toi gidi thieu bo Cl,1C cuon sach va mot so gQi y huang d~n each slt dung.

1) Cu6n sach g6m 3 phan IOn:

Phan I gfim 11 chuong, 31 bai, gioi thieu chu ye'u each phan loai, hinh thai cau tao, chuc nang va each dung cac tit loai trong tie'ng Anh, co ke't hop giai quye't m<)t so van de cu phap (each d~t cau) lien quan de'n viec Slt dung til loai do.

-

PhAn II gilm 5 chuong, 14 bai, gidi thieu chu ye'u cac vfln de

cu phap co ban, co tinh chat nang cao va khai quat hoa each d~t cau tie'ng Anh thea nhimg cau true. cong thuc, mAu co ban.

Ph fin III la dap an cac bai ti}.p kho, nham giup cac ban tu hoc c6 th~ tl,i ki~m tra, danh gia ke't qua hoc t~p cua minh.

2) M&i bai gfim phan trinh bay nhirng quy d.c va phan bai t~p ung dung, nham gidi thieu gon va tap trung mQt hay nhieu van de ngU' phap co lien quan, thea tung budc tu d~ de'n kho. Tuy nhien, co nhieu van de khong th~ giai quyet gon mot IAn la xong duoc, vi co nhieu di.§m lien quan den cac van de khac, thi chung tei gidi thieu tung phan, phan sau c6 nhac lai, cung eO', b6 sung va nang cao phan trirdc. Cac ban hoc nen chti y di~m nay: hoc phan sau nen on lai va dO'i chieu vci phan truce, nhu vay mdi hi~u duoc van de rndt each dAy du, sau va chac,

3) PhAn trinh bay quy t~c trong m&i bai ducc viet thea tinh thfin tinh gian, ngan gon, kern thea nhieu thi du minh hoa, Chung toi Slt dung rQng rai each trinh bay tom tl'it dudi dang cac bang t6ng hop, bi~u d6, so d6 va cong' thuc kern thea nhirng Idi ghi, nhimg chii thich can thiet.

6

Cac ban hoc dn chu y doc ky, hi~u chac va hoc thuoc cac thi du trong bai vi chung khong nhung c6 tac dung minh hoa, giup ngudi hoc nam vfmg duoc quy tiic thay cho ldi giai thich truu tuong, rna con la nhirng cau tieu bi~u cho each diiin dat cua nguoi Anh co th~ duoc Stl dung trong nhieu tinh hu6ng khac nhau.

4) Cac bai t~p trong moi bai khong tap trung a cu6i rna duoc b6 trf rai ra trong tung muc nho, thea phuong cham "hoc den dau luyen den do", nham giiip ngudi hoc vua narn duoc quy d.c ngu phap vua ren luyen dude ky nang Stl dung ngon ngd. Cac bai tap ducc danh so thu t\,i lien tuc trong tUng bai d~ d~ d6i chieu voi phan dap an.

Cac ban hoc din dac biet chu y lam cac bai t~p m9t each d~y du, nghiem tuc va luy~n cho dln mac thutin. thuc. Muon v~y khong nen chi nhin biing mat va viet ra giay ngay, rna dn thong qua khau luy~n mieng. CAn doc to va nhac lai nhieu IAn nhiing cau t~p dii lam dung.

5) Nhung cau thf du va diu cho tropg bai t~p duoc chon thea tieu chuan tieng Anh hien dai, ph6 thong, c6 noi dung thuc ti~n va tu tUdng tot, d6ng thoi chi dil.I~ m9t sO' v6n tu ngU don gian (truong hop co tii ngft kh6 thi chua nghla tieng Viet), Cac ban giao vien hudng dAn co th~ tuy theo trinh de> va von tii cua nguoi h9C rna cho them thi du hoac bai t~p thich hop,

Cuon "Ngu phap tieng Anh" nay duoc bien soan IAn dau, chac chan khong th~' tranh khoi thieu sot. Mong cac ban g6p y kien nhan xet d~ chung toi hoan chi'nh cuon sach nham ~c vu tat hen cho viec hoc tieng Anh cua dong dao ban d9C.

Cdc tdc gin

7

,,' "

PHANMOT

CHUONGMQT TCtvA cAu

(Words and Sentences)

8All

Tit LO~I vA cAu TRue cAu

(Word Classes and Sentence Structures)

I. GIOI THItu

Cac khai niern v~ ti:i loai va diu true cau trong tie-ng Anh co nhimg di~m giong tieng Vi~t, nhung do d~c di~m rieng cua tung ngon ngu, nen ta't nhien cung co nhieu di~m khac. Thi du nhimg khai niern chung ve danh tit, d9ng tit, tinh tu, chu ngu, vi ngu ... thi giong, nhung di VaG chi tiet cau tao, chuc nang, vi tri v.v ... thi khac nhau nhieu. Co nhimg khai niem chi tieng Anh co rna tieng Vi~t khong co nhu each sa hiiu cua danh tU, thi cua d9ng tit, d(ing tinh tu, dQng danh tu v.v ...

Bai d~u nay nharn giCii thieu t6ng quat ve tu loai va cau true diu tieng Anh d~ nguoi hoc co khai niern chung trudc khi di VaG cac chi tie-t cu thf

II. TiT LO~ <Word Classes, hay con goi IIi Parts of Speech)

Co nhieu each phan loai, nhung thea ngu phap truyen thong Anh, ta co th~ chia lam tam loai nhu sau:

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Ten tit I09-i Cong dung Thidl,l
1. Danh tu (Noun) Chi nguoi, vat, su !boy, table, cat, freedom,
viec hay khai niern !happiness.
2. Dai tu (Pronoun) Dung thay cho danh ~, he, them, who, which,
'Lit mine, this ...
3. Tinh tu B6 nghia (noi ro ~ good worker, the
(Adjective) them) cho danh tit. heroic Vietnamese
G6m nhieu loai, k~ ca people, my first lesson,
mao tU (article) va s6 some new books, those
tu (numeral) IlowO houses are large.
4. Dong tU (Verb) Chi hanh dong hoac IW e are learning
rang thai English.
The enemy was
defeated.
5. Ph6 tit (Adverb) Be) nghia cho di?ng tit, They work very hard.
tfnh tU hoac pho tU He came here
khac yesterday.
J. was too tired.
6. Gidi tu Di trudc danh tu hoac .I. spoke to him.
(preposition) dai tu d~ chi quan h~ The desk of the
leua chung vdi cac tu teacher is near the
!khac window.
7. Lien tu N6i cac tu, cum tit You and 1. He is poor
(Conjunction) Iho~c cau vdi nhau. but honest; he will
come if you ask him.
B. Than tit lDi~n ta cam xuc Oh! Ah! Hello! Alas!
(Interjection) 12

Ghi chu:

can hru Y met di~ill quan trong la viec ph an chi a tit loai trong tieng Anh chu yeu dua vao chuc nang cac tit do trong cau, Do do, met ttt c6 th~ khi la danh tu, khi Ia dQng til, hoac khi la tinh til, khi 19. dai tu V.v ... Nhimg til nhu vay tuong d6i nhieu, can chu y hoc each dung cu th~ cua chung.

Thi du:

I have two hands - (T6i co hai tay - hands la danh til).

He hands me the paper (Anh fly dua cho t6i td giay - hand la

dQng til).

A round table (Ctii ban tron - round 19. tinh tit). Around of beer. (M9t chau bia - round 18. danh tit).

The earth moves round the sun (Trai da"t quay xung quanh mat troi - round 19. gidi tu).

The police rounded them up (Canh sat quay ho lai - round HI. dong tit).

This is his hat (Day la cai mii cua anh fly - This 13. dai til, his 13. tinh til Sd huu).

This hat is his (Cai mii nay 13. cua anh fly - This la tfnh til, his la dai tU sd huu),

Bili t~p

1. f)9c to nhftng cau sau, tim hie'u y nghia ua n6i ro tit loai cua nhftng tit in nghieng.

1. It is hard work, but I know you can work hard.

2. He ~ame by a very fast train. He can run very fast, but he is running slowly.

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3. I like to drink tea. Let us have another drink.

4. These oranges are bigger than those.

5. This is my book. It is not yours.

6. The room is quite dark. He is not sitting in the dark.

7. This lamp gives a poor light. Light the other lamp, please.

8. Cotton is not heavy, it is light.

9. Nam is sitting at the back of the class. He has come back through the back door.

10. Let's go for a walk. We shall walk down the street.

III. CAU TRUC cAu (Sentence Structures)

MQt ca u tie'ng Anh don gian co th~ chia lam hai phan chinh la chu ngu (Subject) va vi ng11 (Predicate). PhAn vi ng11 trong cau tie'ng Anh luon g6m mot dQng tit da chia va ne'u cAn thi co them tan ng11 (Object) hoac b5 ngu (Complement). Ngoai ra, cau con c6 nhiing thanh phan thu yeu la trang ng11 (Adverbial Modifier) va tmh ng11 (Adjective Modifier). Nhimg van d/$ nay se hoc kg trong phan II cua sach nay, d day chi' gidi thieu so bQ d~ e6 khai niem chung khi hoc cac tit loai.

C6 thJ tom tAt cau true cau eel ban nhat trong tieng Anh bang hai bi~u d6 nhu sau:

A - Truong hop cau chi c6 nhitng thanh phan chu yeu (goi la cau hat nhan hay cau t6i thieu)

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Predicate
Subject Verb Object or Complement
1. The door is opened.
2. He is running.
3. The boy opened the door.
4. We speak English.
5. That man is my brother.
6. They will become workers. B - Trudng hop cau co them nhimg thanh phan thu ye'u (goi la cau md r6ng)

Subject Predicate
Subject + Adjective Verb Object or Adverbial
Modifiers Complement Modifier
1. The green door is opened at once.
Chiec cua xanh m0 ngay l~p tuc,
2. A little boy is running in the street.
M(>t cau be dang chay tren dUdng pho.
3. The boy in the blue opened the back dour this morning.
hat
C~u be d(>i mii xanh md etta sau hie sang nay
4. We all in this class speak English rather well.
Til't ca chung ta trong noi tieng Anh kha tot.
lop nay
5. That man there IS my big brother.
Nguoi dan ong d6 18. anh trai Mi.
6. These young men will beoome factory workers next vear.
Nhimg thanh nien nay se trd thanh cong nhan vao sang nam.
nha may 15

Ghi chit:

Cau Iuu y nhirng di~m sau c6 phan nEW khac vdi ngil phap tierig Vi~t hoac khac vdi each dung thuat ngil d m9t vai tai li~u ngiI phap khac.

a) Tan ngu chi d6i tirong ella hanh dong (c6 tai lieu goi 18. b5 ngu d6i tuong) tra ldi diu hoi: Gi? Cai gi? Ai? Tan ngil b5 ngtr eho ngoai a9ng tit. Truong hop noi d9ng tU thi khong co tan ngu, Thf du 1 trong bang tren "The door opened", opened la n9i dong til khong co tan ngil, nhung trong thf du 3, neu cau dung lai sau opened thi chua dll nghia, vi opened d day la ngoai d{mg til doi hoi phai co tan ngir,

b) B8 ngu (complement, con goi 18. predicative) la m9t b(> phan kh6ng th~ thieu duoc cua vi ngu, nhung kh6ng chi d6i tu'<;lng nhtr tan ngu, B6 ngtt thuong la danh tit (nhu thf du 5 va 6 trong cac bang tren), nhung cling co th~ Ia tfnh tit hay pho tit, nhu:

I am hungry. - Toi d6i. They are here. - HQ d day.

He looks different. - Anh ta tr6ng khac,

a day ta thay cho khac nhau giira tieng Anh va tie'ng Viet, T6i d6i (doi la vi ngu)

I am hungry (hungry khong dung m9t minh lam vi ngu ducc) Vi ngli: la: am (dong tit) + hungry (b6 ngu).

Chung t6i dung thuat ngU' b6 ngii v{ji nghia hE;P nhu v~y, kh6ng phai theo nghia r(>ng la b:l't cu tit nao b5 nghia cho d9ng tu nhu m(>t vai tai li~ll khac.

c) 'I'r ang ngii' (adverbial modifier) thuong la pho tit haycum t'it tuong duong vdi pho tu lam nhiern vu b6 nghia cho dQng tit hay cho ca Call d~ noi ro them vg each thuc, thin gian, nai chon V.v ... cua hanh d(>ng hay su viec. Nhung thi du trong bang B cho ta

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thay trang ngii' la thanh phan phu, them vao thi ro y hon, nhung kh6ng co no cau v&n du nghia.

d) Tinh tit (adjective modifier) con goi la dinh. ngi1 (attributive) la m9t til' hay cum til' b6' nghia cho danh til'. N6 la thanh phan phu di kern vdi danh til, du danh til do HI. chu ngu, tan ngil, b6' ngu hay nam trong trang ngu cua cau cung the.

Bai t~p

2. Dung nhi1ng tiL trong c9t 2 di€n uao nhi1ng ctiu. trong cot 1 lam tan ngir cho du nghia. M6i tiL co the"' die'n vao nhieu cciu niu nghia thich hop,

1 2
1. They are looking at ... him, the house
2. I don't know ... your name, English
3. The student is doing ... his work, that
4. She can see ... the new factory, that river
5. My friend likes ... this exercise, those books 3. Dung nhi1ng tiL trong cQt 2 die'n udo nhi1ng cciu trong cQt 1 lam trang ngii, Ctich. lam nh.u tren.

