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MUSCULAR SYSTEM

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Types of Ordinary Body Movements


Flexion
Extension

Rotation
Abduction

Circumduction

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Flexion
a movement in the sagittal
plane that decreases the
angle of the joint and
brings two bones closer
together
ex. bending of knee or
elbow
bending forward at the
hip

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Extension
Movement that
increases the angle or
the distance between
two bones or parts of
the body
Ex. Straightening of the
knee or elbow

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Hyperextension
If extension is greater
than 180
chin points toward the
ceiling

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Abduction
Moving a limb away
from the midline or
median plane of the
body
Fanning or movement
of the fingers or toes
when they spread apart

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Adduction
Opposite of abduction
Moving/movement of a
limb toward the body
midline

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Body Movements

Figure 6.13d
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Rotation
Movement of a bone
around its longitudinal
axis
Common movement of
ball and socket joint

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Body Movements
Circumduction
Combination of flexion,
extension, abduction
and adduction
Commonly seen in ball
and socket joints
Proximal end is
stationary and distal
end moves in circles

Figure 6.13d
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Body Movements
Pronation
Moving the palm of the
hand from an anterior
or upward facing
position to posterior or
downward facing
position

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Body Movements
Supination
Opposite of pronation

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Inversion
Turning the sole of the
foot so that if faces
medially

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Eversion
opposite of inversion
turning the sole of the
foot so that if faces
laterally

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Dorsiflexion
movement of the ankle
that moves the instep of
the foot up
Standing on your heels

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Plantar flexion
Straightens the ankle
joint causing the toes to
point downward

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Types of Muscles
Prime mover muscle with the major responsibility
for a certain movement
ex. Pectoralis major
Antagonist muscle that opposes or reverses a
prime mover
Ex. Triceps brachii- extend forearm
biceps brachii- antagonist
Synergist muscle that aids a prime mover in a
movement and helps prevent rotation
ex. Brachioradialis-brachialis (flex forearm)
Fixator stabilizes the origin of a prime mover

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Naming of Skeletal Muscles


Direction of muscle fibers
Example: rectus (straight)
Relative size of the muscle
Example: maximus (largest)
minimus (small)

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Naming of Skeletal Muscles


Location of the muscle
Example: many muscles are named for
bones (e.g., temporalis, deltoid )
Number of origins

Example: triceps (three heads)


biceps ( two heads)

quadriceps ( four heads)

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Naming of Skeletal Muscles


Location of the muscles origin and insertion
Example: sternocleidomastoid

Shape of the muscle


Example: deltoid (triangular)

Action of the muscle


Example: flexor and extensor (flexes or
extends a bone)

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Origin
Point of attachment which
is more proximal and
more fixed
Insertion
more distal and more
movable (flexible) point
of attachment
Belly
Fleshy or middle part of a
muscle
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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES

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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Epicranius Frontalis
Origin
cranial aponeurosis
(galea aponeurotica)
Insertion
skin of eyebrows
Action
Draws scalp anteriorly
Raises eyebrows
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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Epicranius Occipitalis
Origin
Mastoid and occipital
bone
Insertion
Margin of Cranial
aponeurosis (galea
aponeurotica)

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Action
Wrinkles forehead
Draws scalp posteriorly

HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Orbicularis oculi
Origin
Orbit
Insertion
Circular path of orbit
Action
Closes eye

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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Zygomaticus
major
Origin
Zygomatic bone
Insertion
Angle of the mouth
Action
Raises angle of the
mouth as in smiling

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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Zygomaticus
minor
Origin
Zygomatic bone
Insertion
upper lip
Action
Elevates upper lip
Exposes maxillary teeth

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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Buccinator

(trumpeters
muscle)
Origin
Maxilla and mandible
Insertion
Angle of mouth
Action
Compresses cheek as in
whistling and blowing
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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Orbicularis oris
(kissing muscle)
Origin
Mandible and maxilla
Insertion
Angle of the mouth
Action
Closes and puckers the
lips

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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Levator labii
superioris
Origin
Maxilla
Insertion
Angle of the mouth
Action
Elevates upper lip

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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Depressor
angulioris
Origin
Mandible
Insertion
Angle of the mouth
Action
Depresses angle of mouth

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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Masseter

Masseter

Origin
Zygomatic arch
Insertion
Mandible
Action
Raises the jaw

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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Temporalis

