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23.5 Euler's Number e EXAMPLE In this example we consider in detail the very important sequence tale where for each n € Ni, (5) We will show that the sequence {s,} is monotone increasing and bounded above, and thus hhas a limit. The standard notation for tis limit ise (in honor of Leonhard Euler): ie, em{ie By the binomial theorem (3 h wien otis & Fark same rem nh ts ont la=bH 1 1-2 ie wi sco Hi Q If we expand /,.. in the same way, we obtain n + 2 terms, and for k = 1,2... nm the (& ++ 1).st term is eal rasa) (Fa). which is greater than the corresponding term in (2). Thus ty < t,, for all 2. From (1) ‘we also obtain +r po Which by the identity + r= = <4 1 = (= YL Ar AL, <1 | ‘Thus (1,} is bounded above by 3, and we can apply Theosem 2.3.2. Since 4, = 3 forall 1» EN we also have that ¢ = 3. To five decimal places, ¢ = 2.71828". The num bere is the base of the natural logarithm function which will be defined in Example 63.5 as a definite integral. ML