1 2
1. My brother is ... an engineer, happy
2. The boys were ... students, there
3. He seems to be ... a good teacher, quite well
4. These girls will become ... factory workers
5. They look ... strong, tired 17

4. Dung nhiing tit trong c(}t 2 di~n VclO nhiing ctu: trong cot 1 lam trang ngfi. each lam nliu tren.

1 2
1. He is running ... fast, now
2. They walked ... to the station, yesterday
3. My father is working ... today, in the garden
4. I saw many children ... in the street, last week
5. You cannot play football... here, everyday Chii y: C6 th~ them mot hay nhieu trang ngli vao cau,

Thi du:

He is running fast. He is running to the station. No dang chay nhanh. No dang chay tdi gao

He is running fast to the station .

.r

N'6 dang chay nhanh tdi gao

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CHUONG HAl DANH TlI (Nouns)

.AII

DANH TU: D4NG vA CHUC NANG (Nouns: Forms and Functions)

L cAe LO~ DANH TU

A- C6 narn loai danh tu

1. Danh tu chung (common noun): dog, table, man ...

2. Danh tu rieng (proper noun): London, England, Fred .

3. Danh tU chi chat lieu (material noun): water, rice, ink .

4. Danh tU truu tuong (abstract noun): beauty, happiness, courage ...

5. Danh til t~p hop (collective noun): team, crowd, flock ... Ghi nhc: Trong thuc ti~n, v€ mat ngu phap c§.n phan bi¢t trong tieng' Anh:

1. Nhirng danh tU dern duoc (countable noun): boy, chair, house ...

1. Nhung danh tU kh6ng dem duoc (uncountable noun): water, milk, ink, beauty, happiness, courage ...

B- Quy thc diu tao danh tu Nhirng quy d.c chinh

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1) Danh ttl' dern duoc

Verb + er:

Verb + or:

to teach ~ teacher

to direct ~ director to govern ~ governor

Verb + ing:

to build ~ building to write ~ writing 2) Danh tu truu tuong

a) adjective + ness

kind ~ kindness happy ~ happiness

lazy ~ laziness

(Chii y: Khi chuyen sang danh tir: y ~ i) b) noun + ship

friend

~ friendship

workman ~ workmanship c) noun adj + dom

king ~ kingdom WIse ~ wisdom

free ~ freedom

d) adjective + th

wide ~ width true ~ truth

(Chu y: Khi chuyen thanh danh tu; bo e them th). 3) Danh tit ghep

a) adjective + noun

black + board ~ blackboard grand + parent ~ grandparent

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b) noun + noun

bed + room ~ bedroom

shop + keeper ~ shopkeeper c) gerund + noun

looking + glass -;7 looking-glass writing + paper --) writing-paper

Chu y: Trong nhfmg danh tu ghep tren, tit dung trudc c6 gia tri mQt dinh ngfi lam ro nghia tu dung sau.

d) Dang khric

Mother-in-law, passer-by, commander-in-chief

Bai t~p

1. Pluiti loai nhling danh tit dzt{Ji day:

dog, cat, man, woman, country, crowd, team, happiness, beauty, health, patience, army, flock, desk, door. Paris, window, kindness, courage, house, building, poverty. France, pleasure, wood, paper, air, steam, family, sand, bread, ink, truth. Henry, chair, table, rice, salt. George, tree, flower, water, honey, grass, fame.

2. Tim trong s6' danh tit (j bai t(ip tren. nhiing danh tit dem duo: va nhiing danh tit hhong dem duac.

3. Ctiu tao danh tit tuang ling cho nhiing tit duai day:

scholar, friend, boy, man, woman, long, wide, strong, warm, deep, true, to wash, to manage, to sing, neat, good, tender, dark, soft, sweet, neighbour, young.

4. Tao nhilng danh tit ghep de! dien. to:

A knife for cutting paper. A glass [or holding wine. A box for holding matches. A desk for writing at.

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A needle used to darn socks with. A driver of taxi.

A floor made of stone. A machine for washing clothes. A wall made of brick. A room where you have meals.

A room in which you sleep. A brush with which we brush our teeth.

II. GIONG

Danh ttl' tie'ng Anh rat d~ xac dinh giong' can cu thea y nghia cua tu.

Giang due Nhirng danh tu chi boy, man, father,
(masculine gender) vat giang due ram
Giang cai (feminine. Nhfrng' danh til chi' girl, woman,
gender) vat gi6ng cai mother, ewe ...
Gi6ng trung Nhiing danh til child, person,
(common gender) chung cho ca due, parent, sheep ...
cai
Trung tinh (neutral Nhirng danh ttl' vo table, chair, house ...
gender) tfnh Ghi nhrr:

1. Co rat nhieu danh ttl' chung thuoc trung tinh desk, lamp, stool, door, window ...

2. Nhung danh til truu tuong, chi chat lieu, t?P hop baa gid cling thuoc 10l;1i trung tinh

patience, kindness, water, rice, crowd, team ...

3. C6 3 each chinh d~ phan biet mot danh lU thuoc giong due hay giong cai.

a) Khac hin v~ hinh thuc: boy, girl, man, woman ...

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b) CQng them mot danh tit hay dai tU (thuoc giong' due hay gi6ng cai) vao mot danh tit giong trung:

boy-cousin, girl-cousin, he-wolf, she-wolf

c) Them vao mot danh tu giong' due (d~ chuyen thanh danh tu giong cai):

poet - poetess host - hostess actor - actress

Bili t~p

5. Pluiri bi~t gi6ng cua cdc danh tit dztdi day:

husband, wife, artist, cook, lady, gentleman, neighbour, doctor, writer, visitor, musician, school-boy, school-girl, school, uncle, aunt, cousin, bird, father, mother, parent, friend, enemy, pen, pencil, book, son, daughter, courage, poverty, health, friendship, kindness, love, truth.

6. Tim nhiing danh tit gi6ng cai cua nhung danh tit dutti day: boy, husband, brother, bull, father, gentleman, uncle-son, nephew, king, cock-sparrow, he-goat, man, school, master, prince, lion, tiger, cock, waiter.

III. s6 NHI"EU ellA DANH TU Quy tl:'ic chung

1. Mu6n chuy~n mot danh tit so it sang so nhieu thi them s va dling sau:

book - books dog - dogs

2. Chi nhirng danh tu dem duoc (countable noun) mdi co dang so nhieu "them s''. Nhung danh til kh6ng dern duoc (non-

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countable) kh6ng co dang so nhieu, (tru nhirng truong hop ghi chu (} cu6i bai 4).

Ghi nhrr:

a) - Nhung danh tU tan cling bang s, x, ch, sh, them es (va d9C lit [iz]).

glass - glasses; box - boxes; branch - branches; brush - brushes.

- Nhimg danh tU t~n cling bang a them es:

hero - heroes, potato - potatoes, tomato - tomatoes

M9t so danh tit ngu6n g6c nude ngoai kh6ng thea quy d.c nay: piano - pianos; dynamo - dynamos; photo - photos.

- Nhimg danh tU tan cung bang y dung sau mot phu am, trudc khi them s, d6i y thanh ie:

lady - ladies, fly - flies, country - countries; (neu y dung sau mot nguyen am, chi can them s: boy-boys; toy-toys; day-days).

- Nhirng danh tu tan cling bang f hoae fe, bo f hoac fe, them

ves:

wife - wives; life - lives; wolf· wolves; self - selves; leaf - leaves; thief - thieves.

Tuy nhien, co mot so danh tu: tan cling f boac fe v&n thea quy d.c chung:

cliff - cliffs; handkerchief - handkerchiefs; roof - roofs.

Co mot sO viet duoc d. hai each: scarf - scarfs hoac scarves wharf - wharfs hoac wharves

b) Co mot so danh tu kh6ng theo quy tdc chung

man - men; woman - women; child- children; tooth - teeth;

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fool - feet; mouse - mice; louse - lice; goose - geese; basis - bases; crisis - crises; sheep - sheep (khong thay d5i) , memorandum - memorandums va memoranda (hai dang) v.v ...

c) Doi vdi danh til ghep

- Thucng la chi them s vao til dung sau.

armchair - armchairs; school-boy - school-boys.

- Nhung neu dung trudc la man hay woman, thi ca hai tu deu chuyen sang so nhieu.

manservant - menservants.

- C6 mot sO danh til ghep vdi gidi tu hoac ph6 til thi chi them s vao tit dung truce.

sister-in-law - sisters-in-law. looker-on - lookers-on.

d) Cach d9C am cuoi (j danh tu so nhieu

(Chu y each phat am thea phien am quoc te, kh6ng theo chinh ta).

Danh tit tan cung bring D<}c Ia Thfdl,l
cac am:
Phl,l am vo thanh, [f] , [8] roofs, books, lakes, shops,
[k], [p], [t] hopes, hats.
Nguyen am va phu am [z] days, birds, dogs, pens,
hiru thanh walls, years, rows.
Phu am [iz] horses, boxes, roses,
[s], [z], [I]' [tl, [dz] brushes, watches, villages. Bai t~p

7. Viet sang s6' nhie'u nhiing tit trong ngoiic dun. 1. Study the next three (chapter).

25

2. Can you recommend some good (book)?

3. I had two (tooth) pulled out the other day.

4. You can always hear (echo) in these mountains.

5. They are proud of their (son-in-law).

6. Did you raise these (tomato) in your garden?

7. I think we need two (radio). S. My (foot) really hurt.

9. The (roof) of these houses are tiled.

10. How many (day) are there in this month?

11. Get me two (loaf) of bread ..

,

12. The (mouse) were running all over the empty house.

8. Chiia nhiing ch6 sai (neu co) d nhftng diu duai day:

1. He had a bag of rices.

2. There are many dirts on the wall.

3. We want more fuels than that.

4. He drank two milks.

5. Ten inks are needed for our class.

6. He gave me a great deal of troubles.

7. He learnt three poetries by heart. S. He sent me many foods.

9. Many golds were found there.

10. Cows cat grasses.

11. The rain has left many waters.

26

8AI3

eACH SO HUu

(Possessive Case)

I. GIOI THI"¢U

- Cau "cai vuon cua eha toi" co th~ di~n dat bang hai each:

Dung gidi tit "of' . Dung each Sd hiac

The garden of my father. My father's garden.

Quy t&c:

- D$.t "my father" (danh to: chi nguoi co quyen sCi huu) len tren.

- Them "s" VaG ngay dl1ng sau danh tU do.

- Danh tit chi vat. thuoc quyen sCi huu dung sau "s" va bo mao

to: "the".

- Chii y: D6i vdi danh tU so' nhieu dii c6 s roi,chi the,l dau " nhung doi vdi danh tU rieng uin cung b&ng s, thuong cling v:1n them's (tru mot vai truong hop dac biet).

The desk of the pupils - The pupils' desks. The clothes of the boys - The bOYD' clothes.

The poems of Keats - Keats's poems.

(Chii y khi doc: Keats's [ki:tsiz]).

Loi ghi: Theo quy tac co ban, each 56 hiiu chi ap dung cho nhirng danh tit chi ct¢ng vr;it, chu khong ap dung cho nhirng danh tU chi vr;it dung.

Thi du: Ngtidi ta khong vie't The room's window.

Ma viet:

The window of the room.

27

(Tuy nhien trong thuc te, tieng Anh, My hien dai nguoi ta dAn dan c6 khuynh huang ap dung each s6 hiiu mot each rong rai cho ca danh tu chi v~t dung),

Bai t~p

1. Dung each. sd hiiu viet lai nhiing diu duai day (thea quy t&c

CO ban).

1. This is the book of Nam.

2. The tool of the mason was heavy.

3. She prepared the outfit of her children.

4. The coat of the boy was torn.

5. Mr. Van is the friend of Mr. Dong.

6. The windows of the house are green.

7. The caps of the boys are on the shelves.

8. The desks of the pupils are always clean.

9. He likes to read the poems of John Keats.

10. The house of my mother-in-law is in the country.

Loi ghi: each Sd hiru c6 th~ ap dung cho nhirng danh tu v~ khong gian va thoi gian.

Thi du: an hour's walk a year's absence today's lesson

a mile's distance

2. Dung each Sd hiiu viet lai nhiing cau dudi day khi co thl dullc.

1. Tell me if the work of yesterday was well done.

2. It is a distance of two miles from the village to the town.

3. A drive of 500 miles in a small car is very tiring.

28

4. This is the lesson of today.

5. The exercises of yesterday were very difficult for him.

6. We have a splendid morning after the heavy rain oflast night.

7. Will you attend the meeting of tonight?

8. He returned home after a holiday of two weeks at the sea side.

9. She has done the work of a whole day. 10. He had a talk of fifteen minutes.

Ldi ghi: C6 nhieu danh til (house, home, office, shop, church, cathedral) co th~ hi~u ngam sau 's duoc neu trong diu co ngu y d nhiing nai do hoac den nhung ruti do.

Thidl,l:

I live at the house of my uncle. - I live at my uncle's.

I go to the shop of the baker. - I go to the baker's.

So sanh voi nhirng cau duoi day:

My uncle's house is in the country.

My baker's shop is at the end of the street.

(house va shop kh6ng hi~u ngtirn dircc VI trong cau khong ngu y ta d hoac den noi do),

3. Dung each sd hia: uiet lai nhiing diu diat: day khi co thi duoc.

1. I have my hair cut at the shop of the barber.

2. We had dinner at the house of Comrade Narn.

3. Van is going to the office of his father.

4. I stayed at the house of my aunt.

5. He bought his clothes at the shop of the outfitter.

6. The office of his father is in the center of the city.

29

7. I saw him at the house of my friend.

S. I got these cakes at the shop of the pastry-cook.

Loi ghi: Dung each Sd hiiu d~ tranh su nhac di nhac lai mot tit (d:).t truce hay sau).