Temporalis

Origin
Temporal bone
Insertion
Mandible
Action
Closes the jaw
Elevates mandible

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HEAD/NECK MUSCLES
Sternocleidomastoid
(prayer muscle)
Origin
Sternum and clavicle
Insertion
Temporal bone
Sternocleidomastoid
(mastoid process)
Action
Both muscles:
- Flexes head,
One muscle:
- rotates head toward
opposite shoulder
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HEAD AND NECK MUSCLES


Trapezius
Trapezius

Origin
Skull, vertebral column
Insertion
Scapula
Action
Extends head and neck

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Erector Spinae

Iliocostalis
Longissimus
Spinalis
Origin
Vertebrae and pelvis
Insertion
Superior vertebrae, ribs
Action
Maintains erect posture
of vertebral column

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


External
Intercostals
Origin
Ribs
Insertion
Next rib
Action
expands thorax

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Internal
Intercostals
Origin
Ribs
Insertion
Next rib
Action
compress thorax

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Rectus abdominis
Origin
Pubis
Rectus abdominis Insertion
Sternum and fifth and
seventh ribs
Action
Flexes vertebral
column increases
pressure of abdomen
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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


External oblique
Origin
Last 8 ribs
Insertion
Iliac crest
Action
Compresses abdomen

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Internal oblique
Origin
Iliac crest
Insertion
Last three ribs
Action
Compresses abdomen

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Transversus
abdominis
Origin
Last 5 or 6 ribs
Insertion
Pubis
Action
Compresses abdomen

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Trapezius
Trapezius

Origin
Skull, vertebral column
Insertion
Scapula
Action
Extends head and rotates
scapula

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Rhomboideus
Origin
Vertebrae
Insertion
Scapula
Action
Retracts scapula

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Levator scapula
Origin
Vertebrae
Insertion
Scapula
Action
Raises scapula

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Serratus anterior
Origin
Ribs
Insertion
Scapula
Action
Protracts scapula

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Pectoralis major

Pectoralis major

Origin
Sternum, clavicle and
first six ribs
Insertion
Greater tubercle of
humerus
Action
Prime mover of arm
flexion
Adducts and medially
rotates arm

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Pectoralis minor
Origin
Ribs
Insertion
Scapula
Action
Depresses scapula

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Teres major
Origin
Scapula
Insertion
Humerus
Action
Extends shoulders

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Latissimus dorsi
(swimmerss muscle)
Origin
Vertebrae
Insertion
Latissimus
Humerus
dorsi
Action
Extends shoulder and
adducts arm
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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Supraspinatus
Origin
Scapula
Insertion
Humerus
Action
Abducts the arm

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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK


Infraspinatus
Origin
Scapula
Insertion
Humerus
Action
Extends and rotates arm

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Anterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Deltoid
Deltoid

Origin
Scapular spine and clavicle
Insertion
Humerus (deltoid
tuberosity)
Action
Abducts the arm
Flexes and extends
shoulder

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Anterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Biceps brachii

Biceps brachii

Origin
Coracoid process of
scapula
Insertion
Proximal radius
Action
Flexes elbow and
supinates forearm

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Anterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Brachialis
Origin
Humerus
Insertion
Proximal ulna (coronoid
process)
Action
Flexes arm

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Anterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Brachioradialis
Origin
Humerus
Insertion
Styloid process of
radius
Action
Flexes forearm
(synergist of brachialis)

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Anterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Pronator teres
Origin
Humerus and coronoid
process of ulna
Insertion
Radius
Action
Pronates forearm

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Anterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Flexor carpi radialis
Origin
Humerus (medial
epicondyle)
Insertion
2nd and 3rd metacarpals
Action
Flexes wrist and abducts
hand

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Anterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Palmaris longus
Origin
Humerus (medial
epicondyle)
Insertion
Flexor retinaculum and
palmar aponeurosis
Action
Weakly flexes hand at
wrist joint
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Anterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Flexor carpi ulnaris
Origin
Humerus (medial
epicondyle) and ulna
Insertion
Pisiform, hamate and 5th
metacarpals
Action
Flexes and adducts hand at
wrist joint
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Posterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Triceps brachii

Triceps
brachii

Origin
Humerus and glenoid
fossa
Insertion
Olecranon process of
ulna
Action
Extends forearm
(antagonist of biceps
brachii)

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Posterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Extensor carpi
radialis longus
Origin
Humerus
Insertion
2nd and 3rd metacarpal
Action
Extends and abducts
wrist

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Posterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Extensor digitorum
Origin
Humerus (lateral
epicondyle)
Insertion
Distal phalanges of 2nd to
5th digits
Action
Extends fingers, flare
and adduct fingers
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Posterior Muscles of Upper Extremities