- I have read some of Shakespeare's plays but none of Shaw's (plays).

- Nam's is the only homework that is never badly done.

4. Ap dung quy t&c tren. viet 19,i cau. duai day:

1. This is not my hook, it is the book of Van.

2. The voice of my sister is the sweetest voice I have ever heard.

3. Whose book is this? It is the book of Nam.

4. He has no bicycle of his own and must. use the bicycle of

his brother.

5. She put her arm through the arm of her mother.

6. His task is always better than the task of his friend.

7. The house of Doctor Ban is the sort of house I should like.

8. This is the room of my father, the room of my uncle is on the second floor.

II. MQT vAl CHI TIET CAN NHO THEM VB CACH so ntru 1. Nam and Van's books (sach chung ella Nam va Van) hoac Nam's and Van's books.

hoac Nam's books and Van's (sach cua Nam va sach ella Van, cua rieng tung nguoi)

2. He is a friend of Nom's = he is one of Narn's friends. (Anh fly la mot trong nhirng nguoi ban ella Nam).

30

3. We saw a play of Shakespeare's = We saw one of the plays of Shakespeare. (Chung t6i xem mot. trong nhirng vd kich cua Shakespeare).

3. Trang mot vai thanh ngu

Out of harm's way. At his wit's end.

For mercy's sake. To his heart's content. In my mind's eye. At his fingers's ends. For pity's sake.

31

CHUONG BA

M~O TV (Articles)

8"14

~o TV BAT D!NH (Indefinite Articles) vA ~o TU xAc DJNH (Definite Articles)

l. GIdI THI~U

1. Mao tu ba't djnh va mao tu xac djnh

M~o tit bat a [3] truce am phu am a boy, a girl, a
dinh (Indefinite university
Articles) an lay] trudc am nguyen an egg, an apple, an
am hour
M~o til xac the [00] truck am phu am the boy, the girl, the
dinh (Definite university
Articles) [oil truce am nguyen the egg, the apple,
am the hour Ldi ghi:

a) M0-o tit bat dinh kh6ng thay d6i thea gi5ng (due, cai, chung): a boy, a girl, a table.

b) Mao tit xac dinh khOng thay dai thea giong va so

the boy the boys

the girl the table

the girls the tables

32

2. Danh tii dem duQ'c (countable noun) va danh tii khong dem d1igc (none-countable noun).

Muon dung mao tu cho dung phai phan biet hai loai danh tu

nay.

a) "Countable noun" chi nhirng cai de-m duoc nhu: boy, girl, book, chair ...

Nhirng danh ttl' nay co th~ co so nhieu: boys, girls, books, chairs ...

b) "non-countable noun" chi nhung cai kh6ng dern duoc (danh

ttl' chi chat lieu, truu tuong ):

water, milk, air, oil, tea .

liberty, freedom, science .

Nhung danh tir nay thuong kh6ng dung so nhieu (xem ghi chu cu6i bai).

II. QUY TAC CHUNG vB CACH DUNG

A. Mao tii dung voi danh tii chi cai dem dude

So' it So nhi~u
1. Ntu n6i chung, dung Neu noi chung, khong c6 mao tu
a,an
a dog is an animal. Dogs are animals.
a chair is a thing. Chairs are things.
a child must obey his parents. Children must obey their parents.
2. Neu chi mot cai, mot dan vi Thuang dung vai tinli tit chi s6
dung a, an luang: some, many, a [eio, three ...
(Xem bai 8)
1 have a pen I have three (many, some ... ) pens
There is an English book in There are many (some ... ) English
my bookcase. books in my bookcase. 33

13. Ntu da xac dinb. dung the Neu ali xac dinli dung the

I want the Look on your desk. I want the books on your desk.

The picture on the wall is The pictures on the wall are

beautiful. beautiful.

B. Mao tii dung v6'i danh tit chi cai k.ho ng delll du'{jc

So it

So nhieu

Ne'u noi chung

. Khong dung s6' nhieu

- Muon chi mot sf{ luang nao do co thd' dung tinh tit chi so' luang: some, much, a little... (xcm bai tinh tU chi s61u«;Ing).

I like coffee. There is some milk in that bottle.

(Tai thich uong cit phe) (Co mot it sua trong chai d6)

Water is composed of hydrogen I drink a little coffee.

and oxygen. (Toi u6ng met it ca phe)

(Nude g6m hidro va oxy)

1. Neu noi chung: - Kh6ng co mao tit.

Honesty is the best policy. (Trung thuc Ia chinh sach t6t nhat)

2. Ntu da xac dinh: dung the Khong dung s6' nhieu (xem ghi chu dcuOl bai)

I can't drink the coffee in this cup.

(T6i khangth~ uong thu ca phe trong tach nay)

The water In this basin IS very dirty.

34

(Nude d chau nay ra't ban)

The honesty of these people is admirable.

Su chan that cua nhiing ngudi nay th~t dang than phuc)

Bai t~p

1. D6i sang s{/ nhieu.

1. A chair is made of wood.

2. A cow gives milk.

3. A buffalo eats grass.

4. A fly is an insect.

5. A writer writes a book.

6. We fill our pen with ink.

7. We drink tea out of a cup.

8. We can make a cake with flour, milk and sugar.

9. A boy likes to play football.

10. A pen is necessary for a pupil.

2. Do'i sang s6' it

1. Horses are animals.

2. Balls are toys.

3. Tables are pieces of furniture.

4. Roses are beautiful flowers.

5. Cities are big towns.

6. Oranges are good to eat.

7. Children must go to school.

35

8. Grammar exercises are. not always easy for beginners.

9. Knives are made of metal. 10. Houses have roofs.

3. Di€n oao ch6 trang b6ng a, an, the, ho~c some khi can thilt.

L milk come from ... cow.

2 window is made of ... glass.

3 table is made of .. , wood.

4. We can write ... letter on ... paper.

5. We eat... soup with ... spoon.

6. I can write ... letter in ... ink or with pencil.

7. There is ... dirts on this plate and dirty mark on the

tablecloth.

8. I want..; glass of lemonade with ... sugar in it.

9. I like ... music very much.

10 doors of our room are broken.

11. man standing at the door is my brother.

12. I received ... letter this morning, ... letter was from my brother.

13 meat that we bought yesterday has spoiled.

14 birds can fly very high in ... sky.

Ghi nho:

a) Nhieu khi mot "danh tu khong de'm duoc'' co th~ nU<;1C dung nhu mot "danh tU dern duoc" (thuong la voi nghia d;;ic biet). Trang nhirng truong hop fly co th~ dung mao tU a, va khi b so nhieu co th~ them s.

Nghien cuu so sanh nhung diu sau day:

L I like to drink tea.

36

The teas of India arc of several varieties. (ngu y noi cac 109-1 t.ra cua An DQ)

2. What is democracy?

What is the difference between a republic and a democracy? (Ngu y mot nude thea che dQ dan chu)

3. Science has contributed much to human progress. (khoa hoc noi chung)

Would you call psychology a science? (mot b9 mon khoa hoc)

4. There isn't much water in this basin.

The territorial waters of Vietnam are defended by our navy. (vung bi~n cua Vi~t Nam)

b) Ngoai each dung chung, mao til bat dinh a con dude dung trong nhieu thanh ngit, d~c ngil va diu true d*c biet cua tieng' Anh, can h9C CI,l th~ qua bai kh6a, khong neu het trong bai nay duoc,

Thi du:

as a rule, in a hurry, all of a sudden.

with a view to, have a drink, go for a walk. what a pity, such a busy day, many a ship.

quite a lot of people, a Mr. Brown (mot 6ng Brown nao do) ...

37

alii 5

CACH DUNG M40 ruxAc DINH "THE" (Uses of Definite Article 'THE"

I. DUNG "the"

Quy t~c

ThidV

l. V6i danh tu dii duoc The clock on the wall is keeping very xac dinh ro rang; bat cu good time.

trong truong hop nao The man that came here yesterday is a doctor.

Nam is the most diligent of all the boys in my class.

I can't bear the heat of summer. This is the book that I promised to lend you. He was born on the 10 th of January. Once upon a time there was an old man who lived in a cottage.

The cottage was on the border of a river and the old man had lived there all his life.

2. V6i nhirng danh ttl chi The sun rises in the East and sets in vat co tinh chat "duy the West.

nhat"

The Earth moves round the sun.

3.Voi nhfrng danh tu so The U.S.S.R; The Unit.ed Kingdom; nhieu chi ten nude (va The United States; The Congo; The mot vai truong h9P so it) Netherlands.

38

4. Voj ten song, day nui, The Mekong; the Alps; the Black Sea;
dai duong, vinh, eo bien, the Atlantic; the West Indies, the
quan dao, Hebrides, the Straits of Gibraltar
5. Voi danh tU chi nhac She learnt to play the flute.
Cl,1.. She can play the piano well.
.---.-
6. VOl m9t tinh tu hoac Braille is a system of printing and
dong tinh tu dung lam writing for the blind.
danh tu (chi mot ti).p th~, We should help the sick and the poor.
mot loai nguoi), The wounded were carried away. II. KHONG DUNG ~O TV the

Quy tac Thi du Nhung van de dung l
the (neu aa xac dinh)
1. V oi mdt danh tU Mr. Nam went to I don't want the Mr.
rieng (proper noun) Haiphong yesterday. Nam who works at
ten nguoi, ten nude, Hanoi is the capital your office. I want the
ten thanh pho. of Vietnam other one (the other
Vietnam is a rich and Mr. Narn)
beautiful country
2. Voi nhirng danh Brave men never The independence and
tu truu tuong fear death. freedom of every country
(abstract noun) co Nothing is more must be respected.
nghia chung. precious than
independence,
freedom!
3. Vdi danh tu chi Rice IS grown every You may drink the
chat lieu (material where in our country. milk in this cup.
noun) co nghia Milk is necessary for
chung. children. 39

4. Voi nhirng danh President Ho Chi Minh The President of the
hi chi tiroc hieu, Professor John Bernal Democratic Republic
thea sau la ten of Vietnam.
nguoi,
5. Voi nhirng danh Lake Leman The lake of Lucern.
hi chi h6, ngon nui, Mount Everest The Cape of Good
nui, khi d~t li&n Cape Cod Hope.
truce ten rieng,
6. Vdi nhung danh She was born on Do you remember the
hi chi thang va March 14th, 1963; Sunday r spent with
ngay trong twin Sunday is my day-off. you?
7. V6i nhirng danh We learn history. We learn the history of
tu chi cac rnon hoc, She can speak English Greece.
ngon ngu, mau sac, well. r like the green of your
I like green. dress.
8. Vbi nhung danh Books are my best The books on the table
tu cu th~ so nhieu friends. are rmne.
ngu y chung
9. Trong mot so To go to church, to go to school, to go to bed,
thanh ngir to go to market, to stay at home, to be in
debt, to be in trouble, at dawn, at daybreak,
at sunset, by land, by sea, by air, on foot ... Biti t~p

1. ou« iuu» ch6 tnfng b&ng a, an, the khi can thiel.

1. ... Mekong is the longest rivet in Indo-china.

2. Tomorrow, there will be ... lecture on ... history of China.

3. '" Washington is ... capital of... United States of America.

40

1. I can't bear ... heat of summer.

5. His daughter was born on ... 20th of January.

6. That ship is bound for ... Philippine Islands.

7. This is ... finest diamond that I have ever seen. S. Do you know where ... Caroline Islands are'?

9 .... Tunisia is located in ... North Africa.

10. ... Professor N am was elected Chairman of... Chemical

Society of Vietnam.

11. Never before has ... Red River been so swollen with flood. 12 .... Lake Hoan Kiem is smaller than ... Lake Ba Be.

13. She wants to learn .... Russian before she goes to ... Soviet Union.

2. Chiia nhimg diu dudi day khi cdn thiet.

1. The brave men are never afraid of the death.

2. The Italy has many ancient buildings.

3. Wool of this carpet is soft and thick.

4. The cotton does not grow well in North.

5. World war which began in 1914 lasted four years.

6. Peoples of Asia and Africa arc fighting for freedom and

independence of their countries.

7. I have strongest objection to your plan. S. Wise and good are always admired.

9. Paris is capital of the France.

10. Pacific Ocean separates Asia from America.

11. Earth moves round sun.

12. He goes to the school every morning.

11

13. He got up at the dawn to learn his lesson.

M()T VAl DIEM CAN GHI NHO THEM VE CACH DUNG M~O TUthe

a) The duoc dung iniac danh tU rieng chi': - Gia dinh, ho, dong ho:

The Smiths, the Stuarts. - T6 chuc chinh dang:

The United Nations, the Communist Party . . Van kien, su kien lich sli:

The Paris Agreement, the Second World War. - Baa chi:

The Times, the Guardian. - Tau be:

The Queen Mary (tau Queen Mary) The M.LG 21 (may bay Michs 21)

- Khach san, cau lac b9, rap hat, rap chieu bong:

The Ritz HoLel, the Royal Theatre. The Odeon Cinema.

b) the con duoc dung trudc tinh til (J dang 50 sanh cao nhat:

The best student in this class.

va truce tinh tU 6 dang so sanh hon trong mot so aile ngir:

The more the merrier,

the sooner the better V.v ... (xern them bai 7)

42

CHVONG BON TINH TO' (Adjectives)

81116

TiNH TU MIEU TA. (Descriptive Adjectives)

I. cAe LO~I TiNH TU

Hi~u thea nghia rong, tinh til g6m nhidu loai nhu sau:

1. Mieu d. (descriptive adjectives): square, good, golden, fat, heavy, dry, clever, English.

2. Chi dinh (demonstrative adjectives): this, that, these, those.

3. Bat dinh (indefinite adjectives): each, every, either,

neither, some, any, no, few, many.

4. S6tU (numeral adjectives): one, two, twenty ...

5. Nghi van (interrogative adjectives): which, that, whose ...

6. sa hfiu (possessive adjectives): my, your, his, her, its, our,

their.

7. Mao tU (articles): a, an, the. Chu y:

Nguoi ta thuong dung chu tinh tl£ thea nghia hep IS. tinh ttl: mieu ta. D6 IS. n(>i dung cua chuong nay. M:;l.0 tU da gioi thi~u 6 ba

43

bai trudc, con cac I09-i tinh LU khac h9C chung voi dai tU trong chuong sau vi cluing thuong vita 1;\ dai tit vita la tinh til.

II. QUY TAC CAU T~O TiNH Tit

Duai day Iii mot 50 quy tic chinh ve cau tao.

a) Tinh tit don:

Noun + y rain + y =ramy
cloud + y = cloudy
Noun + ly day + ly = daily
man + ly = manly
Noun + ful care + ful == careful beauty + ful = beautiful Noun + less: care + less = careless home + less = homeless

Noun + en

gold + en

= golden

wooll + en = woollen

Noun or

Adjective + ish: girl + ish = girlish book + ish = bookish white + ish = whitish

Noun + some: quarrel + some = quarrelsome trouble + some = troublesome

b) Tinh tit ghep (compound adjectives) Adjective + adjective:

a dark - blue coat a red - hot iron bar Noun + adjective:

srt.ou) - white cotton

44

the oil - rich Middle East Noun + participle (present or past):

a horse - drawn cart

a heart - breaking story Adjective + participle (present or past): ready - made clothes

a good - looking boy Adverb + participle (present or past):

a newly - built house an ill - smelling odour Noun + noun-ed:

a tile - roofed house Adjective + noun-ed

a dark - haired girl

A group of words:

a twenty - year - old girl an eight - day trip

an air - to - air missile

a neuer - to - be - forgotten story

Bai t~p

1. Tim nhiing tinh tit tiatng l1ng uoi nhilng tit dudi clay:

rain, sun, mud, wind, fog, gold, wonder, cheer, wool, wood, pain care, beauty, child, cloud, storm, woman, boy, mother, father, day, month, week.

2. Thay the' being tinh tit ghep 1. A house with yellow walls.

MQt ng6i nha co tuong mau yang.

~. A dress of the same blue as the sky.

45

M<)t chiec ao xanh nhu rnau trdi. 3. A man in a black coat.

MOt nguoi dan ong mac 8.0 khoac den. 4. Flowers which smell sweet.

Hoa co huong diu ngot.

5. A plough drawn by oxen. Cay do bo keo,

6. A country which produces tea .. Mot nude san xuat che.

7. A face as white as the moon. M9t khuon mat trang nhu trang. 8. A girl whose hair is long.

M9t co gai toe dai.

9. A man with one leg.

M9t nguoi dan ong cut chan. 10. A drawing made by hand. M<)t buc ve bang tay,

III. V1 TRi vA CHUC NANG CVA TINH TU

LCii ghi:

Tinh tu tieng Anh kh6ng thay dbi. N6 chi co mot dang doi vdi

danh tu so it, so nhieu, giong cai, giong due, giong trung .... a good boy: good boys

a good girl: good girls

a good knife: good kives

Tinh tu co th~ dung lam tinh ngir (attributive use) hoac be; ngit (predieative use).

46

A. Lam tinh ngu

Quy tde co ban: Khac udi tieng Vi?t khi dung lam tinh ngi1

tinh. tii tiitng Anh thuimg baa gid ding dung truac danh til.

This is a new car. It is a hot day.

Nam will become a good worker.

Nhi1ng truimg lutp di;c biet

a) Dung sau mot + A river two hundred kilometers long. nh6m til ngu y do M<)t con song dai hai tram cay so.

Iuong + A road fifty feet wide.

Mot con dUdng rong narn rnuoi Iut. + A man eighty-five years old.

MQt nguoi dim ong' tam mud] lam tu6i.

b) Dung sau: + I'll tell you something new.

something, anything, Toi se noi cho anh biet digu mdi,

nothing, everything + That is nothing new.

Khong c6 gi moi,

+ He'll provide everything necessary. Anh ay so cung cap rnoi thu can thiet,

c) Dung sau danh tU + I want a glass full of milk. khi can phai co 111(Jt Toi muon mot cOc sua t!~y. nh6m til b6 nghia eho + He is a man greedy of money.

no ,

Anh ta la 11191 nguoi dan ong ham tien.

+ All these are matters «crtiiy of attention.

Tat ca nhfrng dieu nay Iii nhitng van M dang chu y.

L_ ___J_...:.:.:::=~:.::..=__"_.:_ ~~ ---'

17

Anh ay co khu6n mat gay go va met rnoi nhung hang hai va quyet liet.

d) Trong truong hop + He is a man both witty and wise.

dung nhieu tinh tit Anh ay la mot nguoi vua df dam vira hop voi mot danh tit khon ngoan.

co th~ d~t d dang sau + He had a face thin and worn, but eager and resolute.

B. Lam b6 ngii'

Tinh tit lam h6 ngii khi n6 ket hop vdi mot d(ing tit lam thanh vi ngu (predicate) cua diu. N6 thudng di sau cac dong tit to be, to become, to turn, to remain. to fall, to keep ... (voi nghia: la, trd nen, lam cho, v.v ... ).

It is cold, wet and windy. Troi lanh, iitm udt va c6 gio. Nam has asleep.

Nam dB. ngu.

That horse went lame. Can ngua ay que.

N6 cung c6 th6 di sau ell dong tit va tan ngu d6 lam h6 ngu

eho tan ngu nh u:

The sun keeps us warm.

Mat troi lam cluing ta am. This doesn't make me happy.

Dieu d6 khong lam cho toi sung sudng. (Di~m nay se hoc them 6 phan II)

48

Bai t~p

t.es ghi:

Hfru hc't cac tinh tU c6 th~ dung duoc d d. hai chuc nang, tinh ng11 va b6 ngtr, tru mot so it chi dung lam b6 ngu, nhu:

asleep, afraid, awake, alone, aware, alive, afloat, ashamed. (Hau het nhung tinh tit nay d~u biit d:1u bang tign to: a)

3. Di;it tinh tiL di trong ngoiic dan d nhitng diu duoi day cho

aungch6.

1. Bring me something to drink (cool).

2. The leaves turn in Autumn (yellow).

3. Woullen clothes keep our bodies (warm).

4. Shelley is poet (famous all over the world).

5. I thought him very (intelligent).

6. Ping-pong is sport for boys and girls (good).

7. I have nothing to give you (interesting).

8. The corn waved in the wind (ripe, golden).

9. Vietnam is a country (rich and beautiful).

10. I found him still in his bed (asleep).

11. Constant rain kept the river (full).

12. Wealth doesn't make man (happy).

13. She has a basket of flowers (full).

14. Isn't she a girl (pretty)?

15. Aren't these oranges (delicious)?

16. Isn't the boy (clever)?

IV. TINH TlI DUNG LAM DANH TV'

Ttnh tit co th~ dung lam danh til trong mot so truong hop,

49

Thi du:

We should do everything to help the poor.

Chung La nen lam moi thu d@ giup dB nguoi nghco. The old and the sick should be looked after.

Nhung ngtroi gia va nguoi 6m nen ducc cham soc, Tinh chat cua nhirng tit nay 19.:

a) Thuong co gia tri s6 nhieu (chi mot 109-1 nguoi), nhung

kh6ng bao gid co s. Bao gid cung co m9-O tir the dung truce.

Thidlf

A blind man is unhappy (mot nguoi mil ... ) The blind are unhappy (nhfrng nguoi mil .. .) b) Kh6ng dung dU<;1c vdi each s6 hiru. Thidlf

The wisdom of the old (khong th~ viet: The old's wisdom)

aAI7

QUY TAC SO SANH CVA TiNH TTl (Comparison of Adjectives)

I - SO SANH BANG (Comparison of Equality)

Cau khang as + adj + as 'Nam is as tall as Ba.
dinh va cau • Nam cao bang Ba .
hoi. Is Nam as tall as Ba?
Nam co cao bang Ba kh6ng?
Cau phu dinh not so + adjective + Narn is not so tall as Van,
as Nam kh6ng cao bang Van. 50

Bai t~p

1. Ap dung quy tac so sdnh: b&ng u ong nhiing cau sau day.

1. The moon is not ... the sun (bright).

2. Is the moon ... the sun (bright)?

3. There are days in JUly as in August (many)?

4. Are there days in July as in August (many)?

5. Autumn is Summer (pleasant).

6. Is Summer Autumn (pleasant)?

7. Our teacher is ... he looks (severe).

8. It is ... today as it was yesterday (hot).

9. Are you your friend (strong)?

10. Is she her sister (careful)?

2. D(/i nhiing cau sau day sang dang phil dinh:

1. Winter is a pleasant. as Spring.

2. Butterflies are as useful as bees.

3. There are as many insects in Spring as in Summer.

4. It is as cold today as it was yesterday.

5. He made as many mistakes as Narn.

6. She is as careful as her brother.

7. She gave me as much milk as I wanted.

8. Hanoi is as large as Moscow.

Chuy:

Nhan xet each viet nhimg diu duoi day:

1. Viet nhu tren 13. dung quy tiic ngir phap, nhung doi khi t.rong thuc te nguoi ta van viet: He did not make as many mistakes as N am.

51

2. Trang cau nghi van phil dinh vin thucng dung as ... as. Aren't you as strong as your brother?

II. SO SANH KEM (Comparison of Inferiority)

... less = adjective + than ...

English is less difficult than Russian. 'I'ieng' Anh khong kh6 bang tieng Nga,

Tuy nhien dang "not so ... as" thudng duoc dung han dang tren:

English is not as difficult as Vietnamese.

Y trong cau: "he is less stupid than I thought he was" co th~

di~n b~ng hai each khac hay han:

- He is not so stupid as I thought he was. Anh ta kh6ng ngu nhu toi nghi,

- He is cleverer than I thought he was. (Xem muc So sanh han)

Bili t~p

3. Viet lai nhiing ctiu. dudi day cho hay han (nhftng cau dudi

kh6ng hay):

1. Your house is less near than I thought it was.

2. A train is less quick than a bus.

3. This street is less wide than the next one.

4. Nam is much less intelligent than his sister.

5. February is less hot than July.

6. Ready-made clothes are less expensive than tailor-made clothes.

52

7. The hill is less low than I thought it was.

8. My aunt is less old than you think she is.

9. The river was less shallow than he expected. 10. The sea was less smooth than I had hoped.

III. SO SANH HdN (Comparison of Superiority)

'I'inh til ngan (mot adj + er + than Van is taller than Ba.
hoac hai am ti€t) Van cao hon Ba.
'I'inh til dai more + adj + than English is more difficult
than Vietnamese.
Ti€ng Anh kh6 hon tieng
Vi~t. Ghi nhCi:

1. Chu Y each viet mot so tfnh tir i5 dang so sanh hen: a) heavy ~ heavier, happy - happier.

y sau phu am chuyen thanh ier:

b) hot - hotter, big - bigger.

Tinh tu: tan cung b~ng mot nguyen am + mot phu am khi chuyen sang so sanh hon thi them mot ph.u. am + er:

2. C6 mot so tfnh tu: co dang so sanh hen d$.c biet

Dang thuong Dang so sanh hen dac biet
Good (well) better
Bad (ill) worse
Little less (lesser)
Many
more
Much 53

farther
Far
further
Old older
elder
later -
Late
latter Sai t~p

4. Ap dung quy tde so srinh han, d(tt diu viii nhftng tit dudi day:

1. Leaf, wood (heavy)

2. Boys, girls (strong)

3. Highway, country road (narrow)

4. A train, a bus (slow)

5. A story-book, a school-book (interesting)

6. Nam, his brother (industrious)

7. Nam's work, Van's work (good)

8. Lan, Huang (old)

9. This exercise, the last one (difficult) 10. Summer, spring (hot)

NHUNG CHI TIET DANG GHI NHO THEM VE TfNH TiT (j D~G SO SANH HdN

1. Vdi nghia: Cang ngay .... cang (double comparative)

Tinh tir ngan adj + er and adj + er Days are getting shorter
and shorter. Ngay cang
ngay cang ngan di.
Tinh tit dai more and more + adj Our lessons become more
and more difficult. Bai
h9C cua chung t6i cang
. ngay cang kh6 hon .
-_ 54

- The weather is getting colder and colder. Thrri tiet ngay mot lanh hem.

" In the Autumn the days grow shorter and shorter and the nights longer and longer.

Vao mua thu ngay cang ngay cang ngan hem va dern cang

ngay cang dai hall.

- The story seems more and more interesting. Cau chuyen hinh nhu ngay mot thu vi han.

2. Chii Y each dung tinh til dang so sanh han trong nhung

cau dudi day:

a) The higher the sun (is), the shorter the shadow. M<1\.t troi cang cao, bong cang ngan,

b) The lower the sun (is), the longer the shadow. M<1\.t troi cang xuong thsp, bong cang dai ra. The more the merrier.

Cang dong cang vui.

b) The other day I went to the theatre. The play seemed the fi T!er tn me as I had never seen it before.

Hom no toi di tdi nha hat. D6i vdi toi, vb kich duong nhu lai cang hay han, nhu truce day tai chua xern baa gio.

I am reading a curious book, it seems the more interesting to me as it is the first time I read it.

Toi dang doc mot cuon sach dfty to mo. D6i voi toi lai cang ly t.hii han vi 13. l§.n d§.u tien toi duoc doc.

3. Tinh tit d dang so sanh co th~ dung mot mirih (khong di vdi than).

- Vdi mot danh tit hoac "one":

I want a better job,

55

Toi muon mot cong viec t6t hon.

This box is too small, give me a bigger one. Cai hop nay nho qua, cho Wi mot cai IOn hen.

- Lam b6 ngir

He is better now.

Bay gio anh f[y da kha hon, It is warmer this morning. Sang nay troi am han.

- Sau mot danh tit hoac dai tU (d~ lam b6 ngu eho tan ngu) They have made the house bigger.

H9 da lam eho ngdi nha IOn han.

You must keep your room cleaner.

Anh phai gitr eho phong cua anh sach han.

Trong tilt ea nhung truong hop trim dgu eo ngu y so sanh tuy khong noi ra.

4. MQt sO' tinh tU nhu: senior, junior, superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, ban than chung da ngu y so sanh hon, nen khong them "more", va thea sau Ia "to" chu khong phai "than".

I amjunior to him.

Toi nho tu6i han anh ay.

His strength is superior to me. Sue cua anh fly IOn han sue toi.

IV. SO SAN" CAO NHAT (Superlative of Superiority) Loi ghi:

Quy t:ic so sanh bang, han, kern chi duoc ap dung khi muon so sanh mot ngtroi (hoac met vat) vdi mot nguoi (hoac mot vat) khac, giua hai llgudi (vat) voi nhau.

56

Khi muon so sanh mot nguoi (hoac mot vat) vdi ta"t ca. trong nh6m thi dung quy tac "so sanh cao nhat",

1. So sarih cao n h at,

Tinh tU ngan the + adj + est February is the shortest month of
the year.
Thang hai Iil thang ngiin nhfft
trong nam.
Tinh tti dai the most + adj He is the most diligent of all the
boys in my class. N6 la h9C sinh
sieng nang nhat lop toi. Thi du:

This is the largest room of the house. Autumn is the finest season of the year. He is the tallest boy in my class.

This is the most difficult of our lessons.

2. So sanh kern nhat (Superlative of Inferiority).

Tat ca. the least + Ba is the least tall of the family. Ba thap
cac tinh + nhat (kern cao) nhat trong nha.
tti adjective + She is the least diligent girl in my class.
Co a"y lil h9C sinh kern sieng nang nhat
trong lop toi. Chity:

Trong thuc te dang so sanh kern nhat it dung. Bang tren co tinh chat gidi thieu d~ biet.

Ghi chit:

1. Co mot so' tinh tU 2J dang so sanh cao nhat khong theo quy tac trim (xem muc So sanh hon)

57

D9.ng thuong Dang so sanh hon Dang so sanh cao nhat
Good (well) hetter best
Bad (ill) worse worst
Little less (lesser) least
Many
more most
Much
farther farthest
Far
further furthest
older oldest
Old
elder eldest
later latest
Late
latter last 2. Trong diu dung tfnh til d dang so sanh cao nhat thuong

dung in va of"

- in trudc nhung danh tU chi noi chon hay thoi gian,

- of"trong ta't ca cac truong hop,

Thi du:

February is the shortest month of" the year (in a year). Thang hai 130 thing ngan nha't trong nam.

Steel is the most useful of all metals.

Bai t~p

5. A.p dung quy tile so sdnh. cao nhdt viet nhung cau dum day

1. Summer is (hot) month in a year.

2. Autumn is (pleasant) season of the year.

3. Nam is (intelligent) of Mr. Minh's sons.

4. Ba is (bad) boy at English in my class.

58

5. Lomonosov is one of (great) Russian scientists.

6. He is (good) boy at mathematics in his class.

7. Van took (ripe) of all the oranges.

8. Lan is (pretty) of them all.

MQT vAl CHI TIET CAN GHI NHO THEM

1. Trong truong h0P so sanh mot nguoi (hoac mot vat) vdi ca. nh6m rna chi g6m c6 hai, ta v§.n dung dang so sanh han, co th~ dung truce.

She is the older and the more beautiful of the two sisters. Trong hai chi em, co fly 13. chi va dep han.

My right hand is the stronger one.

Tay phai cua toi 18. cai tay khoe hon.

2. Older va oldest: C6 nghia la "gia hem", "gia nhat", co th~

dung eho cil nguoi Iftn vat.

N am is older than Van. Nam nhieu tu6i hon Van.

Nam is the oldest boy in my class.

Nam HI. hoc sinh nhieu tu6i nhat lop toi. That is the oldest house in the city. D61a ngoi nha c6 nhat trong thanh pho.

Elder va eldest: Chi dung voi nguoi va d~ so sanh ve tu6i cua anh chi em trong mot gia dinh co nghia la: anh (chi) Ion, anh (chi) ca.

My elder brother is three years older than 1. Anh toi han toi ba tu6i.

Nam is Linh's elder brother.

Nam la anh cua Linh.

59

Lan is my eldest sister. Lan la chi d.

3. Farther va farthest: Thuong duoc dung M noi ve khoang

each, khong gian.

Haiphong is farther from Hanoi than Haiduong is. Hili Phong xa Ha N(>i hon Hili Duong,

Further va furthest: C6 th~ dung d~ noi ve khong gian, thdi

gian, va further con co nghia la "them vao'', "hon mra".

It's not further than a mile from here. N6 each day khong qua mot darn.

I will give you further details later. T6i se cung cap eho anh them chi tiet. I shall need further help with this.

T6i se dn 81,( giup da tiep tuc d6i vdi van M nay. 4. Most + tinh til.

Co th~ dung d~ dien ta "het sue", "ra't", "Him Him" ... Trong nhirng truong hop nay dung mao ttl a hoac khOng dung mao til (neu danh til so' nhieu).

He is a most diligent boy.

Nola m9t em be het strc can cu cham chi. He wrote me a most interesting letter.

Anh ta da viet cho t6i m9t buc thu rat hay. There are most delicious cakes.

Co nhung chiec banh ngot rat ngon lanh.

60

CHudNG NAM

f)~1 TV vA TINH TV

(Pronouns and Adjectives)

aAI8

, ".. ..? "'~ ,," "

TINH TUVA D~I TU CHI DINH, BAT DINH, SO TV

(Demonstrative and Indefinite Adjectives and Pronouns, Numerals)

I. GIOI THr¢u

Dai tU trong tieng Anh co nhieu loai, trong do c6 nhimg tU vua Iii dai til vua In tfnh til. Co th6 chia ra nhu sau:

1. Dai til chi ngoi (personal pronouns):

I, we, you, he ...

2. Dai til chi dinh (demonstrative pronouns):

This, that, these, those.

3. Dai tit bat dinh (indefinite pronouns):

Some, any, each, one, somebody, everything ...

4. So' til (numerals):

Two, a hundred, the first...

5. Dai tU nghi van (interrogative pronouns):

Who, what, which ...

6. Dai tit sd hfiu (possessive pronouns):

Mine, yours ...

7. Dai til phan than (reflexive pronouns):

Myself, yourself ...

61

8. Dai tU quan h~ (relative pronouns):

Who, which, that ....

Chuong nay se bin luot gioi thieu cac loai dai tU va tinh tu, tru tinh tU' mieu ta eta hoc d bai truoc.

II. TiNH TuvA D~ TU CHi DJNH

This, that, these, those

1. Tinh tit chi djnh

So it + This book is mine. + That book is yours.
Cuon sach nay la cua toi. Sach kia 19. ella anh.
Sfi nhieu + These books are mine. Those books are yours. Nh*n xet:

Tfnh tit chi dinh kh6ng thay d6i theo giong' (cai, due, trung). This hoy, these boys; That man, those men.

This girl, these girl; That woman, those women.

This book, these books; That house, those houses.

2. Dai tit chi djnh

Soit + This is my brother. + That is my friend.
Day la anh toi. Kia la ban toi.
- What is this? - What is that?
- It is a book. - It is a pen.
So nhieu These are my brothers. Those are my friends.
- What are these? - What are those?
- They arc books. - They are pens. 62

3. Dung vci dai tit one/ones

Co th~ dung "this, that, those" vdi "one Lones" (neu trong cau co ngu Y so sanh hoac chon lua).

Tuy nhien ding kh6ng bAt buoc tru truong hop co met tinh tir

di theo.

Thi du:

That chair is too big. I'll sit in this (one)

Cai ghe kia IOn qua. T6i se ngdi d (chiec) nay. Don't buy those oranges, buy these (ones).

Dung mua nhirng qua cam do, hay mua nhung qua nay. I want a dress. I'll buy this green one.

T6i can mi,'>t chiec vay. T6i se rnua cai mau xanh nay. You carry the heavy cases. I'll bring these light ones.

Anh mang nhung chiec vali nang. T6i se mang nhiing chiec nhe nay.

III. TINH TuvA D~I TU BAT DJNH 1. Each, every

o Each: M61 (trong hai hoac nhieu nguoi, vQ_t ... ) Each vira la tinh tU vua la dai tU.

o Every: MQi, blt ca (nguoi, vat ... ). Every chi duoc dung lam

tinh tir.

Sau "Each" va "Every", dong tu d ng6i thu ba so it. Thi du:

The teacher gave two books to each boy. Th:iy giao cho m6i c$.u hai quyen sach.

Two boys entered. Each (boy) was carrying a suitcase (every kh6ng dung duoc trong truong' hop nay).

Hai dua he trai di vao. M6i dua mang mot chiec vali.

63

This was a very long procession, every (each) man carrying a torch.

Day 18. mot dam rude rat dai, moi nguoi mang mot ngon duoc.

2. Everybody, everyone, everything

Everybody, everyone (rnoi ngudi, ai ai), everything (rnoi vat, moi thtr, moi diE~u) la dai tit. Tuy hum y so nhieu nhung dong tit luon luon d ngoi thu ba so ft.

Thi du:

Everyone (everybody) likes him .. M9i nguoi d~u thfch anh ay.

Everybody (everyone) who comes here admires the scenery. Tat ca. nhimg nguoi de'n day deu me phong canh nay.

I was late, everybody else was early.

T6i den muon, tat ca nhirng nguoi khac d~u de'n 8.6m. He told the news to everybody.

Anh ay noi eho moi ngu'di biet tin d6. Everything is in good order.

MQi thu deu dau vao day. Everything that he said was true. M9i dieu anh ay noi deu dung.

He thinks he knows everything.

Anh fly nghi anh ay biet tat ca ..

3. Either, neither

Either, neither vita la tinh til: vita 13. dai til: a) Either: mot trong hai (nguoi, vat)

Thi du:

You may go by either road.

Ban co th~ di thea mot trong hai con duong.

(Bang mdt trong hai con duong, hoac con dudng nay, hoac con ducng kia, ca hai deu duoc)

64

There are shops on either side. (Co cua hieu d ca hai ben duong) (0 ca ben nay l~n ben kia, d ca. hai ben duong' deu co cira hieu) You can take either of these roads to the village.

Ban co th~ di mQt trong hai can duong nay tdi lang do. (M(_)t trong hai con duong)

Do you like either of these? - No, I don't like either, (Ban co thich ca. cai nay l§.n cai kia khong") - kh6ng thich ca. hai.

no ... ei.ther co nghla "cling khong" (either 18. pho tit, tuong

duong vdi too trong diu khang' dinh), Thi du:

He is not an artist. I am not an artist, either. Anh ay khong phai la nghe si. T6i cling kh6ng. If you don't go, I shall not either.

Ne'u anh kh6ng di, toi cling khong di,

b) Neither + d9ng tit d dang khang dinh = either + dQng ttl phu dinh.

I like neither = I don't like either. T6i khong thich cai nao ca. I can't agree in either case::::: TOi khOng th~ d:6ng y vdi c3. hai

truong hop,

I can not agree in either case.

T6i kh6ng th~ d5ng y vdi truong hop nao he-to

Neither hay duoc dung d dl1u diu va c6 th~ dung mot minh

trong cau tra loi cho mot cau hoi.

Neither of them was any good. Which did you buy? - Neither.

Ca hai deu khong t6t. Anh rnua cai nao? ChAng cai naoca. Neither of the books is of use to me. Which will you have? -

Neither.

65

4. Some, any, no

a) Some, any, no: dung lam tinh tit

Co th~ dung ca vdi danh tit chi vat dern duoc (countable noun) va danh tit chi vat khong dern duoc (non - countable noun).

QUY TAC CO BAN

hll. Some-d--u·-n-g-t--ro-n--g-c-a-u-k-h--i:-n-g'A-~jn-y-d-un-g-t-r-o-n-g-c-a-u-p·-h--u--dtnh,

dinb nghi van. No = not any.

I have some books. I have not any books.

There is some milk in the glass. I have no book.

Have you any books?

There is not any milk in the glass.

There is no milk in the glass. Is there any milk in the glass?

2. Some co th~ dung trong cauAny duoc dung sau "hardly",

[hoi: "barely", "scarely" va "it"

,

I·a~. Khi .ng\l if moi I119C, yeu cau, I,have hardly any money.

de nghi, 1 here arc scarcely any flowers

!Will you have some tea? in the garden.

IWill you have some wine? If I find any of your hooks, I'll

Will you carry some of these send them Lo you.

Icases for Ill:: plea~e? , . If you have any difficulty, ask

b) KIll nguoi La don truce, doan me for help.

ICh:'l.c hoac mong doi cau tra IdiiAny trong cau khang dinh I"con• thuong co nghia la b£{t cu (nguoi IDid you put some matches in nao, cai gi? ... )

!your pocket'? (ngu if chac la anh You can take any hook you like co mang mC)t iL diem Lrong Lui from my bookcase. (Anh co th& roi chu") lay bat eli cuon sach nao anh

Lhich tren gia sach cua toi),

66

b) Some, any, one dung HU11 dai tir

Loi ghi:

No khong dung lam dai tu ducc, phai dung none. None e6 th~ dung cho ea nglidi l!in vat,

tu a«

I like these roses, please, give me some.

Toi thich nhiing bong hong nay, lam On eho toi vai bong. I want t.o buy some flowers, I haven't any in my garden.

Toi muon mua vai bong hoa, trong vuon Wi khong co hhng

nao,

I want some tea, have you any? Toi muon uring tra, anh co khong?

He wants some more coffee but there was none left. Anh fiy muon uong them ca phe nua nhung kh6ng con. None of his pupils failed their examination.

Khong co hoc sinh nao cua ong thi truot.

c) Any dung lam pho tir.

Thi du:

I am sorry to say, he isn't any better. I couldn't come any sooner.

5. Nhirng ttl tao bdi some, any, nQ:

l

I !

Someone; somebody; something Anyone; anybody; anything

No one; nobody; nothing

cling thea quy t.ac co ban t.ren.

67

Anyone, anybody, anything dung trong cau phil dinh va:

not anyone = no one

not anybody = nobody

not anything = nothing

There isn't anyone in the room. (anybody)

There is no one in the room. (nobody)

Is there anyone in the room? (anybody)

There is something I want to There is not anything I want to

ask you. ask you.

There is nothing I want to ask

"barely", "scarcely", "if",

There is hardly anything left his bag.

H you have anything difficul in your work, ask me for help. Duoc dung trong cau khang dinh. Anyone, anybody: bat Cll ai. Anything: bat cu cai gi,

b} Khi nguoi ta d6n truce, doanAnybody can show you the way. chac hoac mong doi cau trii Idi You can take anything you like.

1. Someone, somebody, something: dung trong cau khang dinh

There is someone (somebody) in the room.

2. Someone, somebody; something co th~ dung trong cau hoi:

a) khi ngu y moi moe, yeu c£u, d~ nghi:

Would you like to drink something?

Will you ask someone to carry this bag for me, please!

"co":

Is someone coming this afternoon? (nIN y chac 1a co ai de'n)

Have you lost something? (ngu ~y chac la co mat cai gt ... )

68

you.

Is there anything you want to ask me?

Anyone, anybody, duqc dung sau

anything "hardly",

Chuy:

Somewhere, anywhere, nowhere la nhirng pho tU chi noi chon

cimg ducc dung theo quy t~c nhu tr en.

Thi du:

They went somewhere after supper. They didn't go anywhere after supper. They went nowhere after supper. Didn't they go anywhere after supper? Have you seen him before somewhere?

(ngu y chac chan la anh da gap han ta d dau),

Bai t~p

-,

1. Die'n vao chJ trr5'ng b6ng "some", "any", "one/ones".

1. Go and ask him for ... more paper, I haven't... in my desk.

2. I can't eat ... more potatoes, but I should like ... more beans.

3. There is ... tea in the kitchen, but there isn't... milk.

4. You must tell us ... more of your adventures.

5. I asked him for. .. soap, but he hadn't ...

6. I've lost my pencil. Have you ... to lend me?

7. Don't make ... noise. He wants to get ... sleep.

8. Are there ... more books? I've read all those old ...

9. I doubt if there is ... tea left. You'd better give me ... hot

water.

10. If I find ... of your books, I'll send them to you.

11. Will you have ... more vegetables?

12. Did you go .. where last night?

13. You're expecting ... one to call, aren't you?

69

14. Can you give me ... more information?

1.5. These aren't my books. Did I take ... of yours by mistake?

16. Have you read ... good books lately?

17. We have ... new shirts in today. Do you want to buy ... ?

This blue ... is very nice.

18. There are scarcely ... flowers in the garden. 19 .... student Can answer the question.

20. Come ... day you like.

21. You must give an excuse for not going ... excuse will do.

2. Vi(,t lai nhitng ctiu. duiti day, thay the'dt:;mg "No ... " bring

dr;tng "not ... any".

1. I have no time to help you.

2. r can see my hat nowhere.

3. There was nobody in the garden.

4. He can see nothing to drink.

5. He gave me nothing to drink.

6. They found nobody at home.

7. I've been nowhere t.his summer. S. We met nobody on the way back.

9. He gave me no ink, so I could write no more. 10. I'll give it to nobody else.

3. Dung "nothing", "nobody", hotic "no one", "nowhere",

"neither", "none" de'tTd liti phu dinh nhiaig ciiu hoi sau day:

Chuy:

Dung "neither" trong truong hop c6 hai nglidi, vat. Dung "none" trong tntdng hop co nhieu ngudi, vat,

70

Thi du:

How many books are there on the table? - None.

Which of these two books have you read? - Neither.

1. What is on the table?

2. Where are you going?

3. What are you doing?

4. What do you want?

5. How many exercises have you done today?

6. Who is in the dining room?

7. How many of these are mine?

8. Where did you go last night?

9. Which foot have you hurt?

10. Which of the two girls is your sister'?

11. Which of these two hats is mine'? ] 2. What are you thinking about?

13. Who told you to do that?

14. How many fish did you catch?

6. Many, much, few, little a) Many, much

- Many dung voi danh tu chi Cal dem duoc (countable noun)

- Much dung vrri danh tu chi cai khong dem duoc (non

countable noun).

ru a«.

I haven't much time.

Toi kh6ng co nhieu thi gid.

71

There is not much sugar in the sugar bowl. Khong co nhieu duong trong 19.

How many English books are there in your bookcase? Trong tu cua anh co bao nhieu sach tieng Anh?

Many va much co th~ dung lam dai til

Thi du:

You have plenty of petrol but I haven't much. Anh c6 nhieu xang nhung t6i khong co nhieu. Nam got lots of letters but An didn't get many.

Nam nhan duoc nhieu thu nhung An kh6ng nhan duoc nhieu. Trong 16i n6i thong thuong (j nhii:ng cau khang dinh nguoi ta

thuong thay: much va many bang' a lot of, lots of, a large quantity, plenty of, a good deal of d?c biet much rat it duoc dung trong cau khang dinh.

Thi du:

There is plenty of sugar in the sugar bowl. Co nhieu du'dng trong 19 duong.

He has done a good deal of research on that subject. Anh fly nghien cuu nhieu ve van dg d6.

He will have a lot of time to spare when he has finished his

work.

Khi xong viec anh ay se co nhieu thi giCi ranh. She has a lot of hens.

Ba fly co nhieu ga maio

There are plenty of chairs for everyone. C6 nhieu ghe du cho rnoi nguoi,

72

Chliy:

MQt so chi tiet can nhd them - N glidi ta khong noi:

He has much time; tuy ve ngli phap kh6ng c6 gi sai; nhung thong thuong nguoi ta noi:

He has a lot of time.

He has a lot of hens thuong hay duoc noi hon 130: he has many hens.

- Tuy nhien sau "so, too, as, how" nguoi ta v5.n phai dung

much va many trong nhirng cau khang dinh.

Thi du:

He has so much money.

Anh fly co nIt nhieu tien. (Anh a'y co nhieu lien den the) There are too many mistakes in your exercises.

Cac bai tap cua anh co qua nhieu 16i.

He has drunk too much beer.

Anh fly da uong qua nhieu bia.

You can have as much sugar as you want. Anh co th~ dung nhieu duong nhu anh mucn, - Much c6 th~ dung lam pho tu (adverb).

Thi du:

+ He doesn't swim much. + I don't think much of it.

+ You must work much more carefully. - Many a (hen mot, nhieu)

Many a ship has (many ships have) been wrecked on those rocks.

7:1

+ I've been there many a time. b) Few, little

- Few dung voi danh tU dern ducc (countable noun)

- Little dung voi danh tit kh6ng dem duoc (no - countable

noun).

Few = not many; Little = not much;

Ca hai deu co nghia !a it, hau nhu khong e6 (ngu y phu dinh), Thi du:

Few people would agree with you. it nguoi se d6ng y vdi anh.

,

He has very little knowledge of the matter. Anh ay biet rat it ve van de nay.

- Few va Little c6 th~ dung Hun dai LU. Thi du:

Many people read Einstein's book but few understood it. Nhieu ngu'di doc sach ella Einstein nhung it nguoi hi6u dliqc

n6.

Few of my friends were there. it ban toi d d6.

We must keep what little we have. Chung ta phai giu cai it oi chung ta co.

The little of his work that I have seen is excellent. Mot chut bai cua cau ta toi cia xern la rat tot.

- A few va a little co nghia la 111Qt chut, mot it (ngu Y khang dinh)

A few dung voi countable noun.

74

A little dung voi non" countable noun.

Thi du:

We are going away for a few days. Chung ta se di vai ngay.

Only a few people could understand the Look. Chi mot it nguoi co th~ hi~u ducc cuon sach do. I would like a few more of these.

Toi muon them mot it nay nua.

He had only a little food and water. Anh fly chi con it thuc I'm va nude. He knows a little of everything. Anh ta bie't 1116i thu m(>t chut.

Chu y:

Little, a little c6 th~ dung lam ph6 tir (adverb). Thi du:

He slept very little last night. (Dern truce anh fly ngu rilt {O. I little thought that I could solve that problem (T6i khong

nghi la to: co th~ giai quyet duoc van dg do).

He is little better this morning (N6 dii kha hun mot chut sang nay).

This room is a little too largo (Can phong nay hoi qua rong).

Bili t~p

4. Dicng a lot of (lots of), plenty of, a large quantity of, a great deal of" de' viet nhiing ctiu. sau day (j dang A~hling dinh:

l. They haven't many friends.

2. He has not invited many people to his wedding-party.

75

3. My brother doesn't read many books.

4. You haven't got much time.

5. They didn't smoke many cigarettes.

6. There was not much dirt in the hall.

7. There are not many trees in the garden. B. He hasn't got much work to do.

9. The children don't make much noise. 10. I haven't seen many people there.

5. fJiln uao cdc chJ tr6ng b&ng few, a few, little, a little. 1. "Is there any tea left in the pot?"

- "Yes ... ".

2. "Do you smoke at all?" - "Yes, but very ... "

3. "Do you smoke at all?"

- "Yes ... "

4. He is a lonely man, he has ... friends.

5. He has ... friends who came to see him quite frequently.

6. He is a man of ... words.

7. Very ... people live to the age of one hundred.

8. We have very ... time left.

9. He made tea.

10. Give me more, please.

7. Mc}t so d~i tit va tinh tit ba't djnh k.hac

a) All (tat ca), Both (ell hai), Other (khac), Another (mot cai khac) ciing dung vua 19. dai tu vira Iii tinh tU

Hay nghien diu nhirng thi du sau:

76

Tinh tit D~i tit
All the money is spent. All is not lost.
All the boys have come. All are welcome.
They all agreed to this. All of them were happy.
Both men were strong. I have two brothers: both are
engineers.
I want the other books. Some people like tea, others like
coffee.
Please give me another pencil This pencil is broken, can you
lend me another? b) Each other va One another thuong diroc goi la dai tit tuong

h6 (reciprocal pronoun) VI no dien dat y "l~n nhau".

They looked at each other. H9 nhin nhau.

We should help one another. Chung ta nen giup dd Hn nhau.

IV. s6 TU (numerals) 1. So tit' co hai Ioai

86 de-m (cardinal numerals) one, two, twenty, fifty-six, a
dozen, a hundred, a thousand
and six.
86 thu t\,i (ordinal numerals) the first, the eighth, the forty-
second, the hundredth. Chity:

. S6thli tu cau tao bang each them th van sau so dern, tru cac so 1 (first), 2 (second), 3 (third) cung nhu so ghep vdi chung nhu 21 (twenty-first...).

77

- Co nhirng trirong hop chirih til bien deli nhu: nine-ninth, twenty-twentieth (y = iei.

2. Cach dung so tit

_. ____ 0_
a) Nhu tinhtu Five men, two hundred books, two dozen
eggs, the third lesson.
b) Nhu dai ttl He is the first to come. I want twenty of
them.
c) Nhu danh tu There are hundreds of people in the station.
Thousands of young men have joined the
-- army. SAI9

TINH TV, DAI Tit vA PH 6 TV' NG HI VAN

(Interrogative Adjectives, Pronouns and Adverbs)

I. WHO, WHO(M), WHOSE

Tit nghi van Cau hoi Jgau tra ldi Nhan xet
Who (ai)? Dlili Who IS at thel Nam is. Vi tri: ij driu
ttl chu ngu door'? cau hoi.
Who are those They are Dr.' D9ng ttl trong
boys'? Ban's sons. cau chin 6
Who broke: the Lan did. dang thuong
pencil'? (kh{mg dinh
Who can't Van can't. hoac phu dinh)
answer my
question? ---- 78

,_--- ... ---------,-------,----------r----- --_._

Tli nghi van Cau hoi _ Cau tra lui Nhan xet

Whotm)? Dai Who (m) did you I saw Narn. - C6 th6 dung

tu tan ngfi

Whose? ai)

1. Tfnh tu

2. D<;ii tu

see at the door'?

hoi;tc

speaking to?

Who (m) IS (He is speaking) - V~ trt: d diu

"whom",

Who (m) are They nrc

to the teacher. cau hoi.

DOng tu 6

Whose bicycle It is mine. is this?

Whose pen are Na m's. you using?

Whose

are They are yours.

Bai t~p

1. Dung "who", who(m), whose" diit diu hoi eho pluin III

nghieng cua nhung ctiu. sau. day:

1. My brother helps me in my work.

2. We are speaking English to our teacher.

3. The children are playing in the school-yard.

your children playing with trong Call chia 6

playing with? their friends. d<;mg nghi van.

(cua Whose books am They are Tan's. - Vi tri: d?t d

on the table? dAu call hoi.

- D(mg tit trong call chia d dang tlll.idng (kharig dinh hoac phu djnh) hay 6 dang nghi van tuv thea tirng trunng hop "Whose" di vdi danh tU lam chu

ngil hay danh t u lam tan ngtr.

'----_._---------"'-----------'----------'------------_ ... _._

these books'?

Whose IS this It's Lan's, bag?

79

4. He took his sons to the movies yesterday evening.

5. The pupils hats are on the shelves.

6. This is Lan's pen.

7. She must take Mrs. Minh '8 son to the kindergarden every

mornmg.

8. He went with his father to Haiphong yesterday morning.

9. Nam is writing on the blackboard.

10. Lan and Huong are Mrs. Minh's daughters.

II. WHAT

Tii nghi van Cau hoi Nhan xet

What (cai gi, What is on the table? - Vi tri: d$.t d dau cau hoi.

gi)? What has happened? - D<)ng tU trong cau chia theo 1. D9-i til chu What makes men dang thuong (khang' dinh

ng"U happy? hoac phil dinh).

What delayed you?

2. Dai til tan What are you doing? - V] tri: d~t d dilu cau hoi.

ngfi What did they eat? - Dong' til trong cau chia d What did they eat dang nghi van,

with?

What

are

they

speaking about?

3. Tinh til

What people live In - Vi tri: di,tt d dfiu cau hoi.

this country?

What city IS the capital of Vietnam?

- Dong' tU trongcau chia thea dang thuong (khang dinh hoac phil dinh).

80

b) Di vdi

a) Di vdi What books are these?

danh tit lam What foreign language chu ngil can help you most in

your study?

What foreign language must you learn at school?

What papers do you - Vi tri: d~t d dc1u diu hoi,

danh tit lam read? tan ngil.

- D9ng tit trong cau chia d dang nghi van,

Bili t~p

2. IJiin uao ch8 trifng biing "Who, Who (m), Whose, What".

1. went with you to Haiphong last week?

2 gave you those flowers?

3 is yours friend's name?

4 is wrong with the clock?

5 bus goes to Hadong?

6 river flows through Hanoi?

7 did you want to see?

8 can I do to help you?

9 pencil is this, Nam's or Lan's?

10 is the matter with him?

11. are they talking about?

12 hat is on the table?

13 school did she attend?

14 would you like to drink?

81

3. D{it cau. hoi cho phdn in nghieng cua nhiing cau sau day.

1. The boy learned many subjects at schooL

2. Mr. Minh taught me English.

3. The doctor told her to stay in bed.

4. That house is mine.

5. She has broken a glass.

6. I usually prepare my English lesson in the evening.

7. That tooth is hurting me.

8. I bought him. a present.

9. The prize for the competition was a handbag.

10. I like to read English novels.

11. Van has broken the window.

·12. He met his old friend at the theatre yesterday.

4. Viet lai nhitng cau sau day cho hap vdi lo'i noi thong thuimg (biing cdch. do'i Vf tri cua gidi tit).

Ghi nh&:

Trong truong hop dai tu: nghi van (whom, what ... ) di theo voi gidi tU, thong thuong khong nen d~ gidi tU d d:lu cau hoi trudc tu: nghi van,

Thi du: Khong nen noi:

To whom is he speaking?

About what are they speaking?

Nen noi:

Whom is he speaking to?

What are they speaking about?

1. About what are you thinking?

2. At what are they looking?

82

3. With what are you cutting your pencil?

4. For whom are you waiting?

5. With whom is he playing?

6. In what room shall I sleep?

7. From what library did you get this book?

8. To whom does she want to speak?

9. Of what is butter made?

MQT V AI D~NG CAU HOI VOl 'What" CAN GHI NHO THEM. 1. What ... for?

a) D~ lam gi (for what purpose).

What must you learn foreign languages for? Anh phai hoc ngoai ngil d~ lam gi?

What's this money for?

Ti€n nay d~ lam gi?

b) Tai sao (why)

What did you do that for? (co th~ hi~u 19.:

Anh lam cai do d~ lam gi? Tai sao anh lam cai d6?)

2. What + (to be) + like?

Dung d~ hoi v€ tink ckat hoac kink dang M ngoai. Co th~ dung d~ hoi ve ca nguoi, vat, su viec:

Tki du:

What was the weather like? 'I'hdi tiet ra sao?

83

· It was very wet and cold. Rat u'ot va lanh.

What was he like?

Anh ay la nguci the nao?

· He is a friendly sort of man. Anh ay la nguoi cdi md.

· He is a tall man with a black beard.

Anh fly 18. ngu'oi cao c6 hQ rau quai n6n den. So sanh cau hoi tren vdi cau:

What does he / it look like?

Cau nay ngu y hoi v€ hinh dang bg ngoai. Thi du:

What does he look like? Anh ay ngu'di nhu the' nao? · He is tall and thin.

Anh ay cao va g<ly.

What does it look like?

N6 ra lam sao?

- It is white and puffy.

No trang' va sung hup len.

III. WHICH

Ldi ghi: Which bao ham mdt su chon lua (co th~ dung d~ hoi ca. ngirci llin vat). So sanh each dung giua: who, what va which trong nhtmg cau sau day:

1.- Who do you want to speak to? (co tinh chat hoi chung chung)

84

- I want to speak to Mr. Minh.

- We have two Smiths here: which do you want? (ngu y trong

hai nguoi thi anh muon hoi ai?)

2 - What will you have to drink? (hoi chung chung) - Beer.

- There're beer, lemonade and milk, which will you have?

(ngu y lua chon trong ba thu, anh muon dung thu gi?) - Beer.

Cau hoi

Which

Tu nghi van

Which is the way to - Vi tri: d dfiu cau hoi.

1. Dai tu chu the station? - D9ng tit chia (j dang thuong

ngil Which is the longest (khang dinh hoac phil dinh), river in Vietnam?

Which of these books

is your favourite?

Which of my

questions can't you

answer?

2. Dai tit tan Which will you have, - Vi tri: d~t d dfiu cau hoi.

ngil tea or coffe? - DQng tit cau chia a dang Which of these pens nghi van.

may I use?

Which of them do you like to talk to?

3. Tinh tU

a) Di vdi

the station?

Which way leads to - Vi tri: d dfiu cau hoi.

- D(mg tu trong diu chia theo

danh tU lam Which book belongs dang thirdng;

. chu ngil. to you, this or that?

85

b) Di vdi danh tit lam tan ngu.

Which language do - Vi tri: d dflu diu hoi.

you like to learn, - D(>ng tit trong cau chia d English or Russian? dang nghi van.

Which doctor will you

visit, Dr. N or Dr. B?

Bili t~p

5. fJiin tuu» ch6 tr{{ng bang nhiing til nghi v6n"Who, Who(m),

What, Which":

1. boy won the first prize?

2 did he go with?

3 asked you to write this?

4 is the healthier place the country or the sea-side?

5 is the largest town in the world?

6 is the way to the factory?

7 of you can do this exercise?

8 picture do you prefer, this or that?

9 European language is the easiest to learn?

10 hat is yours, this or that?

11. has taken my pencil?

12 of these girls is the youngest?

86

IV. WHERE, WHEN, WHY, HOW

LUi ghi; Where, when, why, how d6u dung lamphO titnghi van.

TU nghi vfln Cau hoi

1. Where «(j dau) Where is your house? Ph6 tit nghi van Where are his books?

Where do you live? Where must he go?

Vi tri: (j dftu cau hoi. DQng tit chia (j dang nghi van.

2. When (khi nao) Pho tu nghi van

When are you at home? Vi tri: diilt d dftu cau

When do you usually get up? hoi.

When will you go to Moscow? Di?ng tit cau chia d dang nghi van,

Why must you work hard at nghi van. English?

3. Why (tai sao) Why are you so late?

PM tit nghi va'n. Why do you like this book?

4. How (the nao, How are you?

ra sao, Mng . Quite well.

ach ' ?)

cae nao. How did you come?

Ph6 tit nghi van. I came by plane

How can you

start the

engine? (by pressing this button)

How can he speak English? (very well)

Vi trf: d dftu cau hoi, DQng tU chia d dang

Vi tri: (j dftu cau hoi. DQng tit chia 6 dang nghi v{(n.

87

Ghi nho: MQt so diu hoi vdi "How"

Cau hoi

Cau tra ldi (co th~ diroc)

1. How + Many How much water do you

3. How + Adverb How fast does he drive?

much? (bao nhieu)

2. How + Adjective

How high is Mount Everest? - It is over five miles high.

- He drives at fifty kilometers an hour.

How often do you go - I go every year. abroad?

How long does it take you to - Twenty minutes. go to your office?

want?

How much does it cost? How many students are there in the room?

How tall are you How old is he?

How wide is that river? How long is this room?

- a little

- ten poun?s

- fifty.

- I am six feet tall.

- He is forty five.

- It is fifty yards wide.

- It is ten feet long.

Bii t~p

6. Dung where, when, why, how ... de'd{it ctiu hoi cho ph&n in nghieng i!J nhiing cau sau day:

1. His sister works at a factory.

2. I usually get up at five in the morning.

88

3. We must learn foreign languages because they are necessary

for our work.

4. He didn't go to school yesterday because he was ill.

5. We usually have dinner at eleven.

6. They live in the center of the city.

7. It takes him half an hour to do these grammar exercises.

8. His working day lasts eight hours.

9. He begins his work at 6 o'clock.'

10. This bicycle costs 300,000 VND.

11. Every Sunday, my father takes me to the movies.

12. There are forty students in our class.

13. She is fifteen years old.

14. The playground is forty yards long.

15. He can come here by bus.

16 She can speak English very fluently.

17. I go to the library twice a week.

18. He always gets bad marks because he is very lazy.

19. He can swim two miles in an hour.

89

811110

D41 TU CHi NGOI (Personal Pronouris) TiNH TU vA D41 TU SC; HUu (Posessive Adjectives and Pronouns)

D4J TU PHAN THAN vA D4J TU NHAN M4NH (Reflexive and Emphasizing Pronouns)

I. D~ TU CHi NG()1 (Personal Pro:nouns) 1. GiUi thteu

86 it 86 nhieu
Ngoi Chu ngu Tanngi1 Chungi1 Tanngfi
1 I I we us
2 you (1) you (1) you you
3 (gi6ng due) he rum}
(gi6ngcai) she her they them
(trung tfnh) it it
(ba't dinh) one one (1) Ngoi thu hai so' it trong tho va trong van c5 nguoi ta dung Thou (chu ngu) va Thee (tan ngfi)

2. Chiic nang

a) Dai ttt chu ngi1 lam chu ngil cho mot dong ttt chia 1'6i trong cau,

Chu ngfi (subject) Vi ngfi (predicate)
We were there.
Chung toi dd6.
I came here with Nam.
Toi d€n day vOi Nam.
She usually gets up at 5.
Coa'y thuong' day hie 5 gio. 90

b) Dai tit tan ngir:

+ Lam tan ngii cho mot dong tu trong cau

Tan ngtt true tie'p The teacher punished him.
(direct object) Th§.y giao phat no.
I'll ask her to help me.
Toi se yeu cau co ay giup wi.
They warned us not to be late.
RQ bao tnt&; cho chung wi khong de'n cham.
Tan ngii gioi tu They are laughing at him.
(prepositional object) Ho cudi n6.
We are talking.about it.
Chung toi n6i chuyen ve viec d6.
She had to look after them.
Co fly phai cham sOC chung,
Tan ngu gian tie'p I told a story to her.
(Indirect object) I told her a story.
T6i k~ cho co ay nghe mot cau chuyen.
I bought a ball for them.
I bought them a balL
Toi mua mQt qua bong cho chung
Toi mua cho chung mQt qua bong.
She gave a new pen to him.
She gave him a new pen.
Ba ay cho n6 mot cai but mdi, + Dung sau gidi tit:

Thi du:

They stood behind him.

The question before us is a very difficult one. I had a letter from her.

91

3. Sau dqng tit "to be"

+ Thuong dung dai tit chu ngfl, tuy nhien trong loi noi thong

thuong co th~ dung dai tit tan ngu.

Th{d1!-:

Was it they? (hoac Was it them?)

+ Nhung ne'u v~ y 18. chu ngil cho mot dt)ng ttl d mot menh dg

tiep theo sau thi phai dung dai tit chii ngu.

ThE du:

It was he who told me about it. It was I who did it.

Bii t~p

1. Chon dai tit chi ng6i (trong ngoiic dan) viet nhung cau. sau day)

1. (We, us) all went with (them, they)

2. They knew all about my friend and (I, me)

3. Mr. Nam and (he, him) came last night.

4. He told Ba and (me, I) to go with (he, him) to the stadium.

5. There are some letters for you and (I, me).

6. Go with Van and (she, her) to visit (they, them).

7. What is the name of (him, he) who came first?

8. Who is there?

- It is only (me, I) and my friend Ban.

9. What would you do if you were (he, him)?

10. I thought it was (they, them) who went with (she, her).

11. It was (he, him) I was talking about.

12. Just between you and (me, I), it's (him, he) I'm afraid of not (she, her).

92

IT

A. LAM CHU NGU

1. D~i tit chi ngoi: (ngoi thu ba s6 it, trung tinh) dung d~ thay cho m9t danh tit trung tinh, danh tit chi mot do vat va cac sinh v~t nho,

Thidl,l:

"Where is my book?" . "It is here". Sach cua toi dau? - No day.

Look at that bird. It is a sparrow. It always comes to this window.

Hay nhin can chim nay. 'No la mot can chim se. N6 luon luon tdi cua s6 nay.

I heard his name mentioned. It struck me as familiar. Toi nghe nhac ten anh ay. No quen quen.

2. Da! tit vo nhan xung (impersonal pronoun) Dung trong nhirng trucng hop noi ve:

a) Nhirng hien tuong thien nhien (thoi tie-t, mila ... ) It is raining.

Troi dang mua,

It is getting dark.

Troi toi dan,

It is early spring. Troi vao dllu xuan,

It was a bright sunny day. D6 la mot ngay nang sang.

It dewed heavily last night. Dem qua strong roi nang hat.

93

It was very cold (hot, warm) Trdi rat lanh (n6ng, am).

b) Thoi gian (gio, ngay, thang ... ) What time is it?

May gid r6i?

It is 6 o'clock.

6 giO.

It is rather late. Kha muon.

It is still early. Con sdrn.

What day is it? Hom nay thu may. It is Monday.

Thli hai.

What is the date? Hom nay ngay may?

It is the third of March. M6ng ba thang Ba.

c) Khoang each:

It is only three miles to the railway-station. Tdi nha ga chi co ba darn.

It is a long way to the sea.

Ra bi~n con xa.

How far is it to the station? Ra ga bao xa?

94

It is three miles. Ba darn.

3. D~i tit chii ngu giro thi~u trtilic (anticipatory subject) a) MAu 1

It + (to be) B6 ngil (tinh tu hoac Chu ngil thuc (d9ng til
danh tu) nguyen the) .
It is easy to do that.
It will be wiser to drive slowly.
It's a pity to waste it.
It would be a mistake to ignore his advice. Nh~n xet:

Trong nhung cau thi du tren it la chu ngil gidi thieu trudc; chu ngli thuc 19.: "To do that, to drive slowly, to waste it, to ignore his advice".

Co th~ viet nhu sau:

To do that is easy.

To drive slowly will be wiser.

b) MAu 2

It+ (to be) B6 ngil (tinh tu hoac Chu ngil thuc (dQng danh tu
danh tu) - gerund)
It is foolish behaving like that.
It is difficult getting everything ready in
time.
It is no use crying over spoilt mille
It is no good hoping for their help. 95

Nh~n xet:

Cung nhu (j m~u 1, ij day it 13. chu ngil gidi thieu trudc. Chu ngu thuc 13.: behaving like that, getting everything ready in time, crying over spoilt milk, hoping for their help.

C6 th~ vie't nhu sau:

Behaving like that is foolish. Hoping for their help is no good.

c) M§.u 3

It + (to be) B6 ngil (tfnh tu Chu ngfi thuc (menh de danh ttl,
hoac danh tu) noun-clause)
It is strange that he is always late.
It is doubtful whether he will be able to come.
It was a pity that you couldn't come.
It was a strange thing that he couldn't solve this
problem. Nh~n xet:

Cling nhu hai mau tren, d day it la chu ngu gioi thieu truce, Chit ngu thuc 13. nhirng menh de: That he is always late, whether he will be able to come, that you couldn't come, that he couldn't solve this problem.

Co th~ vie't nhu sau (tuy khong thong thuong):

Whether he will be able to come is doubtful.

That you couldn't solve this problem was a strange thing.

Chu y:

Doi khi nguoi ta dung "to seem", "to appear" thay cho "to be". It seemed useless to go on.

It seemes a pity not to use it.

It appears unlikely that we shall arrive in time.

96

Dai tu chi dinh gidi thieu truce

Nhan dinh: each dung nay cua it duoc th~ hien trong nhung

thi du dudi day:

- Who came to see you yesterday? Hom qua ai de'n tharn anh?

It was an old friend of mine.

D6 III mt)t nguoi ban eli cua t6i.

-It was she (her) whom I saw yesterday. Chinh co ta la nguci toi da g~p hom qua. -It was he who showed me the way. Chinh anh la nguoi da chi dudng cho toi, - It is oranges that I like best.

Cam 19. thu qua rna toi thich nhat.

B. LAM TAN NGU

1. Dai tit chi ngoi: (ngoi thir ba s6 it, trung tinh)

+ Thay cho mt)t danh til trung tinh, danh til chi do vat va cac

sinh vat nho lam tan ngU cho mot dt)ng tU.

Thidl:l:

She has got a new pen. She puts it in her bag.

Co fiy c6 mot cai but moi. Co ay d~ n6 trong tui, Look at that bird. It always comes to this window. Hay nhin con chim d6. N6 luon luon tdi cua sf) nay. Did you give it anything to eat?

Anh c6 cho n6 an cai gi khong?

- Yes, I always feed it.

- Co. Toi luon cho no an.

97

This is your new lesson, you learn it by heart.

Day la bai hoc mdi ella cac em, cac em hay hoc thuoc long.

+ Thay cho ca. m9t s1;1 viec (duoc dien dat bang ca mQt cau

hoac menh de).

Thidl;l:

You have saved my life, I shall never forget it.

Anh da diu rnang toi, toi se khong bao gi{j quen di~u do.

He is trying to win a scholarship to the University, he won't find it easy.

Anh fly dang co gianh hoc b6ng vao Dai hoc, anh fly thay digu do khong d~.

If he gets home by 8 o'clock, I call it good luck.

Ne'u anh ay ve nha hie 8 gid, thi toi eho Ia may man.

2. D~i tit tim ngu gioi thi~u tnioc (anticipatory object).

Chu ngir + Tan ngii B6 ngu (tfnh Tan ngil th1;1C (dong til
D9ngtU gici thieu til, danh til) nguyen th~, dong' danh til,
truce it menh de)
We all
consider it wrong to cheat in examination.
I found it difficult to refuse his invitation.
I think it a pity to waste them.
We think it most to your climbing the
dangerous mountain alone.
I think it a pity that you didn't try harder,
I took it for granted that you would stay with
us. 98

Nh~n xet:

Trong nhirng cau thi du tren it 13. tan ngu gidi thieu truce, thay cho nhung tan ngil thuc d c(>t 4.

Bili t~p

2. Diin VCLO ch6 trong biing dang It is va guii thich nhiing csu

duai day.

1. a pity that he is so stupid.

2 a long time ago.

3 early when we left home.

4 a wonder that you didn't hurt yourself.

5 not very far to walk.

6 wonderful to see you again next week.

7 wrong to think that those people are greedy for money.

8 cruel to beat a boy like that.

9 possible that he doesn't understand English?

10 time to go to bed.

11. most delightful to sit by the fire with a book.

12 he who helped me in my work.

13 they who showed us the way through the forest.

14 his mother, not his father, who said that.

15 the training that he had as a young man that made

him such a good engineer.

3. Dung it la dai til tan ngit giCli thigu truce viet lai nhftng cdu dUdi day.

tni a«.

. We all consider that it is wrong to cheat in examination.

99

We all consider it wrong to cheat in examination. - I think that it is a pity to waste them.

I think it a pity to waste them.

1. We all consider that it is wrong to cheat in examination.

2. Don't you think that it is unwise to climb the mountain without a guide?

3. We think that it is most dangerous for you to climb the mountain alone.

4. I found that it was very difficult to refuse him his request.

5. Do you think it is strange that he hasn't eaten any meat since he was a boy?

6. I believe that it is very hard to undertake this work.

7. I suppose you think it is very odd that I have to change my

room.

8. We consider that it is a sacred duty to serve our country.

9. He imagines that it is very interesting to fly to the moon in a spaceship.

10. He found that it was hard to solve this problem.

One

Loi ghi: "One III dai til bat dinh co nghia III "nguoi ta".

One co th~ dung lam coo ngu va tan ngii,

Chu ngt1 One uses milk for making butter and cheese.
One must be careful when driving a car.
Tan ngi1 This book gives one a good idea of the National
Liberation movement throughout the world. 100

Tuy nhien nguoi ta kh6ng hay dung no. D~ di[;n ta eung m9t

y tren thong thtidng ngttdi ta a) Dung dang bi d9ng:

Milk is used for making butter and cheese.

b) Thay one bllng we, you, they (chu ngir), us, you, them (tan

ngii)

You (we) must be careful when driving a car.

This book gives you (us) a good idea of the National Liberation movement throughout the world.

They say we shall have a hot summer.

Nhung ngudi ta hay dung dang sa hfru One's khi ngu y chung:

It is easy to lose one's way in a big town. It is a pity to waste away one's time.

II. TiNH TU vA D~ TU so HOO (Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns)

1. GiOi thi~u

Tinh til sa hiru Dai til sa hiru
my mine
your yours
his his
her hers
its its
our ours
your yours
their theirs 101

Thidr,t:

That is my book. That is his book. That is your book. That is her book. That is our book. That is their book.

That book is mine. That book is his. That book is yours That book is hers. That book is ours .

.

That book is theirs.

(Chu y: d ngni thfr hai so it, trong van c6 va tho nguoi ta dung Thy (Possessive adjective) va Thine (Possessive Pronoun).

2. each dung

a) Tinh tU s6 hiru hop vdi "nguoi" hoac "vat" co quyen sd hiru, N6 khong thay d6i theo giong va so (giong due, giong caL. so it, so nhieu ... ) cua dang ttl chi vat thucc quyen sd hiru,

ru a«.

I have a pencil. It is my pencil. She has a pencil. It is her pencil.

He has many pencils. They are his pencils. A tree drops its leaves in autumn.

A dog wags its tail when it is happy.

*

* *

My mother, my father, my brother (s), my sister (8)

My book (8), his father, his brother (s), his sister (s), his book (s) b) Dai ttl sd hau duoc dung dti thay the' cho tinh tit sCI hiiu +

danh til.

Thidr,t:

I have my pen; have you got yours (= your pen?).

102

Is Uri's my English book?

No, it isn't yours (= your English book). It is mine (= my English book).

Are these their books?

No, they aren't theirs (= their books). They are ours (= our books).

Chu y: Dai tii sd hitu Its ra't hiem khi duoc dung. c) Ghi nho:

... of mine= one of my ...

... of yours = one of your .

... of his= one of his ... etc .

tta a«.

He is a friend of mine = He is one of my friends. A sister of hers = One of her sisters.

Bili t~p

4. Di€n vao ch8 trorlg bang tinh tit hoiic dai tit sd huu.

1. I see that he has lost ... pencil; perhaps you can lend him.

2. Tell him not to forget... ticket; she mustn't forget... either.

3. We have taken our share, has she taken ... ?

4. I gave him some plants of... in exchange for some oL.

5. Nam has come to see me, ... father and ... were school friends.

6. He wants you to return a book of... you borrowed last week.

7. You said you would introduce me to a friend of ... who had a very good dictionary.

103

8. This is not our class-room, ... is on the first floor.

9. She wants to know if you have seen a book of ... lying about somewhere.

10. She had no pen, so I gave her ... ,

III. D41 TU' PHAN THAN vA D~ Tit NHAN ~H (Reflexive and Emphasizing Pronouns)

1. Gi&i thi{m

86ft es nhieu
Ng6i 1 myself ourselves
Ngoi 2 yourself (thyself) yourselves
Ngoi 3:
Gi6ng due him'"lf}
Gi6ng cai herself themselves
Trung tinh itself
Ba't dinh oneself Chit y:

Trong van c6 va tho d ngoi thu hai sO' it thuong dung "thyself' 2. Cach dung:

a) Dai tu phan than dung trong truong' h9P minh tl,i lam cho chinh ban than minh. N6 lam tan ngu, b5 ngiI trong cau, trong truong hop nay chu ngu voi tan ngil hoac b5 ngu chi la mot,

Thid1!-:

I shave myself every morning.

Tai tt;l cao rau cho t6i m6i bu6i sang They blamed themselves for the accident. H9 tt;! trach ban than ho vg tai nan do.

104

He spoke to himself

Anh ay tu noi voi minh ... He was quite himself again. Anh ta lai nhu cii ...

b) Dai tit nhan manh dung d~ nhan manh them mot danh tit hay dai tit trong cau, No kh6ng co chuc nang rieng biet rna trung vdi chuc nang cua tU no nhan manh.

Lan herself opened the door. Chinh co Lan da rnd cira,

C6 th~ viet:

Lan opened the door herself.

I should like to see Mr. Ban himself and not his wife.

Toi muon duoc g~p chinh 6ng Ban chu kh6ng phai ba vcJ ong

ay.

The play itself was good, but the actors were bad. Ban than vd kich thi hay, nhung di~n vien thi db.

Chu y:

Dai tU nhan manh thuong duoc d~t ngay dilng sau danh tit hoac dai tit rna no nhan manh, Trang truong hop dung d~ nhan rnanh vao chinh chu ngfr cua cau thi co th~ dat d cuoi cau.

Thi du:

I myself do it, hoac:

I do it myself

Narn himself went to Haiphong, hoac:

Narn went to Haiphong by himself.

105