Extensor carpi
ulnaris
Origin
Humerus (lateral
epicondyle)
Insertion
5th metacarpal
Action
Extends and adducts
wrist
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Antero-Medial Muscles of Hip and Lower


Extremities
Sartorius
Origin
Iliac spine
Insertion
Tibia
Insertion
Flexes thigh and
laterally rotates it
Flexes knee
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Antero-Medial Muscles of Hip and Lower


Extremities
Adductors
(magnus, longus,)
Origin
Ischial and pubic
rami,pubis, body of pubis
Insertion
Linea aspera of femur
Action
Adducts, flexes and
laterally rotates thigh
(synergist with thigh
extension)
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Antero-Medial Muscles of Hip and Lower


Extremities
Quadriceps group
Origin
Vastus lateralis greater
trochanter of femur
Rectus femoris pelvis
V. medialis, intermediusfemur
Insertion
Tibial tuberosity via
patellar ligament
Action
All extends knee, rectus
femoris also flexes thigh
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Antero-Medial Muscles of Hip and Lower


Extremities

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Antero-Medial Muscles of Hip and Lower


Extremities
Tibialis anterior
Origin
Tibia
Insertion
First cuneiform and 1st
metatarsal
Action
Dorsiflexes foot
(primemover); inverts
foot
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Antero-Medial Muscles of Hip and Lower


Extremities
Extensor digitorum
longus
Origin
Tibia and fibula
Insertion
Distal phalanges
Action
Dorsiflexes foot

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Antero-Medial Muscles of Hip and Lower


Extremities
Peroneus (Fibularis)
Origin
fibula
Insertion
Tarsals and metatarsals
Action
Plantar flexes and everts
foot

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Posterior Muscles of Hip and Lower Extremities


Gluteus maximus
Gluteus maximus

Origin
Sacrum and ilium and
coccyx
Insertion
Greater trochanter of
femur
Action
Extends thigh and laterally
rotates thigh

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Posterior Muscles of Hip and Lower Extremities


Gluteus medius
Gluteus medius

Origin
Ilium
Insertion
Greater trochanter of
femur
Action
Abduct thigh and medially
rotates thigh

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Posterior Muscles of Hip and Lower Extremities

Tensor fasciae latae


Origin
Iliac crest
Insertion
Tibia
Action
Flexes and abducts thigh

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Posterior Muscles of Hip and Lower Extremities

Hamstring Group
Biceps femoris
Origin
Ishial tuberosity and
femur
Insertion
Head of the fibula
Action
Extends thigh
Flex knee
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Posterior Muscles of Hip and Lower Extremities

Hamstring Group
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Origin
Ischial tuberosity
Insertion
Proximal tibia
Action
Extends thigh
Flexes knee
Rotates leg medially
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Posterior Muscles of Hip and Lower Extremities

Gastrocnemius
Origin
Distal femur
Insertion
Calcaneus (heel via
calcaneal tendon)
Action
Plantar flexes foot

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Posterior Muscles of Hip and Lower Extremities

Soleus
Origin
Tibia and fibula
Insertion
Calcaneus
Action
Plantar flexes foot

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Muscle of the Pelvic floor and perineum


Superficial

transverse
perineus
Origin
Ischial tuberosity
Insertion
Central tendon of
perineum
Action
Stabilize central
tendon of perineum
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Muscle of the Pelvic floor and perineum


Bulbospongiosus
Origin
Central tendon of perineum
Insertion
Male- corpus spongiosum of
penis
Female pubic arch and clitoris
Action
Male-aids in urine and semen
expulsion
Female- constricts vaginal
orifice, assists in erection of
clitoris

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Muscle of the Pelvic floor and perineum


Ischiocavernosus

Origin
Ischial tuberosity
Insertion
Penis or clitoris
Action
Erection

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Muscle of the Pelvic floor and perineum


Levator ani
Pubococcygeus
Origin
Pubis
Insertion
Coccyx, anal canal
urethra, central
tendon of perineum
Action
Constrict anus,
urethra and vagina
Resists intra-abdominal
pressure
Supports fetal head
during childbirth
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Muscle of the Pelvic floor and perineum


Levator ani
Iliococcygeus
Origin
Iliac spine
Insertion
Coccyx
Action
Constrict anus,
urethra and vagina
Supports fetal
head
during childbirth
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Muscle of the Pelvic floor and perineum


Coccygeus
Origin
Ischial spine
Insertion
Lower sacrum and coccyx
Action
Supports pelvic viscera
Resists intra-abdominal
pressure
Pulls coccyx anteriorly
after defecation and child
birth
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings