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170 eye-w:itness, Q'CCOUI1'ts of the! atrocirti,ss, com',mlitted on 'W'ast.Pakis1anis ... , B,ihalris. and ,Qlther non-Beng,alis aind pro, .. Palki's,t,an B"engalls in 55 towns of E·a'st P'akistsllil by AW81mi' Le'sg'UlII mili'tBlnts

8'nd o'ther r'ebe~s in March-Apr,il, 1971 ~




Qutubuddin Aziz


A,s. 20

In Pak'istan

u S,' ,S 4 Overs e.a.s

PU,blisn',ed .by

Publications, Division of the

United Press ,otl Pakistan Ltd .• I. Victoria Ohslmbers. ,AbduRah Haroon Road, Ka.rachm-3 (Telephone: ,51' 26'97)

Printed at

Din Muhammadi Press.

I. l. Chundrigar R'oad •. iKara.cht Paklsten "

JPho11 e' ~: 229'OJ),lfj,)


Why the s~a,ught€l,r Oil non- Bengalis wasnot reported in Mar,ch '1971 ? - lI'~fugee5 from Awami Leag,Lie terror nae to West Pakistan -- IBeng.a,j mil it-ants rna nharu:He New ~ork Times woman reporter in Dacca - indlalll-,inspir,ed smear campaign ,a,gainst Pakistan in 'We.slern Europe an~ U,S.A.

CIHAPT,ER ONE;' l'd~s of ,M, in DaICeS!

General~ Yahva's National As'sembl'y postpenement broad-

east , Awami League-'s ebellion and para!h~'1 gOVernment ,in

;Ejjlst' Pakistan _, Non-,B'9ngalis kidnapped far ransom ....... ' tondon"s Sunday rima, S8V$ 100,000 non-BengaHs; ma$$E\'croo - hostage escapes death in Ja.gannath ,HaU abatt(llill" - journal'lists, wife descriibes husband"'& murder.

CHAPTIEIR TWO ~ Terroli' i'n Narays,nganj

KiUe,r ,gangs on 'the loose, ....... staught~r in Fabric F'actory' - two mm~B'efiligali captive :9'ir!5 raped in a bus ...... lliebel.s march 600 wailing Bihari wClmefiand c.hi'dren"

CHA.PTER THREE: Hum,an Abattoirs fin Chittag'ong Massacre o,t non- Bengalis In 'Wit6fe'$$ and IFef.Ozesh.ah Co(,es. Baufabad. Halishahar, Pahartall, K,aILJrgh,at and Dartalla ...... M. ,R. Siddlkt the' "Btitcher of Chjt1algori:~(' -CorPSi9$ ftiung into ,Karnaphuli river or burnt -- .sra1ugnterhouses In Isp.ahani Jute Mill:s ,afldAwami lealgue H.Q,,- mass sex assaLl~tchambell'S 'for ravishing non-Bengali captiilJe ,g'l'i'ls ..- 'fo,l'eign prsss reports on Chinagm1'g ki'UinlQs ,~ ProlPakistan IBeng:flli murdered at Port--eescue of incarcerated women trorn dungleon.

CHAPTER FOUR: Mas-aacres in 'ChalndrBghons"

R,iil1gamat,i .

Widow tells of h'lJs:bs'nd's kidnapping ...... bum iog and' footi'ng of non .. f3eng,aH houses - ,oaptiv:e' V1IOman ana ,cIlildren, herded in Camp for slaugnter, rescued by P,akjstan Army· ...... ki~W,ingsin Paper and Rayon Mill.

CHAPTER FiVe: Fire and .D8Blth in Khulna

Tel,ephone .Exchang,e _ wrecked .by rebers-- . non .. ,Beng.aU ha~el bumt.- March 23 massacre in non&Benga,li sle1tl'ements -- fore"ign pres-s. reports -- slayi.n'9:$ lin iD.auratpu( ,11"i'd. Kha:II$~ Ipur -... Riverside' s!laughter-holJ'sl9$ and hUrl1iil'n abattoir ,in jlute mIn ..... tort\Ure method's such as eye-gouging' -kilUl'lgs

in Pholta(a" Bag'IGrhat. -






CHAIPTER SIX: Satkh~ir,a Aflame 914

I nd ialil'1l h el p to rebers ~ armed ~ nf Itra10rs - captive, bl,ood~ng Sut.l~Divisronal, Orffioor draggled through streets ~ kmar 'gang

lIul'lls, nOInl-El,engalis, into blazing jute g,odown ~. rebe~s

carve "Jol 8,angla" on foreheads, ofcaptlve women- rebels

'flee to Indi,a.

CHAPTiEljl ,s,EVEN! Mien ~n Dhl,a;jpulr '97

Mob burns, non-BengaUs iin bus ' ...... ' 'pOlsla~ va:nambrus'hed-

gruesome murder 01250 Pathans: by rebels ef lEast Pakistan

Rines ~ killlr'ngs j:n Nee1mati ....... rebeb parade 400 naked ..

cap,tiive 'BHlairi women ...... Army [rescues, ,glr~surviivm.s -- slav-

ing;!); in P.,ah.a~p'I!JII""'- g,laugih1er-,hOU9'1@: on bank of Kanch~n

!Riv,er ._ fiendlish torture methods _. Hindu mllltants in kUl,er

~angs - Rebels torture Benga~is who ;pf,o,tec~d non-Benga1li

friends ,_ k,illing,s lin other t'QWflS·,

CHAPTER: E.11GiHT: Carn,age 'in Parbatipur1114 Non-S,sngoiillii iRai,lway ,ali1'pl]oy:a~$ and famili'es· butchellred _. Idlli!ngs;lnr train from ~shurdii ~ masse,laughter of nOB-

Bsnga'lis e,erEy in Aprn ~ MI .... kti IBahiini sliayings ~n D'e·cember

- terrorlssd women 'flee to S,aidpur.

CHAfT'!ER NINE,: Sllayilngs lnl Thalwir-saon~, Hilln1:1 a MI,a;ssacm of non-:8engallis wn R'ahmatganj - kilUng En Mosque

,~ IBengaU. S8V,&$ n{Jn-8eng,al,~ ffiend ~. murders ~!11 'H llll,

Phuibaiti. Ponch,agarhand Chaur Ka~ - .April 6 ,to,ndo.n Times

reportson H ill i Mlurders. .

CHAPT'ER TEN! SI,aughter in Lak'ham. Rajibari 12.2.

B utch,ery in non-Be ng 9U settlerlflents in La kil h a Nil _, 'Kini ng

of non- B,engali Railwav emp'I,oy,aes , ...... , kmer_ gang kidnaps non",e,engaUg'irls in F1.ajbar~ _ Wlrroris,e:d nen-Benqall women

flee 10 Goah .. mdo . ...", terror hi Fa:ridpur.

CHAPTEIA ELEVEN : BrutaUtyin Kushtia 1.26

Geonoidde .8,gain:Slt non-BengaUs ~ mass, murders, in Hardili'llgj

'Brffidg'B Cokmv -oorpse.s,'th rown in G,a nges, Ri~ ....... dramati C: breakthro,l,Igh of ceptlve Blharl womenand ehlldren, h.erded

in sohoot blllUdfng - sta ughter mn Arwapar.a: ,and Th2lnapar,a .......

massacre of l1on'MBengs!i men in KushUa: Jail ,_ sadis·ts singe

ski n . 0" non- 18 e ngaU vi'ct:i rns witn Ibuming c:igallrGtt·es

wombs of preglnant women r~pped. open,

CHAPTE'R ntVEl:VE:: Butah eryin 'Chued,lInga 130

Smavings in MLJrghi Patti co1Iony,- rebel ,anac1k on IRai'lwSJY

station and s:l:al~gllt,er of In'o1n~Berlgali. staff ..... , ussau1t: on

captiive, rH~ifl1~,Bel"lga:'I] 'gids, ill SI(:~IOO~ building ~to:nure' of

West Ps,kisiliSll"I1 OffiQer. .


CHAPTEIR THmTIEEN: Kiner 'DI,I't1gsin, Mle'herpur. 133


SI,aught,er of non- Bengalis in J1uta Mill in Meherpur ....... killer gangs machine-gun .. iicUms esoalPing from bl:az:ing, houses-« non~Bengaligirl.s Iddfla~:l'ped, ralped and shot ...... non-Benga1il popu1lation I iquidated in Z~farkcmdi.

CHAPTE.A FOlJRTEIEN :M,ass, M,Ylrd,er in lishurdi '1311

Very few survived carurlage of non-'Bengali:s~· anti~ Blharii

slogans on nlsearos atop mounds 'of' nan~Beng'ati COlr:p!$es~·

sla:lJgl1ter ~", Pachehum Tengrl Collony~

CHAPTER FlrIFTEENr: P'er:luac,urtion i,ln Paktev 13,1

Agony of wai1ing non-Bengal,; widows and orohansherdedin

mosque ~ 16,~year-o'ld boy es.apes massacre' with little si'ster

-,ad'ul.t mal,e ncn-Banqalis kiUed.

CHAPTER SiXTE'EN : TeUOf Au'l,e in INoaikh,a'U 140

Operatwon 1~'Dot I::nJm and ikill. agaiinst non~8engal~B

butchery ln slpanment house ~ BengaU stlehers non- Bengali:

from, rebets. -

CHAIPTER: SiEVENl'EENr: Son'Q,wI of Syl'het1 42 Awami L,e.aguer.s incite tea 'garden Iabour to ki!llI1o'n-iElerlgarUs

- rebels butcher nOIl-'BengaH coupil'e but Bengalli maid ..

8~vant :shieid.$ theh cf11htren.

CHAPifiER E~GHTEEN: ,ShooUngs. lin Mo:lvil lazar.. 11.,51


Rebeh3 'f'Ol(;S' victlms to dig gn:P/e~ before Iliqurndatioi1 non- Be,flgalis herded at rmverbank and gunned - ~ young widow tells of husbalfild's, murder and he!1 rape by. killler"S-b utcherv in NarklJ I da ng,a.

CHAPTE A N IN ETEEN: Death ,S,t,olks Ran.g'pUlr . '150

Camage in ~damnagar edon,/, ~ l8ihati set(,'tI'El'meIliW wiped

out ........ non .. 6engrali woman SU,rVlIVOrs, herded iin I!Q,baE IH j,gh Scho,oll"some Ir.aped and many shot by rebsts,

C'!-'IAPliE,Fi WENTY: 'BiIIlJ,R~ir,e Rave,u. NIUphamari'.' '1 15,3

·S,ai dlp'l.u"

B:rut~d Idlilfrngs or nOIi'l~B!engallls ....... horror fill Kopilmoni - bodies of mlvished. dead 'girlls. fhJs,t ln tanks .~. non .. BBng,ali ~'amlway em.ploye9s In SajdplUr massacred.

CHArPTiEH 1VVENTY'-ONe~ lUlling. ~n la'lm,ODrh.!hat l1151

Km'fjr 'ga rng,s SRI giS bloo dbatn it~ n,o.n .. Bi~nge II i setl:'i:amel1ts ~.

~,ellg~U f1IEdghb?lurs J?rl~d for n~n~Beng8U friends, ....... mi.Jrd~i'$

m trama-MllJlkiltll BahJn11 terror 1'01\9'111.


C:H APTER lWE NTY -TWO: I!nf'a,rn'o' ii n Jessor'8; 160

Slsu.ghte'F of li1onl~Bengalis In derali:led train' .~ canl'ag~ in Jhumjhumpur Cotony. Ta:r,ag,cmj.' Hamidpur, Amb(3l,gaol1, Bachachar and Puratan Qasba - Pogrom :against non-

Be.ngal'ms in Moba:rkgant Ka,ngan~. Kotchsndpur and Taf'$~dang~a ~ ~oreign press repons on Jessore !;jiEmocide -.

East Be,nga,1 Re,giment rebells, murder West Pakistani omcers

,~ H indus and armed ~l1d ian infill'trators abet murder of nonB·@lr1lgaHs-bl'oC:kadeofArmye.an1onmenl,-·Befilgal'ilrebels

kill Italian fr,iast. Rev'. Mario Vercnest

,CHAPTER TWEiNTY-iH~IEE: Suffe,ri,ng In r..Il~U'aU 16g.

Hindus helped r,ebells in sl'aught6I1'ingl_ nOIl-BengaJllis ~ slal'-

hlQ'S in iMolvipara. ~ Isl!amool!'i'Jv,inQ_Bfmgalis butchered by re;beb'-rJlon~IBeng,a,Us Iioquidaled ~'n M~Jgunni and Sonadang'a

,_, very few n(m-:Beng,~na $l,lfvived massacres.

CH:APT,E!R'MENIY.,fOUR:: Decimation Jn Bej,enla n'Q's ..

Jben:idalh 112

Rebe~:e ~~quidate t~On-BBngati raUwa'VSomp'loye,es and their

f,amJilies at Railway station - rail track wrecked - raids on fion~B,eng~lis in <;:,adet Co~ile-g9 at Jhenidah.

CHAPTER 'TWENrt .. FIVE; B loodba'th in No'ap,ara. . 'J 75,sanal

All nOfl-.B.eng',ali staff' in Ca;rpeting Mil',11 at: Noapara sl,2IlUIghter,ed ...... 8engaU 'family shields daughttet'01 murdered non ... Bengali 'friend ..._ march of oaptiva gftls in tNoap\ari;l1 Bail,ii( - ransom from kidnapped n6n-,~B,engali busi,nessmen ..... non-Bengall~ oottrements in Dar-sana wiped out.

CIHA.PTE·R, lWg;NTV .. SiX: Destruction in Barisa,1 178

Mid-stream maseacre crf nOrl-BenglaUs in steamer ........ Beflgali

ba'rg,'eman saves lone WQ'rna.n - survivor ~ carnage in

Kurmrtela in ,J ha 1\0 Itath i, -- march of naked non~B·enga~i

cClp1:iive women - ln B.azar ' ...... rebels' genocidal frenzy"

CHIAIPTIE!R T'IN,ENTY -,SlEVEN: Gienoci:,de in MymensiJilgh 1,B,2

Massacre of West- Pakistani military psrsonnet and the~r

mmli~mes in Camonment by Be-ng'alf rebels -oarnage in .s,hank~par,a B~tl:arj iSaUlemen:t - for'ei,grl ID,reS3 reports 001"1

blloodbath in Mymensin'gh - mass burtcherv in Mosque- -

heroism 01 ,B,eng-ali priest who saved 500 B~ha~i women and

chilldren from death i:n Mosque ~ rebels burn bodies of

Blhar'i victims ~ execution of 10 Punlael f:amili,es by rebels

-- mass; murde!r! g;cen&e ~ fi.eJd day for nring squsds and

vultures .~ open-air, sl'aughter-hoU5es - Beng,aU widow sobs

out storv of husband"s murder by rebels.

CHIAPTER TWE Nrri~el GHT;: P,ogrom :in IRaj9ih,ahi~ Natore " 98

h,d,ian mi'litary 3,idto Bengal~i rnutlneers - terror in Rajenahi

U n~Vlersty Campus ....... Irebelsdfrsf't ~ndi,ijrl RadiO' Engi·n.eef to

he,lp commisslen damagied FI',ajshaf'ii Radio station ..._., dead

bcdles of nOIIi1 .. ,IBenr;;l'ami~Fl: fil·oat·oo in river ..... , cernaae in Sarda

-,and Nawabganj.


C·HA~PTEfi. TWENTY~N INE:.~ B~iaaa'ihed iin P'l:!bn.a. 203


N:on-Benga.ii girhl kidnl:i,pp,ed and ravished ...... cmpS!9:ll. flung into :r~ W!F - 360 nan -IB'El·nga lis burn t a ~i~e ._ ArmyffJ LJ nd he·a:piS, of mut ~ I ated dead bod les,

CHAPTER: THIRTY': C,omU~a's, 'Woes 2Q$

R'ebl~~ls, red .. mar:k:ed l1a:l1l~·B.engaU hC.HJS&S be'~ore burning them

and :davin'g oeeueams -. slauqhter lin New ...... Hindus desecrated Moslques ~. Government treasury looted - rebe'8

seizs te-fflephone exch9ilnge -_ killirlgs in Akha.ura.

CHAPTER THlliRTI~ONE,: Grief in Bliah!manbiari,a 208

REibels wip,e out Eirn) EUhari. WOmElllll1 .and ch'i~dr8n herded in

drnngy J3U -c~ilrn,a'!l$' oii ~OJ1!-Berl'galis --.' hatchetmen ,escape

ItO liI1dia ~. SUfu1ay- Time$. of london reports Bralhmi3nD.3F.'fili

mass·a ere of no n-,senga~ IE.

C!HAFfER ''fHI RN·:WlJ.e: 1'ur\mo~11 inJ BO'Bra ... 'Nlaograo,n '211

No~~Berngalrn shops. hO'iWJse.s"looted and burnt ..... Pa kistan Ann·y .

rE!SiCU" 7.00 non-IBenga:li,s nerded in jail fnr murde.r· ..... pr:eg'"

no nrt WO!r1:1e n baJY,Oln9tEl·(j -. C!:'Hnag6' cd rJon,- BengiUs, in

Naogao'n .~ Fel;)e.l:fi lbarrkade sl:r~.s ~ rebe!J's parade 60

ca pti'VIe no n ~ B en g.a~liwolm en i n '1:tiIe, nuds,

CHAPTER THIIRT'f-THFlIEIE': Hornlihr in S,al1ll!tab!.r 213:

Smaughte(f' scerl8sin ncm .. t!~ngil!l'lrootUEfments _ survivor

hides in gmvey,ard tor days te escape k·inergangs wal~nn:g

nOril-Ben'Qi8iU women msrehed to torture camp"""" their r·es~ue by Pa~dstan Arm"f' - M ukt:i Bahlnl te~mr ~n December. 19711.

EpUogue 2~9

AW,r:lml .lBagua·~ ge.rl"ooide aga~nst n(~r!I-'gengaUs WA'fii starMld

long be-for'efederal A-nmp(s March 26, 1 '911. aetlen - Awa:m~

League's doce;pdoll1 on !&rnenmralle·, sW11t(llh~romau'®(mO'm¥ to iindependeno9 ...... WhI1e P,aper -. Ag,arraia COIl.sp]racy - Ind~a,'s:generou:s.ard 10 .Awami leaglllG i;n 1 9710 polls ,_ irliflital"s

iIllJa$'sii"lG! mU ita itO' rntlels- I nd i a:f'i -s:ponsored B ang,liili-

desh Government in Ca~cUl:lta. ~In April... 1:'9'" ~. India.f'I

pre paratl ens for arm~ grab Qf lEast: Fa k~sta n - i rrf!:,aited

f,efuga.e mgiJfmS - lfa'ls:itv - of .Awami ~ag:ue·$ (lhar'blIE!'

~~ kistsn Anrnv IkjiUed 3: mi Ilion BerngaUSt snd raped' t.OO~OOO

Benigali girls.

~NDEX22.:1 AE!;·OUr THE AUTHOR 292

S1p~cimlliln ,~"f 1l';t~"1~ 1"!;!'I!~'et tor ~;:'l)t'di:ng e!l'id,e'n.::1! or t<e~t.mol"J' ,~ lI!J'e~;,rr:i t.nel!8 et! r,,!." it SlODq '!lind ·'1."~llIr.!Jl"'.1I'!t@M"1 ~ l"~ w(!:N! '!i!'Q i~ p&::ri!liil!li" :§;1li:!lhnIfl3 JJ. Liw, ZI!lZIH' :[ Il'b,m;l F.lnd 5~hll.:l.l A'tL3li'c't:i ~

!n.t:l3ir'l!':1101i1 $h~o:t :f'ill'~ 1>'"'111'1t i::,~1J! ,'ClC'~ 01t at.-coit h~ !:i'ClmJlidlt t ~~b-j fl.Y~i La'''''~I:!!!:I:i U:filiUlh Ut llU:'t ]l a!ll:lsta~.

1m!; I!lZ:O\!i'i!'~ d

b,]!'~ '~Dl[fli'(i:"~<t'_:i

UiU t<!11 i',~~u !)£ i',oPi"i:;:t!lllrol <'tI:.P.:i'.)

1 ,~ ~i~t !:;FJ:'il]! a~~bl'l"" ~ ,~bi!i!jll~ Ha.~;:!(ln ::!:>I!J.{I ..


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............ "', j' -, """",~" i"~_~'~ "''''~. ,&~"" '(A!-w.~(l .i!.g!!!1 ~~j:.{X;;.'..;,t _-" --

.. ~ilj.JiolJe ... !::s f.'~'~ .:'h'.H.llI!: ---;r--- .. - - -"""'~- !I'!"''''!!'!I!''''''!!I!~

lIa-3'!:'~e :till P-!llil:i,~t ... n ~&~{." ....... .f'L-:.p-'!':'-~e~-£·~«a'- t:!~_"~..!£1~..a:.A. ~."

:rh~!:i~~ So 1 0097 ... --,~. I j( ,2· ~,-

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g~wn!l 'tLlf<i

,Ap~:f!8"l ).ol~\le{l by A 'Jt.!w r in d;9i H,v F"r:'Ii1~~pe 1'.8 :lltl !>,~l~i S U\liI. t", "'e,a:trl.ililt,~ :f~:m Ri!'I6It PO!l!ci,!t:l!r1 f'!)r iWJ.l,l;.~i t't il1lEl e,y(l:--wi t:~e,!1ii!l ae ~~o;jl;,

APP'E .. ~L

TO R'm:fi'I!lUiI~mOM

,~(m P.llJdS-IAN

t. m . ....rt:rJII', •. ~'!< I!~d ~, ~~1i.:I :U'~I!ftU nf' ~1ii!' ~~MJ ru~9~1)~ ''Fr [Ij~tr'M~ ~~~ I"""" ~t!; ~ t~1l ~ '9:I'!'io,i,n,~' 'Ii! ~ r,~p~~,~ I'.w.oml .t=, !PI' m"'.:ml~ {OJ, ~01:~ hilI<, 1'.:1::1 III ti7.Il. '[ n~l,I,I!jij O'lw-P t'I~~ wlw WlI~Nlo.1 !l= ~n:lI)'I!i'",'h!t~"II ~!j.. <tlI!'ItIl1 •• "I' ~~tol'.;o~b; ,o!!>.! i'~, Ii) <M,. I.Q .....



on D,ecember 18", ,1971. Indian= trained Mukti Batflw'li kiBe~s set up a h urnan abattr lr fn Da!3CB'S Race Course. Top picture shows a Bihari victim. grabb!iJd bv Muktl Bahini killers, be9'ging for mercv, Left picture shows uniformed killer puffing cigarette to singe the eye of the terrified plFeV. EVB-'Qouging arid burning the skin of victims was a favourite

'tort:Ure m1l3thod o~ the rebels;

These ph,atclJt~fJbs we,te' talmn by ,ft foreign press photogrepher.

"melt p',esses \lloom'g eye-:so.ckei: to' 5.11'11ge It AI101;1'ler Muktr ,Bal'lini ,gunlil:t<liD gr,abs head Of another Eihailj .... ictlm fiOr bL!mi'ng his ~

be~ore the !::ilI.

Puffing the cigaretle to raa-hot glow, Mukti ,Bahini killer. dOfl'~ ning 'fUf-t~il1l1med for.age Col'p. ikn~el$ emdl_ 9rab~ forehlOiad of Biha,ri victim to bUrl! his 'eye. Other fflbels, 'toting' Indian gun9. O'lnd crowd wat',ch macabr@ scene


'Havll1g sin91td Ute eyas of the Bil1an , .... icmm, I\}~ukti ee'hlfli killers OtlY(lIUH tiHilir captives to d-eiilth- The gory elrama in the human abattoir was continued for 'hours. Dllr;C!l was uncer ~hl>'

A ' ,-,ocunation when ~he M~lk1f

r-'rmy.s ... ..

l3ahini 31ellg;f,tered Ihe innocents.

A:; the victim did noil die in a single bavonet sinke. another Mulkh Bahlnl !(pilief p,lunged his ba,),orwl, into [h,e wrrthing I3ihari'$ chest. Dead bodies or Bihar'i and BElin9lal~ 'victim·s· ~ie' snewn over the execution grouli.d as Muk i B;;Jnini klllers amjLl'leir accomplices, watch the

but.chery with seclat p!'SiI'5tJroS.

The Bih.e.ri viCJ;tim tOO~ long to d'ie: 90 an:otheJ' MUI"ai B<lI'lhlU gunman .5:tepped fQf'I.I'!,(~lrd 3ifHd dpped his; chest Wilh 81 ba,olJ'le't charge ro ()Qmple~:e mer ~illl,ii'his ,DrCtiogr~.phic.= d'QlO!ktr:~n O'f ·the mn.lrd-e~ "Ii:.:~hnii!:lu,e of ·t!he, Muli:t:1 Banirrl~ i'~ t'fiPie-a11 of title l':iuU'.!doods of ~la,u:ght:er-hQ!J. S€S IfIJIl byt ~.E! Aw·~m i Lerag~e,~ and ott! e!r~ns;urgel"!its i ~I!:al~t fa ~.rstaJnl

. .

jfill 1971. T.he ~~bGlsrode ~n C'al"~ grobi)ed trom atUtuili'lnt C'lorH3'en'!jJ0lIin;sl wl'n,~, were k:U~Elld:,

In the frrst week of March I971, when the A:\\f'3.uU League had fir'ed the first sal'Vo of revolt in. 'E3Jlt Pakistan and it trig'gered off:a. forest tire of lawlessness, arson, loot and wanton ,murder aU over the province, a senior official of the federal illforma'tion Ministry instructed me tl1at my' news service should not put cut a.ny story about the atrocities that were being OOllunittod en. _:llo,b~Bengaljs by rhe rebels in theeastern halfoft'be cotmtry. All other PIes;S services and, news-

faPCIS in 'West Pakistan were given similar instructions. -

When I remonstrated 'with the Information Ministrv official that

-- . - - - - - - . ~

it was unethical 'tIC) damp a blackout on the news" he explained that press reporting Q( the kiHhlg of non-Ecngalis 111 East Pa'kistan would unleash serious repercussions in West Pakistan audprovoke reprisals against the Bengalis residing in the weseern wing of the CO 00 try . C'-It would exacerhare ,the current tension in. the relations beeween th.e'tw'O Wmg,s~~" he af1gued, "and it would also underminethe prospec-ts, of

. - d ' 1 "th':lL A . Le' n Th-

3. negotJate sett ement WI - uJe''WaillJ League". .:e argument

lJad an clemClTt of sound, logic anda humanitarian veneer" Ceaseque1ldy" the news _ media itl '\Ves't Pa'kis'tMl fairhfuUy foUowed the

£-dc~-" .,.... "_11 .• .. . h

.w; ... rargovernments instrucnons to l\j,lI.pp[essau news pertammg to t • e

genoci.dalfiemy unloosed by the Awami Uague.~gains1 the 11,aples3 West Pakistanis, Bihsris and other non~nen:g:alli in ,reibel1ion-hit

m - p '1L.~

. .cas't ·:aJ.Klstafl.

The Awami LeiguemilillUlts had gai.ned control OVC'E the telecommunications network in East Pakistan during the rust few days of their uprising and they showed meticulous care in ,excising, ~'Vcu the hazies t mention .0 f die massacre of ncn-Bongalis jn press and private t,e,Jegr:n-n,s to West Pakistan and the overseas world. Word of the mushrooming, organised violence against non-Bengalis in Base Pakistan reached West Pakistan through the West Pakistanis who fled ' from the Awami League's terrer regime ·w p~anes_ and ships. But no newspaper inthe 'Westetn Wing of the country dared report it in print,

Early ill dlethitd week of March, a, shipload of some 5,000 terro.r~tdcltel1West P'akistm]s and, other non"':Bengalis reached l{ara,c'M from, Ch,i·ttagpn.g. Not, a. weedof their- 'p1i~t fi1tered into tire dilly


press in W~tPakist211i.. In fact one of the local uew"'Sparets bad the .atld~dfy to report that the arrivals from Chittagong sak'ldm.t the simstion ill theprrndnce was tlornl91 ~ lU if this 'broken mass of h~'lmamry had llDl a:w2.Y ttom an idyllic: stare ofh]jss,ful normalcy,

for da'Y"s Of!, elld~ aU through the troubled month ofM,ar.chI971, S,Wafm:& of ter.rorcsod!"'Beng;ilis b:y~,tthe Ar'my...colltlroUedDaGOl Ail'rOI't~awa;'ting ,their illlH1 to be loW fred ito the; safety of West Pakisean, But neitherthe wom:Mpfe5slJior therr,eSSMIl ~est Pakistan reported, the gory mmng-e of the innocents whkh h< theta fug-i,d,ves; the Awami le~ne'$ gdsly terror. Ca:skets containing themumamd, Ic!.ead. bodies ofWestPoo~hmi ,militMyp1efSOfmd, and civiliansreaihe~ Karachi 'w~th~:he p]aJ~doad5 of non-Bengali r-enlgees from Dacca. and their bereaved families. 11lJiilled and ~iLOO at th.e Karad1i Airport But these llea~Iendiug sceneswent uttteportedill the West Pak.istan newspapers because of dre federal government's order to the Press not to men tionw slaughter ofthe non- Bengalis in East P~ki~tm.

_TIH~ Beng'il:H Secretary, who hc:a,ded the federal .Ministry 0 f Information an.d nroadcasdng at Islamabad, tlu:e~a,tened 110 punish those ne~pap(."ts whidl. at ()fiC time {clt impdlec1lto violate his Mimstrr s bat .. , ,.ResPO,l1 to m.y plea, retired Jl"liSlkeZ. H .. Larj~ a Kamchl Deader o( the Council ,MU5,bm. League, who hail migrated to Pskisean fl:om India in th,e _I9+7P2rtitiol~ and whose palty was toying with d~e idea of _& political, 9ilUinc~ "viihilie A:W'all'Jli L~ue in the N;a:tional Assembly" issued a fl'J.ild1y:~~rded pr,es1) statement, in the second week: of MMch Jl97:r,. in, whid.'!t heappeaIed to sheikh Mujibur Rahn1l.1Jl(rO F'ro teet the non- BengaJ is ~n~t Pakistm.

Looking at the tngic events ofl\tlarch. 1971 in retrospect, I must oo.fif~. t11:at even I, although my pressservice commanded asizesble network 'Of district uorrespollLd.en.ts;n the in tetior of E'ast Pakisran, was llot fuUy a,w,ar·e ~f the s:caJe~ :rerocity a:.nKldime1'lSJon .of ·the praY,wetwi,de, massacre of the non- Be:ngaJis" Dacca ~hnd ChitmgQIlg were the o,nly ·twto cities from W~eIe ske1idhy reports of the slaying8 of non.Beng~is had ttidded to me ill Karachi, .mostly-through the escapees [ :lrlcl,et &t' the Kal1'a6W Airport an their arriw~ nom. E2:U Pakisran, I ibad ,racticaUy no :llOWS cf the mass butd1~lfywhidl was being; con-ducted hy~he Aw~uniLe~g1lC miHwtts md t1u;ir~coom;pl;ces&Qrn the East Pilitan Rides and,. the Bast Bengal Regmmentin Dlany scores of other cities aJ1Ld OOWll8 wbkhwere c9.ugl~ .. t: inthe sweep eta cyclone ()if

'me and dea:fu.. -

In my dispatch on tn.c ,deepening Bast Pakistan crises published. in fb.e Daily Christicnf Science 1vf(),~ihJr and reprinted in the Daily

Milwl'1:rikee' ]Qtoff'Ha,' of ,Mardl. 14, I97I~ I '\yrotf<:' '

,,',. 'D···· '. '. '. . .' wide . __ .l .... L .• 1

.... ' . . ··a.cca report's sa]' Wllespn~ mOD VIO enGe, ar-sou.

:~ooting artd mttrders mushroomed in the wake. of the .Awami League's protest s'njke can. Destruction by Ben,gaJi nlilitants, 'of prope'Ity oWJ~ed by 'West Pakistruris in some East 'Paki~bnl

toWll:S has 'been J"eavv , . , . "

- . . '"

. Skim~ refereuccs._ to th~ 'Moc?-.letting .. ofw:t!?]d .ptcOfornoDs,; undergpue' by the nen-Bengalis dunmg the Awamt League s Mmt'ch 1971 uprising in East ~Paki9tatl~ perrollltted into tlte columns of some fie'WSpapem ittW:cstcm Bnrope and India. in. thl.! first week of April 197.1·. The 'Times ofLQudon .repotted on April 6, 1971:

CII'T"L . d' f··f _.1! I M 1.~_~ - ~1::._ ..' ]- _j. 'I:) al _I..

.L nousan s 0 l1erp' ess ' nsnm remgccs settoo, m .Ileng . , at me

time of P:rrtitiOllt at; ,rc!po:rte?~eo. havet:eenolassacred br angry :BengaliS in E<U!t raldsWl. d.mmg the past week ... ,' ... =-

. .

The Daily Statenfl:4fl. of New Delhi reported. in its issue of April. 4; I!).7I:

~In"!L .- .. ~n~_ f' B ..... ., l' M li ~'1' • .1_ :o:W.IlIiJllS 0 11,011- >CU~l .'. "Us ~_n'm. now trapped ll'lme

Bastem Wing have always fd t ih,e repercussions oft'he lEa.s.tWest teruians..and it is now feared that thcBeJ:](g_aIis, have turned

on this vas t nl-inority co mmnnity to take their :revenge u

_ 'The hJLmtlreds gf ere-witnesses fr.otn, nea:dy three score towns

..]I ••. f' -E . p_12_ 'L . ,.." documentcd i ~1.. .. '

ailu cines 0' .' ast '.UU5bn" "QVaosetcst::l:Jlwmes are c QCWllen,tCu. in ems

book. are una!l:bnous in reporting that ehe slaugh:ter of West F.akis,tatris ~ lll~is and other :no,n~Bengali:s. and of some prO-Palldstan Bengalis had be.gun in ,the early .. days olf the 1'l11tr;LieI0l1S ZOltth of.March. ][971. There were some' 3j fOreign newsmen 'on the prow~ in Dacca right up to March 26" 1971. But £trangdy their newspapers and news agencies reperred harely a 'word or rw'Cl about the ipinillinlg pogrom. against the uon-EetJ.g:dis all O'Ver East Pakistan.. M~l'ly of~Jl,e Amtliom joumalises in this motley crowd of {Q.rt'igl.l reporters (wh~' souls were


:satura.ted . with oofi1.pas!tion £Or the mell~~] i 'vicnf'llS of the Novm:nJoe:T 1'9,01 cydon.e ttag,edy)we:re so elrarmed by the public relations '()llff'.1- tives of the' A~rru League that tlley were j1!<1St not p:r,epar:ed, to believe th.l.t their darlin,g~ in t~lis fMcist 0J1g.:illlizaciou O)'lllld. commit or jtl~tigate the murdet of the non- Bengalis,

Peggy Durdin j :8\ vniter for the Magazine Section of the New E"ork Timf;!s~nd her .Ilusbandl.aho a reporter rot the NIT, were .attacked in the firstweek of ,Ma.rch .1:97! hyBeng:ali demonstrators '~wid'tiron

'L ..!I: ~ ·1~"" l' h- . f· D- 1l S1 'L1L M . '1L

[Jars and ~Olng poles rat-fie' ,! farc Qi' I. aeca w.lJl-en .. H.C'.lK.lll I. UJWU:[

Rahm . an had just rdgger-ed the AVf,lmi Lea:g~1le~S rebellion, But me "Wrote not a wo.rdabollt iheirrniUilianillrng by the Bengalis in any iss'l1€'.: of her g:reat :llewi'jpapa either in ldaI,eh or Apr]] 197)[. it was ]11 her article o:f~y 20, I9']1 ~ in tile ,Magazine section of tile New York Times, about thePakisro.ll.Army ':8 dleged atrodties om the Eeng-ali~ebe-1s that Peggy Durdin referred w,the:xC11Qpho bia unloosed by the: A wami League's 2g1tition and .mmhred.. fOr tl~e :firs.1t time that she and her husband were attacked bY' Bengali demcestrators ill Dacca :in the nflSt

few datys of Msch '1971. -

Seme Biharis ill Dacca, wl);ose rela rives had been murdered in tile city and at otl'ler 1,~,aees in the prrC)vince~ contact foreigu P[~ reporters based atthe Hotel 11lterooutinell~atA~ league mu~ who controlled aU the access routes to the Hotel prevented ,theIr meeting, ,Con\'S'a cion over~h.e telephone lad. become a hazard rer. the non ... :raengMis because of the: Av.fann Leagtle~ s seisure of the Telephone ExchrngC9.fld the tapp:ing of tdep~1O:t1e Iines, ABritlil1 presscorrespondent, wl~.o was in. Daccain March ]971, told me that a BengaU, telepl1Due opemoor cut o:trhis long..,djstan.c,e ·convef!\:ation wIth. his nempapet colleague mnNew Delhi lnthe dmd. wetik oftbe month the moment he :m,adc mention of the blood ... dulfuJ:g massacre of Ilon~ .Be11gali'S all over' the province.

TIE Paldstan GovCl.nmciupaid. very dearly fo·r- it.'S fOlly ofbanishill:g from. Dacce some 3$ iforeig_n newsmenon M~ch .26, I97[~ a dOlLy a1terthe federal ,Army had gone into action agalinst the .A,v;runt League

miHb .•. :1tB a':~.d ... oth~~ .. Bet. 19a .. Ii .rehels. . Am..ol1gS.t .•.. thern w~.Dq .. ui.te ..... a &w .Ame:rlC;:Ul JoutnalJs,ts 0 (emInence and! m..t)t.1Clu:e. They bore :at deep

gmee ::tg,anlst me m;iJibry regime .En Piki:st;a.tI, aild ~ntlttough 197I no good word. about l'mstanflowed {rommeir Jlowedid pens. They inWl~tOO the~,Am.erlcan press vrith grisly, highly e~gented aoc~:mrJJ.ts ·oftfie Army:s oougnn:ess 'to~rdstherehel$a.lld IgIlof,ed the v:tftttd

alDrih±la don of a. rnassive segment 0 f the non- Eengal~populoll\ltio:n by tlte Betlgali rebels in ~['Ch-April~ 191]I.

FO'.lL :[n,iUjcms of gll1~lihlC' .A:mericaw;, and WestEllIropeam 'the lmJ~tOOw~rd. in the, lda~lypressis like $os,pel truth, and they"~dily believed tIlt: m~ny f~b8 about the Pakws&m. Army til cotldUGt m :Ba,st I'wstan wMch surged across th,e (:>(llLIDtlls of their newspapers.

The forced exit of the fureigu news corps firDrn Dacca, nh~ ire and MgtI' of these ~rtif;W:are newstoen over their banishment frOom ,iBas.t JPakiStai1: ,and the reluctance of the ,American nud the British rteWSpap~s to give credeoee to the censored ,dlesp1ltrhes frum. :Karaclli on the :nll]_itary opera tions in the. eastern half oEthe country prevented~ te a . ~,reat extent; thevrorld:-wide pl.llbH.cation .of the harrO"Wi:llg. ,de'tails of the bloodbath 1l1!ndlergolleby the non- Bengali population :in the Awami LeagIb~ts March 1971I updsing.Thm one of tl1c 'bloodiest slanghrets' of modern timeswent IM'gcl.Y unrepertedin the Ineemarional press.

Late in tho nrstwock of Apd~ I9'7I,clw£i3drura1 Intonna;tion ,Mi.,:,. "11:iso.ry. roo ok a .g:r.~ •. '.QUP o .. fP. ~kjgtani pres .. ~. oo.nres.R0 .... l.ldel1t3 on a. ~Ot1..~Il .. ct"e.d tour of the rebeJ-devastt!!.tedl pa'rts of East Paldstan. ] was ~nVJ.t..ed to

go with the' g1l0tlP huit just diell I was busy eompletirrgtheReporc of th.e Sind: Gcvemmenr' s Social W clf~li,e E-vabraciofl Cnmm~.ttee (of whicl\. I was the Chai:rman).. As I W~'S :keel1 to submit itto rheprovincidadmlnistritionbefcr,e the deadlln,e of Apdl~ 1:Z~ 197I~1 I pcHtdy ,ded:in£,,! tltt invitation.

One of the !P'a:kismni llev,rslllenw]lOwen.t on dris tour of' East Pmst:;:m W~N, Afi.thonY'Ml~carcMas" A~~iffit:l!nt Editor o£K.aT~cht:s EngJ!.i~liD'aily Morning News and P'akig;tm'l CouespQj](knt t)f the S~J~r Times of London, OtlMay A~ 1971.~ the Sr,nrlal T1':t'Hf"S published, thQugh bd.a.tcdl'Y~ his write-up on the' Awa:nIRi League's Ma.rch ... Apn]~ 197Irev-olt fllldlib.e traU of dev,:;tsta.ti,c>n. 1 t 1(.11 bd"ljud. It sh,edl at Ieast a. .ki:l~k ,ot Hgb,t on rA,ev:au dimension ofth,e; widespre-a& md, sadistic massacre of some non-BengaHs :in Ea~t P'a.1cl~tan by 'the Bengali rebels, Buta month later, its impact was neutralised mel its audien ... ticity was erod.ed 'by his second arride entitled, ~~Wlly dl,elEtcfugees: fled.?!~'~ wllich W<'l~ "prornin'c'llt])ydisplayed in ·thcSr,maayTimes of 1 nne l! 3, ~ 1:911 and repmd1!'Ujh. lhCJJd);an :manfpui):atkrn~ in MallY l1ev'1.1'Sp.ape..-rn in the United Sta;res; and Canada, Seduced and tefnpted iby the Indian.s,Mascarerihas and 11m family:uri,vecll in LOl1on:neailIDym JLme from .K.1ladrl and th'e SimaS] Times pU:Mi~ihecll 1na. score ,of rolt1J!nml

his venomous Mas,tat the P,akistan Army for its :ille,ged genocide agIDlusr the Hkldu!5l of&~t Pakistan,

In, a bid. to give If1!1s: June r ~ru:ticle the veneer a/objectivity" MaS'-careehas ttl~e dlis C11.lI"SOry- reference to the slaughter of the nm -Beregalis by the Bengali rebels:

"Thousands of f2mi~ ies of U1(~rort~mlare MmHms~ nun)' of IDem l'efugt:es from Bihar: who chose 1?'altistan a:t the time of the panitiDn riots in I~J4?, were merdJcs~ly wiped ont, , Women Wcr, re m,pe,d '~f,:_lUlid d_1:.e,', it breasts torn O',utwith" s,pociaJly fashioned knivd.Cbild:rrn did! not escape the Borror: the A'Ucicy ones were kill.ed with their prure_nh,:; but many thOU<lands of'orhers

must ,go t~t~,ugh wha,t .life r,ema, Ul:S for them wit, h, ~~e:, ,g~ltlg~d one ~nd BUlbs r-ou,ghiy :!rmputated. More than 2°'1000 bodies

of the non-Bengalis have: been found irn the f'nill,intowJtts such as 'Chitm,gong1, Khwna and jessore, The real ~oU" I was told everywheten~ East Bengal, may' have been as lugh as I.OO~(lOO;. for ..:L. -1. f ]' 'n. • shed ith . :I>

[,nommdS·O· non-Benge l'S nave vanishec Wlt_'out ill trace .

The reportage of the 'Pikisral1j ne-"Wm1ell., 'Who toured East P.~stan in die :fi~,t .fol"€niglu of April ][9I']I~, as published in the-West Pmstan ,pre~) lIb~ed no lI1etails of-the :gm'csome extermination of a

J~rge ~~g~.n~ of d~e _nQ!,"';Ben~i :p.'"Op'Ur~h.:O!.'l in, ,tl,lC:o .Awa~u Lengue;s genoClde. The reason was rbe t'0&emJ. Government s anXIety Ito pre~

v:entr,ettiJbutivereprisrusa,gaillst the Bengali pDpU!'lCC in WesrP'a1cisraJ] .

I w~sstupe£ied. ,,~hen .I heard blood-chilling accounts of dle butchery practised. 'by ~Je A~mi League rebels on 'thej,r 11011-]3f;11;g,ali vic;ti~ In Chlttagong from friends who cs( Karachi inmidApril. I was s110c:ked bcyo:nti wenis because I rather Iike the Bengalis

fa ~IL.· .. 'Ii.. d .. . ,1 • h' d Co 'L l~ ~--

_, . r' '~neJlf genue ane aI"ustJc trans anu :~.t was Vf!T)'nf lOT me to' IOCllt:'V€l

'that allY Bengali, 'wouI4 indulge in the ~vagery 'Wh~dl my inrom.laJ],ts tto,m, Clrlttagon,g attribnted to the Awami League 'rniliianbJ such as M. R. Sjddib~ a high..,rmking member of the partv~:8 hierarchy. I eounted amongst my esteemed Bengali friends, Iris nlustrro'lls &t1,C[:~ m~hVlil'~J l\I1r.,Ahl1] Ka~¢m Khan, it former fed,er,a} ,Minister acnd. ]egidmitOI., and wa~ ifrup,m::ssJea ~,y his sartorial perfection ,atl·d, hi' ~mia:ble mmmets. fu, I browsed Ja')t mOlltb In the heaps, of har.rowing eye-witness acCOunts from China_gong of ,the, r,libds" pvagt..'t'f m JMa'fch 197111 I 'becune ;aware of the reasotl;g which rnade the non-Bengali victims

'elm . M' 'R, S' _Ll.·1t_~ .. 1\. oI'~en· 'il f· C· '!..~ ~" H'

nl .. - ;uue,. . ,,'~~bu aSt.u.€l nutcller o· I . .IutttLgQllg ." "eg:~ve


a nMV' dimension of cold-blooded violence to tlte Awami Leagu,e,'s, terrotapparams.

In dIle third week of April. the ,federal '[l-~formation Mmiury (whose BengaU lH;:ad, had 'b~~ replaced, 'by a West l'akis,rani) l',eques:rect me., to proceed post haste to the United Stares on d'cp1lJtation 'to the Embassy of' Pakistan in Washington D. C.and, ~project: 'befocre the:

Am,ericm pubJic the rationale for' tlte federal military interveation in '~t Pakistan. India~s "WCH-organized propaganda machinery andthe lib,eraJly-hn21100d India Lobby ill the United Stat,c$ were woiJcing in rop'gearto :malign P'akis,tal1_ and to smear the name olf the PalasWl Army 'iby purveying yams, of its alleged brutality ill '&'s't: Pakistan.

P'akistan~s Public Relations difficttlties ill the United States were compounded by the 11DIenUttjng l~ostinty of the Americm 'P!esB, cerrespondeaes who were bundled out ofDaoca on. March .20. When .I spoke 'to a friendmy Senator at Capito] Hill a'brmt the massive burst of violence _let loose all over East 'Pakistan 'by the Awami Leaguers on West; Pakist1ulis" ,lHharis and. other non- Benga1is durln,g the, dltHderons w:ontn of Marcitlg']'I and told him dhat more than roo.coononBengalis ~a,d peds11_M in this dreadful eamage he looked[ at me in, ,disbeH~£,~~YWM' Dot the ID3~Cre.' reported n1 the' pr-eS8 in .. March?"" was: his IogH:aJ qt'Le.ty.

Late in April, I:97'I,me Pa.'ki:S;~':nl Embassy iuWaibrmgton published, a. booklet containing a chronology ef the fed.eJr:all in.tetveattion in East. p;akigcm. It highlighted" the AYfami League~!iI pog.rolll agait.iJ5t West Pakistallls1, Biharis -and oihcrnnn .. Bellgalis whkh was wag~d in M..,.tch 1971. Theitrunediare imp-act of its, .ft1MS distribution in the Un ired States VII"'ols,dmt, many l,egj5lia.tQ[s, awl academiclans s.ought :inrorma tion :from. the Brnhassy about tIle genesis of the WCI'Ed .B:thar.i and the' etlmic bwJrgound of dIe Bihmis·, .

On May ,6, 1971,t a group of s:ix. :folcign. ,correspoude:o.'ts represent ... ing the New 'York Times, Reuters, A~datel ~ess of AmefitQ~ TIAlB Ma~ine, th,e .F:intmtird Tbnes of London and the New ChItta News A~ (Hsill.htl~.) ~_ew 'to Dacca and made a fairly romprdm:ellsivlc 'tour of the rebellion-damaged. areas of the province',. 'ThcitunceJ.1soroo despatches itom East Pakisw'l spoke oft'he .'Wirlespr,eaa 'ltillin:g of ,(he' :Biliarisby tIle Bellgal~ rebels in, Mar,ch-A}?riJ, 1971 arul gave hanowing aocoiUtits of 'the teEds' 'bnl,tality 'barrated by I~ye-witnesses and victims of the pogrom. The. Embass,y of Pakistan pmmpdy pubmmhed ;utd.


,Americ~~ Indian and Bengali protaganls:ts oo,{ the secessfonist cause case aspe'B[ons on the integrity. of these fOreign newsmenby ~gjug tlra:t drey 'WeIC d.upod, into believing th.1.t the mass graves they- were shown were of non-JaetlgaJis altmlough, ococm:Hng to 'the p1rtony dainl of the secessionists, they were IOf Bengalis, liquidated by the Indian p:ropa:gatldisrs disihed out to fo,reigl1, correspondents in 'N:ew Delbi p,ietu.rcs 'Of bur_nt houses and fazed market places as evidfefioe of 'lIt.e. devastation caw.ed by the Pakistan Arm. y in Bast Pa:kistaJl allthoug'JI in reality most of the destmcti,Q'll was caused by 'the w,ell"'a.rmed. Bengali rebels when: they went OXl! ~ne ~mpagc ag:!liru't the tlon~Bengdi!!i ina h~D()dy andlflruni'ng spree of 10011:, arson and murder, Some picmres were daitaed to 'be of the Bengali female vkdms of :the Pakistan Army's alleged atreeity; a, dose look: at ehe physical, features . m,d Idr·esses of ,the pictured fenwes disdbsoo, tha'f tbey were' West Pikistan:w, fiotBellgalis.,

India's official propa:ganda outfit and its front oIg;allizations ill the United States and Western. EtJ;f\Gpe unleashed a, spa.te of boob and '~g\hlets, :m whim the Pms~ Army WllS, accmed of the w.ul~n S1a .. ~~ .·t~r ~f milli0';18 ,of ~~n.~ruis't of 'VQ'.lging ~ell?cidertgainst .t!re :&ngaJi I-:-lilldus and of ravti:hIDg 200~OOO BeogaH girls. West Paklseanis were: branded in these Indian propa_gand"a books as worseshan the Huns ana the Naiis. This n:JJiastnQ. of lies .arn.cJ. nbs., innovated by Indiatn f'lUiblicisiS" was so ingem.ously purveyedend SiI)StrullOO that th,e ;m,assive· abridgement of the non ... Een~i. J?O'p,tUation 'by the Bellg,aH rebeis in March~Aprim :£971 tad!oed mto the ba.c'~r"fl'Lllul and lay 0:1:1 the dust-heap of fOIgiJtten history.

The White Paper on tl1te Bast Paltiu<ll1 crisis, pll;th1ishcd by the Government of Pakistan m August 1l9?I,,(9likdto make any sigl~i£,caJ]t't intemationalimpact.. It . was mOl'dinddy delaved and ;gave a dis, .. · appointingly s:ke.·tclty' account ... OIfthe.massa~e. sof.··t,theh. ,. :non~Ben~~]s by 'the Awaml Leaguers and o,thell' rebels.. . Dozens of places ~11~e, It nowa,ppea'[s" llQ;n"':Beh.g:allis 'Were s.llaughten:d by me thousands Itl ,M~I[clJ.-A.PIi. 1,9'1][ were not men:doned, in tn..e W'bitePaper.

Tb'e Government failedl Ito give belated post mortem r,t1?ort of the ,A:wami I.eag:!L1Ie's geltoddal catnpai,gn. against the :Biharis ade-


q:"llaille and effective inte:m~t:iona1 plJiJ,]idty •. The "W11ite 1?ape( would 'h,atve made more inJrpa<=t, in spik of irn :inadeqruac::r 'Of details, an dim fort:1gn re~ers wotrld. have reacted in .boron: over the A.we.1J)jLeague":s, t~cisc pog!om if it haa been pubmished. bcfo~r,e tbe end ,of April I97lET

III psycllologicatwarfare""the clement' oftimclS often of crucial im;por'W1ce~ especially when one i3ll-ittfd ag:nThStm. unscrupulous enemywithscaet regard 6:n:: truth an.'. ethics. ,By Augn~t I97I~ln&i:a ~~d~, vi:ruk~ldYi pOlsone~ ~ krge seg;:n.ent ~fpubHc ~pinJon,in the W e~t by bbtantly magmfYrog Ulle re:r.J:~ltlf1wt and hlafnmg the lPaldstall An:ny for ihis exodus that our Whi.kl Paper neither :::et the record stmigl1t nor ,CUd it cQil111te[the~ny scores_. of boob and, p~m ... p1l1ets with whichmd~'ilI, :Hooded the world to, msHgn. Pakistan and itS Ar'n':I.V,.


Tl._ur'- l_~_ 'n,,:.....i!": . '.1. AlI,,,..' ',. i':.1~,' . .. ..t...

H.e lIi:t:Uc'[.;li JiJ,1l!Orin.a.tiQt.l ~'I'JUlJijsrry s tu:m, C10,~¢fitaty OfluJ:e

restoration Ot nonnaky in East Pakistan was a dmdy efforf, Al;though shot;!!]. the seccnd half(:lf April ll'97I' ,ti:n.d M;lespak'h~d~oPa~5tan' s overseas missions in May~ it was vie' :smaJ1lu.lile:t1ce5 ~bro~. If llideqrutte ft111dg were avaitacble:~, it ooluld have been sh,o'W11J. on lmporrant television. networks in the Unjtedl States 'by buymg: time. It showed the rubble of home::. andsh;opping . bloch moOt uP. or P.Uit £'() the m.rch by the' rebels h];lt It .gave ven:y little evidence of the infem:ail gb"~htcr~h.ouse~ andtortnro chambcrs: set up by tl1erehd~ in Ma:och 1971 toUqu~id;?.1!e :nta:tl'y th.ottsand~ .of dl.eir'. non"'lJ3engali vic cmt;~ The bk~;od . ..mmulg sa:vag.ery ·,,{me Av;ami. Le;aguc~ s genocide and the oolo5sal. W:reckaJ~e of human lives it had len in its trail were not :6Jlly lex'pos:ed".

"Tbe Gre..a't Traged.y'~~.written 'by Mr. Zull£Jkar AJi Bhlil:tro~ Ch."l;rmau of dleP.'2'Ici~bm People's Patty and publ~rud :in .Sepbemlber 197T ~ sh.ed reveaIimlg light O.lJ! tlH~: genesl]- .of the :E1St iPa)ldstan crjshl~ the se.ce~s·ioui5[mmbitiol1.:s of the Awami I,eagl!Jle'S leaaetiliip~. Sheikh Mujibtilr Rahman's Q,'bdnr.ate and UilOOtnpromising stance iII the C0I18- rimtion,a;l talks in DUlcea :iD.~hc third week of lv1:alLchi97I andilie

P,m_~ . m, ii t 'p ,; d'. e. c: • ~.~ G .:111 c··· .. 11' of" :1

~U&lS m:nll!:" eople S Mty s enorts :!:Of w:rgmg a. ··ranu I ,()a.ilt~on () ttne

majority :parcles; of the hivo Wing$" "!Yiminil:he fIrame-wurk. of a smgle~ unitedl Paldsfi'ttl.. Mr. Blmttots vmnd~catroil (l,f the' ronS;bhlltionaJ stHl{~ and role aiMs P~ty w:arStOECeful ,and. Io~icru. .. "The Great Tr.agedy~' ,deserv-ed gfot:N11 crrculatlon on. a. mass scale whi'G.!l:~ to. our loss~was 'then deniedto it.

After tuy retum .to Pakistan from the Unieed State.s la1Je' :in Norvemhd" il:97Jll, I spo~ 'to one of'idlJf; ruling Geilera1_s. ,at Islamab~d about the urgent need fur the publication and mass d.istribtl'tiQn of.~ book b:lSed au ey,ewitncss aceormts of the survivors ofthe AlvaDli league's ho[oc~ru!it of MarcJb, .. Apr;l 1971. I ]earnt,tha,[ some reliable evidence had 'been oo.n~cltcd UCI'l\1.eye-w:imesscs 'but the. GCllerili, 'wcfle I~he!ll 'too 'busy vvith. Ind~a,~s virooal invasion, of Base Pakistan and the: prepuatio,m fot' a frullsrnme!lJliJitary, sb.Q,wdo Wllwith India.

Bady in 1'972;,1 m,et ;1, number ef uon-Bcngali ?;ra:r~isp'laacd persons fnl:fi1 EastP,wstan ~rhD had, taken up abode. i:~1 shacks in the :ihant)r tcwnship of Orangi in Karachi. I W'a'S herr iflcd by the acco unrs they narrated of tl1.eir' suffering Jn BastPakistan dudng the A:mmi Lea.gU.c~3 bloody rebellionand ~e ,~ping, vacuum this genocide' _ n.1id" can'lj.ediuthe nou-Be[)g,mU population in the COUll 1ll:~ls, eastern half. I~hmr tcstrmOf1JY showed W3!t die Awami L . .-~guer:.s and the rebels finDll the East Pakistan Rifles, and the East :B(!.ng;aI Rcgmme-ntw:ere ~he ftrst tu massacre die nOl1~JkngaIDi innocents and that the tornado. of violence and dea~l wwd1swept me province in Mnrclh ... AFrj1 19']1, froOm, _the !1wium League's lust .f6r po'WeJ:'. _I thought of writing at book based on their testimony but I did not have c'Y,e .. vrinv:$t-.s fr-om all of th,e many scores ()f t-o:mlS in Ba-st P,akistan where uon-Bcegali ,oomm!'unmti~,wem 'whoUy or partially exterminated,

fume meantime, I. stall" ted ,,"Ott on "Mission to 'Wad.l!.ii1gton~' whidh was all expose oflnd,ia~s: intrigues in: the United Sta~ to bring about the d!isD1.eDlCernlCnl!: ofPakismn. On the basis tof'D.1.Y personal :and experiences, I demil~d in this book: 'tile diabolic wo:rk of 'the In,dia Loblryr m the United Stares, and it's. ooUahora.'eon: 'to 'rum American puhUc opinion3!gainst Pakistan and to block American military supplies toQPaki$tan~s forces ,preparatory to India's a:rmed ,grah o.f Bast P'akisibm in December ][9']'1. It was puhmi:snecl in Jru.luary 19'73.,

_ :lin uTile East Pakistan T'ra,gedyJj'"Mit~en byPrQ£ RtlShbr)~ok Wmla:ms, ,2 weU.-kno'WD Britis.h journalist and author l' alld ,publiShed .in 1973" th~ :poUdcal aspect of the ,East P'Wstatl ,~iS was ]uddly discussed ;:mdl P:aldstant's case W3'S cogently ,ex,p]ained"

- -

. .Mmjolr-General 'Fa2:alM'l1qrem~"9 book" ~''Leadenh]_p ]11 C:risjjs~~ I wh.icll 3!lso~ppeared. in 197]" dealt :i1I;~ t~llgth with thepcHtirn-miTita,ry aspect of the Ea.s:e 'P.aki~tan crisis, Indi.a~s mllitary and finai'flciil help to


the :Bengal~~, secessionlse fe'bds and the IdiS:aJ~trotls 'W:ar 'With India, ill Decemibe.r 1'971.

Pakistan"s; rejoinder 'to the illoo.i1l of anti .. Pikista_n lirer;a'tllre which, has g'Ushed,_'.fro~" :r~)(Ua'~prof"'flg~,,an~,' ,, ~i"nce ,the Id,:es of,Matth, jl, 197t has b'een tmg,lcaliy weak and lIzl.ade,quatc. In th,e summerand

autumn of 1973,~when Itta.velled extensively in the 16ddle E~tt Weste_m Europe and the United States, r saw a number of hooks

_ 'Qcr?ga'to, tyoo,'," ~alcist, ,al~,' ~nd~ it, fmrlJe,aarmy, ~,n Iboo:~ops~ especially th~s~ which sell for~l1g~'ll pUbm]C.a,tlons. Two 'boob, whicl1 I read. and which

provoked my :ire are Indlan, ,M:aj~f-Genetal 'D.K. Palit's ~'The Lightning:

C:tmpaign~' in wh:mch he' has heaped in'''ectl:ves a!11d abuses OIl the Pakistan .runlY iJ.II!U,(J stationed itt East Pakisean, :3111d Olga Olson's ~~DoIttOI!! in which she has, exaggerated the suffedng of the Bengali popelation dlOOtlg the Army operations in :[97I. I a]&O glanced over two' fait volumes of the ,Bwlgladesh documents, mass distrihuted .. by the :[lld~an Government 111 the United Sta;k;s:, in whicl1.Jfu.dia i:ilp:r()jC(;v~d ,as an angel ·of peace -wlho showed J)o..lh patience t]1the fa,ee of Palcistan's aJleged villainy ,Qltldharlbarhy in Bast Palci'stall.. I dM not see in these o,v~rsm~ bookstalls a smgle book. about the ;grueootne atrocities perpetrated by the on Ule napless. Biha:ris, and other non-Bengalis in Eas.tPakistan in March 1911 ..

The general impression ill the United. Statesand ylesrern Europe:. a.t least until ,th,~ autumn o.f .I'!:n3. Vri"aS that the Bibaris had joined hands wbh tlll~ Pakistan Atmy ill its. 1971: OPe1'J.'tiOl'U in 18~st Paki stan an& t'M:t :tier the defea.t of mePakis'tm AtIny ,in tlh.e thir,cl[ week of D.ece1l1.he.r J[97I, the Bengalis had, a. Iawlil~ right to ilrllfHct r:e'tributiv-c justic,e and violence on the' Bm;\ds.

b-l the Middle Bast, some _ll?o~i:llid<lns al~ j o'w:-nalists,~ altho L~ sincere' in their frielldshlp' for P'a.kistan.,ash.d me whethetthe' s.OO,rU$ they had read abou£thc P,alcistau Army's alleged brutality in East .Palcls:tanwew ,oorr,e,'ct an, '. id whether tUfhJCSS1f1fS8 ~,,:a:s an ingram,ed ,quality, in, the ]?ak['Statl] psyche and temperament. I 'lAl'S.S, appalled by the doubts Which Im:Ua's smear catnpaign ag_ains't Pakistan had created about us as a nation 'even. in the minds of our b,roiliers-in-fuith ~l1d frien.ds.


of ~n. officlal CO'DlDlince 'fot' the relief and rel1ahHirati'on of ~r~ displaced persons :from ,Ea~t Palclsta~ ill the' 6r;ngi towns:hip in Karachi, I mtet many hundreds of fion~Bell~,aH rr.paumates-m.en~womCll ~nd children. . Tl~ evidence gav'e me the impression. that the non-Bengaf ,death toll.ln the murderous ,period! ,~fMard:ilJ .. April 197]: was in .. dl_fl vicinity of 5001(100. I TVas 'ProfoWld1y and moved by their nearc-!reru:ling accounts of' the teIdb'~e :snfffflng tll!ey had undergone durin g the A~ League's insurrection itt . Marek 1'971 and ln the mondul after India's rumed seizure of.Eis.tPalcis.tan it! ,December 197I. :It was then that I decided. that m[le' filU story of tids horrifying pogr~nl e;tro~df;~ ~mrni'tted~ ~~ th~ ha.·lapl,ess n()n-.-B~ngiri'S and other patnonc Pabtarus til. East Pakistan (breakaway Bangladesh) should 'be mK-aveUed. before the' 'world. Hence this, beak,

The ]:7"0' eye-witnesses, whose teseimoniesor interviews are con'~ne:d in this book in ,abrMged form havebeen chosen fr·om a. universe 'o{ more dlRn :51000' rcpatria,ted .non~BengaJi &rnHre-s., I h~ide:, :3tfrer'rome considerableresearch, S5'OOW11.S and cities ill! Eu,:,t P'a]cistan wbere the abridgcmetu of the non-Beagali population in M,;1J"ch and ,ear']y Apri1 1I'9'7I-was coo.spicu.ously heavy. The collection am.1 com,":", :tpih:ti:on of these eye-wit:n~ss accoun ts 'WaS started in January :m 9j'~ ,and 'C(lfnpleted:Jin.rwelve weeks. A team of four reporters, ,oommj'S$ionedl £Or Ruervie'Wing, the: witnesses from, all there j:S to'W1U, and cities of EaS''t P'akistan~ worked witllL intense devotion. to secure their te5omony. Many of ehe interviewswc,re prolonged because the' ~tlles·ses broke ,down in. a Hur~y ,of80OO and tears as they IIcbtro the agonis;ingstorles

'llf the~_"rrecked Ji~es. J 11~d Hslledl. in FdhrUilf).r 1!n:4 a.ll a.ppe~ in t~e news'papers roOf such eye-wuness acccunts, and I am gJI:uefl:].1 to. tbe many hWldreds of wl:messc:s. 'who prompdy responded to my caU.

The 'sta:menrents, ,and :iinte'fviews of the' wi messes l'$lefereoorde,d OR ,3 fairly comprehensive proforma; along with mel!' signatlU',es. In selecting a. wlmess, 'I exercised. utmost car'€: -in assessing l1i5 'oorkground~ his lr,eHability ,and 1m suitability :fo,rna.rratil1,g liithfuUy m:he details of'the :mas:mae he' 1l3d witnessed 0([ the st;lffi.-ring he had, 'borne in }da_n:Jh~Aprnil 197[,,1 have aka pored over mounds, of reoo[-d$J' ,(k)CUI!'ne-DU :a:tld fO,:reJ,gn and P:am:tani press clippings, of that period.

_Although 'the eye-wimess accounts, con-minod n1this bOQ,k put the focus on. me 1ti'g:dy~tlflleported horror and beastialiry ofthe IDim ... derons QKHltb~ of ,March W'l_d .ApIil J'9'1l" ] hQ!'V,e~ U'I1 m:a:ny a/. case, blcorporawdthe lhrutality ':ndfered by the witnesses after ,I.tu!ial'i occupa-


don of East Palds~ and! ,~ unlea;shj~g 'of the MuktiBahbd~s tampaig11, of terro,r al:J:d £iea,th ~gah1sttheherpmess 'nml~Bien,g~is,M1d pI'Q-Pa.kisean :Be11galis fro,m thethl'r-dwe~k ~f DooelU1bd: 19?,I ,o~nwa:rds. 'for their' hlUeXJposuteil, ano d:ILEr 1OOo.,k is: aeeded.

Ire-gmt dUltt it 'w-as not :fl()ss'ihIe fOlL me to accommodate in this book th,e IMUY hundlreds ,of othet t\'$rimnm~ 'that ]remved. Aside oomme overriding oo'mid"r~tion Qfspa~, anoU1er 1',ea;SQ'l1. W41S 01Y keennesstha..ttl~evrltnesSes~ whose evieienoo is recorded ,in, drlsbQok:" should be the PQIen,nlwb'~ :saw thebe chiMreus;lau~hrei"ed" the wiveS who~e: f,o[,codw .seeilie' Iuili1ess:sJaylll,g of their hm'bands. tilw.gjrls whowerekidnt~pped, aDd raped biy 'their capron and the ,escapee-s ~m the fiendishhuman daught:er-llomfS operated _by therebels:" I was aim, anxious tB:a.t the w.~.megsesI gdtct m01L'l.Ml ha:v~ no relatd~ left 1n. Ba.ngl~desh.

I halve ineorporated .in 'this. book the acts ofher·urn,m ,md oourage .of dlosJebmv)t'!. and P:~ trio tic Bengalls who sl1e1! cmed anal _PfOW(;,ted,. at

gr:at ,fel"ill. tOili. '-le~~cl.·llye5j.the_H', _~elL_ro .. ·rc .. stri'~le~ ~o.nMOEen~~~i fri~~ll{b ~nd n~~botirs, .... ~n the b~_l~ofihe h~~s of ey~~tness.3G~Otm~s~ ~~ .. I have ,carefully n;3d.~slfwa a.ndl al1a,ly.slf,xl, I ~o mllk~ bold to :s:a:y that

'the vast ~jQrity ofBBllg,alis d..l~pprov'Odl of IDdwa.s nota ,party to th~ barharic atrocities nu1ictod on the h~]?1(,s3 lron":]3cngalis try the A.'W":i!::mJ, Leagae"s terre.!: m,a,chiUe~udthe 'F,r.m1keJ!~stcill:5 ~nd l.mmpir,~s ill rl1':11oosmt Tlris silent :majoIity~. it seemed, ~sitwed, im:;mo'biUsed ~.d neutta1ised by the terrifyin.g power~ 'We!3poflS ;and ruthlle£sn~ ofa mi:sgtlided.m.inorlty hdl",'bent onocoompUiliing. the 'secession of East jp'a1::ist:all.

I mmE stress, with :I!.11 the {.o'f(le and, Silll1erity at my command, that thrns book is not ,Df'ltend,ea. tn be a tacm,t ind,lct:tnent of the l1ren,ga]is as ~ litation. ]11 ~ldtingtn..ld pi~blisiMDg thi~ book, I am nOit n~tl:vared. by any :rcvaw;hj ~:t lobs essionoc am~w. '[I]lRL1(l[Y erstwhil;e: :Be~g;1lI!1i compatriots 9;5 a. ll~tio:n. Bwfttodary there are vast numbersof them. who are hrarvhlt:g': the prun and agony of endless inc21-cerario:n in of Jails mBa.ngtades! because ofd1.~'~r loyalty to 'Pakif!;tan , ...... a. COllmtry .in whose'cfCation fhcir tl!ob'[e forehearsp,~ayI8d ~ '1,~.adIDg role, Just as it is. sltupid m .cond.emn. ,the great GennaD. people fb·t'me sins, Q1r the Nazis;!, it would be fnoUd~ro "I:IDHW th~ lBeng.'lU peopl~ ~s a who~e £'or the d,:!rk de,ed,s ,oftlte A'1Maml ~-Suc m;iJ~, mdd:t~jr accomplices.

As a" people, I hoM.ttile Bengdis ill hIgh ,estecml. 111 the winner of' I:'97~I, I had. dedica:tecDy la:boRted for ~m.outl1s, as: t1leSecr-et9!.ry of

tire ,sind Government' sReUef' Conrunittee(or:the CyclO:JlLC .su'fE'aers. of East PakistanI' ·00 rom SUCCClW of more thfliDk'11 million rupees, in cash :md. kind., to' the victim: ·ofthis ca;taclysn~ic tragedy.

TIme ,is a .great healer of wounds and I hope and pray dla t God; in, his b~gn_.mercy~ will leuni.te tb'e .Mllslirw of Pakistall and :Bang1a~ desl4 if not physkallY1 at least in mind and soul. KnoVlw"ing a littk of the Bengali Mmlinu' psyehe and social milieu, I devoutly believe that no. power on earth can snap ~nllal1ently their Islamic .moodngs and that, in spite of the trauma o,fl~7][ and; ts pa]l1fUI aftennath~ tJrey

rcem~ an mse~nn~b~ Ft of the, i~~?s:trea~, of th~, .~l~_be~~E~i[ig Mnd:un fr.a:te.fDlty.,' Blood. :ancl Tears ]J beJng, , a nme

·when all the Bengalis :m Pllkistan ·who opted fO·r B,aDgb,d~ been ~epa:triated ~ci that !OOtUltty and the danger of a_ny reprisal .agait1lstthem ha~ b,een totally eJ:iminated.

- - - ,. rl - _"

The succourand re'habilitatiolt1 of ' the multitudes. of B1"har:m and other non-Bengalis, now r-epa.trfu.ted to Pakistan~ is our moraland SOCI9J1 cll0insihility. They, have s.illfi'erM becattse they and thell' paren tSQ[ ,'.1' .• ; dren 'Wf.I"e ,devoted to the l,deology ofP3Jki\lWl .nu:'i. shed die:ir blood fo:r it. Even as the victims ,of a catastrophe, not of their own making~ they :ar-e ,entitled In the fl1ll~·t measure of 0 ur :l,ylllpa~hy, empathyand support inrestoring the spHntered pla..1llb of their tragedystricken lives. In: projecting their s,uf'e.rmg and . of those who are sadly no more and. in depicting thepoignance and pain of their scarred memories in. uIUo~d and Tears"'" I have been motivated. by· humane considerations and lby a. humaaitarien impul "e. Thein is, indeed, a 'Ve1"f' sad s:t{)ry~ .1arg~ tmtoJd,. andiliis book mirrors, in p:alt~tbc a.gony and trauma m.ey :s.ufi'er:ed in the not ... too-distru.u past, and the ~w wounds they still carry in their tormented hearts, ~'~lood atl·d 'Teant'l' is. the sto.ry of therivers ofbJcod tha.t flowed in .Eas:t Pakis tan in the infernal month oflvlarreh 19'71:, when die Aw.muLeague's genocide ,agams.t thenon-Bet1gaUswas, unleashed, and also of the 'tears that we sha.D.shed _for many a year to come 'OV·eJ!' the massacre of the innocen.ts and India"s; a.mputa.tiOl1. of our' eastern, wing ..


The Aw:ami League held Bas:t Pfo1kis:tan"s eapital city of Dacc-ain its ttd:hla~ grip from Ma_rch 1 to_ Zj t 1971. During this dark period of loo"t~ anon and murder, more tllaD";,ooo ncn-Bengalis were done '00 death by the Awa-mi Leag:ue militants, ,and t!tei'rs1L1pportm. Por m()htbs~befote the, .Ides of Marich 1971;, the har,doole leadership of the Awanu League ,h~d, prhned its 'terror machine for confro'n:tation with

h .. ~"t..,. r- .. 1.. ("'1 11 F'· L~_ t1., ..1 _

it e ,aUimO'rl,ty ot 'me EeaelL!I.~1. gQvem:m~t.ttc-~a: llllg dcmagoguea

of the .Awruiri Leag:lJe had. sam_r:i.~tedthe oansciousnesa of their vola,tile

,f61krwen with ha tred for the West Pa:EistatUs, the Biharis and other n.on-Benga~:is. 'They propagated ,a racist and obscurantist br.and of Bengali uationalism, Secession froln 'the Pakistani 111:!tiOnhood was

undoubtedly their <C2D1.ouAagedgoal. .

O 1Il A"~ ~_:L ' , '. ~'L • , 'b' ' f' G" ' .• ,- ~~~ 1 'Y"_'- Tr11,'

n l:V~t][IL,!_l. 1. I97r~ 'WlUUn. an sour o~ '. i;ik.-r.l.l,'a,nva. l\.JW1' s

fQr'~1100l1 anneuneement of the tempt?'raIY postponement of the. Man:h,3 session of 'me Cons:titutiorPfrallung; National Assemhly, ~hcikh Mujihur RahmAn fired the first "broadside of £'C'v.oh agaiu&t the &detal goVeflUtlctlt., At a hnaied!lyo..summoned p,ress conference .in ,Dacca. be 0 rd.ered a g.oneral strike in the provincial capital 1:0 para1ys~ the ad.muustr:ation andte usnrpthe au:ihorifry ofrhe la;wfiilly--esta,blished Gpvern:mctl:t in East Pakistan.

A '] - .LL "tGo"'" Ah" d~'~· ",.~1 hi., ~., .-

;C\_8 ae g<\ve'me ' .,' '. '" 'ea_ SIguru to I tspartys_stQrmtto0:f,en~

theAwami 4"a~T,e militants went U1l1 me mmpa;g~ an over the city;. 100 ting,. burniJ1g and killing,. They looted ,;l1'1l1:B, andammunition from the Itiie Club in 'the nearby industfiaJ town'ship ,ofNanl'yang;mj.. They turned, two donnitory t:.Ioda of 'tbe Da~ Universiqr, the I'qbal Ii:tll and, tbcJaganna:th lli.1'It into oil?ier-a;tiQnal1bases, for their regime OIf rett'or.

On M~cl~ 2: .Mmed, AW~lm.i League t"ingoes looted gulu :md.

_. II! ,~, - • if! , _ I I, _!!' '_., -, I

ammmuhOll from arms, shops In 'me New .Mar -: t: and .BaltUi Mukarram

locdities of centra] Dil.C(;a. . They trucked ,the Jonted W-ea:POliS: to the ~ University ICampus where s:tud.ent storm jroopess pr~ctised

. . '. d 1:':. ..

notmg 011 an :impro'VlSc: ... nnng 'D.nge.


'C... •.. 1 1L j' ".~\.., b . . j j'

r~;e;_nzIC'iQ , me DS, armPo WJ!m gtUlS:. ,,; lllVe's,i12'Otl JIO'o8 anu staves,

roamed at will and 1oo'w, business houses. Shops and cinemas owned b,. non ... :B,t!l~alis,. Th.e lawlessness M1!,d. 'terror' WID,h the Aw,unl League had unleashed in Dacca ,oom:pellOO, me' provincial adntinbtration 'to s1:lnuno:nthe help of tbeArmyunits, ganisQMdl in the Da.oca CMlIo.' tonment,

The Awann League's militants. ~ndved the B~ngaIi ,l?OPulQoe to ,defy ,the aUSko...t:o-daWlll curfew" Six IH::rsons were killed 'when a rlotous mob atta,cked,g :a.ony unitm, the Sad,a'[ghat loc:JJity of Dacca, . .A

po ... S5.C., or tr.'.".DO.:P.g sa",. ed the Daccamelevisiott station £r,om Dcw,g w;r;ecked 'by av,iolent moL,.

,On March 3 ,the general sttib ordered by the Awmri League al.~. rO.,v.~,e'r~~e p~~in .. ce .. ~,pMdfs:ed, li6. e fun ~,c. "~~' ~ .. :, '~'))~~gjn.ig ~~,hs},led by gun .. bmndishmg A~ League militants, (;arrled fire, te:rror an,d

dea:ehinto the homes IiYf thous:ands Orf non .. Beng,aHs, in ihepopuJotl's localities of Daeea, s, N;amb,put" Is..krnpur :an,dPawak.h:tU Bazar. Manys;Itops and stores in.t:he posh Jbmah Aven.ue, shoppin:g Oe1lwC'J oMled by no~:a,engaUs~, were lootod~ Pit':ry uon~B,e'r1iga1i hius in, a shanty 'SUD\tfOOn lo<;:ality were put to the torch and many of the it Inmates 'were rO~ll:ed a'firve., TiI1!, started ltidnappillJ:gprosperous non-Bengalis and extorted ranrommoney from thcit r:el~tives.,

. Unde:rthe: ,c,rd,en of 'tne A~ 'LeagineHig_h Comm~~ the It.:~io ~d~ Telev.·~.isiO. n .. stations. ~ "D. 'at?' ca ,gav,e: upp,lay.:ing pakis.~:s Nationa1 Antfu.Il1M1dFepIaced it. by the. ~~.Bangb~dem Anthem ~

'Shcikh Mujiib fir lUhma:ll ath'1o,uncecl in Dacca the .launching of 2. Civil Dlsdbe4iienee Movement,. :all eupbe~ism fO'l"rebd.1io,n" th:rougbout Eas.t Pdcis,ta:n~ Thus~ .in 'three dlliYSI' the Awami Leag~ue succeeded in estabUshm_1 afun..bloV!l1l teHt)o1~ :regime. whose p'riIlcipd go,d was ,to 'JiqDida;,te,the 3l!i'thQrity of the ,fOOern1 government and! to abriclge the p~fulation,of the :non .. Bengalis, prepan,rory to ~thea!Imed seizure ,of the entire province.. The telecollUllll.tIli<.:atio,ns, and air links between Bast Palistru1t and 'West ,'Pulis-tan ~e 5l1!_Appcd ·'under tbe ,p,rders of the

.11 _._.",; L""", au"" Hi' " B'h' c·~ """,-, ... ·""d'

,l1''ttD:&UIII.. vd:o. }I{;~ I D' I, - __ -Q'~.!L~"I." .11,

, from :March 4, tere, viole-lit :mo~iS,~ led iby Awuni ~aJgtle jingoeg~ lo"t:ed mid oumt ,many non ... Bengali houses and! shop~ and kicmapped deb West Pakistani businessmen for ransom, In a jall-bresk :llt the Cientra1 Prison in Da,oca; on March (;i:~ some 34I'pdoonel!':S escaped. and' jomod, hands with A'W',a_,mi League militallts and·sttldJe.nt aettvitislts in, the main streets of D2.OOl" GUO-swit1girn:llg A wami League eadres and activists oE the BaJt. JPakism.n- Stlll:dent!l Le[l.~ue stDle explosive dtemilca~g from D~cmt:s GOVffilnlaU Science Laboratory 3]1Id. dl~ Pofyt~chnic Institute to nuke ,Molotov GocktaHs and ollif:(in.ce-nruary ibomi]s.Dci1ant students of file' Salimulleh Muslim I-I~l of the thKCQ Unllve:nity tried. to "bi1m~:he :Britidt Council office ,inD,atcabut the 'troopsrmriIv:eel in 'time mdl the j l'll.lgoes escaped, AW3Jlll. Leagne militants and student. actiw'i:'stook away . a.tgtmpoin.t _ j~'Cl)S~ cars _and.

,. 'L 'iI "L .. iD ,,,",1'· "TiL _.' . ._ .1' U_'1l. 'k .. :0, -

m:H:TO~Itl~eS o~a Dr non-Bengahs, ,_:n.ey erected lL;neC',pasn :at

nervecenrres ill the city and outside the Dacca Airport where they ttis,ked thepersons of non .. Benga]is mlJ.eeing; Dacca ,and sel~d their oro

,~jM,d· J"':''f!I~'~l':''MT ~'t~1l.,-ol< radi ... ,·",t .. and , ,,~; ... ~~¥ . ~,t',cl' . ,"'f~" ,'~,-""""' .' , .... 'n , ... Ii ""'~.l ,n'~ L;U!l~",~,lI""" .,L'!.!' S~ S anu evea;l' '!." I~nlm&. ad:",~. eo, V21~ ue,

On M~II"(h 7~ Sheikh Mt!iibm '~hmana.1i;u1.ounccd his TOIng-' rang.e action progra:mmea:gaim.tthe f.ede:ml government at a mass meeting. on jhe R~mni\ Course grolmd,Unlur~ed on. dGl;e speak.ets~ pMa.tform 'W'&;, the new flag of Baugl&dlesh~a: map. of the provin.ce set in ared circleagainst a. dark green 'bru:kgromld. The a'iO'wd yellcdJoi BwgJ.~,~' .(lnng: Live Bengal) and ',Baugb,dem Sha. ... deen' (1luiepeJl'ident JBengal). Prompwdby A wam'i . Lc~gLlCvo~l!.m.tmcs~ the crowd shouted slogan~ a.gill.hut Fakis:tan~ its President, the new Governor of Bast General T~ruk:b. Khan and[ the Chairman of the Pakistan People's PM:ty!! Mr' ... Z. A. j3,huno. The frlwatude, S3!f1g

'T' 'c .- ,. c '~'d ... ' , 'H"E)'. -. - 'I '. . G·'· ·Id B'" ~'" _

agoFC s ,01" :SOl1;g:: »eng:oJ~ my .. ,0 aen ," e:ngi:!l •

'WbUe urdering thec1O:util\~anc'C 'of indcilulte strikes ill Govem~ ment offices, Shdlkh M~tibu[ Ralimansct Elp a par.aUd government directed by the AW:aJru League. He iUSltlmcred the people .of Bas't Puldstau Botto piiliy Central Government taxes. bot to make pa:yn1.ents to the provincial coffers, He, asked his seonn troopers to set uproad b:~o(ks. against military mQV~lnents and. to preventthe military from m~kinguse.of railways and, ports. Tile A"\Vam:i League took over the' n:dio and television stations, te[e(ommuni~a.,tiO:ns,; forei.g:E1trade. aDd the hmlki:ng sy:stem~ .lnclud~ng the ccnrrol OfmO[ley transfers foom East tD.West P'akistm. shemEh Muji.bur Rahman cill;ecl for the or~ gaf.li2;atioilof Revolutionary Action. -Go,roups ,ill l",hom unions, villages and urban ndgP_Joonrhoods t-Q bueress .&he Awa~mi League's defiance

,Qof fel~era1aLLtLority .In dre~t, . th.· .. £:. Awam._ mi .. a. 'gue . J,~." )d. ..• er .• __ ~DP h. ae! o.,.· .. n dU\1': day chosen '!the Flath of SeCe5;5JOU and loosed forces whose goal.

was anin~ependent, racist Benga.1i ,state. In a des.~kh fi-om its correspendent; Eerm,erh C~ad;:e) tOl1don~ 8 Daily Te.leg~aph r,epofted, on Mar,cb 9~I:.97I.: '~ltf,orm laid ~~ Daeea lC1011aJ,psea m1iO campI,ere


,law]essnesson Smelay nipt (Maxcll 7) as Sheikh. M~ljib look '~e province 1iO the edge of secession".

_ from Much u: to lj, the cby OIl which GeneraJ Yahya Kruull.

Hew iuto Dacca fer constitutional talks-with Shei:kh MuJihur 1~, the Aw.uni LeaglUl oon~Olida!ted 'the paallcl !,dminis:tnrtion it lladl, set,

up ,mDac"a. _ Mo~e' l:on ... :BengaJi,.bnmlessmen were.~1t~aied an~ their howes looted. Non .. :8eng:aJh passengers W:fl'f wtmlldated and ,detained for q~tionIDg "hy Awami league, nnnta:n.ts Q,t the Dacea R.ailway Sra,tioll.

A GoVenum:1:1t ;office near Kmail in Dacca. was set oa Ere.

Non ... BengalisBeeing Dacca by, airwere frisked by Avtami League cadJres a;t their ~'~Seardht and Loot" cnecl:post do-se' 00 the cntraaoe to the :D'aoca ,~irport.Botdes of a.cid, pilfewd from tl~ science l~bGrato~ies in dosed educa.tional instl,tutmO'ns in D~WCdl" "!IVCre i1Ullg into Government 'o1bces where Blome' censeien tloUS employees dared wo~k. Armed thll\gs'l! daJmmg, links with the _ R.e'V'olucl.~~ Actio,tl Groups set' Up' 'b,y dIe Awami League, extorted money from aBlU{~lt nOll~BcngaJis"

From Mar',oh 10 Ito 23~, while GCllera1l Yahya aJ.1:d1 Sheikh M~ib engaged ln ,rung;.""clong com:timtional neg~oria:r!ons, '~,Te Aw'anU Lea~uc comineed to eperate its pMaU~ administrarioa and 'trained its, cadres in the use of automatic weapons at ,s, number of ttaining, centres in :D,:I.'CCl and its suburbs., The ineidenee of raids on the homes OIf aonBen,galh mounted sh~U'plY" A riotous: mob amh1Dlshed an. Arnly jeep in Da,ca al1dhijaeked 1:1ie six soldiers l'idi1.1,g in it. Gu!ns were ]oot.ed Hum, dl~ Police :a!:rm.ottr1 in ~o 'to·Wll. AwamiLeague gmunw clamped iii. bm 00 the ~1Jlpp]y ,of' foodgrains, to 'ilie Paldstani military in tile Da(:ca cantenmen t,

~ 23, JPlalcistm,~'s .nationa1 kstivdd.a.y, was, desigtlatt:edl ~' "Resistance D,ay'~~ by the Awami League High Go~-u'!.d,. ,[ns,read of th.e 'Paltistan ,gag, !h'e! League miUtall'ts, hoisted, 'd~e new Bangladesh flag al(),p allp,1iJjb_lic_ and pdvare buUdlngs in Dacca, Sheikh MuJibtir RaInnan took the sallne at an armed March Part a.t

~is __ lr'7aid~~ on ,w'h,' .kh, 'dre.f",;,_.I:~deS., h, fl. ,a, :i.~wa,s ,rerem,-._on:i~lUJs,l,Y. ~,".fur]edl. The Awanu Leag,llle held 'msplat~7$ of us :streng,rdll, and bellicose

b _1.. '. ~ Cif· B ,'11 ", I !I! I ),., Iii, ~~.

mos.~ :ro,ou'tmg )0] c. angJ2j '. 'wmt onu e l-alDpag;,e m ocaunes wpere

non- Bengalis were ·oomJm'ltr'arooct

, '" ,. , M,ore, , . west,. P,' ',a!lds,.Wl,,'.rli b1lS'wessm,,~l.W. __ ~. ,e ,kian,a_~re.d :an.- d. t1t~ Beng~h captors demarnded lunge; sums of money £ro'm thetr 'r,ela'tlves as


ransom. Violel'!'!! mobs, 'wa:ving gum and other lethal w"Cap·ons, kick ... ba;ittedl K3.fachi,~boluu:1 pasS,Cllg-efS, near Dacca Airport. A,Vlann League ,demotlstratiOll."S mar-ched 'p'an the Presfden:'tia! M:al1Sionin Da.(.~a where General Yahya was, staying alld ~sh()oOb::,d, obseenities a,g~in~lt him and, me £~deI·'alArmy. Young thugs" enriched by the ransom DlO"DeY' eX!tor~cdin the A-wami Ld.gue"'~ name fromll0'l1:-Bcn,gali busiressmen ,alld showlng, off tIle calm, they had. hij:achd. from dlei[ W Co-st Pakistani and odl~r _ non"':Bell,gaJi owners, miUe,d in, the' tWt~~gs outside the :Dhanmaudi resldenee of,Slreikh MujihnI Rahmen and. yd~'ed. "'f'Shadeen

B~g1~~' 1(Uldepelldent Bengi2~1. '

Aw;amiLell;gue' cadres tallgled ~,th dle s;taif of 'the CllJ;iJ'lege Ccnsnlare in Dacca on A1ar'ch 2.3: when, theyinmted on, hoisting: the Ba~gla.desh Bag a'lOp ,t:h,~ CO:llSlllate andth,e Chinese rem'5e,(l 00 ,~Uo'w

,~~, to ~d:o ~()~. ~wami League d_an~~t~tc'~~\1 ~t ![11all~ p],ac_cs., _'to~e 'UP,:

Pakistan 8 IUltJDmU flag and tliam:p.~,ed lUldcr their feet photcgraphs of Qltaid··i~A2;atnMo,ba;mnillCcl .AU JimtaJlJ~ the founder ofhlist:,Ul.

AU tllIough this 'week, the AWal11i LCru,gtlC militants wcrch~fing 'up' :ilieirstr,engihwith the defee-ton ttomdlc :B~tP:aJtistan RJfks mod, die para"';llli]itaIY ,AtJ!stlr force, GUll ... running from India prQ,ceedeod at a frenzied pace, and ,nlan} Indian ag-ents in;tfatt:atod into Bsse Pakis,ta~l for 8al1:u;)ta,ge. Hutme:nts of non-lBei'hgaJis lJ11 Dacca's shan ry to'W11:slrips were see abJaze by the, hundreds ..

The Dacca. Umivenity Campus served as theoperadonal base o:f the A'\Vami League 111il.itantsand its Iaborarories 'wer-e used for Dl2tlU ... !l1cnuing di«er,~£ ,',arieti~s, of,e;xptosiveJ;,. '. A F~i)rdo1rl fJfth,"c'Jagalln, a, l~," Hill 'W':as med. 6,'l: t~rtwmg and mlJI'denng kidnap,p,edll1.0u-:J3e11:gaNs .. , Reports ora fu:res1F:fiIe ofleoe, arson and murderin wmost ever.y t{)W1I of' Bur Pflikinan wo, "I' trj~ ,the fOOeral ,g;a,'v,emmenc and cl],e !u,~'my:~, Eastern Command in Dacca. Cydo,styled posten, issued by the A~ League :s'mdent a:~d labour g~oups in _ Dacca ,Qfid other pl~oN mn the' province.seemed like miliitary orders, of tlle dlay. TJJles,epOsk1'S incited the, peopl,eto_ "resort to Jl bloo,d.y '\var of resistance" fo[, th t~natiot.iallihera.ti,olll ofBas't Bengal",

Some 1,5,1.0010 :ful1y-lm~d'Edl :rulIes ,wt the Dacca Pollee bead1t)ualticrs, 'Were seized 'by the Awami Leaguers, md 'their s.upponas. More arms shops in Dacca Wtl'¢ looted by the Awami League terr-orh;ts. 111 the IliJ(QIttin,g of Marcil 2SI,bwricades and. IO'ild blo cia appeared all (liver n,aoc,a city., Petrol bombs and other hand-made ']Jomhs~, mal u&r-

tured fi:,om chemlcals stolen fr-Qlll me' Science 1a'born.,fodes of edoat" tional ,institutions ,~u the past :few'weeb~ ,explod,ed at some places.

The ted-er,aI ArMy'~ s inlteilligenoe servic'f' ,'hru:J], become privy to ~B:

A ~mn.i ~gne' splan for an armed, UF!sinr all.o!<-'f' t11~, .p[o~®ce in th~ ,earlly ho,lllrS of Much ~6" ][,'97:1:. Late mtlle mght of ~d1. 2',5~lhol!llJ:8 before. dl,e. zero hour set by the' A W1ttlli League for its, armed, imLU!'eofioD, the federal ;Mmy units fanned, out from the Da.,crn caneonment and cenducted, with Eigh,tnljng speed,a series ofpre--emptiv€!, strikes whicit sq[uelchedthe AwamiLeag,ue's. uprising", at least int~ pro ... v!ncialcapital~ in aDB-t)b:::r ,ofhollrs. The :fed,ernl A:nny's: ,cr,aekooli'lD en tJhe Bengali msu£gC1l'tS in D~ Showed '~fi:me; Awami Leaguers, 'whil,e engaged, in talbw,ith GencwYahya, 'we!,e roll,eering ,guns and ;ammnnition and, maJrlJJg: explo.siws ro'f the ;sm,ticipa:'~~d showdown wi~h dre federal army.,

Inih~dI' ibng,ajmng,with General Y~ya n,an~, t.he Awami, League leaders wanted him 'to agree to a constitutional iarral1gt:ment that would make But3!nd West Pakistan Nr"O separa;re so'ver~gn sta.'tes 'With a ve:ry mOOgGEl', nelbnlous; OOllie'de£3m link _-, a fink so weak: th~t SheIkh Mtyibur ,Rahma.ll ~:sY:iFmaU.y independent Ban(!ladesh coWJd

t, - ,-1 • • 1 "_.t. d d A f"-,l·--- w' .

nave snappea !tany nmene 'Wlime tode so. ~. posse 0: re'~"1L~ttOr()PS:

arreseed himat his, residence in IJrhwll1a11I,dli in Ilic!Ca,~lt QDout r -'l 0' a..m., on Mm;,clI_ ~6." He 'was lodged (or 'the nightm the Dacca ICai1L'tOl1men~ nude:r military guar-d and Row.fl thee next day 'to W,est P~ista:n and

interned, .

The' fcder1!iil Army~s, O'petati6,r.J!S, agatu1s,t the Ic'bcls; in. :Da,a.l\ wcr~ 60. swift and effective that by the dawn. of March 20 it WEli5 in fun control of the city. 'The Ar,my;is su~gth in D,acca. wa:s adequate to enable it ,teO scoech tleA:wami Leagu,e'~:s rebellion, but in the rest of the province 'the' federal 'troops were tlrmly spread out. It took them from thr,oo days 'm three 'weekS to ronr :the' more tlnm, 1'7,15,000' Awami Lea~l€d f:~ds who conducted '~'~Operabon :toot~, KiUmld. Buen" with savage ferocity against. the :tiou~Bengali demen't in the population. Evenin oo,me submr:&s ofDa.cca., armed hoehead s ,of'tbc AwruniLea:gue murdered non~Benp1is: :by Itile nundrreds in the night of March ].,,/26, ll~7I .

. There is evidence to '''W:a.nan:tthe },eliefduetthe A:wami, I.e-t~' ['Icbe:]s \1iere usi~E a n3Ds:mitkt in the. Indisn Id,iplQmatic lviission in Dacca for :m1!lDdk'tb:e-d!ocl(, O()ntact 'With 'the Indian authorities, who, 'we:repving suppo:rt rothe' rebcls,) 'e5peclaUy in dIe 'border' 'beJlt. The


~'.&ee Beng.dRadliot~ ~vI-hicll went on the air llnM~r-cll 2,6· and 'whlck b(()wwt news oftbe phan tom vIctorIes of the rebels, was Wlciouotedly an imwv.atioo~ in~l'tallledofim1t])d]m soil The Niagra. ,of~ie-s, which :sl1f:g:ed across the OOblmDS of mndia's; Plreuaud the ai[-v;:~ves 0'£ AUlndiab~oj' (sllIch as the coa:-al1d~bWI Sllory of the .bnag1nMY ~layil1g oriGeneralY;ikka. K.han by a r , B0ngali .r€:ber),.OIigiE~ated :&o.mthe Cerwc imagination of a gr:o'up of Endian propagandlistrs _and BengaJi rebels who opl3mmd a. warfar-e outfit ~n Cal,ouna.,

MWl1lji' of ~-e li8eJlr 'w-nicih the feCkral ftOop.scapm:red lrom the; tebels WCte mauu&ctm:·~d at the R.iJ1e :F~!c;wty hll. Islu.purc :in India 'wml~ the ammnni tion stocks bore ·the'llg: ol·th.e ontirLance &c~OfY at lUrbee: in India.. India dlle'W!fo,m.e reigb'~ llri~uaJions of irs Border Security Po:roe ~n ruid o:f the Awaml League rebels itldl:el~tweek Q,r Mmh . 1:971 .in vi ro]_ bOifoer ale-iii. 111 die :N mea in D:2:a::a~ the feCkril .(I.[my seized. asecret letter &-om an AwamiLea:gue 'Ie~delr ee

~ .•. [n~.· .~~~~.n1;.- ~e¢."kin.:·.'tP. i.'_.:m~Jti~g .• a. c.'.' ro.r ..•.. ss ..... ~~ ·b~d.e:.'f. ~O. d1~5.C!iJ.~.;ss .. _ ·.me -supply O'fhea.;vy anD.sfrom .Illl'iba. to the Awmn Lreagu.e-te~ [r~be)J:s,.

bD! Dacci1lj,t\h_e . reb e~s. btl!llit a pfedom.iinmn~y B:~h:Hi 8ett1eJne1l.t. of sha:cb ill tne 'O'I:d city~butthe A'Wamil.a.gue infnrmafBlts of fOire1gn. newsmentokl them inthe moming 'of March. 2~ that the Ar,my hsd ~e~ theshaIlltytowrl_.Jtip on fire. In ithetvnni:ndustdaJl city ofNarayaIl'"' ~I~ flioo-B~.~ who were ltidnaPlPod .and mun.tered byd~e :rebels" ~B thrownmJta the Bmigmga river or inieinerated in. houses set abJla:ze.

. :P,eggy DurdiD~Wl .Alnedican jromllaljst~, whQ •. with. b.e.-rhru b.acno,

.~m :2. j{)u.In;3l~ist:" had gp:ne to DaOC.1. to covet theNat~omd Assem'bl'Y~:s, session scll.eduJ.ed. fOr ~ch .~:~. gav~ this,acrou1tU of the mass hYSMEia wh1.~ .. p.p ... ·oo U.F.· by ·the A~. ~-, •.. ·Leagae ... mea{!etdI.:~'if' in.theBens.~. ali popl1Wace: ~n the city since the "beg~llnng ofwemontli in atlutidie ill the .New'

York· Times Maga2ine OfMa.Y2.t I.PjI.:

"~A'S Dacca en~ptfld .,nth angry de.momtxa;,;~rs shoutiug slogaIt'i agairutth'e P'tesl!dent and Mr,.BhUtit;O and chanting j01. :Bangla"

1'ur'~r:~"D'. _.11).. ~ ~~ ·dbl ," B- ........ 1 ... ,! If ... J1 .... JI - "D - . '., 1) S"IL ·1...L

,.nWJ, .uengw OllJIJ1~a! . 1ll . .u~ 'l,."uL.atpell(Jlellt .l!Jeil,ga .. " 'Belial

Mujih, 011 Marro 2, ,~daimed, a, five-aaYlPflo'vince-vridC :getleral

'S'~.;' it s'toppe. d 'w. ark .e"yf:rj .• ~hef~~ . indu_~ ~ _Go've~~11t.·. offices, closed e:very _ shop, and halted an mechanical transport

mcIllding bicycle~ Dacca became a city of eeriequier ,~ep,'t £0[, the mass meeting~s held. day after day il1'Op,ellpla,ces mal d~.e parades ofih:mq ,dmlonstt:a.ton.. Since the only way to get around was on. foor, ~y husband and I daily walk~ 10' to 20 miles through. tl~ wide), tndfideS8 streets, p,ast the shuttered

shops ,M,d !empty :maritets"" ' '.

"The 1llgh-p,itched fenl'ouf' sometimes turned xenophobic not ori1y against West Pd,k:ista.llis-wh.o. in SC)Jne caseswere ldJJed Ql1

t~ Sib~t~ ru.c1'd in their homes, ~ ~ftenh.aJd~cir shor!Ioo~ ~but agamst Europeans. At the Intereontinenral Rote" A 'W'lUm

L::ag:ue, gangs. toreao~u an ~,gl~l~ signs, :induding. the~c of .·th~' ho~d J11 el ectric lett~l~, I.ll ,~ up O~l, one ~]jde of th7' 1bui1(b!lg. A shot was fired throllgh a lobby 'W1:ndow and such hostility ~ :sh.o'WD fur some days 'towards fOl'ieigner:s tha.t th,e s~ss .Managerof the Hotel do-sed, the swinJm]ng. pool

..!II ~ 1'~ __ " _1] ..• ~t... .J:'. L

~a, aiuWu. at gll.ests'~ staY', m mar IO~~S ~~~,t ~or., lm;MUi.

T)]ese~ because the Str1ke and ·tt3:11SPOlt dd&c~nes had depleted seta«, 'became sdf-reryke Jrepa'st'Sooncs:ilsting ,Chiefly of rice and(

several k]nds, or curr-ics,. ' "

The xel1'opho}.,;,c a~pect .of·the *gita'tion 11ndBashed_ "hy the Awamj League on MarCh I WlYi. ?lrit ]a,rge in 'the· manlt:mdJin;g of :Peggy Durdinand her husband, also a Correspondent of the New York'

~iMes" in .. ch.~e.·· '" ,~'e:~u of D.'acc~ h. 'Y.' _9 i, grou~' of Bengali demonstrators, She wrote '0'£ it In the New York T~'ntcs orMav 2~ IQn'2:

• 71'

(Can the firs,t day of the general strike particularly, emotional groups of demoristradng, shouting teenagers near jhe ~t (B'aimI) ,Morura-mMosq,ltc started. to a'ttacK my nuslillldalld. me with ir-on. bar,s and fong pole-s. 1Yliractd,ously., an Awami Yo'uth patrol 5Fottedus and, .in the nick of time'. pushed in ql.1!ick:ly' between us and the a..gallana:, bea.tb1g·theJn off with their 'Own. poEes and deftly h~ding us d.oWIll narrow' alley-

wa,ys ill safety in a local ,Awa:ml League ne-adqltar'terS ,., ,.

Maloolm Btow1:Je of the New Y~rk Timl'-S,. who ,risitedl East:

Pakistan e.,1.dy in May, wro1te in a. l):u;u des,Patch- in the NYT on May 6, 197:1::

uBeneral Tikka Khan,. die .~litary Governor of Bast Pakismn" said. today dmt his sti1ifestJm~ted. that ISO persons werekiUud in Dacca on the night of'March 25 wilen t'h.e Army moved to

re-assertcontrol ov:er ·this. pro·vince. .. ..... , .

~'The spnwUng dry' of Dacca, situated ,Qna, d.ood plain. criss:crossed by co un.dess s,treams and rivers making up the GalfigtS River Ddm, appe:;u.:cd pC'aceful ... " .. " ..

Matttrice Quainrtance of the Renters News Aget1CY:twbo also to,urodl Bu,t 'Pakist~n ready in :MAy 1971" s2id in a Ma.y 10 de.stmtch. nom Dacca:

"Lt, General Ti'kktt Khan, the M.lli taiy GoveID~'r ;to1d nevrslllW a.t a :rece:p.ti.on that 'cll~ .nillitary sitwtionclttoug_hou,t ·East Paki~mu

'w,as; 'completely wIder- ,c·on trol " .

~Tl~e General sarui.mas.sacres hadtaken place ill .Bast Pakistan but they were not committed bY' the ArDly~ Aftet soldlers mo'ved. out of their . ,Callttm.ments.Clitl, .M.acch .2,3 they discover:ed. the wicle~read .slaughter 'Of innocent people. He ci-berl. one:. mseance in which he sait! soo people were herded. into .:1. building which was: then set on fire. Ther:e were no, sttrv:ivors:~ He said. the West Pakistan people. had no t been told o~fsuch things -(O!' fear of'repeisals, Tikka Klulfi'said the Army did 'Dot a;tmck anyone unless fi:ts't fired on and even dissidents, in two Daa:a

Univ. ersity .. · SUOD.,. g;p.· .. OQ.ints,. ' who .. we: .. ~e. ;atm.', Cd. I with .a~o.· .. mati.c we. -arpo.~ . and ~de .. bombs~ 'Y~ .gtrventhe. chance to l~ve the; lbtulldmg. . ~Jre General saJ.d that the entire Dacc-a acUJJR -was over 'b,y the tirst ]ight of day on March 26 ••.•.•.•

"Close to Dacca airport is a group of shattered homes, unil1habited and in some cases roofless. O,ftitcial P2.kistan sources say that the people who Eivud there 'were struck by the rommlLmal violence ,in the' pericd before ~. Amtyre'stored law and order in the

~I .::I!'

oountry s eastern WIll g,~

About d e Dacca University and its affiliafed Colleges" whose total destruction by the Army was alleged by foreign information media hostile eo Pakistar.l! late in Mardl 19'71, Maurice Quaintance 'Of the Reuters News Agenr;y had. this to. say after vIsiting the University Camp1.1S on May 7, ].971:

t'lQu:malis.ts,~ FriCby, were slicwn Dacca University wI1et'e the Army {ought a pitched battle with students. and Awa.:m:i League mppor~crs on the night_ of March 2:5. _ The fighting centered on the 'two University dormitories, Iqbal and Jagallllarh, 'where ehe Army say crude home-made "bombs and an arsenal of weapons boosted th,e defenders as the tr()op~ moved to take over the strongpeint, A large hole in tb.e dlormioory ShOWlC4 where the Army usedrockets to flwl outthose the-y sa:y :rejected all oft"er to give' themselves up,. On the front lawn be£ore the dormitories, a senior officer tool: newsmen over a1 training area of bar'bed wire entanglements and high sronewalls 'where he said students had trained fo,r the clash thar 'WiS to COOle ' .. ' .... u

AbQ ut the captured Indian soldiers, whom foreign newsmen met in Dacca and. the seized Indian arms and al;u:mnwlitioll sho'V!i'fi to them on. M~y 7 ~ 1971, Maurice Quaineance of Reuters cabled:

"'lIn Dacca, three lChaLki-dadsolcliers 011 Fridlayconlessedthey were captured prisoners, sent from India toPalcistan last 1110n tJl to help tIle dissident Bast Pakistan RiBe units ~uppot'tin;g the secessionists, Speaking thwugb all interpreter, Que told she :foreign correspcndenes at Dacca Army headquartera that he carne into Pakistu:l! territory at night ,atter being told 'With 'Others of'his platoon.rhar d1!ey were moving, to the border post. , ._, .

uAtm.(1Y E, lreadquarrers in. n,attR ~~Frlc1c:y disp1iry,ed, . I. a, s,elec, 'Lion, ..• of captured weapons and ammumnon said to be mainly of Indian origin,. They included l'"ifks, mortar bombs and hand grenade~ a11 of vihicllt _ the Army said, bore ,markings proving they 'wer"

manufacwed. in Ind.ia "

London's Dilily Teleg,aph? in its, lSSJU of April 7 191']'1;; carried 2 report from its s,taff correspondent in Dacca, q,uoting, a narive of Dundee:

;:',IHe describes how after P.resid,ent Yalrya's broadcast 011 Ma.rd~ 26, a n:il.obca,me 'to the factory. Tb~ gooud:.ul (t'~ ugf.l) went QU the rampage,. They looted. the factory aJ.W offices; killedall the animals they could fil1d QlI d then started 'killing people, They went to the 11OllS,e5 of my four directors, an West Pakista:rlis~ set h[,E' to the .and! burnt them alive, inch,l.d~l1g falltilies, tota.lling ,30.. Tihcy killed the fc\v who ran out",

The SUfulap Times 'of Loudon, reportced in its issue of'l\(ay 2;; 1971,::

"Ten d3YS ofpiecing together the derails "n East Pakistanhave reveeled a huge andal most successful mutiny itl. t_hf; Pakis ran, A£my and the blintaJ massacre of thousa:nds of 110n.~13ellgalismen; women anddb.ildr-e11. Morema'tt :ao~ooo Ladies ha~e been fOund so fin: in Bengal"s 'main 10w.tlS but the fltlalCOUlltooutd 'to'p lOO~OOO,

'D~Eye-Wjm ... in.' .. nlorc.' thm. l;SO jl1tcr.·.vi,eW3, ten." !]OlT~fy]ng.· stories lOr rn.Pf~, to:rtttre"eyc--g;()~~'1 ,public :Bogg~ng: of women~ women'sbreasts beingtorn out and. amputations before v:j!c:~ Wl~C: shot 0:£ ba::foncted to deat11. P'unjabi Army peuo~~l, a~1CI civil setV'~ts and ,i theit&m .. H!es seem to have' boon SIngled out fur special brutality ... _ " .. ". .

''\Vlrite 'with fe2r. ,:md with ,dazed~ unbelieving eyes, r saw a Bengali student ji~gp behead a non-Bengali captive in, ~ room in the Jagalluath Hall of ,the Dacca, University on Mareh ,241' 197,' because his relatives failed to' send the donand.ed. ransom of Rs, j ,ooo~~ said .... _.L_._, d TJ,~ ..... lf' ~1 I" _.'!II' Q N f' ,.~ "BI . ..lL "'''J.w~me., rliu.n~ 23i' WllO lVw In '.uaner .<'10..49 0' B '.' OCK

in the Lahnatia Colony in Dacca. BmJ?IO'Y'ed il] the Tiger Wire Campal1[Y in Dacc-a, Hanif said 01t1 hi~ r-ep,atrlatlQ!:1: to Karadlli, in Ja:nuary 1974-:

n~ the ;afteTno~,n ~fM.:. arch ~~ I cng~ged a. Dlouodsed .. ~c~~w (three-wheeled. taXI) a11d, asked the drtver to t:a~ me to my home

in ,Lal.l~tia.· .~.olo."~y .. 1 bad sp~kent~ h1~ in b~o.:k., .. ·:en ~e11g~ and he knew t!hat I wa.s a non-Bengali, ,All cf a sudden ,an,a m

spire of my shouts in alger, he drove the vehicle into the-



compouad of the ] Hall wh-ere six armed stu:dents grabbed me, 'They iook me inside a shuttered _ room where ~rey 'friske·d. me thoIoughlyan,d, snatChed tny wa:tCh and.h ISO £rom, my podi;e'i. theyoo,ld\me 'th,a'f I .snowdl "'W'l'ire a letter to my dose rdatiV'C's, askmg them to hand! over to the bearer Rs, 3'000' as ransom money ,~o sa\~ my life., I hesitated an__d

,as.k.oo, fo~sQlme ~~e to ma.~ke.,-.' ~ up ~y, mind .... They dedmy.' hands Wlth :litrOng r,01P(~ :md marched me to a large h:lIlU

where _ many roped non-Bengali captives squareed all the ground .. - " .. " .

~:'The s.tucl(l1Jt jingQ who had asked me to write the ransom ~ette[ paced to-wards a hapless, victim, at the far end of the hall, 'He told his prey in 8 ,',. - i that the ransom money had not materialised and tb ... de ine gFVL"ti to his relatives had passed" &0 he must dle, The terrified victim shouted, squ:imled and tried, to I'Wl. But six toughs gr31bbed him wbil~ the jingo in the lead slit his dtroatwith a 'Rl:lIl1&o' (a kind or dagger)al1d decapitated

him. . . . .' ' ...

'~, was horror-serkken b[ywhat: thad seen, At midnight, I wid my IcaPtorS 'fhlllJt [ would write the ransom letter to nlif elder hrQdkr. ] wrote it in the morning of March 2,5 and asked my brother to &I"n!lJge 'to' give my captors Its. 3.,(1)0 widlln 24- hours, [The dead.iUne s~t 'by the Bengali capron .for the IeQ~pt of money W:3:S tlIe ~orrung OfMarru 26., But God was :merclfhJ and late in the night of Mar,cih, ;a,S<IJ 't'neArmy wen.t into action against '~e :rebels in Dacca andth,cy were :r-outed in the ,Jag~nnath Hill encounter. We wete rescued by the federal troops" .

. ~~I am the lone survivor ofa group of 'ten Pathans 'who 'were employed .. ~ Security Gw.rd:8 by the DcltaConstruction Co;m:p~Jrny in the Moha.k11a1i locality in Dacca; all theothers weredaughte1'ed. ~ the Bengali rebels in thenightcf ,Marth ,2,$2 197'ln, said 4:o-ye-ar-oJld BaCha 'Khan~ He' said he .escaped death by climhinga. '[fee ill 'ilie dadcness of ~he' ni,ght.~platri~ted to, K_a:radli from Dacca in September 1973, Bacha nAil sma .:

non-BengaliS". particwarly the West Pakistanis, So all 'of us

"nii''''re '-"-"'1 '~h· , .... c"'~' ........ ,

'11'--""'""'" , "",:IIdII" 'Iir_ ',' "."-" U~rL iii ill iii II II 1& I~ II

"~qn, Man:h ,2;;5, a killer g,ang of Bengali rebels :r,w.ed, OUt sta.f' quarters .. As it was a. surprise a.,Hack, they succeeded in ,kiUmg: three Paehan g'1l3Ids. I and ~the other ~mviving decided to put up' a fight with the three gt'llllSwe had, W'e held the I,aiders at 'bay fOf some time btutthey h~d, mere alWltluuilion ~:&nwehad .. Taking,_of!he, darknessall arcund, I slipped away :from the scene ,and.,drmbed a tree, The next ,mottling] saw the: dead bodies of the six other Pathans WhODl 'the' [lcbds, had. kjUed ilt :nightafter th,eir ammunition 'was exhausted.

'h belsi k- .. "

T ere e:;. roo. away our gullS. ~ .. ' .••. , .

"The rebels burnt my hut and lcined my nine-year-old son on Mal)ch, 17; 197)[u ~ said 36-y,ea1~,]d Chand Meah, who was. employed. in the Bengal ~u:b~~nd~~ie-s in Dattal. He, lived, jn a hut me NabJpara, locality m the T~gaon suhurb on the '\Vay to the Dacca Airport., Chand Meah Wi\$. :repatrii1:ted to Karadn, fronl D~cca in

Jatnwy 1974., He sa,~d: -

~~Naka1pu-a w-;as. very near the factory where I woikcd. I had saved some money and hought a smell plot of land, in this locality. I had. erected Q, hut beQilhWe I cculd n,otjust then ;:::dfutd to build a pHem house, My wife" my '9 .. year~oJd son and 1 1i.nd in it. Om relaeions with our Beng21i neighbours were fiiendJIy. Sifice the fit"Sf week. of M:J.t:roan clement of tension

bad CI.~'t ... · in.' b.·.'E.':ca:us. e.- of idaDlllla .. ·. ;rory '~.' 'fig,ues 'bY.·c Awa. ami League d~,gues: and there were rum01l1TS rhattlterewou1d

be a caEJll!ge of non-Bengshs .... ' ..•.

"On March 17 ~ when, I was ~waiy fl.-om my hut: on dutv :01 the £1cror;r~ a IDat~e killer gang of A'\V'J._mj League th~ ,atta~lred tLe non-Bengali huts, in Nablpara; looted them and put tbrm to

. the tJOreh. Th(;y also burnt my hut and killed .my sen, who,. in spire 'of hi'S young age, tried 'to resist the a:ttadrets. When. I retumed. to what once w.l8 my home I found the IllbbIDe' still smcn~JMe:dng and my wife 'was lamenting; over the dead body

f'.:11 !,

o 'Otlr near san "

"I estimate that some 11,000 oon~Bengalis wer:e: kil1ed or' wounded ttl Ila:rel:y three houesinthe Achmjee Nagar 'New Colony in Da.ccaon


Muclil 19~ 197I~'" said, Momtnuncd Earidl, 26, who, was employed ~s ,Assmtant Supervl~r fnthe S:pinning section oftbe Ad~mjee &ct-ory. Parici, who witnessed the grue-some massacre and escaped it by dint of gtilod luck, 'Wa:5 repatriated tD Karachi in Ja_nuat)" ]97~, He said ,:

·'On MarCh 19, a kiUer gangof,Awami League militants, armed with gu.ltI.S~, sickles", dagge:rs and staves came into our' ficwry., The Ben,gali securi ty guards joined them and they rampaged thro,ugh the In:ill and theho' ofc:he non-Bengali millhands ..

"The ,killer gang atbcked thcWeG.ying section and slayed scores of non-Bengali employees in hru:dy 11alfallll0U,r ofOper,;tiolt, ,MIlU'<GC:1!'. I sa."W" In3nY dozens o ('wuunded millhands funning to-wards my Spimaillg section, [hi,d myooIf behind, a big ttlachine at tile' far.. e11d., of the HaD. The kiHeTs SVlannd into my unit a.nd :ura.doocl the non-Bel' gall ,employees. Some 'Of the vi'ctmlS Ian out and the- killers Chased them, shootillJ.g with, gUllS" The kiHing tprre of the rehe.h continued foOl' ,nearly three hOlU'S •• Atnig_h.t~ wh'en I emerged from biding~ lnmdreds of.dead 'bodies were littered all ov r the fac:rory premises, The kill r gang looted the houses of non-lkn:ga,lis, ~n.dbllnlt many. Th.ey slaughter-ed l1Ulldr-cds of innocent men, women and dlildren and threw mallry corpses Into :!L,mitllg houses .. '. " ., .

"A 13engali meigblmm sll.eltered me and my ,aged mother kom the terror ,and fury of' 'me killer gang. 'whi!(;& had sla.ughteted my ,husband, my £a.theJ: and myrwo teenage brothers' I' said z2.;-y,ear-o]!d. lto:s~a Be-pm who, lived. in a house in the Tong.i suburb of Dacca, In tho March 23 raid on her house" tm killer ,gang set it on fire and also Iddnappedher teenage sis·tel'" Repa:triated,to Ka:nu;;hi in December 1973,!O she gave this pathetic :UX01ln!t of her 'WOeS:


~~;M h <;, ,.]' r_ th Ind f- ~~L_ b b

.:.ypiarents I. a.nCl;i.l/. from me ".' :1a11 stare 0 . .DiJrul'[' . ,ut ,myr:o-

thers, my sister ~Uld I were bom in Dacca, My radler' '~ c:mploJ'ed, ln the POStal Department and be .had opte>d{Q'C service in. EastlP2JltisWl in the 1947 Par-ficiem of thesub-coneinent, He bought a plot of land in Tongi in. Dacca and built a modest 1itde house on it. W'eli_ved in peace and we had excellent relations ~r.i'th our Bengali rrei.ghbours. . . . . . ' ..

tcgin<:ctiIe £r~t'W'eek of Ma.z-ch" ,Aw:ami League militants: were spreading hatred for non ... Bengalis amongst the Eengca1i popu)a~ tion, The situation watS tense and, we had heard of ~attaclb; by killt."! on non-J3eng;di homes in 1l13ny localities, of Dacca city. nut om neighbours were decent people and they :usmed us 'that we "Were safe. All of us spoke excellent: Bengali 'but our mother tongue "WaS'. Urdu" So 'we 'were knO"W'D as BillariS'~ A.t schcol, I studied through, the medium of Bengali lang11age.

'~In thenighrc fMarch 2.3 t 1971 I an armed, gang of AwamiLeague thugs raided our howe. They looted it ,a:nd set it a"bl:lze. We had no gWlS~ The raiders overpowered my fa,ther~ lU'y husband and ,my two young brothel'S, and, shot them. They kidnapped Iny teenage sister. In the encounter between nly male relatives alld dle kiUers, my mother' and I succeeded ill escaping t:hr-OUlgh th~ backyard into .th,e lho~se 'Of .~.'God..,fearing;,. a. ,'Dd g~.,~~ Bengah.~. :ll\emghbcmr who sympathised WIth us and h1,(1 US in his home,

Aged I S; my sister wa.S a student ill. the 9'th. dass in school AfieJ:' '(rne federal troops routed the rcbds on ,March 26" I did my best to trace her but we could not locate' her, The Beng?ili rebels had :lcid.nappedl non-Bengali g;,irls.lhy the hundredsin Dacca a.n.d slaughtered them- before me' federal armycrushed then- rebellion, The souvenir Lhaveofmy loving ht.'l.Sband is. o~ zt..y,e;ar'-O,ld son ''V',rhQ wasboen to me a few months .after the sla:ying of

Fer02: All.n.'18d,. my husband", .

C~I heard the screams: of an Urd:u .... s.pealing_gi~l who was: being r~"ish,ed 'by her Bengalica;p~~ ~t:I~. so 'SCMec1' ~atI cl!d not h~v~ the ,courage tOI emerge' from hldmng ~ Mtd.2-4 .... Year~o~d Zahid Abdi, who

was em.p'loycd in a trading firm in Dacca. He escaped the slaugheer of '[I!~u-:BengaHs i11 the cro:wd!ed New Market loca;~ity of Dacca on. MarCh 23 t 197I ;attd .\VaS sheltered by a God-fearing Benga1iin his shop. TtY: kiUcrs rap.BiL melT nO'l1-Dengaliteenage ·v.icti.m, at the baCk 'of the shop, and ·Ia.~ on skyed her. Repatriated to. Karachi in October I97lt Za1!id Ahdi said:

"On MarCh ,2.), I.,ook a bus 'to.,the NewMarket shopping locality in Dacca. Astbe bus l1eared my destlnation, I saw a c:[ow,d of A-wami, League thugs,. armed with gmu andJ. ,dagg,en~ on the runpage", 'Evenhefore the bus, om..:lld come 'IbO a halt~ I jumped £rom it and ran towards, a side lane. 1 hadheard thae some ~on-:Benga,~ passem~:eTs:had.been molested or done ~o '~eath 'by the Awannleague hoodlums. On me'wa.yro-war-dsilie side lane, r saw a few wounded men sprawled onthe roadside. A Bengali shop'keeper, whom Lhad 'known in the past, took pity on me and hid me in :00 shop. 'When he sa:w rome thugs coming tiilWard:S it he locked It up:~ 'with me ill. hiding, and stood gu.ard. When the killers OlO:U~~ he told themthat he 'was: a Ef41gali and,

that he had shut his. shop for' the day .

'~A(:ting on his, advice. I decided to spendthe night in the shop became the road hack homewas WlSafe. Late at night, I he-ard the screamsand Shouts for h,eJp .inUrou of.a; ,girl WIIO was being

'··_·1Led b 1L . .• d k 1_ - cl- . ..lL. 'h h

IaV1Sll·,· aey ner captors m a .... atl p~e ..... ose to lo,II1C ,5 . op were

I was_ biding. Hoc. {our' captors took turns to rape her_ Atter they :had, accomplished ,theJt satm1cacts, the kiUer gang ~ot 'the gid and melted :away in dl void, of the 1l1,gltt., The shop wag locked, and[ ill the fur,eflOoD, when nryprotector opened ilLt Itoid him, of the fiendis.h happening 'of the' prevlous might. We looked for the body oftbe girljtherewas no trace ofh but blnodstains

d • f ~ .1 L t._.~,~ • "bl' ,1~

au ' 'tom pieces 0" a WOman S; €::lo'mmg Were ViSl .... e at me spot

where I thought that the gidwas raped and m,iJ,lIderoo. My :Bengali. laviour, with tears :ill his eyes~ told me that, hundreds

Of. non ... Ben.gil.'i gru=.,' 0". l.~ :had s. uffcr.·,.ed. ,3: .s .. iOll.'. ~"la.'.li .tra.~.·· i.,e &.tre.':I:f.1.d t~~. t

..:~. d "m' • '.. ..1:" 1 _.U " ,,', Ole ... :evu smuncnswere unrue OQse m~, o'V,et . le ,cty •.• '. •• .•

,Zahid Abdfs estimate is. Wat some 2000 innooellt, hapless, 1101DBengalis perishedin the carnage ill the New Market shopping 10 caJiq." and its neigllbouibood.

""TlU! 'thugs did not spate a single :1101:1- Bengali shop (If business prem:lses' in the area a:nrn lootedl1every artid,e ofvalne", said Zihid Abdt

~"iIi' "_"I!.. .. 11 ~'ll .'~ ~ ~ 1h- .. ~ '1 Jlh·· A'· . ~ L . "1'

lI1WL'UlliJ.l€ Ieuen,~. flimy .. au crus leo, '£; , I,e' .wanuea§ue mi rtants

with. fUn fOroe in Dacca in ·the very first week of March 197-][ when they

had jJi _£::-d'~ tho G .' .. . . j . ~L. • H -d. A'·· .. · .. ..... - L·

Da' oaie e Government sautnonty I Sal',. 'w:tUi' naD:bIWl~ .2.(i~

who 'W'aS, eInpJoye,d in a trading firm, 1m Dacca. A graduate of the

:Oacc. __ .. a Un~'~~i!y, ~~.lived. in~,e N ~l_'wa~p:~ locdity and \\~srepa'tria~ rod EO Karachi ~m Fe:bI'1.lary ]974-. He. said ~

,f' 0 1\ AI' ~'L l b· f- A-" "I"

.D JL'I!'.Ii~cH 33. a luge mo 0.' _'!;.vatl-U League rm ltan'u, many

wi. tb. .b1aziFf.:' ~tlJ. '\Vent o~me.·, ranlpag,e in the. Nawab .. J? •.. Ur.

1,f"Ior~~.'I·U. ~P;y: looted the houses of D.on ... -.q.p'IIr1IO' .. ,,;'l.'~.:.,. m. achin ...

V!!i..oa!l.:L''Ii''IR'.1 . J!.,i '!p,,;oo _.'.," •. ~a. w llU __ .,l,.4 ... '" :D_~JJ.liiJ!.I!' __ lJl[J'Ipl

gunned the inmates and burnt ma.ny houses, 'They looeed every shop owned by a non-Bengali. Some of my r:eladve5 perished! in the ,cam.agc: inonr louJity " ,My esc~"pe 'W'o:'I!S, nothing

shor t of a miracle' .

~'The J?:wami League militants, had gii-1n!l and plenty of ammunibon. .,Aln~m:gs~the kiUers were lWin~'f~nd\" 'wh~o appeared'~ be' weU-:tI'Mned rn 'the use of firearms, OnMareh 9, the A:w:-a.m:I Leaguers had~,][en away, under the pain of dire pnnishme-ntt weapons owned by non-Bengalis, We rend-I!redl ,d,efen ... celess, In 'the period of the A~n Le{tgl1e~S. imm-gency' in Dacca, lidna:ppin,g non-Bengalis for' raruon~ and tlfteill 51ayitm them wat~ th.e t1voudte tmmus 0'P-cranili of the AwamiLeague rebels, Hundreds ofstud.ent bodies had s,p-ro'l1lted all everehe

city ~d th. etc ho.odl .. '{.ll. ins. staged .. ,.d.arin~ hofd-ups on the._ .r.oatis .. , .".' nndltooted., the houses of non- Bengalis, The AWmH League

High O:mmIalld ihadl, (ro~l the bank accounts of non-Bengalis and. restricted their 'withclawal right. Awami League cadres wed 'to reap' huge cuts, hy g,ctting sanetions ror larger' cuh 'w'hh .... drav{al~ by ~' n~n~~eng .. ,;,.a.lis •• The .. ers ofwanyaffiu--, ent Wres'~ Pakistams sffizedtheJ.1~ can: as ransom. From March I to 2j:, Dacca had. no government and no 2dnWiistr-ation W(rrth t.lhcname; it was Thug Role. Some :Bengali civil servants, who were 10}"'all to the Government, wanted to go to their offioes:. 'The Awamm Leagu'e cadres VV'aIIlOO dlemthat they ~1(Tjjd.thebr dear ones would be turned into mincemeat if they disobeyed

S1 'L'L, M . 'b- R· -JL- ~ "·'1__ _jj_ U

_ l,eJ~ "UJl ,ur <"aDman s, str~!I!iX' or~r" .••• " •.

"Dacca 'was a city of terror :and fu,e in ihethird week of March [97I~~', :sawl Mohammad Taha~ SSt whO' lived an th1Loug~ that :night;... marish period in his house on Noor JahanRoad in D'ac~· Repa:tti:lited to, KaraChi from Kathmandn, where he had esca:poo from ,the ,Muk,ti Bahini in East Paki5tan~ Thl},m said inMarch 1974::

'Taha added: '~'Ar.oon, ra;pe and murder had broome dIe order of the day.. Three of my vf~ry dose, relui.ves were' killed. in the' carnage, Killer gangs shal1g1laied non-Bengalis on the streets and &om -the'ir' howes ,iU1d the police had gone into purdalr., 'The non-Bengalis thanked God '~hen the .fOO,en] Army went into action ag~iru;tilie ruthless rehe1s. But on December I7~. 19?I~ when the Indian and the Mnkti Bahini seized Dacca,

Ile.-'.ll, b. ms'~ Up .. on drI,e'. non- :S~1.' gaJ.i5~.·g:·.I·~a~~ndh~~red .. s. ,~f '~'L~.u:, sands of innocent people vn7C butchered by the Muktl. ,Datllm.

victors m d their triggu=happy supporters",

Shah .lmam,. 3'0, who was engaged in bu&il'lCs~ in Dacca. :and. who liv'oo il!l.the Bikrampur locality, testified:

urn the dlm wcckof.Mttdl. I!n'I, a Bengali kiner gang my paternal uncle . .1111' elder brother and his teenage son in a steamer on way fiu:m Barisal to Dacca .... " " ..

"I learnt fr-om me Beng,aJi. ba;[ tha t, :ill mlds tream, about ~o armed thugs. sho1!lw]·Qf ~J;Oii Biilll.gia' ~ ~tltacked the non ... Benga~i. pa~~s. They {orce~ dlle Serang (capt~;ll) to. :anchor the, steamer on a deserted 'bank of the river, The kilJer gang, lined up the' nOll-Ecttgali,eu,get"S on. the bank: of the ri.vielt:uuI g'mll1.ed them to' death.. They pillf~d,evffry article ,of value

fr ,,-l.. b _]': f"'[ I' d 'hi'ld - ~- _I' .. ~

:'Om wC - Owes 0' t Ie saUl men, 'women an c . ana 'rittew

,the dead inec the river. Afte~ the federal troops routed the rebels, I tried ro Iocate the dead bodies ofm,y Murdered relatives and visited" the scene ,()Jf the' sJa1,.1:ghteI 'but ithc'f'e was no tr.ace of them although there were bloodstain::; at many places don:g. ·the

b _1_ ~.~

_'a.~I' II I". 'tlli iI

slrnh IuIam.wasre:pa.tri~'red to Karachi in Mardll 19'i4~

'~,My only daughter has 'been lusa;ne since she Vo"M forced ~y her sa~~~onnenron to _watcllth.:e ~t~l. m.u'tdrt.-· ofller hm~and"~. s.a. id. ,M_ I: _ .. ~ ,Ahmed", 43~ whl1e'gnnng Qm1, :~'CC01Wlt oflu~ :suifer,mg

during, the Ides of March 1971 in Dacca, Repattjared, to Kuachi in. januarY' :I974~ he ~id:

4'~We lived in arentcdhcuse in Abdul ,A::z.iz Lane in. D'.aGCa. 1'_ was· in bUritle'SS; :~nd we had. prospered" I had married my daugl1rer to a promising young .man .. ~ _ ....

"In thetbird week: of March 197J ~ a gang of a:t:mcd Bengali rebels. raided the house of my son,-:in-hwmd, 0~poWeted him. He'was. ~ oonrngeQus- young man at~d he,res:i,sted.the attackers. Mydau;ghtex alsO' resisted. the atlacken but uley were far 'teo many and they ·wcrewd.l-arme~. They .tiied .. up ,my :son--ifi.Jawand my & utghtet W:ithlnp(jS and they fnrc~dher to wuroas they ditthe of her husband, arm r:ip}Ulcl hm sro:nlach open In. the style of 1I:H]tchen:. s11e f2!inred and loiSt consciousness. Since that 'm--e~d!fml ,d.ay she, lias been ftlC11,t\\tijy ill she, tremb~, and she raves many a. time as memory ;reminds lIef of that grrds~y eve11t in her broken life., ., . , .•.. , . '"

fiWe SUDgbt .refuge" with our wounded, :&:the:r JJl the woods near' Tbngi~ a suburb in Dacca, and milloo there on water and, 'Wild frumts f~m: three d3JysJ~'~ said Ayesha .lK.hafiooD, 2,2,~ on her Ee~tr,i~don to J{:a'rncW from, Dacca in february :11 974-, She testified:

ilCf'Oll March .. 25~ 19iI~. a liJlcr g;an.g 'broke ineoour house mel looted aJ1 the valuables we had. . '!hey trucked ~,way aU the

1 .. 00 .. t •.. M.·y.·.r .. f~dl.e.r,. M!.· •.• N ..••. -,o. orudd.jl.l, ~,.lo cru bm. ,in .• e5S.' ·.m~l.w., ho. '.

owned the house, resisted the l'gJders. The EelJ;gdL :rebels

stalJibcd. him :iw. 'the chest llld escaped 'Wi,th :th.clr booty, ..

~tAs, the k.iJlers had said. that mt:y wouM return, lny hr:otheI" and [ h~~p,ed our fathe_( ,,~k. semedistanee .. to the WOI)cJ,s IlMriJ,y" We spread abedsheee and mY'W'OIl)nd,ed fi.' lay on it. I :bandaged his wounds 'hut we had no food. My l?rothtt brou:glu:

·\V;a, .. ·tcr. fr'Oln the.". 11.'.0. nd and rome·· d fruits." We 1~".e ... d on thll3: 1i~pms't for three da:y~. Inthe afteanoon, of ,Ma:r;ch28~ .. we spntoodl

some Pwtaui troopsand IUY brothee ran towards them, Th~ :soiruen took 11S bade. tv our .home,.r nursed back Jlt1:y btherto fui11 :rec-ov:ery ~" .• , .' .

-Ilfrm, .~ ~m j. u 1:':... ,~,,{, '" .t: .

. but more trav,i!JI1 ;,ullil, nustortnne lay m store ror U~., fitler

less tharo :9 11J1.0n tlts, the .M'l1.kti Eilimiwen.t 011 the agajnst the nOIl-Eengalisin Dacca, III the la.~~ wee:k; Q,E'Dece'mber l;971r,o a gang; cf'armed Beng'3l1s C3.'roe to myhoucse and gr.abbed ,my husband, Z~far Alam ... 'They ~as~ed usto giv-:e them aU the cam rand my omaments, I had none left. They said that they wo:tmld set ·free· my has t"and if my fatnet ~ronoo, a bogus, doc'Ulinffit, 0.£ saj,e of oUJ[ house to the leader of the ' .:' ., er gang.T;o save the

life of mybusbmcL my' f~thcr 'readify agreed to do so. ~lre


A1iyaBi,'bi, 40" Who, Jiv;ed, ina fl~t with her son in tbe Mo1u1)1~ medpur lQooty m Dacca, reported after her arrival in Karachi in ]mmary 1974~'

~~On Marcil ZS~I )f97J", ;3 gang' of Aw-amil League militants and some thugs :rai&~ .myhatlSe Bl'nd Joo~d it. They did l'D!.~t i;J,p,are anything of value. My 16-:y,ear-old son had clinlbe,d an umbrageous tree and the raiders did not decoct him ..... ~ . ~

"But inthe last w~.k of December .1:971, he was kiUedl by.the Mukti Bahini, Life has been: a. torment for' me since men .......•. }~,

Saim K&a:tOOD, 35, who lived in M!rp.ur inD',~oca" g,a(v:e this acooun't of the murder ofher b"l."lS'band, Abdul Hamid, in the M,urn 1971'c of nen-Bengalis in Dacca =

UM' h bsnd 1 .c;.1L "k",j;,<t" '''JII'._.~....l...

'. Y ,I,'. tlS,3illOen our: nome' m ... ~ ....... ·!"ur on J.'I:~U. "S 'to' go to a

,. • ..:1.., ,', 0 ... t, L B' ~I! bel 'I ·a·1· . d.

meeting'. 10. tne CIty. On rhe way tll:e .engd.u rebels waYla]· . lim an ..

murdered him.

'~I As I did, 1I101t fSICC his ,deatt body~ I ;3!p'pea1od. to the fed.eral, ,A[my to hd,p i:J:le in locating my hus"band" d.eart or ,alive. The Army 'tried. '~O eeaee him but the p!reSUl~ptioJ1l was that he 'WaS 'wayJaid and killed as walme fa.'te iof my other male r:elatives in Daeca and o'tl},er p,laces

in, Has,t Pakistan", said Saim Khatoon. '

'.:~ have no clloice lru,t to believe that nrty husband was ki1ledby the rebels, in ,M.atchISll1I,~"~ she added .... 'UHuruheth of llon,-Bengali

". . . . !-~ . 'L~ ..II.. ...1 _ . .I j __ ._ .. L~ d.' n 1L .~.~.=..LL. id-'

'teena:,ge g,DlI.'S were ILiWi:3!ppel!!!! rapeg! auu. murdere .. ·· J! ;uie UUllu:et sa ' .•

Zaibmmism. 33" lived in ,allat OIl Noor Ja_hJ111 :Road in the' Mobrunmadp'ut locaUty of Dacca. :Hef hush$.11d., A'bdus S~:I wu empJ-oyed as a drjy:er in the Datta. office of the Pakistan Internadonal A~rlines. . S~c gave, this, account 'of the r3.jd Oil her home' hy the Bengali rebels: and the death o,fher hw.1J,a,nd:

HO~MiU'dl2,S) ][971, a, gang ofAwmniLeague militsnts nided (>~ h~us. e. ~,I).',b,' ,3.11d Ie,· sisted.,', the .. , at,tK!ke. ',(8, ,aDd, grap, p. kd.,'·, \ :

Wlitb them, The raiders were armed. :;md. they o'\1ierpowered,

hiln.Tb.ey stabbedhimand then loo~ed, our house, A£ter tile raid en h,ad goue, I felt some sigrll 'Of life in,my hll~baWld. The next mo~ug I took h:im to a local hospital The rebels lhad been IDlttcd, 'but the :Ben,gI,a.] i hospital s:td wassullea. Tiley'

d~d. pot pay m,udl attention and niy :h.Uls1hmd ,died. . ., . . . . '

"After December I1,'O,~ 1'9'][ > my lI!D-ye:1r-o]d son and [ snff6n:d agairr, The ,Mukti Bahini waD!ted ,tolcidna:p my son and I had to keep l~.imiJl hiding for ~ys o~ end wttUw:ewel'c movedtoa Red Cross!Can~p'. Even dlete~ the, Mukti Bahinl used to kidnar,' tll,e non-Bengalrmen and reen:age gJ.ds, every now and then .. " .

Z·L_· ] m(" ' .' "'d'~ 1 ,- " .,." '. " ... ' ., , --', "JI-- p' .t .. ~""" .t: ' ".' '-0-

___ ;Ul!}~~, I, lS~i;\ au ',l'len: sen wr::rerepatl'~UeC1! to . _ all'U,;)t~.t:I, IfO:!n, ,aCCil.

in Decernbct. 1973,

ShatWtu.Akhtar:,. ,28, whose llusb:md ~, employed as a clerk in 'the Railvra;y 0:11101: in Dacca, lived III ~ small house in the Ml' ]OCWley ,:thete. Th.e.y had. escaped ,the M:ac-r-dh1r97[ ffi'lll.$53!CIe 'beca~e ·of' 'the strong ,resi8ta!1{;C put ~p ~'wc Bibari. youngmoJl,ofthc locaJityagaim:t: me re bels who attacked them. But :after the rndi~ and the ,Mukti ~'1hlru seimd East PakIstan in. the third. week ofDecemiber [971,. nre became an ordeal ro'l SLamim" 'her h~8,ba.ndl~Fasiluddin and her: three little C:lriIJdl~n. SI~e deserihed her tragedy .in 'these words:

"On Decemher 17~ :Q;l7J,. tIle Multo Bahmi. 'alit otfdJe: water supply to our ho.mes,.We:used to getwater from a neariby pond; it w,. poIDluted and had a bad ,odour.. I\Vlts ninemonehs pIiegnmtt. 0'0 December 2',3, 1'9':£, .1 gave birth 'to a 'baby girl. ~o _nti.dwife VlaS available and my h1lls1b>91nd hefp'ed 'me at .dhllil birtl1~ Lal'teat ni," a gang of armed Ben~Us nided Ouf house" gmhbed,myhusban.d: :~nd.truck-ed :bimil'W'ay... I begged, them in. the name of God. to s:pate him: as I could not even 'wrul_k and, my chUdtetlwere eoo smsll, The killerswere heardless

ili!=.!.I~~b?rd:::::J =~dr.~ !:~~

no-use as they t'ha~ it 'WiS new their P!()perty.

ulB,ih."IXis" ~; le-ader~ ~~1mve' no ri,ghtto 1M .tu,, d~lt,·~:'At guftp.oitlt,. they drove me wi~h my d-:!lJd.[e-n to an open

:eIot of lamdw;hen:: we .slept on ,thcbatre earth ill tire cola mil" three ,days,. My Iclilldren starved; I ~s. tao ,weak to get thdD even ~ Inorsd of food" A forci:gll. Red. Cross team took pity on It.'i, a;~ lnQv·ed.1!1IS toa RelliefiCanlp 10 Mohanuneclpur .... ,,~,

Shamim andher children were rnpattiawd to Pakistan from Dacca. in J~lnt.ary 1974-

Zaibannissa Hag, 30, whose journalist husband, IzMIHU Haque, wor:k.edas a columnist in ·the DaihrWatan in Dacca, gave tlDS account

,0'£ her 'tx:av,ail 'in l!97I:' J

'~~Ol1 Mru:'cll lS. t 971 ,. a\ gang of arull_ed Awami League storm troopers raided our'loca:lity and looted my home. My husbaH,d ,,:u tl0t' rut 1toll1}.,e;. otn:c1nvi5e the raiders. Wou]d have kidnapped


,LU.,Il,L ii '"' ~I !I' '! "I! 'II ~

~~AfiteI' "the IndiallArrhy'and MuktiHahini occupied, DaCca 01~ December 17·, 1971, a reigll of 1lelrm;: and death '\WS unleashed on ,the DOifi":Jlkn.galms!, espcciaUy tho.oo of us who lived in ,Mo:lrnmmertpnr'md M1rpur. A dozen Bib.ari. yo~g men of OLU localityt includ:ing my'huha:nd,. used to patrol tbeare.a at night to~,eepmJ!1tander8 at b:ay. On December 1.9, la:t~31t night, ill, gang of ,aImeti Eengali:s raided the loWityand machme-gunned my husband. Mywodd was shattered when I"s~w bis;" d,ea~d body.. Pt1op[e in ~e entire nc'ighbomhood

,c~dbem.use "he"~~as~portllar, and, ha,d loo.ked ~fter the :safety

of the l1eJghbotlt$ WiI.tl1J. nnmease conrage. ,,', .

U,On Decemba 2rI, a posse of Makti Brulini soldiers, and some thugs. rode into our locality with l;.l~g goo5and oll'deredru to leave our house as, acrordill,g to. them, Df? B,ihari could. 0"Ml. ,3.. house ill Bangladesh. F'Ol'twol, days, we Jived on. bareearth m an open, .space' and, we had, nQtb:ing to ~,t. SUbsequentiYr we

'were taken eoa Relief Camp by the &ed Cross, -

I"", 1I' ..... 11i!!lI1!"ti" In>'7,..1 "!fII'_ a~ ...... ~~ .. te ~ "" .... ,lP,~ 1~_ij.-",,",, ~~

WJL, Jldd..l-- J" Y l.rt', 1fT'll.; -n ~I'_' , •. ~f" _Id.a 1, .. _ ,rJ, .~ L~-"~.I!\I. II!' II • III III ,I'

I\atbua Bib,i., .Ijl.O, whose hmiban,dl was ,enl:ployed .ina tt:ldmg :firm in Tbngi" testified. a€ter her repa:lri.a.tion to Ka:raclti, -(:rom Dacea in Feibroo.t:y 1974:

~~'On March 2S, 1911, armed A~miLeaguem had. looted our house and beil~'en, up 1UY husband, A.bdlm,"W"ho h!d resiseed thelll, M'y three young sons wer,e 9.W{];yfrOll1,the house when the raid took. 'Pl~ce,.T~reyw'er:e lbfa.vle 'boys and they took an oath to p!wUsh the thugs. .In April 1971., they Joined! meRazabr Poree and ta:Dght 3! lesson to :mally of the :Beeg~11i dlug,Swho bad. .loQt,ed.the homes 'of lIlQill.-:Bengdis in. Much.

nllIu the third week of D'ocem~er 1971, when the Indian ,~r:m.I :arnd[ the Miukti E~inl ~ptut,ed Daora~ my three SODS were kined in action. On December I7~ I97I~ .. an Mmed gang 'Of 3,0' B~ galm raided our heme md Inum]lcy kiUoo.myb,1!lsbaBd". ,At gun;P'()IDt,they ord.eredl me to leave the house" with .mydtree· £i.h..ndren. "] headed for the woods neMhy.. 'W e lived on ''W'a1ter and 'wild i W,Ol and we slept on leaves, Tile cries: o{lny 'starving !ChiWdren cilJtllSedn:tc:, ,pacitll :ilud agpny. [ of ~1lic1dre and headed 'towards the :raf[w:a.y line, God 'w"3n'md 'to &aV'C m.. A fO!reignRxd Cros;s eeam WR$ ' OUE w~y in ajeep a;n_d, they moeionsdns 'to' sWp. . W1lliffi [ tifild them ofonr ." ,~.~mB1 mok IiJisto ·thelRtld CtassR..e1iefCamp inMohamm;pu:r whe:,c we

11" ._ . ..1 L. J.._.... ",lO .wilVOiJ, luf mOHE: man two year'S '"

:No or JaLau;, 3.3,~whoFiC husb~JJild"" M1.lkhtH was,f:l111ploy:edln the Telegraph and Tdepho'l':tE :Vepartment iaDsecs au(j, who lived in the Govelnment s,taf{' Qu.uters :in Gu]utan colony, :said on her l1'epGl:tt:iiarion to K:lracbfu iflJantJ.arY 1974;

"We Iiad escaped nl€:l March I'!l}f7Illlil.Ssa.cre of ll.on-:Benga~iF; m, Dacca. ,BUE: iin ·tl(re; wId week ofDemmher 1'911, a&r the Indian Army and the Mukti ll;mhlru occnpied Daoca~m.ylhlOOband

was. '.' .m. 'Uldn .•• ~-G';d.'by.a. g~I]Jg o.· ..•. f 3. :rme. Icl Ben. g.". l.. 1 is\.. So .. me .,310.·.· .. ann.· .... led." " men :raided m(}' house soon after his d,eaU)t :and looted !every

a:rtide of vaJui. They eumed lIS oni!: of the house at goopolinl: and we ~: '011 ~tbe streets, AnQtbe:r gang of. armed :Bcngili~

3. 111.... ._~1 JI e.; _1 ''D!L '. ~ j "[-ave us to a latg(: l!)it! wnere some S'C.Nl .mnsn womw aIm

cnJ[dren, whooohUtsha:~ds had been kiml~.f!!ped fo~' mlU'dex~ were lo&,ged" We were mId 'tlm;;:ttatly o·nc£o'Wld ,es~pin,g


s1~o.t. _ We praye,d[ to God:fur £h .. 'le safety .'of 0(1.[ children, After llY,e'da)'li' ofb:ungcr ;ar.nd torture, a Red. CEO'SS 'team took us to a Relief Camp in MoJ!J!:m:ttY.iIJ::dpu[ In Dacca. life In t1re Relief Camp 'WaS an ordea] became the Mukti Baihini jingoes used eo kidnap the B,illari yomilUg men and women by the scores every week, No one was; sure that he would, be alive the next morning. ,Many did not sleep for 'nights 0:0 end. At mgh-t_. women whose' hmibands or SOl1$, bad. be'en 5liug~hteredl before' them 'YI;"O'u1.(i ihriek and wail as the memorv of their dear ones haunted them",

- ~

AIlwari Beplm." 301 wh'Os~ husband, Syed Mustafa Hussaui, wacS ~~~ed. in t~ re .. l~gritr,h ai~:Tclcp:h. :on~c:DcpI~u.'t:-_m,.en .. -_.~:it].D'~.'cca~ .Ii.v~ m ',I own house nl"~_e Mirrpur localIty. Repatnatcdto Kamth.

from Dacca with her children, In October 1913 ~ AllW'31i Mlid:

UIn theM.arch lSi?']!: 111,~sacre of 11011-Ben,g,a:~is in last P:aldsta:n,

ev ei~· ....•.. " !11e.m .. ' .0.·.· t my. fa .. ~ n.' .. l1.·· ~ly .. ; ill!. ciu.ditlg.· " mYl ..•. ··'.:uents. ; .was,- ..

t D" L~~ s: h . h .]1

ter 111 1 m~p,llr wnm:e my J;a:t,HC!t ~e'"a. onse ano some

property. In 'me' third week of Ma[·ch lr97[, a gang of armed. Ben,gall ,thugs, looeed my house in Milp'l1I' hut .my hm~d escaped the massacre because he "N'a8 avvayon duty in his office.

C;I11 the thirdweek of'Decemhet, 19711 m.y hnsband was murdered by a ,Mukti BaJrunj g,~ll!g and his ,dead bodY' was delivered ,ait .my house by a posseof'jndian troops deployed ill our locality, 'His nook. was severed and SO.n1e pari's of his body were mutilated,

U:Shonly a:ft:ctwar4sJ we were driven out of eue house by th.e

M"·~'L • 'B· - L~ .• " _.1 11. j . d i n_JI ·c . . c···. tJ

~tl.l·iUWll ano JI,Ollge· m a Jl!!!i.,l;;tl .. ross ... amp".", '.,'

Allah RaldJee,.4j,whosc- husband, Moba.mmed, YUlSlIlf~ was a 'thrivm,g ibu.-;inessmalh :In. Oacca auld who ,lived itt their ewn ,11OUSC in Block D in the ,MKPW: locality, had this, poignant memory of ,the trn.g,ed,y in her ]ik in MarCh and Deeembee 19'7I:~

'Ifu tbe third wedk of Ma!',eh 1I97I, a gang: of Awa]l_ll League v:olml'teers had. looted oue hous:e: ''Whrcn [-~. aJll alone in it .. 'They said t1hat theywouJd kidnap my husband and m:y ·two teenage sons hut the federal amryrouted the rebels ana we hmd )pcaoo for nine months'.

~1~0l1 December Ii, afte:r the Indian Anuy aDld\ dle MUkti Bahini had IcaPtured. Dacca, a SO[)'[e of armed Bengalis raided my house,

TheY.' ~hCl't my aged husba~d .i11 t.~ compound of our house~~ _ I had hidden my ·two sons m the]~v;:dO:ry.. Just when the killer gang '\VaS aboureo J,ca:ve'~ OW@) ofEhe raiders s.tepped. into ·tb

~~v~~ry_ ~1!1 sa~ .nI.';!J tw.~.· .sons .. ·w ... 1.10.' tile. ·~'t.a,~~~e. ~ ~~~.~' ed for help and the 'whole gru~, r~lshod_ m.ude and overpo~red

mYc_ sons, They, dr:agged the nvo. boys to th~" ,~ompound_ and, befo're :my dazed e'}r,es:~ shot them dead" Tl!te' kU1,ers slapped me, mOl., at the p' a bayonet, dtey droveme ill th~j[ttuck to

the: Red . Cr. OIS~ Camp'" My., &~~ had J.' oined rh~~alrj;~~ Al',luy. I have no, news of him" I kamt tha,tth~ ,Mukn B~I

threw tbe daWlbo~lics of my husband and nlY' two sons in~o

. iL_ -" :~~, .

tu'C nvtr.",.. _ . _ .

nJ bad a glimpse of 'the be11rush sia.ll;ghtet· ... house set up for mur~ dering hapless non":Bdlga_Us ,in Dacca" ~-. sa.i~ 2'S~y,ea:r-okl Swma ''Kitatoon", after her' repa.triationto Karachi &om Dacca m January F974. Her slain tU1S ban~ Nuar A.lamKhan,. "W'aS employed. inthe State Bank of Mistlli. in Dac-ca. She testified:

~ ~fu the 1;,llS't week ()tMrurcih ;£971 ~ ~he;di ,l)ebcls had murdeI-ed the pa1re:ll'ts and elder boo thet of my htuiband. in .fu the thirdl. week of March, some armed Bengali thugs had looted ,my house in. the . Bas'ha:oo :~ocality near Kamlaptir sl!a.'ldon in Dacca. But u~ l1usbmd h3id escaped their morderous searoh •.

Urn die third 'week of December 19'71" whcntille In~iao_ Attn! and the Mukti Bahini ruled Dacca, he went' eo his o.:f.Iice and did[ noe return home, In the night of December 18~ ,I posse .o,r B,engali g:Wl1IlfD.e1llloote~ my house and, to~clnre tha,t:,n:rs:lu::nJiM leave it aJthough ·w~ (:i\VllOO it. "Wh·enmy hu~band dM not reenrn even. 0:11 the ·third ,day, I "Went to hW ()fIio~, The offi~e .~ locked £rom oursidfr. - ~'u.g_h a wjnJQw I saw a gJ1lUp 0..£ tough";looking jj'i¢i1buming old :recor~ llanknotesand_ regis-

r' ._.11 - d·'"d . d· 11_. . . l •. ! 1L h .1 ~

eers .• , . .:atSO peepe' lLlU· ea·, arlt: store ranm.wwt1tl . 3i!1i) J!aIge

blood. stains. and torn. dod~cs. ThJs, I believe, was, used as a. 11~; .• ~II f- b .':E._ 1'-:11···· . 'in. ,~111· -B--'- l' '-1 it!iJll.o '0·' abattorr tor ~.' m:g: UJJil'"!JUeugru], __ WDL emp'lQry,ees~ .1

met the ~ife of a Bengdi coUe!l,gt1e of my husband in ·the adja~ ,oeu~ staff' quarrel'S fOr :Bank.. ,employees. She _told ,~ '~at a Mukti E,albit:l!i gang had .raidedd1e EInk on the day my husband dlsappeu~d mid it mtttd ~redi all the no~neng-au employees on duty. nleY had dumped the bodies, she said, into a ha'sti1y dug pit at the back. ofthe oft"ke building,. o .•••• '.' ••

"My dtj](h~en and I lived for two y,~,jS in the Red Cress

C I':I!'iIL - 'M~ '11- "'D_i'L!,_" • ~ t, .: ~ ~ , '] JiI..._

a,mp", tne." UKtl .IlaJnnLSeJ~lJI, my oousc ano, to' Q me t:llitt

'the :Bihatis 'would not be pcmntwdmO'Wfi evenan hxh o£',land

• -- ,,],_j'L :n In B:1ilng aacsn •.• '. . ... '

':~fur rwo .hours, :n1:1 house in, Mobrunmcdpttt was riddled and pocbd. wfl:h bllUets. by >1ll gMl:g of armed Bengali ~~udtts late in . . MariCh, 19111" I :saM Qaj.s,er Jahan~ 22; Who escapedl to Nep~J from Eas~ Pakfs:tan in 19;';,:3 and was upauiated. to Karachi in December 197.3.

Qa.:iSM JahmJ.1J and her hus;ban.&~ AzizHllJIs&a:in, a pfio~:perolus, busiNessman" Uved :in 'tlrei! own bouse on, N ()'Oi' Jalla:n Read in the MobammedpuI loca]jty- ill Dacca, Th,ey had esaped the March, 11971 ~ssacre of nOfi~Beug~Jis and the g1l2Wmer'l1~ho fired on her house did Hot loot it. ,But ;in the third week of'Dccember 1911, 'when the Indian .A:rmy ~,d the Mukti13rurlni ::;ci~ed :Bast Pakis~"'ll1~ her rnbf'6,:rwnes began, Early 111 December 1971!~, hr hmballd had gone 011 ;81 'business virittu Chittago-ng;. weeb passed and ib_,ere 'mEl no news of rum. Qaisa:

J~,lM,'~,',l_ h~, :'--'""!Df,tJ,'l_e-l~S,acreO~,,lilQ;, .n-"Ben,~i,s, in. ,C,., ",hittago,'"", ug .. O,l~ December I'7~ [971• The next day'~ art nudn.ighttagang of annal

M.ukti BanJl1i. ro,ldrersa:tta.dred the Mol'Ml.fnt:li'M~dpur loc31Jily ,mid they rondnued nu:dJine,--gW'l!ling: her h.Q1JOO rill the early homs ofdlJ.~~ momiug.',mu~tdCkel1) she decidedto kave for Khulnawhere some rela'rives of hers lived. ';ser Jahm :said :

uIsold, o'ffm:y gold earringsand ' and lPaicil an exorbitmt Cre mOO1 agent wtalke, us to, QU-cu.tta., AIloth,eragent" who ~' I' ,_ hwnall, beit'IUg,s fro~ India, 'to Nejp3l~ dlaxg~, ,me;!, .fat SUlll' of money to t:dcencs to Ka:.thmmdu. We h"ved there In, abj{.u poverty' for nuny months, 'The UniMd. .N:a:tions repatriat~d.w; to. Karadtim D~cem"he1[F973 _, .. , ..... ~~

:Ku1soomi\l :3 5~ whose husband, ,A:bdI!llJl{:rtreem~ had.hi:s G"Wft sm__al1 busmeSS)· brnl ill Dacca, !iVied in thdr {)'~, ,ho~e on J~_g~,nnath S;ilia Road. She was-widowed early ill 1971. Her 24~year,_old ;!lOD was emp:1Dyied in a it:ra.dlllg firm in OCl1tta] DaccQ;.. m thetWrd ~ek of Mardi 1971" agan:g of armed , leag:oecs raided. and ]oot-tld ber home. Her son, .w-as not: a.t home when the :raid.ers came. But in D:oeemt:n7j[9''iI~, I{u1soom~8 ]itde:1rorld was ;sbat$eI'iia:

~!>ft 'wasDecenlber 12. My son, Moh~ Yru;iot had, gonero ,his om. My ron w:as: a. brave young man, He ,said l1c was.

not :frigllteued. ibyIt~ldia~'S bDn1b~ng and! 'WO,td~ go to 'Woik. In ~ecveuing, I. was sttmned wben some Ciry;] D1erenre 'workers brought me his battered dead body.. He .'Wa'3. killed when Indian :awttaft bombed the 'building, w~ he wotked. ", .. "'"

f''1 ~ benumbed 'by the loss of my son. ~the~ifd wod:: of December I97I.~ a Mukti Bahini gang r.aided .a.lld loolied .my house and threw me .md.w.ry thr~ small chil(lr-eQ on the streees .. ·We lived f:b:r .mnre than twol yeru:s in ;; Red! _ Cro~ Oamp_ in Dacca. In Pcbruary 11974~ 'we WHie fBpatriared to Pakis;mn".

_ Ay·esb BegLlm,. 40~ who was, repatori:lrtOO to Kamchi fr-om Dacca, with her three orphaned chnthel'l! in December lf9731 te:s~fficd:

.i"lq lbhe third. week of.March 1971, a gang of armed A vra.mi Lea ... guers had fired on our house in_1d1irpm -in Dacca but theappearanee of an Am:my patrol made them tun aW3iY •• ' •. ' .•

"Per niae months, nly husband, Abc1lt'd . Bari, a :Bank em.pIQyee, lived. in peace in out house in Mirpur. Butin the third week ofDecemb.r 1977, a posse Q£'Mukti ~lini so1diets" led by some g,anpteD cfour ~ocality ~ came to my house and mn~ted it. They ordered us .£0 leave rhe house ;~t once and 8'0 roche Red Cross Camp. Just then myhmhu1d returned hom~ nom _wo:rk m,d

[0_ a., ~t'~ of minu~~sth~ :~~nct gm~ ,o·verpo·w~red. shi'Jit hiEu m the chest, I was 5tu1llned and utM1Lly speechless,

One of them si,apped me and threatened that i:f [did. not vacate me· house .immed-ia:telly I 'W\lluld, be :lciUed. _ I beg:gecll themro give me some ti.met.o bury my. hnsbsnd but thcyrefuood. I ap~me. rh.em. __ -Ji_ ~1 the nam£: of Go,daIl.'d, two ofm.I'. = 3.greed. __ to lleJ.p' me m bllI'flng.:my husband. We dug a ga;ve Dl. an open sp'illce nearby m!d laid 1rlmroeremal rest, My children aDd 1 'W"aU:(.~ eo the Red Cross C~p· where· 'We lived for two

.. ~

years .

:N~jmUJmisiSil" .30, an.d.~e:rthree ,Q;rphancd . clill4rel1were repat["ia~ed from Daccaro :Kilt.:ldli in Janulry ]974 af~er 'iliey bad spent two years in the Red C:ros~ Canlp Vi MQhaJf.!J.uedpur. I~~· husband was ,a.n employ,ee ·0'£ the ·East Pakistan Government and he owned a mmll house in Mmrpur where he and his. family lived, In the third week of March ]97I~ whell he was, .{'[,way on d.'L'uy, some arllledtbugS had looted :hi~ l~ollJ:se .. , In ·the: mir,d wrek of D'le~ember 1971., the Mukti

l1ahjni murdered llim while he was onhis way to his office_ A Mukti Bshini g;an.g raided NajumuntliiSsa~s house m the evening of December J[,g and ('old her that her husband, had beenexecmed; They' g~ve her :[1.0 clues 'to the wherea!bou.ts of his, dead 'body. Br.m:dishing sten gum~ the raiders ordered her to leavethe house, at OllCC :3.'S 'the Bengalis returnin,g £ro·m [ucli<1Lha,d to be accommodated. NajUlllU11:fiissa rud:

UI was;}, 'Widow'; my children were orphans. My tormentors shoved a g.W1 in my 6u~e to foroe' me to, q,wt tile house where wee had, lived for years, We weu~ on thestreec.. Subsequently, thetht1g~ ,ch~mged their mind. ruld. carted usa-way t? a big buil,d-, ing 'where many]},undreds ,ofhapiess non_;J3¢nga11i .womenmd children were heeded, The' :maJe 11letnben of thrir fa'DDli'e8 ,had, 'been Hqwdared by the Mnkti llahmi in human ah.atooirs~ Lj£e 1:n. the captivity of the Muk:ti Bahini in thls,p'l'isol1 WiaS ,2 hdt A Red. Cross team ,locateCl us and, took us too a Camp in Mobammedpu.L They said our Bengali capron. w~re

~ . .. .. d . L b .j .1. . ..•• j! . '. .._~._l ~ ... jf~c~

plantIJng our mur rer Jfl. tJlie :1I.U Ulwg Wd we' We:lLe,saveu.111 Wt;

. "k f'· n

U",,",' . 0 ~'-;" .

,II,~ -OM 1",It!I'~~1!

Some ,ey~witnessesfronl Dacca. said t.hat their rela.tiv'cs had been sui~jected to' vinlence hy the Awami . league militlnts at .a.numibel' Qf pl\l\res not far from Dacca. Some of the to'"WIl8 named 'by dle8e 'Wit .... nCS8e5 are: KeIaniganj~Joydehpllf', Muruhiganj, RupgaJlj~ .Madaripm, Pubail, Tangibari, Chmdpur~ Ma.tlaJb)Ba~H;J Ha.jlganj and[ Bilidya. Bea.t'., ,MallY non-Beogali families, &d from these slnin 'EOWEm to.

D· .. - JC. ~~- A' • T ............ ~ ... '. '.. •• --1

acea aner we' .. ' W'a.1tU. .........4b.u...- s tereonsanon CunPI3il,gn gUtllco,

momenmm in thethirdMld fourth weeks of ,March 19'71", Qw.te a lew no,u":BengaJi families, 'Wl'b1esres said; '"W'CfC Icilled by the Bengali rebels in the week of.MarCh [971. Tbeir houses 'were looted. Money was ex~orted by &hugs from Siomewell~~o nOIl-Bengalib1EineBsmen ,engaged. in tradeat these p]~aces., In j:oydebpm, 22, miles f~om Dacca, an armed mob, led by AVi1UtDi League militants, put; up barricades on the' r~ track and the main hi.ghway to block rroop m?Vement on. Mar-ch 19" 197I~ ,A posse of Pakistani «"ootID". s ex~ged, fire with the

". _ Iii _' ," " ."" I . "!

rebel gtmn'l;efl :lnthe mob. A rebel w.t:.SkiJ led and! t"iifO soldIers were


In the last ~k. of March I'97r,,3 ]dUet gang looted many non ...

Beugali houses in Ke.rtUrlganj anilMuruhiganj and mnnJered some

;;,;it'f:t~ ~~::;:~~I t! d:d!d.~




O:~Tbeldlter o,~ders to mmlrdtt' ,ev,ety non-.::Bengi!im. 01X :&C;tory",. said Asglmr ,AliKhan" 38, . who . was employed. as an OV'eE1eet' ill tIle P'akistm :&1)riic Co.mpQ.[lly~'s f<lC1DOry in,gmj~

an. mntluu,ri3illl w'wnsrup' .close to 'D~CCi.'t~ .

He gave tJbis patbencaroOtlmt !I)f'th.e s]aughk:fofnQ,ll-B,enga'lis .in. lkrch 19'71 ]8 Nu,ayanganj:

~~Tile l1Ml~BengaU popuhl'dOfi rerud¢f1tin Nara:yangmj ~s.n\o,t htge_~y non~Betl,ga,lis, worW 'by day in 'NM~yanganj atrui com_mule.i jn, the ,evenmg to their; 'ho,mes, ill tJ.oeEbyDa.cca ..

",shl0e :the nrst mu o'fMu,dJ~, AwamiLeague militMlts w-ere atwork. In Na:ray.:mgmj, inanng tM.e BengaJfmiU workers agmElt rlte HOIll7CBengalis,. 'I'h~ b,d :~li~ .~ b,OiU$e,S (,If noo~E,engallls by ·the midd!]e Qfthenwnm. ' .. , ., ..

c~On Marrch 2;11" a l<l!l"ge" vio1ent mob, of y,e;lling:, A'W'lmi ua,guef'S attlCked the facooryand the qusrters wJhere the non-Ben~]i employees :[Ilnd "illte.ilr fam,m.~m~Vlfldl. T1lIey did ~ot , tile f~ctQry but: the;," butdlerr-ed the ~oD~B,.,i emplQyooSMld their. fa mjlies.. I ~the sole occupant ofm.y qWU'rerm.d I :dipped i~ro the house of a 'V~ dear Beng;wU friend. when me Awa.mi Lea.gue~s raid. began, He hid n11; hi his house a:nd.I was saved,

"'Intlle a:fterfi,OOfi ofbL'U:'dl ~6" .after the B,engali,t'ebeb, h;ad. been ro\)~ledt the ftd.eml troops visired. ow: .f~ctory :and[ ar,i'an~edthe mass 'burial·of the I,60 ,~ead bodies ofno,n~Beng.,~i8wMcll lay !ina,elrod in. their q~ttlrter:'8 •••••. ~ •. ~~

'Witrlesoos :said! ~bwt the A'Waf.I"Ii league ,demag;ogues~ in their b:tt.m... gE;S; '(·0 the .B~gaU miUhan&, to,lddJml tha;£ melllnemployoo,:a;eng,Uk

UFour armedfh,ugs dr2E'ged. ~ capti,ve' hon~Be.ngali toomage' girl~ i1li~o an empty bus and, viQlated theit chastity before' gUl:1_l1w:g: them, todeath", said Gtlllzar Hassain" lS:t 'Who wimesood the massacre ,of 22 no:n-13engali men" 1V'Omen and cltiMren on March, 21, [971, dose' to. a bus stand in Nar.ayanganj., Repatriaeed to Ka.tac-hi ill November 19'73, 'Gu1!_Z3,T Hus:s~iB 'l"eponed:

· .. ·~m 'was.en~gaged in! theJtj·ce· Tra:~de m. Naray 'e1J ;atI:d Ili.val,in: :3. tented! house n,ot :&r fio,m the icommeu·' hub of dle town. Since the 6rstweelk of Marcb 1'971,. the Avranti Leaguers were trying to stir uptrouhle in NaLaryanganj and 'tllcllr !,9aI ~ to 'Wipe 'o'ut thenon~Beflg"Ji poruIatioll~ ..•.. , ..

If On .March 21I,~ our Dacca":bo,und bus wass'to'.Pped, on the wa.y.~ soon ;:lI&er ,it 1.eQ the heart of'm,e city. I was se:;l'lied in,tke front ]pO'rtion of the. 'bus: :3:l1,d, ,I ~3!W ~1a·tthe kin" :gmg' had gUIl:!!. scythes and, ~gers. The gUltmen ~dl ']oi Ban,g·1a' an;dlan·ri/Pakistan dog,ID'ls . The. ~ns drivel' olheyed themr si1gna1 to' s,top and. tile thugs tn~bonedtotb.e pas~engers re get down, A j~D_gob2:r'kOOl out: the orderili_atB'en~a]js andl nJ.on,~Beng,aUs should fan in~D ;&e:p:lt'a~tB.linc~. As J spoke Beng~ Wi~~ a pc~fec,t Da~ 3iiOCeU t ,and leouJd. easily pass for a BengalI", I JOIned the :Bengab gl:0'1.1P' ,of passeng,ers. The kmer: gang a.'sked _ us tontt~r :a few· sentences in Bengali which 'we d:id~, I pas~ed the test and om' torment,orlS. instructed th£:' Betilga!is. to scatter, Th,e' th,l!J[gstll,en gunned aDdle male non-Bengalis, It was a horrible $tene Fout' of tlie gonm.en took for d1cir 100 t two ymmg non~Eeng3I~, women and'ra,pcd them inside the emprybus, After they 1161d rsvished 'dIe gals. the killers shot them and :half a. do~en OUleI' women and chUdr-en. Some ShOp5:~, lownedby non ... Sen,gali$ in,

" • t dbvri b' -L_, if "~-

Nan.yatlganJ~ wer'e looted '1 noeous mobs on tlla't .::_ay -,.

N __ wa Khatfllm" 2,$! lived in a ten~ lowe in the 'Pancho ,Bod locality in Naraymganj .. :Hel' 'b:\lsband" MQhrumnea 'Qamtu1 Ha~ was: emp:IDoy,cd in a. Vegetable OH.manufaewr-iIlg, b.C[OfY. Replttia:ted ,to Kar~cbi. in Ja.muary 1974,. a1ong'With h,er .4--yeaM)]d, or1?han~dl d.mughter" fi-om, a Red Cross 'Camp in Dacca .. N~ ,gave dUs h.aJTf":rais:ing account ofher tr-arvail in 1911 ::.

"Smce MudI .3 ,tber,e wa;s tension in Naray,angallj. The. Awaini Le.agaerg were inciting the Hetlg;tli labourers to kf1l tIle 110[1- Bengalis. In the:nlgpt lof March. .2:$,.3. ]1,engaJi mob, kdby Awami Lea;gue mnitants" tried to loot the hou;resofnon";13ellga1is in our locality bue the cowards melted. away 'when the l1eWS of dH~ Army's ~ctiOtl a-g.aills,t the .r~1bems teadled. ·wem., ,. , ....

"On :O~c,ember EO, wben dw surrender de(;,iuon of the P:akistan Arnty in D':acca to the: .India:.t1. Army was anno11l1ced"vioiellt crowds of H,ru1.gaJi nUntant~ went 'on the rampag:e: agamstthe .non~BeJIJJgalis, in Nar-ayutgattj. A kill~j' ,grulgatta.~:ed my hOWK;and St'Dj,e all my ornaments, my clotbes~c:ros-kcty and ,~ mmimt',e. The' th(tigsdidnot spare even 'tile kl'tchenwaf,ie ,md h,o'llsebold linen, My lUlSvmd was, :QWiY in Dacca whel1 the kilLer ,gallg ,came 'to mif house .. - " , .. " .

C'~At gun-poinr, our capeors made us lea veourhouseand marched us W, an open 5iqlliar,e wha:e: morethafl :;;00 llo:u~Beng;'!li old men.,-

.'] ~L!~' lc_ .iI~. .' ._ .. .1 S C_. I'

women an~ c",ti~w."en were ,'ameo;,.01ne ;.SIO Heng~ , goomen

led, us through SW;almpYglOw,deowu,ds, a dle&e:!t'~ed sdx:oQl build\.iog. 0,11 the wa.y~, the 3,-year--o,I.d, child of a hapless c-apti'fl!:: woman ai,ed in her3lnns" She ~'Skiea her captors 'to :al1o:w hem: to dig it ~lnOlU g.[~ve and 'burry the child. The' tough nmft iltWe ~ead mottled a. s:ltarp "~ 0 ~., ma.:tched the body .0'£ tihe . dead cltif[( nom her w,ailin_g mOUler ,an.,d\ tossed it moo ,9, nvc:r alQ~wh.o:se hank we dragged. our feet ttl phys.kal ,eihall.s.tion. The killers puSbed aD. dleirraptives DDW the ~chQo]. buidin.g", I ww,ted

wa~"'r to Slab: my';'.. h~u~·-.l ; .. :if~:-=oat· ,~L, ... , OI1t:jl~\'ifl,"''i'il c - W·· 1.10:"' h-~ ~ ed

_ _~ - __ I, .tt"--'!jroJ!~tIl l1.llI _. _ "I!J.l1II; ICWLJl"I.£'&.'i.1Ul.:!I1 ,1 -u . t,;~_

out groep, siapp'edmc', me in the arm with his rifl&:!butr and. puSlted me inside thej,a.nlpacked hall., ., ... ' ...

t'~Forr a week., we' lived in wh~t vns virtually a hdl. Evel:Y night, we h_eard duea:t8 and abuses from our cap,t(ll"ll. One-of -the w~en fcignedlacute stoml'llch aclle and 'begged her captors to Jet he'r go to a hospital in Dacca fur tr:eatment. she w,u ol~ ,and, looked a saintly woman.. Tbc Bengali captors do,w~d.he£ to, gQ to .Dacca., A v,ery .mteUigent woman, :sbe liI,Oed to Mohamlm'ectpur where she told the Red Cross Oi!kiab. ,about 'thep]ig!!lt ,~fth~ SOQ! Bfhari lcarptive women =utd dilldt:en. 'Two reams of ofticial~ of'the J:ntema:tionallted Cross came In


the inmates, t\VO ~aiHllg ycungWQll'WD'lO,,,r,C!:e 'kmed by gwt6re. :By Am?'ril~ 1972~ dJer.e\V31S, 3()rn:e i", henJt m t1le sciruatio:nmtl dle nocturnal kidnapping of irs ,~ha!ri inmates by tbe Beng:~i l.u~ud:el's lessened. The Red! Cross Omda,l~wied their best 1iO'tr~ce out my missing husba.nd. 'but ,he was not found, Like-many. thollsand,s of other lIDn~Bejlga:fis~he was, it is prll!:gumoo"dol1e to Id.c:lil~ by rn,m_P!8i;,gjng kiUer gangs~,~n"ebmted wid, t"hevictory.of the Il1d.1anArmy and the Muk:ti :Bta.hint'~,.,

·~I saw the rebels Inllming, doeens ofjuoo godowns;m 'Nmyang;li1j amd thr~)wingt'he d!eadborues of murdered non .... Benga&into the aame~~", said, S:2-ye9i,r:--ol:&Allah Ral:Da~ who '\VO:rked, as ~ j ute broker itJ, N:trayangmlj. He ~iv'ed ina.. t:eu~ed, house ill, rhepa,nmtoly m,OC~U,ty

..... If:' D""I ....... ,·.. Reeatri ... !t"'".l1 ....... v", ..... ..:t"l!·1 :m-' I Ji. Ai'_,..,~1.! T'{'I~...ih,~ ~.~.~',;!, :

",-" _ !Q;",,_. J!~l'"_'1.£""",!~",,(l II.V .J:l.i",~""',,.dl,~, ".I.YJ.a1(;:lI' ,"""" _'-" ~.

u ".e.~~ ~1h,j ,t '(' .. t, '. . ~ ~.::j ~_ •

AI~me itWm-l!96Qs~ 1l10St; 0.'., me non-Ben;g~ traders m

Nuay-ang;aly ana Dacca were ';]PFt'Chensivo th3!~t some ~'LY' i,1 would hen::,une diffi-Cllb: (O'f' dIem m do bm.i:rJ:ess ,inE3."S[ Pakistan .. , Th,€! Awami League leadlersw-exe 8pr,e~d~ng' po:mau agamsl West;Pa,kismnisin the mjlld~ ('1fih¢ sin'tp[e Bmgali romma,n foIb of Brurt iP'akistOOl •••• a , ••

~'~On M;ardll [71; the VO~C1no eJU"_lOlred", ,and a large kinerg,an~, led

by the Awami League :mUiW),m:" went on, the. [. I . in the

p,l)elmses of the Ispilbani Jure Company. Tbey sla "., . I tmny

]iumndr.ecb of. non-Beng:alis1' indudittllg 'WOmen ~chi,~d~ living intbe ,b:pahani.Colany ~ and .flW1g 'the de,ad, bodies into dw S.itabkhya, river. I'wu :s~ved because I 'went :initO hidmg iinm,de a dos.ed o&ce 'building to vihich I had, access, '.' ~, 0, ","


Humsn ,Ab'·atto'; rs in C'hit't,ag,QI,ng

The Awami Leagtl.e~8 teb'eIiQ(]l'llo,f'Mud.1 1:9171 took the heavlest toU of lltOn~Beng;ali lives in .th'e, populous i?,ort tit)" or Cbit:tagong:. A1though iheGo,v,;e.rnm,ent of P3kist.In'~ White Paper of AU~UStl'9'71 ollltheiEas;t Pakistan. crisis e~j;'t]DU!t~dthefioB":Bengalide~,ih rollin Cm.t~gong: and its neighboming townshipsdurrng -'the' A'W3.mi League"s insumecti.onro be it Uttle wide.r IS~Qoo~ihe testimony ofbundreds ,ot ,ey¢-wi1nes;s~]Btervl,ew,ed:fo;rdri~ . bock ;giva: th¢im:p[~i!iJt" th~t more '~bm, 5'0',OOQ, l1\Q:n-:Beng~.Hs perished in du:: Marcil 1$17::11: earn 'ThQusands of,CLeat! bodies were .SWlg into the K~maphuJi river and '.' Ea.y ,cfBengal..Man.y W:nooent5 who weJre~onmed and killed in the ~evenf~en .sJalughteF~Qmles set np,byrhe Bengali r.e'bel$wth!e city and I.tB v.icinity ~e mcinm.ted ,in houses 'put' to -the to:rciJ.

rt'... . ~.i!"t1' .. '. . _I" 'b' l' "._ .:II . ,',

]lJle tar-get ,oi I~ l'l,e E.eng.ul Ie .· . ess, U:stle:mal, ~. to WIpe out

every nOll-:B.e~J. male ~bove]l:3,y>eus o,fa.g~.Alongwjdlthe massacre of the. rmn:...&nga:1l m~enfolk~ many ,of' their womeR and cllll~ ,aren, s~,eid, iO. th~ fugtphase ,of.rbr¥ogrom!", Wieno: d.oDe'flO ~dl.ib,y dl,(~" :Bem:g~]i r-ebds; in W,e mast ,days QfM'id, and the mst:W(le.k ofAprd 1911 .. Tlice element .of 5a~,gery in tbe :ri1as~ :sl·· . telr in,. Cbiru.gong 'W'a$ pet"ohaps, :far marie' vicious th;an at aDy othefp~ _ ~._ in 'ih:eprov:iJ:1.ce; possibly with rhe e.'lOOepti.oA of.Eh:ulrutEl!,JasQ!tiC:,1' Dinajpur' :an.dMymensmgh ..

'Tile 1pIoimoo of:t1!e and deadt ,eltllp·ted ]R ·tIWplCturieSlqme ,dty, '0.£ geeen hil,b" rivers an.d.lunlIi~lt tfJopirnl v,~getatifJn ~nMm:,ih 3S00D :OOftel[ the AWMni1.eagae'shjgh cQ11l,ini'tnd in Daccaeook to' the p&tl of' rebellion. Law at night a violent :mob, led 1by gun~tQltting AW'flmi lmg,ue _Slo;rmttO(}pers~ :invaded 'me: non~BengaJi settlements ln the city' and [DQlmd and burnt th.ouwuk of lorllreS and hunnents, The JEo]pu.nousWl're'~,ess Colony and Fero2J~s'hd1 Colonry 'heme the brant of 'tnerebd attaCk, In. the .l~ttef locdil)f a]km.e, 700! houses ~e set ahla!le: and In.o:st ,ofdreiltitllDU.!teS"----'men, women. ~~d ! tHtm1t tio, death. Many., who escap,ed. from thcirbJazmg houses, werc

~l ." .. tL· '. -~-- 'IL .11., ~. L 'I

::nlOt m 'weir tta~ 11.)"1 .m,e rebe gunmen.

S:tr~'Y :sulviyors of this 'wanton ma;SRCfe ,dcsc_rib~<l t~ gory speCi-

... ~ _1 - fL;·~ .. 'd JI =' •• Uh-11 , .. L1L."l! Am B· ....... ;·

mule otnre an~stlucbon as 1,eJ" on earm. :'~muent non-nengsns

weIleiddl~apped for ransom an.d subsequendy tormeed and killed in sla:1l1ghtet'"~hol1scs,,, Eye,,e"ssaild, that a bi;gh"'ra:nking member of the Awami ~ :High Command, M.R. Siddi1d~ miaster-min~d and ~Upetvi5ed. the grisly massaere of'the :no,n-BemgaHs in Chinagong~

After the Ma'fdl 3 no'ctutllalbaptis1il of£i.rel therebels feb emboldened to. ,~~.tack: other nen-Beegali hibi:tatioru;, in the d:tv. Killer gangs; looted andlbumt hundred.s ofnon-]3,eugali houses, in Itaufahad, ,Ha1i~ shahar, Dotala, Kalurghat~ Hamsabad, and &.h;ltttili localitioo. Non-Bd"!,g:a1j men, kidnapped £ro,m their houses, were ta;hn by the rebels to s~alil~hte'r ... houses and done to deadlL', '

Allthro,ugll the: first fOI~iglt of Ma.rc:h. the process ·o,r .phak4 Hql~i.d"a'~on,'.:., . o~'~c. nQi~,~. ~e,.,.~ga.Ii .male c.=o.~~~l~.d, in Chitta,golhg and 1115'S' ll.eJghhoMln,g areas, The Aw:aml Leap 1eade;r ...

shIpl trained irs volunteers in the use of.ficeatnllli., some Iooted from aIms, shops ,2nd .the pollee armoury and 'roM1}" smuggled fr-om India. The Army ,atld 'Navy' persoonet, ha~, ms,ttllctiO'fJJIi not 00 shoo I:: unle&$ they

. _II __ .JI .'L I' -, . , ·1···, .h .:!Ii b' ,. ,,". d,'.. . T''l. .JI_, )'

were ·attaC£:eD;, ,tDiC . ocar po 1.L"e ;i!l~1 ~ eeome menecnve, I hillS me

and onle:r machinery in ,Cllitt;ag()'ttg: w.aB 'w:truly parslysed The civic &;6,gil,tulg 'l~,t" mMl;ed ~o~t~.y-by,]3e~, . '1S~ bad,j~psed.inoo,a, coma; m,e ,engineswhlcb tried 110' reachthe b'W'! c' r 'gSballUC5 'weDC wrecked b,y the' rebels,

In. the thiMl week. 0'( March~ the terror regime of the rebels in Chitt~gong W'a'S sofu~UI'Y es:ta:hIishedth3't they ',challenged, even the miU.tary personnel in the area. Late in the :night ofMar·ch 18~ armed, :kilUer gangs We11t ou 'fhe rampage in every, residential mlomJywhere' non ... :Bengalis '~iwd.. For: many thousands of non-Bengale, it was "the

ni,gb.' ~ of lon:gk::ives and blazing ~~lnS":", lUl~eT ~:an:gsb'IJIS~,:~~' homes, asked :00, qUesr!101U ,and sprayed gt:llnfi1LC 00, the tnmares, Shoot au}" ..

thmg, movesin the l,om,c::: of'a noa-Bengali" was the orderto the kiUer ,g:angs and 'they ob.set"Vied i.t with sadist devotien,

On Martha,],; P.a]k1stant'~, NaLtio.nal Festival D~ywhic:h the Awami League renamed as t 'Rooi:rtah!X l?a:y:~1! ~ the :r,el;lel~ held massive dispk y,s of their' streDgm~Eore up the P,akist.m :Sag at a number of places and again. -vreht'()fi the rampage against non~Bet~gali8 at night.. The A"rNami I.eaguc storm tto,o,pa,s; were Eetnfo'rrud by the rebels from the :Eas,t Pak.istan Rifles. the para-nli]iwy Aruw, :wd the lo,ca] police. The

rebdswere well-armed and appe.af1ed 'EO have~l surfeit ,ofanmtl'~nitit)n ~uiPply. Oll M~dt .Zj'; the' r'tlle!ls went ():n the 'w:atpathligai~'St AmI)" mtl N'avy personnel in Chittag:ong' s POl't3:Ie3 and meed. to hlocli: ill tbe aeeess I\O~ds leaditlgtlo, dty. ~Tlleycr-ecwdh~ bm~ricad~ 011. the 1 .. 1l.J.·B'~:w~yftom the su'burban locality of .A:~b:1l.a [(l,the Po~t_ M,~a; of au~ragong ro prevenlr the transport ofmihtar<Y' penon.nel :and. a:r~, to the Army cantonment. Tilley ,dug trenches on the main road, and p:iled np hUr:llttnlcbQ;ndllon]e~ and' bitumendrums all :among the high ... , waY'n) block vdliculm: 'tt&. Warehcu.lsedJ lDlIDj.tion in the Pon al"e3l was 100 tied by the rebels, B,ell1g,~i, troops f1OCliDlltheEas~: B{:irngacl R:e:I;~,iment motineed md joined the relbd faKe. This .was,[b:e,zero-ho~rr s:etti~Jg lor the Awann ~g!!le'S ar:mcd Uf[~ing mil, ootLlsei.!Wie o£t:H:e canroll:m,al~S in Chfttaggng and Dacca, p'[ MaI,h ~6.

Jna pre-emptive ~ trike late in 'the niglrt of Marm 2sin Dacca and other hnpormnt 'mOWlLU in East Pak:icsW1. the, federal, troops 'Went Ulro action againn t1~.e re<b,c~s. Bu t the fedew nliUtarytl"o[\oo In the provlml,re was teo inadk:qmk::ito eon min ~w~frly [the IdhilJUenge: and. revoJ e of the ;r;norethan 176~ooo armed :BenpHn::bds. At :many places, i~ took from a week to a moeth £'o:r tlre!d a:nny se retrieve cl~, rebel'OO'11tr(~Ued areas. [11, Cbi~gpn,gJ£he{edIf:Jiallitro regained, ·~ontt-Q] ,over str.a;regicpa;rts ofthe ei ~ ~ !ulch 3.S, tihtC Port • ' _ Airport, ~'Wi6dy blJt a large number ,of rerid!enmu . localities remained, tmdeI' the terror Itlle Qfwe f·cbei gllfllllootin Ap,ri19. 197'1, lnt:bis period ofheU.a:n.d n:[e~ many more 'tll0nswds of lJ!on~BlengaUswere 1bti;llcl~ered enm<1lSSe:. The o'pe:ra;~iol1\~m headquarter of th..e tebcu was located art the' Bast ~eng,~Regimental Centre in Cb~:tlta\gpng, and ale p,dnci,pal LJ!.un:atJ abattoir was howed .in tb~ m;a~nro~::Il o:ftlCe of the A wami . • •• e. It had~onlJre cells ~r!ld a. chamber of horror where blood was: .r;aiW'leO t11:IOU' ~Y'liin,ges :from. the bodies of non-Bengali vllcums befol'e 'they w:ere _-1 ed hymeif :itlhwnm apeorn.

TIre kUling oftbe non-Bengsli employees, an~ mei[ fa,ooiHes :In die:

Ym1.arna Glass W orks, Ha\fi~ Jute MjU~ kpahani wn. and other f~!Ctod,es, l~ ChltD.go~~gand the AlDin. . re Mj]fsalt Bihirlmt and tire Kwrna.phulfu Paper and Rayon MiU:s,a..t I '. Jilm_g,h,cH19 and jtsneig1l~ bourheo d surpassed rhe savagery of the HlID8.Most ofth·e massacres at these pbceswtte ooiud.wct:edl hy the r:ei~d.s in, the last five dayl!! (~f;M,at:ch .amd. some ,ea:dy in April ][97!. In many ]@caHties~J 'there were ~dlly mynon",,:Bellg\3iU S'lttVivo[8"""";SOtihUflQUgb and lcomplete Wl:-S the racist ]?O!grom, >of the rebels.

[a tJlenQto:rm.Qus sla.ughteI~oll;Se im the Gov,eI'Dmen!t :Re~t Ho~e in !Chj~:~agol!1!~!lbout 4-,000 nou.-Bel~gdls were done to death. ,Blood

wastilre:n out of theirbodies attd. corneas wer,~ lextta,,~tai fro:m.mreir e'yesby :Beng)\hH doctors who bad become t'h_e eeels of the' rebels. Tbe COIpSes "W'e!ledumped. ]n 'hur,dedly-dug, s:ha1Iow pits, Any vlcdlD who showed signs ()fUfcw:1SSnOE in the dmllil.

_ Tl1,e Avra,m.i Lea:gue miUt:i!J,llt1l, had. Icomp'eUed. some BengaUrm~m!i (p,riest~), ill tb.eMo~SiCJnesw decree Ole kilnmg ,of the Hjharis as a 't'dJ~giow duty o:ftheBengaJiML1~!ims. In, a mosque, near, tbeoffioe ,of the Chittagotlg, :Fir,eJB\ti,g~de~ half a dozen llQn-J3 el1galis~ who had bele~n ki:dmapiN;G fiLomtheir Jj[orn.~ ibiyk.ill.m- g,ang;S'1 w~re m.IJrd~'Eed",

In the Ka111tghatjnc1ustda~ area, some $~OOO non .. Bengalis, inclndmg, ,3,00 WDnrleJl~, were butdle:ledbythe llel'1ngaH rebels,.NOtt more than 3" score of 111()ll-B'eflga~i:s stlirVJlved ,the Kalur-gha,1I! ml:~acre. ,The non:B,eJ_'lgaUWO]]leJl \wte I~pooby th. capito;t~ ~ some on the roads i11: broad diay,Hgh1t ~befon~ being shot,

. :S:3\wge kmmgs, at!!.otoo~ p[~cein the Hwhaba-~ Kaillnrghat aE~rl Paharta1H[ , fheBengaHreb:e~ petroland kerosine ()ii)~rol1mld entae blocks, mgruitil1g t] Hame~:rowe:n. a.nd petto]-soa.~, jute balls, then mowedl (~OMl "the non-:B en g.lH. ,Inno~ cen ts tf'ying~ocsc, the eeedons of fire. In d1.,ew11ruon :~;ulgblter In the last v;ed;: ofMar·ch and eady Aprnr 1971, sQme4Q~,OOQ ,u,on-]8el.lg~ in. Chi . lon~ and lts nc:~ghhourhood. 'The exa:ct deatll ooUwhidl row,cll p'. . lybe much more _- will n~vca: be know.n. because of the lPl1J.(tlce of buwing" deu1oodies: or dumping them in 'the river ;2[1d. the sea, Many of the r,anl,PI,g1tl,g:reh,els were Hillduswbt.) desec~1IiiOOd.,MolSlqu,e.S and Mt1!SHm: :du:iifllosan& bUI',l1tGO¢es, (!If lne HOtly

'Q~rn'li. - -

J!ye-wim>esses~ intervl~d (or thisbook, dCSicribed M.lL S~ddlkii ~ ditecWt'ofillil~ gei:i{)lddcoperatiofi agl11mt ·molll~:Bd:l&<1!lis~ as; dh,e: '~~Butcb(;:t of Chin. ng", They dlargedtb~t the ~!a)iif!gs in the human a'bauoitill ' .AwamiLea,gue~s !uailCl town office were eondtuctcd mnde~ ]his personal eommand, "Kill the bsseards" washis owk:r of the ld ~y to llis, batclret~en, [or nfluIdermg the l''llOl1 ... :Bollg:~mi innoceues .. As the rebel casushies mounted inengagements 'with the federaltronps and We Beugandoctors. Q!}ked ror mere blood for transftlsjcn~ M.R. Si.Jailci ,orden;ldl his men 'to drain our blood fforn their nOIl~JB,engaH victims inthe ~13,ug~tf:1)-holl$ehelOreslay.iDg '£llem..He even s'I1lgg:escoo limb~gaftjng from, non-Bengali vietimlS to di~ahled 13engWitebds. Piled, up ·dead"bodies, ill ·the sla,liIghter;...hom:cs,j. in the last d_a.yso:fM;ax~h-" 197I~ WeJll't Bung into pits andcovered with mud~! ruhble a,ndfo.Hagc.

As the rebels fdt, the crunch 1)£ the federd army and reere.areql, ,they massacred, wjth auto:matic "We1l:pDns~ many l-u:mdreds ofhdp1ess, 'W"pmcn and children whowe:re herded and starved fOr days in mosques,

-~ L ] lL "1- JI- A id fro ,LiIL, h'l l 'I '(11_. d l. th

aim SGnOO DlI!!UJn~,., ,C!S1,e ',m me wno esa e 310ngement 0,[' e

mille element in the non-Bengali PiJiP~aJ:iolil [11 Chitt;tgo:ng~ sev-e:r~ tb"ousatJ.ds of hc)~ ... JBengaIi f!," ids and ymm,g womell (,[oJ to 30, years of age) wel'B' kidnappejd!, by the rebels 3~ ravished, some in mass sex assault

~h;ambers_,i?,_g~,',ed~o~,.es, ill d,le,,:rkmt,"'ty of~e ~p'~attOlu~ b~ses._o,f the Bengali rebels, Sadists among the rebels took plessnre 111 foI'CJng

Q'ptive ,nO'n~BehgaU mothers toS'cc the siaYling of their s-ons or hlls:bands.

After the llber,31tedChittagollg front the demonic rule of the rebels, the non-Bengali survivors [,esun:u:d th.e broken threa·ds ·of their I ives and repaired their burnt out an.d d.evastated houses. Eot on December [7" I97I~ their shattered world collapsed when the vic ... torious Indian Army andthe Mnkrl Bshini S:el2ed East Pakistan. Many thousands ornoll-Beng.aJi~ wer·e; killifd, their fanlilie[tl wer,e driven our of thei1"I"ep'ain~d homesand the survivors VIler,.; herded in Relief Camps> ~et up by the Red Cross.

Th.eW~gton Evening SliM r,~ortOO on May 12, 1.:97:1 ·the following story from I\;lo.rt Resenblum wbo was one ofd:re six foreig;n newsmen who toured Bast 'Pakinan ,early in May 1911,;.

"In me port city of Chittagong, 3. blood-spatsered doll lies in, a, heap of dot~ing and excrement in a jute mil! r.ecreation cluD w~eIie Beng.a1is butche!fed 1,80 women ain~chi~iI:reu ..... Bellga:HS kiUed some West Pakistanis in liurdes of thauvil1ism.BengaIi civiHms.and liberation '~OQPfi began. Dl,a,SS 'slau;ghtet of Mob:j.jirs (.Indian n1ig~tS) £rem the Indian S,taijc'ofBihar and raced thro ugh market p]3ices .. and. settlements, stAbbing" sbo~~illg and burning,

sometimes s'roplp~g ·to r.ape and lcot; - J'~

The Washingtoll EvcrI:rng SUIt', in :its May 12:, li971' issue, .also c-at'I'ied. d~e' rollo-wing, despatch of the ksocia.tedfress. of .America, wire service:

.1C'Newsm.en visiting 'th:i:s, 'key port yesterday said there was massive $hel~ _ and,. me damage and. evidence of 'slVeeping massacre (if

",:..-!lI!~I __ '" b,,' 'b' '1, '

Io.JlVUlilliU, ,Y ,re 'CtB .

111.Attheju;te_ m:ills-owned by the in£uentiaJllspaJlalli family ~ newsmen s-aw the mass graves of IS:' non-Bengali women and diliil .... dre~ reporsedly e..~ecllted last m.onth b,y secessionistrebels In the

Mills t recreaticnchib, .

UBloody clOtlling. and toys were st.m on the :8oo,r of the bulletpocked Club. Respo·n,s.:ible sources said tlmusa.Ilds of W'r!:St 'Pakistanis Indian migrants (Muslims 'settled. in. 'B~cSt Pakistan, since .' '94 7) Were put to death in Cll:ittagongbetween March 2>5:; when the East P'akiis,tan :f'ebdJi.on 'beg3:__n to _ 'seek iudeJ'telldence

, £rom ;the:Westcr.l1 W.jl1g~aIld Apt]] II when the Army :recapued, the CIty. + .' ••••

un .~_,~.J. .• -'-_ j b _:lI dl 'b oJ' _1!';_ wh

. ~~ent:rpOlnlOO to oue tmrned outepart,menttn rung', ,ere

1~11eY' said. Beugalisbumed to death three hundredand fifty

P ~'IL e: W n . L~ n

. :lmam nOU1. .' est Jrr-aliJ.starn .'

. In a despa,re.h: ([-om Chittagoll.g.!. ~olm Browne ofdre:New Yor1e Tim:es reported on May IO~. 1'971:

u ••. ,.,' •• " .,But hc".fore the Anny came., when Chittagong was: still governed. by the secessienist A~'ami League ,and its, allies, :Bengali workers, 2:ppal"ently rest-ntful of the- rdative p.I'OSperity ofBiha.ri il:nnUgr.~nm from In.dia~ are said. to have killed the

Bihari;s in Iarge numbers '. h

'The Smniay Times of Londonpublished ill it~ oo:ueofMAy 2" ISl?l a" !c1lispa:tcll from its: Paista:n Co:rresl?cmd~t) Anthony ,MaSCM"enhas, who h~lKl toured' 'the reh,dlion ... hit areas of East Pakistan in the fir,st :fortnight of 19'71.. He :rei?oned!

"In Chitt~gon.g~ the colonel ,ooDllrumdlng the MiUrary Aca.d.emy was killed while his wife, ,eight months' pregnan.r,. was ,raped and Ihayonet-ed. in the.abdomm., In.3notb.~ .pm ofChinagong,t an Bast Pa,lcistan rufles wu 'Bay,ed, alive. His twO' SODS were beheaded and his wife was_bayonelied in the :abdomen Wid lef7t 'to die with her son's head placed on her n.aked body. 'The bodies of many young, girls have been 'Otmd with, Ban,g;la D~h

n: • L_ d'· fro .. 1'_ - ~ lb

um,ga,tl:cD protru ~trmJg om tnerr 1\-·Om.! I S:" •.•••• 'J •

The ~"Nort'em Bchi)"" of DarHn,glt011 in, Dwr,h'am, it]: i.'ts, issue oif April '7,. 1971:, said:

~~iL~a, L'rl1fDidea,'," an, _,A, ,nler.' ~jc.'w engj.neer._~11 ~_i~.~t ,a1dprojec~1 ~ld, that' for rwow,eeks: hefOre the Anny moved last ~

Cmttag:ong's p:n::dominm·dv :Bel1gaJi populatio]l had been 'but'd),eriogW estPakis,tani::! in,,th,e port. , ~. " . '. ,:>t.

Some' ,5,000 non-Eeng~I~, refug,eeg fromirhe Awami Lc'a:gtlle"s tenor in Chittagron.g, who arrivod- itt IU.:r~.clti on board ,9" sbjpill the' third ,week of ME!,[,ch r9'7I~ rd.::lJ[eJdJl.rurrow~lIg stories, of the genocide launched against tnolloll-BengaU5.. The fedCI'a~ g'ovcmment prehibited ·their PlJ)b~icntio:l~ in the W,f$t Pakistan Press to prevent reprisals against riLe: leu::;!,] ]3,eng~.Hs.

Mobamm.edhrail, 4O~. who lived, in Quarter No. 2.8· in cl1Jle!

Ispihani Nelv Colony iLllthe fahatta]~ locality in Chitmgong, lost his sister, his brother-in-law and his infant nephew in dIe massacre of non~B,eI1galis on Mard:!l ,3,;. 1971. He dUlis spo'k,e of dle t.:raged:y whic~1 almo st 'w.recked his Hfe:

~We h.~d lived, in !Chittag,cmg {or the p~st J1Ilal11' years and all of U~ !PO ke Bengali. I was engaged in business and I livedwith Iny sister a:nd her husband intheir house it] Pahartali. ' .. ' ....

'~~Jl~ the ,a:fteOlOo:n of Mardl j,~, ~bout five t:h.,o:usand Bengal~ ,d.anonsm!ton,lfldby Awa:mi League militanss, fltClcked the ISP~Di. Colouywhe!re' 11011- Bengalis lived. iln~argc nurnbers, Therald.ers bore bl.azl11g 'torches and mme 11ad g,LmS. WithmlU :any provocaelon front our side"the lciller mob went on the rampa_g'0. TheypC)illlred. kero:siue nH and petrol on houses ana set them. aibhtze. As the inmases rushed 011'4 thekillergang mowed dlem with gun:6re .... ~ ,. '.' .

f~'A ga1"i:g ,ofren armed rebels $.ma'shcd ihedoor of our ~I01J!scalld burst ill wieh hlazing gWlS,. They shot .fUY brother-ia-law who

. d.10d. 'on th,e 'spot.. :1 w:aswoundodattdm:feiglled dea;t~" My

s. ,~OOrt ~.h. 0. gprpp.· .... lIe .... d. .. W:.' it.".'I.l .. !l.le a .. erackers, ·~ .... ~s.' balyone .. t ... ed.~ ~.h.'e .. · kin~;r~t~ re her i:luckhng child. from. her arms and shot hlnl ]lust

as she ]ay inher ·deatin :agony. Later on, mekiUers mOO fed, our house and set it, a.blaze. I succeeded in cta:wHngint:o ehe eempound whet;el' ~tay0d in hid.:in:grto'f some d~.yg.. ThekiUer gang

54 Israil t:and,er.v;ellt :&eshordeaJs a:f~er December I", Ip7rwhe:ni:l1d.ia seittd mast Pakistan .. , In December 11973,1 he W1<'S repatriated, te Ka:rachi.

"Some decent :B'el1gaJis 'were shoeked at the heinous conduct ,of me Aw:am.i League' gmgsand ,their, wanton murder of non ... Bellguis but they 'were hdpless. ThekiUeJrs had the: guns. n said Mohammed

T, .;.~


~ '~lle success (If the A wamiLe:agRtlie @;~:11!g'5 in their . mw:deroll® spree of ~at'ch 1 :gave ehem eneeueagement an4! c-onvinced~het11 that ~bey 'would. not ,cnooml~~'ru.1Ly opposition fro m the polic-e a.nd! dte ,a.rm.y in ilieirpla.tJto 'tire non-Bengalis", he added,

Noor MoLammed Sid:diq~J l..3,,~ who iiv(zd with, p,<u"ents ina rcn~ed 11.0 usc in tbePemzes11al1 Colony in Cl~itta~gong, had this poignanerecellccticn 0'£ the Ma_r,cb 3. 1971 massacre ~eIl~ ~

li'Jri the forenoon of Marcil), 3 ~ abou.t ~,:ooClaI1ncd,and yeUiltg:

Awami 'League activists and their supporters m.ided the Fe!£<c)%eshah Co,Ioln'y. Wichrhcm were semearmed rebels froli11. the East .P'akistan Rifles,. 1ihey wore their usual on-duty uniforms. Without any prov,o,ca.don from the non-Bengalis the rErlwll1g mob w~nr berserk. The Aw,ami league militants. looted hun~ d reds o:fbouses and burnt ;them 'by sprinldwg:a ~xture of petrol and-kerosine ,C,lil.A'J the inmalte~ ran out, ,the kiUcr gangs shor themat poin.t blatlk :rangc_ It was Gmfs. mercy that] (~:scapeA

their llullll'en:l'tls oJ!lsfaughc-. '

~'iI' 1i.~:d' d-! . .1k. 't. __ ill_ Wh' ..

. - . nV mys _ 1U ill.. store :room W.nen tlle att~ers came., ' .'en

I .• ·. emerg~ed.~1 frlom.· . hidiilJg, I. saw m r Iany lumdreds of b. \Imt 110USeB. in our locality. Th~ stench of burningfl~pel:y:adru:l the Incality..'o:ftIbevictim~, whow,er,e thought to be dead by the hUers,. w.riihed. in agony and.reHeft'oo'k long to come, The police had van:ish,oo..Ki11er gangs: were again on the loose in 01!J!t' locality aU ·~hlllougb. the next Clay, Marry non"':Beng~i5' who tried tc ese.ape fronl this h1azinginferno of a colony were done to death on dle roads, oliJtdd,~.. At rugh;t~ th~ kjUe~s kidua:,ped many hotl-B,engaIi girls .and raped them in houses whose innla.tes


I."c· ' _r· _

No'o!! Mohammad! lost most of hig re:b,tive~in the MUiCh ]:g1,1 m;l!S~~: in :Ia!t ~kis,mn. In Ap'[n~ l:'iI~ he ,lei: Chitt,agoitllg:arud came to :Ku,aclU.



~~Tb.e SoelO(l;:$ of that dr,ea!tUn] l!lllQfiWlate seared ,fumy ,D1emOil'l. 'W,', h~le,; p:ou,'psof:Mlultp" eQple'l it~e~,~,_ hll~" go.[]:C~ ~d 'wi~c ~he'm:g~ to kJll~ burn" looe ana, rape, All the' "V,I:Ctll!ll~ 'of this bloodlust were 1llO11~ B~gali$,.Some pro~PaklstAcnl1~JlganS.,wholtru;dtco sav,etbcif. Ro~Benga]i ttiends~, 'were :sevetdy pllt.1!~shedl and ievioo 'dotllC to ,dcad:(,

la:idN;o,or,. . ,

. ''':

FMty-year-o,li :Sharifaa", who~:e: two2d]1l1fil~ sons aJ.(!Jd lUISband, werce :S:~;a.ughwr~d !u::ro1reher ,dazOO eyes onMuc!h~3f1 J'97'!Ii ~ had~nJs palin ...

:fii ~ricy:: - 1- i

"'My 11,twSband, Sham~u1 Haquefwhowu: e.mplo\fiedDla 'trading firm .tl'1 Ch~ttagQng~. my- mo grcfWn. ... up sons and I HV0Ci, ina hut In "the Latdfabad loooiq in. Chlttagong.. O:R ,M~S~ a. violent lDu);h, rifB~gaJii O)lOO\tbd· '~]:H~llnn-DeilgaJi ]hi\lUnen_baDd houses: in (,'ur[oeility'. ~y :sei!Eumilmd~ ofhu", and- houses :~b]ale. ThEy ~thfi' sho'tw non-:B~nga']i,me:n or 'rook tbe,m I-vny in trades, ,3S caprive5., ,Som~mnn-Bengilis" whO' m~ed ,ttfliesmpe £'rom meJF b\nning' ,b.OlUSeS:I' wetiemawedwlth :ria~&['fl;: :many

peris 1..:" ji ;;:t'iI~L'i'''''''''~ fI' -1(),1:'l'!I''';'''''''''

~J.I~W" ,£.II~ 1'I!!I:l"i;,;.- !!i;;r-v.IJJJ.aDI'i"a~';';;I,J I!!i Li!I .!!i ·1iI •• i!! l!!i ~

~'~A kruncl' gm,g~ lco'ltd my l)u~ :;ulId tbenset it:~bkze .. · ,;&; we rail out, one of t:hekmers !op~ed fire on us, ,My ~o sens were illjmoo., My husba.nd and [were utterly helpless; :1 to['C my Sari t.o "bwdage~ mc.iJr wo1mJds but :in allout ten 'miuures' rl~ 'tbey

W,~., ~,er,', ,eco,md,~~,:i,n,,~.d, d,;m~,'."", Wai,ling:,ill" am~g,~nis,h,wc sought ,sI,~ llid, te,-r,', ,,:111 the mosque nearby. ~ My hus,bar!ld, who was bear t-bro'kenJ'

kn.ee1.ed in prayer to. thA1mign'ty ,(;,oct I wa.ruled 'the sUirns (Jf my~ons" 1)~,cod. &:em my illo,rn Sari.. Jtl8t then thelie was a f01!ld y!eUmgand a !ki1'1~mob swtur~mwtheD1Osque.Tb_ey said they l1'A)uld. kill tiU.'the nQn-BoogaJi. men. me1recmd, in ,th~ mosque .. l fell. QD. my bees aDd beAM 'them :un :Sfare ~Y( most ofmem werc ;ad.wnced in .age. One of dte a.ttac'l:-ers :s,uuck. me

" 'h 1 "L!iT'iI !£! i.. _] h 11

'WlCI, ':US, DOlO t, ',!a. nere was ~ nne 5tJt,Q eanc, to my I ' 0,[1'0 r, '- ~w

my lj)vwg husband falling t-O the ground as bleed gushe~ from

]" . ...L Jr- _l d mained "~', 'L

us r,,;nC-s.t,, ., iaUil'teu an remamee 'Wl,CiOnK10US 10ir some nours,

(',~ 'Women. - .~u,·d, l~ ~IO's9.,UJe:. :~hose., .. deat'. OJl:s, b~d been ~~t i~nd killec,t, movedtheir de-ad. bodies eo :1 corner m the ,oompQ\u1d ,of

th.e mos:que~ m1:uJemeeu Imam. their Sa.tis. and covered Up' dm corpses._We had DO :a:xe ~.r:sh'ovclw.ithW!h_:jch: we could ,dig graves for our de-ad. We Jivooin the mosque in tears. fearmd terror' for merethan three weeks. Late I;n March. the federal[

'~roo,"" :~sm~"'gl~d us il~. a R.ellefCamp. in a s~d~ool_hu]~:ding.,,_., Aflet the [nd'lan occupauou of ,East PakJ:stan 01 December 1I9i'It the

Muikti Bahini harassed l18 but the Red Cross saved afld[ helped us, We '\1\'e:r:e,wdl WI Kar~u1d in FebnmaIY 1974~'I',.

_Sred SImi A&med~ 371' dIe to,ne s,tLrvivor of a. f.a!~y of e:J!f:.",~,_~t

.. ,iii i II II .,.1 .,.. Ii . I ':1 I

melllbCf5llgavethls. gndy des:CJLl:[:ulan ofml[e slau,glttct in 'the Haltshll.

loc~ty in Chitmg<ulg on Mardi .2 3 ~ ][971 :

;:tA~'" -' _ -.I.,' • T - bel 1:11' ~~"L ., "

~ .. ooU'£ 4~OOO L.lwam~ .l!..C"otg.tter3" re ,'. , SOJl.a;rers abu Qwer Dl]screa.nb

att3kcked the no~BengaIi ho,uses in, Hmslilahu'ill the for'enoon ,of Ma;rcll 2]. ,I was ,:wway tr:om my house em work in. another put of thedty. The killer g_angs, looted. Illy house and .1a1Jed,. with machine gunfire, UIY wjre~. my four ]1ttle ,clilldre11, :my tOClla_gie s;isre~-in~la:w_ and ,mY!3-year...o:~d brom,er. 'The raider's bornt a part of myhouse, Not more tharm 1.5 per cent of the 11011"&1gW p?~ula:rio~ in, IdrHs.~?'mH9' 'sumv,ed ere! on M~!1ch 2l]'lr 21S ;a1ld 27. I'97:r .Th~ sJiaughtie[er,~ lUed to tel~

_L· •• ,..:1.. - hev wculdnot l B"I' •. _1,0 B'

lliell' VlC!-11l1J mat tJley wo.-U.wo no t . eave any" man ::uive. c ~':y

Bihar], they me-ant 3'DJ llcu"':B~ngaH Muslim. Amongst the k]]l'c'n. were: mmy Ii:iindu,s." 'They had, p'~enty of MIllS, and

. . "

ammnmnon . ., " . . . ~ .

After' the federmill, troops SCC~[~ Chitta:gong, Samm. Ah1':n~d Uved for I ~me :mon,t~ .. m," i~, hi8.1"~.I-_tly ,hum. CI lit b~DS, :,.e ,jn.~toc~ No .. ~.i:_][~~in~e Hahshahar locdity 1i1 CWuagollg. AnCi lndla ~ ;S'C1ZLt~e of East Pa'k!'"

D:tan .inthethird, week QfDecem],eI" 197J~, the; Mukri, Bwini and the ,Awami Leaguers s1aUi~!htcr-ed :D1Ot"e non-Bengalis, ,He WitS, ,repatriated In Kat:aibi, in. Nov,em)b~ 1973;.

MO~JDetl Naibi Ja., ~. who witnessed the mass~:e of nm ... BeJ1gaJilS in thepopu]ol1S Wireless, iQokrn.yill Cb::iJtta'go,ng on .Mar~k


2.6, 19?I;lIDd lay 'Woul1ded for three days itt $. ttllOCltul ofdead bodies, narra ted Lis wcird &trnry in. these wcO'l'lcls:· ,

"Large clusters ofncn .... Denga'li howes had. the: Wire'less Colony ,rOf m...1JlY years pan. In the second week of March 19'7I, armed bands of A-wan\i 1, marked every non ... Bengali housewith a red sign, Arsthey Iud set up a Peace Commiteee, in w.h.ose :tn~etiu:gs dl'ey so.Ieil1.Oly pledged. ilurt they wou'ld not hum the ilan~Benga1i8,. we were not undul)T' alarmed. From 'time to time" the Awami LeQ:gue volunteers extorted mOlley' feom us, We had learnt of the Awami Leaguers:' attacks on nOll,-l3engaHs in some other parts of the eiryand wewere getting worried. My&ihel!' and my elder brother "NaJuedll~s to l,ea!Ve Chittagong but' aU the escape rontes Were blocked 'b,y therebels .. So we were' resigned to our fate,. We' had no guns with us; we Were ,d.efenceJess ..... ' .. '.

~~11i1 the nigbt of'March l6~ it[ about 9' 0 ',dod:1 a huge mob of Ben ... , ga1is,wim hlu:ing guns, atb.dmd the ho~ ofn.a:n-B~gaIu in ,ltheWirel.ess Colony. They had no diflicllity in idcn.tifylrig their houses as theywer:e red-marked a few da(ys~ earlier. Thekiller

mohcUr~~ediB~~into~gToupS ~d ~n~ on the ~~~ge-., .Matl~ or thekillers were 1.1Wfo.rmed Bengali defectors from the .Easl

Bengal ,Regiment.and the rebels of the Eas.t Pakistan. 'RiSes ..

The. y~)ro~ .. ~to~ h. 0. wes~asked .. ~,oq,De.~" ~o .. l1s .. " .~d ,8p'ray:ed gun.. .--: fin! on the mmates. After, they had killed cvery~g,.thlt

lnovedl'tllo/ lo.oted the howes and stole artides, of value from ,even dead bodies ..

"A kill·'· d· h d b 1_' , ~~. b11 .•

, .: er gang: 8'toir.tne,. our ottSea.n ' "IOllie In, 'WInl '~.1a.~g.

~,I;U1S... III ~ j.iify, I saw my. father and IllY. eI~.c:r .. ·'.· br~th~1:' £~U'.·~ the ground U1 a pool 0 f blood. A bullet hit me J11 the thigh

and I. collapsed with a g,rorut .. They k1dnil:p,pedmy sister-inla'W at g:flW"pO into I remained lUloonS'ciotis fo·r nearly .,three days. When I' awoke~ I fowui,thalt my fatheI'1 though 'badly 'wowlded"was aUve. My brother wa1il dea,d. 1m th~e ,lfremooll, ··h .t!';] '1 . d ~~. . d'·· 1 '._'. J" t e reeera troops amV"C . ' aim we WCI'C treate .m a l0Gplt:u ••. '

Nabi. Jm~ who lived in Q,~ter No .. L-14."G in tlte 'Wire]e-ss comon.y, beHeves th3.'t more t)ta11 "" pet' cent of the n.~n-Bengali p,opn1a.tion in tbeWlrddS ColQny waS-'exremUna.ted 'by' the rebels dm~g th.c Mar:_ch 1911.killings.. Many of'the mrrivors Were do'ne to death after

It1dia'~ seizure 6fEastPamtan in December I97I. N,abiJiln \v,asrepa.tdated 'to Pw'kistan in D'e(iem'be'f ~I'973 ,.

'Osman Ghan.i~, SO, wms elIup1.oyedl in the Chittago ng Port 'rrus't and liv,ed in the ,Bibithat Colo:ny ':inthc Hamsabad ),oca.]jty :in Chitta~ng.He ga_v,e 'this ~OO:O'Ul1t of the sl!ugbter in his ]ocality in the nigh~ ,ofMar:ch 26, 1971 when, his·onIyso1tanCi.lm elder brother were'gimned, to deadl:

't~,A huge mob".,f .AW-!llU Leag.ue stonn, tr,o(l'pent lL-eb.el scldlers and other ,cllUhroats-alI :ar,medlwith,~ and some with machine s:uns--~ttaek:ed the n on--Beng:aJ,i houses in ttrlC Bibirhat Colony at about .10, p.m, on Mardl 26., ~e had Jived in, terror fOE' LuauJ days hut 'we ha.dn.ot C'xp,oc:tt3d such 0'iI. h,~ocious att3Jc'k and in such l1uge numbers, ,Wiehad no weaporu, wid! us, .: The AWaIui Leaguers hadr,e{lLmarlred eu:r houses in the middle of she month. The raiders, :6.ri:~:rg their g'iUls, smashf-d into the houses. ofnon-Bengalis and :riddled[ aU ,the :Dulc 11llnates with Ibulilets.. A killergang broke the door of my house- and gunnedmy elder brother .. My wife 'bied t:o shield, our Il-year-

ol~. son and begged dle,lil1:n for m.' e~cy ~l!t the ~ru~ sho, t ~,', wIth a seeD gwl. , They struck. Iny mfe Wildt a rifte-ib urt on me

head as she leaned over the writhmg body of our dear little son,

'!bat, ',night_ J 'W:~S held .u~_ in the .P?,rt a!~, a,lId ~scaped,' ~eath h. "'Y.:. inches, Ny house was inaccessible for three da~s.., On Mu'ch

ap,. when I 'wen.1: to Iny b:omc, I cried in horror over the exterruination of my family by' the: :5engaJ i re1Je~l~.,

Osman Ghani was {,Cratria,ood to p'ikista:.u In December [97').

In his view" the rebels had started pi1ing up arms for the planned armed upridng (ro,m. theirs t' week '0 fMarcl1 a:nd India was In. source or arms supply.

Faln:a:u:da Beg_Ill, 36." whore husband, iGh.ulam Na'bi1 was etnpIoyed, in a ~I.ading hrn1. in Chittagong. sa.:w the horrifYing s:la.'1llghter of her husband, her three sons and a 1ittl,e daughter iutheir house ill Halishahae in Chittagruig on M~n:h :.13~ 1971.,-11] ~ flurry of ~t),bsanJ

a burst .of tears, she said : . .

,~,,'1Ii1I_ :L~~l d·L 1- 1.--d-:J f" 1..~ •. ~m •

. l'ill er gang tore On. me . OCfi.t;o/ 'aOor 0 _ our nouse 10 me

coarse of dreiI' fi1l1 ... scale raid on 'Our OO'IOI1Y m the night of ,March ,23,.. They m~dtine ... gunned my husband who collapsed


PalunidaUved in a. Relief Camp in Chlttag·ong and yns. repa:tdated to 'Karachi in Febtuatr}" I914~

. BasLir HussaiDl• 47, who lived in a ,sm..iU howe in 'Tajparain

the HaU_shahillr 'oo'"Wruilimp in Chititagong, lost his, two ·so;_nsbl the mu--' saere of non-Ben,g~fis in his locality on ,March 2$,. 1971. He 'was severdywoWlded.a:nd 'thekiUers. Ieftbim, as dead. :But ~fm twO (b.~ h.e I,eg~:ined "coDsciousness and has liviod to ,.,tell ·dJ.'e' 'worI,d of 'the tragedy in his. Iife~ He said in Karachi, ,after· his l:~patriation nom Chittagong, in febrmu:y 1974=

"Berween ~ch :IS and. 26" HaliShahar: was a special lal'.get of attack by the re:bels. 'They conducted their genocida1l operations against the non .. Bengalis in vario~s . .1oca1ities of the township·

every d.ay;all through this :period .ofm and death. "

n'On. March 2$, thley attaiked my house and machine-gunned me and my two grown .... u:p sons. I lcstconsciensness as I,saw Iny ~: loving sons {an to th,e .ground in. a p~()l QfbJood~ ~ was Iut m the m.ld, the thlghs;" The£.ederu troops, uescued me on the :~fili day and I "WaS' tteamd. in a ho~:pitaL ,My tvro ,SOilS were dead, .. .. "

~·~The rebels, '[>0 a grea t extent, S1.l:cceedi·ed in their goal .0£ ,extermina.tin,g the m~le :m,em},et's or non~Bengalll &.inilies. in my

J~~~,ty. : ~~dnap~e~ ,~Qtl .. ~en~i y\ou~ wo.~n 'by t~~: thousands, many were Ia:vuh.ed and 6Iome bru.tally ,kille·d, ...• '.' ~ •

~~We: 1iry,edin the ~d~ff 'q Wlj'~(S of thcfsp~iJuteMll]s. As ~~O:fes, ,0.· JiQ.,~~r,m:y ':.~ther.was. , ... :. ,.land te ....• ~. Illi. t. he .:Ml.1_ .. 'iIJ .emp ... u -.·l~yees .. __ ~ .. non-Bengalu and, Een~I:S' aIu~e. The numher ofuo:n.-Rengali

,employeestMl-d tileir fa mi]ies~, most e f whom lived. ll_]th,e Mill ru:~a~ was dQlsew3.00~). Sinee 'the 'nllddme ofMa:r,ch~ the AWlUDi Le~.tle m:i1itanl$ ~nd~r ~1LIp'po.r~s aWton~'tthe B.i :mjJJhan.ds, were be]lig~rem.dy hostile tow-wsthe :IIKlll<~]3:eng;ilii:i'~ :Between .Mardt 23 and 28,,- they-rdded the houses of-tie HOD-' Eeng,:dis.~ bijicbd. tbe men at ~nnpomt snd :b,ntchercdthcm.m the slaug}l·rerJ..hothre . set up 'ill-the ficro.ry's Recuntion Chlb. T-Ol:mc-s Oftmlmlagitlabllebru.bJitywc-i:~inBliavdl on 'the vw... tim,s, ibe.fore they wet\e bdb~adtld., Ther,~ '~e. 5y~mge$ for dra.wingbiood ttfllll the veins ofth,e victims and Wl'dH~ir stomge in eontainers, T"hereoils ,carded.tb~ '!:!,mood to m.en- hospitals fo:rtheitwo1.mrJed591di,ers and other jmgo~. The ki~' - _ .~gsl! amup,le of da.ys 'b~OM 'the Army ooou.:piedme atrea., sl:!. tered h,Wldreds: of 'Wom.en. mil: cld,dt·e:.ft in :this h1l1lDUln iootwif .. ~ •• +'~

Shabidubssrun was rl€:patria.tedto Ku,aChi. in dte .m:id!d1e olf )lg'.3 from Nep2lt Hehad escaped .from. Chlttagoog eo K::l!ltbm~ndum 1972. He 'thinlb.tba.t nea:dy' 73: per cent of die flon .. E mgan D:13le popu. .. · la:tion in the lspabarri Ju.te MiUs:p~JSb~d in the .March ]L97]~asS3l(-r,e·.

Many ofrhe Do.nocBengalis sla~~~, 'wm: b~ded jn ~s gm.ves hC)i"!..ln befQ["{'; the federal amy drove: outlne rebels.

MO:ha.lllmt"il SLu&ddm, •. (O~ wThlo liVled in DQ.e N;o. 67.3 in A Block. in HaJishabar ~ Cmttagong,md, 'Worked. as a. inCl,tor mechank, los:t his. two'thers ill the ~m:S:8a~ 'ofnO:tl~J!:engali8, in .Ma:tdl. !~'l. ItepatImtedt':o ~tadd iQm Ch.ilw~gomg. in. Feb(~[9?~~ .~ ~,dl:

~~A.little .more· than haH of the pop,nla~on of some .jO~OOO .p~p'le in Hali3h.a·bar C'l)~sJ_jlwd ·of notD~Ben~iis.. P-ordle past 24 years, m~ bad ]iv~ in them ;settlements. iTheir- ~clabons_ wi~h the :BengalIs were lco!:di~.. All of;them. ~.po~.e :B~":pt 'fluendy but,m~ek honsea th~ spohUrdu., ~y of the ~a~i.tH1D in ·this .f.oca!ity O·ri,~"Miledfmm the :mdLln S:tate :ofBlhuE


Bu'!! the:re were also nlaDY W:est Pakistani :families, including Punjabis {lnd Pathans, The BengaJis called t'h:enll :niharis"

t-OO'., ., •••

"In tile night <of Mar ch I'S~ a 1·atllf3ging mob of'AVM"anli. League milita:nlS, re,bel rol,diers and rhugs attacked, our part of ehe colony and looted out houses and s'~a1!1g'hrer-ed all ,the~ mille'

l~~~b~~ ·o.' .. fOO .. l[-Bcnp ... ~~:fa.m. m.~s." I~~ _m.' y b~'~e~t_helr g~ftetl Iny twil brothers and -kidjla,pped their yOl,Ul~ w')'\r,es .Af(~ the

fedent! m:',lnytook over ClnttD::gong; I searched every nook and ,Qo, of rCruU:;l,g'O'llg to laoI'm; Iny ,nli.ssitJg sisb}rs-in-l~w 'but ,tll:.ere was 11.0 trace 'Of them, ,At least 75 per cen t 'of tile mal .,ali, ,p:opulatlon ill HaUShahar WIIS willed! out by the

bel . cl n

re _ CIS 10 Mar', 1 I97'! .••.•. , ...

:Mo58araf Balsam" l5~ who owned a JUite Saling, Press in Chiuagong and lived in the ,Agr,abad locaHty~g:ave 'tills acecunt off tllee· grisly events in Mardi 197'.1 =

u;.r had nlig:ra;tcd frOID, IndiafjO Piki:S:Wl :in 19$0" I had tfatuferredl_a.ll my assets worm a million rupeesw ~ittagong," I prospel'cd in the J;ntettadc ,and J: bought a ] ute :Ba1ing Peess whose l],ll~rketvaloe 'was 'tw-o mi1licmrupees.,

'H,On Ma.rch 3I~ a" violent mob, led by Awami League ulili,tlUIt'ts;A' 3"ttacl:ed. my Jrnte. Baling Pf~'Sj :and set Il ab~37re. They a180 burnt·the jute stocks and my drop 'whicit 'w;1$loca'teti i11 the com-

mercial hub of Cllitta,gong ~ .. " . , .• '. "

"'l~Qr more than two 1rears"I lived. hI abject povet"t}'.W:ith great dlifficuJ:ty !: succeeded in ooluin.g to Pakistan :m, December 19'1-3 ±rom Chlttago!l1g,. It Won sheer good 11lCk~nd, Go-d's mer,cy rt'b:a't my faJ~n"iIJi :md I,esca.ped the massacre oftb:c non-Bengalis

".- M' rCh' n

lD I' a- I' - II'nr-fJ

..... " '11<"1··'····"···

YUh_ Ahme~, :a8,t 'wJro.'~ ettl:P,)oyed in an Jnsuranee Pirm ill CWt£ag'llng •. lost his ,2\3--year-oJd.b.rotbe:r :in the massacre ('l,r DOllBetl~ iDtb.c f'e.ro2Qhah Colony, on Mardhl:S .• 'I971.·Hc said in KaradU after his, :a1'ania.:non :tEl Feb,ro:ary ]'974:

"I had come with my parents ~ a duM &om India to Chittagong .in I949,. ~jtbgong:'wag our home town;, 'we! loved. it. Afre-r

the dea.~h of .my ~t~~'~ r hro~ght up my two young:er brothC'f'S who were stl1,denu In 1971 ... ' ~ •...

'~'~J:n the ni . . of Mudi 18" akiUcr g;mg, of AwmniLcag;uers and I'cbcl so .. s,mrm.edl 'Vlith. fn!es:l!.!id stenguns, raided oue IQcali,ty a.nd slattght:e.r,erl non-Bengali men by thethou£l~nd$. .one of my two hrodrers 'was, at home; the lciUersbnrst into om house andri.ddlJ.ed hilU w~ithbune~s.My otherbro~ef was ~tWca:y at tlra t time 10 auotihcr P'aIt of Chi trn.g,O[l~. I was also not at homewbenthe killers cameend ki.J1ed UIl;, b"f()ther. 'Tb~y

_bur,ut hund.(~ of houses. 01lJJF Colony bad bome tI1ebft1:1lW,t o fthcilr previo us attaJck on ,M.a:rch J; but 011. Much 18 tile raiders came M111ied with. a utomaticwespons andexpleaives and the sb!.ughrer WRS sav:acgc.· T1meytidnar'ped hllin~red8: ot l1O:n.~ Bengali YOltug womea, especially teenage gkI~. Mauy of their dead oodies 'were fO[]M ear~y in April in. henses l18W fQ!fl1l:ru3S tortllr-eaud, as, sex as.sauh cllamber.{',

Twerntyfive ... year""Old. :RalUma~! the BengaH'Widow 'Of S,habid All, 'who lived with her ~busbal'ld, and. :h~{om.: chU'rdren :in ~ honseln

the Shershah Co1onyiu ClJitta;gOl.lgJ, said: , .

UI am a B Ii by bjrtll, b.avin_g been boni :in ·F'ar£i.dp[)Jr" My

h wband, "d . AU, haned from Lucknow in bJidila. ~:nd I

liked .bnna:n~d we .we.fle man:ied.He Wti a gentle p~rsjonwho, Ioved Cllit:mgong and re~fe~ted our Bengali. fr,imd:s ... ". "

"In araid Oltl our home in the Sll.enhah Colony in. the dldr.d week of March I97I~ the .kiUer .. murdered myhusband, [ 'begged,th.em to sp.u-e b,ES life and even fell at their: :ke'C, But theYWcrem~d thu,g"wn.o were out: fu·:ra kill Amongat the wd,er~ were some .Hind~n ·whos,e ]1;:i:tt'ed of the 11on~BengiaHs was ill' '.' • • '.' • " • •

uu the GoVefilment had 1).'wi:fily crushed. :thc vio~!ence: aud~e.t:rolI: .ltllieaShed by me Awa:mi. League mm.tamts in ,the _ fiut: w,oek ,of March I:97I,th.c ,tto1JHem~yhaveb~erw .. nipped in the bud. . By gi.v,ifJ:gthe Eong f' ~D; tb.e r:f:be]s,. ,the- Go.vernment ,etnbol,dened them.~nd they g(:i't: ample. time to :plm . mId e.xecnte their 011'. ,~~~.on. ·~1.qO t,. Btun and KfUi ~'rugalnstWje non~Beng~is, ~n Chit ~gqllg,., .. , .....

,4'Amongst tile thQ\1ISIDm(k m.assacrea .in ChIttagong in ~afcb, 19iI~ were .n~a1l1 Bengdis who were IOy:3;~ 'to paki:st:m. .. Sonm . Ben!J_llis~ woo.' .Jp'rO'tect!ed n:on~E:en,g.aIl:iJs~, we.r,e also k:med b,y the

rebels." .. , .. , ...

li:~.M ..•• :t·.. .... '~.' ... Il1'I . !cll.·.-.·~ U. ~f.en.. al'.~e m c ;y 1.a·re.. bu. s .. ha.D.d 's.' leg.·' .aJCY. .......• .m. ' .. me ... ~.... lamiR

1fl L· 1.. ~L tl .._1L b n_1''''::· 'U

.rr· , .. stan Wl;w.wem uecame IDley are _ om £ ~.stams: ••.•• , ..

MH. RahimaAbbasifi 4o~wbo workod ;atS a te~cfierill tlw Lions." School .in. Chitta-gQ.llgt, gave tibis acconnt cC:l'£ tbe'taild on ber school on Ma.mch .. 21." 1971 :

~ 'We lived in our QWJ1. house otlM.A. Jinna1tRpadl. My hm'b3!Ud was inb!l3sineE:~ and. I worbd, as a. teacher ill the Lions' School V;hich was an English medium school, We 'had ~tud!eJ~m ~£rn:m Bel1cgali and uO]l .. BcmgaU middle class families. . '. . ., ,L

"OnMareh ar, a ViOJ~Dt mob of'Bengalis, led by A'waJui Lca,goo' militants, raided our sil1o,ol., 'TIrey injMcdthe Sa~lOOrS Chowkia~a;r (\Vatdmun) 'who .had.c~o~ thefrnut g,ate. As ~ ]3reIlgiali~ he appealed to. rhem no t to. cause a dismrban ce itlthescil0o] 0- One 0·£ &hot him in the ~egalld he '00 Ba;prSert. The vicious croV\d then 8'W'afmed into OD.r oft1.ce a.ndme class rooms, They moJ.esM the female and silId.ents, .. WIlen, 'we realised ihlt: th,ey .had plans 10 kidnap o~ :g;irkt we raised :a hueal1d ay ·and our scresms for ndpa.t~c:too 'the n'!1 ~I':J ~~bcurs ..... AboDt: SO o~f.~ med by a.prominBlt pro-cPakis,il:ml BellgaBlea:de:t' of au:r :rQca'li'ty, came to! ourrescue ~n.d grappled 'wiili. th·e:raiders. in the :figh:t dt~'e Clluled~ three of me :miriers were killed and the others escaped. No one amongst the teachers and 'the smdentswas lujUJrCid. 'Th.e s,cl~ool was closed

for somodays after this: ,j,ndde1ll,i "

.M.t,8 .. Al'ba:sitherbmbal1d. and their c'M.~d:rell were rep:il.¢.fia~ad. to :Karacm froln in Ma;r-cb 1974.

RaW. MiD,mil wh,~ \ViS. ,emp.loy,ed, .iu a, :~lifFing (Alb)." i.n Chi t-·tagong and, who: l]Q,d 2. mm..culou8 escape death wlien 'tb,e DeDg~H imm:g.~ts murdered non~Befig,a~iis in the Chitt2:gong port area, gave

thb 'account ofms. hair-rals!J!1ge'xp,ede11De ill Mar:ch 1971l ; ~

~(I wag cmployedin dle wfpmng Jiml ofM.essrs. Yaquh AU and Sons in Chtttagong.. '~be [iwncr ·of' t'lie tirnl~Mr. YaqUJb Ali. was a 'Gotl-fe-aring Ml1sJimt devotedeo Isia'm3l'Ddthe Ideology of Paik:i:stal1. AB.engaU, he w;a:sin the p,aki-stan Mo'ven~n:t ill P'iOO-

_ Ind:eiP'e~dm~ Ee'nga1. p!~~mduM~]~nlLe~g~le Be:n,glh ffi'cader,s. l-]'f: was, dose!y rdamd to al. one-tune SPfli'lker

,of die PakismnNationa1 Assem:bly If M['.F~z1urQadir Chowdhry~ He: had many nen-Bengali employees .in JUs :Ii.rm and he 'tvea.ted them as well as his Ben;g:llH employ,ees .•. " " " ..

"On Jvlal:dt ,20, ~" yaqllib Ali 'too'l~ metothe ~hiua:go~l1g, hat ... bOlllwlhcrca, :~:P' whnsCWlm,oatiim8,wacS to be ,[lone: by his film was docked. We went 0111, boud, the ship and ,Mr. Yaq,uh Ali, taJkedto the Caprain; Suddenly, 'we,mleard yeUs :10,[ hclp and the echo of gmtshots uc.ntdoVitl below. , We rushed frO!!l the Ca,ptaill'scabm 'to 'the deck, aill,dl saw that kine: ~lI1lo'bs~, aImed with g~" wer'e s1auglue:ring peop'!e on the w11a,-'['£ Mr., Yaquh Ali ~fjked me to stay on ba.ardthe wpwit1t the Capt~in and. he tllSbed let,Own dIe gang'Waylo the Q1ll2l,Y. A'v{:ry 'bra're man, he ran jnto the crowd. of the: kiUet5and appealed to them In the name of God not to daughter the Innocents, Some one in the kiUergai1 g ,ilio'll te~ tha.t Yaquh ,Ali w:as pr~-:Pa'kistatl an_d ,3 Musmimtqag,uer. In 3! Inattdt o,fm;Un1Jtcs:~ di~ kilter g,ang 'kl]]c,d him ail~d, rooppecl 'up h~s deadlbody _b~r:e :8i?:g_il1~ hin.tO the ~ea. Subs~iIlelldy, _ _I .1eaolt:dmt Yaqub _ AJI Saheb shollted ~·Pakis~n Zindaba,(r' (Lon;g Li¥e P:a:IciS'ltan) as the ,kiner :g~;n,g ·~,rlder'ed him to shout ~'~Shadin. :Ba.ngla.Desh~I' {tong Live Ba:ugla 'Dedl)befo-rc they killea. him, ., .. ~ . , .. u'

.: . R.ahimAtindi~'nsshe'lten~d~hy 'dlc:~a~~ of,tlIe, shi,1? for[,:90~ d,ays. He 'CSC8(peJ, themas&ac[ll,~ <of non- Bon:galis,. Itt ,M:archI974~ he wall,!\d eo P'al.istan. He is. cettain. that more than 50~OOO 'llo11~Bellga]:js perished in the !d.areh ]!il'71 camag'c in Chittag;oug ,a.nd, :i.t,s

. hb . 1 11·· DJ;',ag-I'QU[,ID;g 'o·cant~f'S,.

NasOn Ah:med, 2_2", _who li.ved with Ills father, a pw:~cnt Muslinll 'L.eagnc ~cbvist" :iin their .own house in, Pa]tartaU area or Cl1itta~ go'ng, gaV1e thi~ 1mrtZlLtiveof llis m:m.·,der by the rebels:

"'My fathet~ Mt'_.Wasim. A11rnec1l, W,M a well-kn:ow~"l' and tlli'fiiving; btlsin.essnun in Chittag.llng. He 'Was devoredtn ih,,~ i.diec.),~ogy ofpatki",f'an and,"W'3.s active in the local MusJim League.. B;cngalis and non .. Bfl]f]gaHs alike respected him, £ot ld~ inreg.rity and fo.f' Ills. courage". Heheiped. Du:nycharita!bl€l: causes .. ' ' .... '

· Na:sdm, AhmLCd a.lta his wid ()WOO loodleI were slil.elrend 'by ~ Gndi ...

fearing :e0mlg:a:ufatlli~y ;!Iuume-, :survivedlib~ ounage .,~nScptemhe:r~ 19?3;~, tbey'Wet'e re:pa.ttiated to Pa.ld.s,tafl.

_ _ Nasil1il!All:mecl 'dJJinb that .more thau 7.S~OOO non .. BC11,g.<a lis, were bn:td1. ,:1:' e. =. in .. ,theMareh.~ UI.' 19.' 71 ca. mag,~~n. <?bf~tagO.·· •. ug • alta .. , ~tSl nrngbbol1rhood .•... An~thC'f I{)~OaO n~n~fk·llgaHs~, 11l1~~, Vl~W'~, p~"tiliw ~n

the: wake ,o,f.mdi;a,~,8 !'iiei~e ,@fEa;stPa,kistan ,On Deoe'lnbcr' !7" lSl'1] , The' :mostsa:vage kiUings" be sai"c1].t '~'e. ,done by th.e BengaH ribel ·.w1diers: who had automaric we:apolls rum rhe local Hindus 'whohatc.od the non ..

:Bemga11s. .

J~dad :Khu,. 4.2~,who "WOrked as a So~)mi.ty Guard in the 0,,"1 - AhmedJute ,Mills in Agnlhad in C'himgollg,td'~Ded;

t:'J.I had j,ohLed.lthe Gul Ahmed Jute MiU~ 28 a. SecocIty GWll! in JulY][971. Before that IUvedJn. dI~N.W.f.P. In C~:itt3!gong" I lived ina qiWU'rurm.[:he'N.asi:ra~lildlHou~ing, area. l.haa beard from nen-B eng a]im aboilllit th~ mass da.. wlUdb, the: Be i

rebels, luul ioondu.cred in :Ma:r-ch 1971 in Chi,ttagong:. _ One ,'. l

on my lVaY[OmeJuee MiU,]' spotreda small :hUman skuJ.l .~yimg otLm.fde ca, desermdh.l)u'Se. Through 21 ,crac.k. .irll a.w:indow,~ I looked ffJj:side.. To, my n(H:'lIDf~ :tb:e ~kU!U-9 andbones of many d~i1dr,en b.y ,ill heap's inside me Inckedl room. Some clotha we-le streWn om. the Hoor alll& they Jookledto be the ones uswJIly ~mb,y non~J3eng-a1j chHdfW.With 'dle! helpl of SODte rfi,~ I dog :~ and ]l1~erred the remains of·the innCHjefi'ts :in it. Subseqnecndy, llea.t:n.tth.1,t m. Much If:9'[, ,thishc!"tuewu used ~ a s~~11llg-1jJJ~er--bouse'by the rebels ,and .they badldUedmany and children [nit.. .. .

·the Red Cross hut it was· the (~,my pmcd(~e of the Ml1l:d Bahiui aDd Aw~mii. leagu~ .mll:itaJi.t$ ·to' kM.1I.1ap non ... :B~llg3.1is, by t:ht scores, 'They wcrr~ to·HUT'OO ill jails :and 11Ued~ ~eir dead· bodies 'were duoml .into the ses, Towill thesympi[tthryofthe Itldim military Q;ffic;e:m :stadt)<:ncd ln C:~rittagong~ the },CH~aI A 'WiUDi

l~guem~ . up' ·the d.ead bodies of hundreds ofnon-Ben ,

&om ihaJlli9w:ma:ss gr.avu ,amd. mow,ea ·them as the skeIeto'Ds o£ Bdl~is mmda:ed 6y tho Pmtitm: Ar!n:y.T~e AMllU LeatgLKl pomJiticiM"~ ,Mso Sb,owM.~e d~eJ!'f!tons te fg,rcignnewstnen:ll ~pecidylnmm JOUl"~lis,ts. Tlle ~.'ldfan mili~~ thewuiJP(ln:~ g~ve a trooimJ:u,i to 11m MukJtjj :Bd1F~1!lito pkk 0'. as. ll101uynon ... :Bt:il1:gilis as they wi~d, no.mthe Red. CrO!i5C'lmps. Li.ving oolldiricmg:intk:se camps:, ~edr!eadf:[11 We drank poUu:ted

ftI'.,. .... .,." '.;"." • .:11 C'~_-.' . n". 'Ii'~'.'~ ... '(!i! L·_, .::iI' n

",,~",r...;W,;!, we are 'SI'wlll'!OliDb Oliellli~!I-.

TWltty .. ye..u ... old Zaiilurmissa, whose husbml(t~, .Mobmmed.

Akmoo,. "\WaS em:,l~yyoo as a. P'o,stn1m in C~ . " ··li1gl· g~v,e this {l;ccom~'1!;

.of h:ismun:le:I' by die Bengali rel\~ds, on. Malt ~ .2.5~] 91jjJ1' ::

4:~At about Jl'O' a.m .. '(I~~1 .Ma:rch ~S ~ a dozen ar..m.~ 13t'l~ gali i WJi.l'S entered[ cur l~owe .hI Sholasbahar mnCllt.h:r:agong.Jntbe lrl.Uer gangvreretwo Hi1r1oW whosle nsmes Lheard fr-o:m thcirLaoeompllees, 'Thteegum.m.en ove:£pow{'xeJd my h.mb.a:nd ~md ~,t: him .de_~d., ~be ·otheI lr,:ddrnrn lo!turui my hCn15iewitn. the t'horou~eH of ttaDlea, b~ars:. Ig~appled.w:itll_l one of the kiDetswllell he ttaincd hisgun <1.t one aEmy small dtiMllitu, I srultchedhis :gm but I 110·t 'know how to fire ilt.AUu1.e tim a1bhedl me alld. . eda;nd kicked [l1'e.They &ritggedthe .' _ I body . ·of nty h -. . :d to a pit and. chtm.peQ ittheIe;. Our :Bengali ]]J;e1ghboUQ. wawbed tbe·la~d. on 0011.!' home ~n mute si]e-nce·; tibey said they w~ie iroO W co.meto, ourheJ,. Tbey 11!.clped~neb!lry

the "body of my d,'epartled lttlsban,d ..• ~. • . -

~~'OnMafd..ll6j an. ilrmed-rehel C"UJW~O ;my house 3:md wId me' tliriat they had onkxs to km ,ev,ayma1Je 1ton-Bcng;all~ ill the 10m", lity. .Be said ilia (. I :should not shel tel anynQl.l-:B.eltlgali friends otherwise I and mydilldr,en'W'Oold be done 't<odea~h,. We ~r·evc-ry :scat~. , ,On March"]."!, we .Iea our home vhI:cugh a. back:doo:r~ wa1~e:dlth:ree n1iles to a JPro.ce wller-esomc lhuntese fa,m:i1ics Jived oUld sougltt shelter:'Wim one of tlhem. Th~ Looked. after usUIre a1Ige]s. 'On ApriJlg,. Jterme:Pmstan .AmIy had It¢-e'sra)hlis11ed i~ 00lltfoill over IChdit;tagollgall~cll our locality, ""

rremn}ed to om h.ome. ,A£l:et India's a\['ftl,ed g.rlib ofBacn 'jp'ails..ran t tb.eMuk,ri Eahlni 'terrorised us, deprived us ,of OUI ,h:o;me and, we ~d in, a Red Cross Camp'. bl Janual'yI974, ,my :f6,ltt clU1d.umand. I werle Iitl'a.crl3.ted, to!l '. •• " • ., ". ." ~ ~

If.ifty-y,c3:r-ol,d Mnjeeba Datoon" 'who lived in QUl13t'I:-et No .. '~,-lK,.', ,i,iml'"dJ,'_,,~:~ $~~,,"o, 0,", ,H"era,g, ),U, _1 I~,',C, rtl,i,'ty,;',' ~~,tn, r . ,C,'l, N'~,.'-,>tlg"1 s, aid,t,bl'.ather"._':_"e~des~' ~on died gf a. heart attwk:when at liJ]~g,:\Dg: attacked tUe'U:: house and

looted rt on Macrdh 3~, 197I. 'The Iaitiee chocked his 'body to ensure ma,the ~ ,d~d. 't~n'le'f 'AAmddmyw.f;,resp~ril1Jg 'me beesese of my

11 JI n "Mr,· ''!L 9li'J"1L ' "J! n'~ _~'. _-II, ,1ft.. l'_,'U:_

'Ol!.U age ~ ~V:ltlJeeDa NlRtOOll said. Her ower5iOU~W1L1Q s:.,1W inc ~lllJLngs

of non ... Bengw:sin.Sanm:alm) los:t his mental balance because ofth~ sMc'lt of ~t. AU her olm~F rd,ilti~ ill P!ki:smn p€li'~ledin the C1lI.]f]'ia_ge. InJantma:ry 19-14, She· 'Wa$ 'roKa.folLci1i froru:a1 &ed, GnJ~~ Camp

in- Chi,tcigong. -

NaihiJumBibl, 10~, w.ho ~il!'edll:n"Q1Ltarrer No" roo m, ~be RJ,u;n£illbad loca.H:ty in IC!litt~gong, gavcthis accoune .of t~re bl'uw, murder oEher ;age,d hus&'and 'byth~Ben~li rebels :in MaifCh ~:91I'~

ro;~.A 't.iIIe[ ~ng ofreb.c'~s had [:aided out localIty a nmnlbe:r.of'trntucs sincetheir fi~ot: filWileI"'o~s im:SSat;l[toll March .3" On Marc,ill .aj, they m.rudl(l afU]lLbla!st attack. on our' 1~~~nY" Ag8.t1g .of ~rlne~, n~ngnJis broke into QllI'!~~ sick hWll!3:nd~

~,bdu1. ~aJ.'·1~d.._. I.,h,', ~~ged.·· .• '~,~IJc.~~.·to,Srat,~m.o,~d:,3f1.'i:~g ~,',_ &~t they 8:aJ.d they had mstruenons to killevery male non-Be_filgaII.

'Obe' of them said: ,tWeare not :kiU;,ng you bec2tUse one of dlBse <:la.Yi yenl, wi~l conlotil:() work ill our hO,lIles: asa ,do,~,ri& set- ....

vall.t •.. ' ...

"~A'teI the federal ru;my ,secm':Cl& Chitt!:g()ng~, we Itv~&in p:ea~~ for 01.[1. ~e,. ~Q,.nd.!l;.s .. ·,' .•. , . ,.Bu, ;t, aH.!,'.l(!;r. ',' ~l<..·.1 ;lfia,."'s:, ... cap.1IWI.::e." o~'B .. :a.~,t,. ,Pal:. I' "':.H,;tln,~- " in .. December :[:001:, the Muk.n Barunl1. and AWaJnn League volunkers

s,ngrea a 8~oondb]o,od."batih of 'nnn-Beng~Wi8~. Tliey Mo'Vie me ,o'ut OflUY heuse, sayillg thac as, a non""iBengab Jhad, no .dalrn.. fa. even an :IQcll,ofBengaH 901il :P'OI' SO roe two yean I livledl.u'JJ a ~llef Camp ill Chit-tagongud ow,as repauiiared 'to Paldsta;ujn Fduwry JIlP74" .

TVnmty-seven~yeaf~ld Taltmeeaa .. BJ.latoQu,,, whose, :hus~hand was ~' 'me AminJ ure Mil~$ in in,the Feroze~h Go,lOIDy,,, S1re gave 'wh aC{101J!ll!:t of the murder or h,er husbandl 1",. dE E.engali rebels £:nMarcb iI"7]::

~'~o~ Ma.rch lj"a) grnup of Bengalis knocked on our door an.d called. GiU. the name of my' llu~b:llld~ A:mana,tullall. He met them 4l11d they saidthat he was urg:ently wallted a~ 'the Jute MilL One of the callers was an employee of the MiU whom he knew., Im,ged hlm not togo because 'I h~d heard 'tma;t the Bengali telhds Were using allmannerofruses '00 kidnap no'11.~Bemgdij8 and they Were: sub,sequently murdered. My husband ignQ[cdmy plea and went 'Wit'hthem. .After an hour, one ofthe callers remole,a and. ,tuld me that myhu5bmd~s life wolilld 'be spared if I paid l!im Rs, 500., 1 seraped up' all the cash ] had! with me and gave :i,t to lim. I ran with hwm to see the place. where my husband W;:lS held but dle, g:~ve me the 'slip and v,anished.'When I r,eturncdl heme, 'tW'O uliJ:cks~ 'w1th arlllcd:Bengalis, arriv-edand they looted all the valuables in our house. They took away even the fu.nliture~lJ.d the crockery. 'The next day I leanu that' tIte rebels had murdered D11 husband, I tded 'to go to . my fatherisplace but: his locality wa:s under rebel eonrrol, TWo ,(L1.Ys later, I 1~1l"d that he was also kiUed by the rebels d .uing a.

oct 11..=-1 _f" 'U .

:r,all on ms Q,caJ.Jty "

Ha6ma. Bibl, 27, saw het 'hDsbaud~ Moham:tnerl W3ktd~ butchered b~ the Bel1f;<\,]'i, .. reh~ls ,.Qu.Man::h 28 ~ ? au. a~~l nOon ... Bengali. homes 1!Il the Ra"ufa:bad lo,ca.lity of Cluttagong.. She said:: c'~More ,ilian a. dozen of my relatives perished in the March 1971 massa-

;, ~ n L·· '", Sil. ... ., __ ;J

cres 111 i;,a.s-t· Jr"a:tli:ISb'~'iI. ", . •. h:e cont.1mJ.OO ':

"On March 28, a killer mob raided our locality and ransacked the houses of nOll:""Beng:aiis" They looted. a.U the 'valuables in these homes and. carted them away in 'bucks,. TIleY also looted my

?01l1S.e an .•• 'Id set i't ~b. ,laze". As, m.y .. h.~bilnd, and Irau fr.".OID OUf .b,[lrn~ mg [1Lomc~ two gunnren. riddled, my husband 'w~th buUets and

he d]~d em the spot. I 'begged. the killen to '61T~s11. me off too because I lsad no relatives left in Chitbg,QUg. "'A£tt'l" a while

:'111 h d-·"· h ~. d I

.~ WDJi. .aye. you as our I omesnc setV,ant ? tey rep~.lli-'. ,

burled my dead '11usband in a slli'lUoW' pit and cover:ed[ it wid] mud. I sought refuge in a" ,mosque fOI 3" day and. then. I went 'back to :~ pM'tid~y burnt out house. The federal troo·ps :anived in 'Idle 6,fSt weelk of April, I91!t~ and off~red t-o :shift me to a Rellef Camp, I asked them to fjnd. out whet,her my father who Hved in Sautaharwas alive. . Tbey mad. I ,.eprontpFting;niries and [ was infot:med that' the Beug_aJi:rebels had. him, _ .. " u

Malinta was repatriated to! uomthe Red, Cross Can1lp in Cbitta.gong, in, lFehruaxy 1974-.

:1to'm:aisbaK.I.Ja.toQ,nll,3,s~wh()se hmiband, .Anz@Jl~ul ~CJ.,Wa5 a Railway empI,oyee~. ~ived in QuarrerNo" 763 in Blad:: .B in the RUi~ar HQ<wingBSmte in Chin· _ 'tlJg" On Mutcll.2. 5 ~ a kjnerg~ha: kidnapped him from his. OOU$ie murdered him ill ·~sla1l.1ghte[house set trpby rihe rebels in the GovetnIru3nt Rest JHoU'S'C. ROID_aishaJ,

'hl •• ,,"~_~Ip I_!.~ .c. Ch· .. " - 1 • 1L 1L - .. 1l_

'VI" '-:0 wasrcpatElatOOto , !:9!~tan nom '_ 11::tmg.Qng aJ.IQl1~w~t;u ,U!.::l' u:u;·ee

dli1dIen in December 1973 ,sobbed 'Out her woefhl ,story in these woms:

(~Tb .. ~e~B.- .. (1l.-' .. g., :ali tebt'.~b..h._-· ~d., Dhl'i: .. 'd.~e.;;l m 1.1I.MI •. lero .. ' u~ at~.k,01l o.m' locsli .. ~ •. ry.·.'.··

on ,M.udh 3,. Butthey dJd. not bresk mto !iJl!U hOUl!le,.On

March 2.3" a 'kDlJe·r gang [aided our house alJd trucked away aU tIre valua'bles we h31d~, i:n.clndi:ng OUt fm~jtl1rc and crockery'. Tihey warned. us 11101: to leave our honsebecaoseall the escape Mn.teJ1. were iblocked. We ''WeI',e defence1ess.. They had carried fJ.'Way even th"ekitcb-¢lll knives i.n our I)il'me •••.••• '"

~'~In the nightofltla[ch as, a kil1er gang,att<1!cked our locality again ..

They 'blasted the doo.rof my house and grabbBclmy husband"

I . WI .•. 1 ~'.ew. _'i :mys~.·.f at the .. feet ... o~. th.'~r,a~de:rs .. aJ.Jlci. _ .b.-.egg.,'ed .. th. ·~.:~o.'. ~pare my husband. They kicked me 111 the head, I waded;

]SCl~:nleda:ud I entfearod bllt the kiHers forced him m,to a. }eep and cbove a:lV3y. I heard them say in Een~galJ. they Were heading fur the :llest ] knew ~.a.tmy :hu~ib~d. was

'1'- - "::I- .... "..l ... L_ "'h' _IL b .. 'L n, .--

lue.mgW.;~g5w to ~ ~vnOll c ltD1!um:I;.Cicau~We ~t

Ho use bad become lF1lO'toriol't5 as a s1a~llgh.ter~hot1se setL1p 'by _d:te rebela, Htmdl'ed.s. of non-Bengali rnales~kidm!'pped from ,tbar homes in out l()ca]ity~ were ·mken to this human abattoir- ;W, slaughter. After the :ted.em1army captured Cllimgo:n.g from the Iebels~ I approached tb~ .1P~lcls'taui :m:ili.ta:ry personnel £0,1" help in £ocaffil,g -the dea.d !body lo·f .Illy husband, - They s·aid that the dead bod:iesillihes]a.ught:et-hoU5C in the Rest Heese Wet-e' ,11flUtiJ..,tOO. beyond recogni tiona.nd dm~ ·there w:a,s no erace of'

L b - df bod . n

my n1.18an 1,8. DO. y .

Salm.a JiOm'tOOD.~ 3S~ whose husband worked as 81. t8lUor in the lla._.m._. <ba .. "d ... locaIi .•... '·ity, <of.C .• · ... ~i.tta. _.gong.~test.-.ific.d .th.:1I.t., a.. lcill~r.g~~.~._ •.. ,.of.:re.' .. bels attacked her home at wght on . Much 2-,5 ~.![s)7lr mid sJa' , •.. :,rered[ her

ht1Sb,and~ AliRazR~ his YOlll1ger brother :~d he:rJl~,ew. The ~aidas loo~. every ~lrlicle of value in her house an,d set it' abla2c." She ;8o'l.f.ti. ::

~·'The raiders 'were :mad. killer'S. They SOlid they had orders to. kiID1 every male nOll~Benga'~i. We ares:paring you~ they iaid~ so that

.in die lloo:rfi1tliu'e we an f;lRpioy you. as a dr mesrlc servant in QUI' homes. AE_ter ·two 2l1d. a half y,ears of miserable Hfe, .my (hi~dnn and I wer(~ I-ep;l!ui' Paldst~m. in Fcbr11l~r974~·'.

htema, ~:l'1m;d ber children wer'e :It'epa'triarea to KM~c11'i rtom Chitlta~ng ~~l 'Peb[U3ry 1974 •. , They h~s~~t nemr1)T" twO, ~}d ,ill qtlatt~[' year's 1m a. Ked! Cr-oss R.ebef e;unp' In Chm:cmgQ.JIlg. ·She wd:

ctHun,alreds of teenag~ gir1swerl{! kidtlllppedffobl oW" 1lo,ea1i~ !by ,thcBel],g"a1i .rebels. We fouoollouare of thenlabel'. du:r,e:hd:s: retreated, There. were' reports tlIa~t_ tbe kiUen vior~oodthe:ir ch:udty, :m:ttrd,e:redtl~.etl1. and tl~:rew thei;r booUes iuto me Ka:ma ... phuli rive1'I'~.

Sayeeda Begtt.m, s,~ .whose hius1band, M~qboo] AJ.l~ _Kh~n~. 'was ,efllp[oy:ed in the: East: PautaniEta:Uway at C_hj~mg,ot1g~, 11Vl&11. ·in m apa!1ment :in He" :Building (Nunllber :2.1') in the iFer,uzeShih Colony m.

~ .•. hi. ·t~.:' ... Otl.- ... g ..•.. AfteJr., ..... i 'her repauiation to Pakistan in FehC_UaJCyI'9'~ Sayeedarestffiedl::

"The JBengalfu _liebe:t~: .ma.dle thcir~st mid on ow: c()l.ony on March 3. TrnleY 1burnt and looted anu:m.hM ofhotlsoo o'liftled by n.o~EeJ:tgalms, :and. Ibidtlapp~d. a :numbet Clfn.on-Eeng.aU menfolk ....

~'On ~clt ~S'i'~' goong, of a:rm'r:d. .[~:hd'Ssm~bedth,e ['()llt door ·of om' :a~t an.d ,cfll,erpowe:rea my h~bmd.. 'They fastened lilin


with lopes and, dra~ged him louhich~ we:biulIdmg. Our :nd,gh:bours were he1p,lessbecausethdr men 'wer also being kidnapped in a, 6il1illar Bengali rebels, looted my house and learried :away aU 'ltbe booty in a truek. .. , .. ,

U'On Apri19Jwben tbJc :federal army came to our help, ,I scoured, every nook and corner ofChitta,g-Oltlg; to trace out ,n~y husband but there was no :sign, of him, (Jeanrt that the rebels had. taken aU their vicrims from our klcaUty 1\0::1. slaughtez-hcuse wh~ tbey were done 'to d,e-ttlt and their dead "bodie-s were thrown into the Kamaphuli river. The' Mllkti Bahini drove me out C1f my house :iftet its occupation of Chitt,a,gong in D!,ece:mher 1971. • My .~nI)~ son and, I Ji~ed in a, can~r set up bydle ked,

Cross III Cblftagong rortwo years .

Sayeeda Klhatooo, 34~ whose h:wbaJld, Ba&ti Hussain, was employed. as .3,. Watcb,man a:t the' C_hitta,gcmg Port Trust, lived. In Quarte:rNio. 594 on Road No. I in :Block Ain 'the HaJidlilhar loality in Chiuagong.ilepaJuialled,to Kan.chi ill ]:Ulrutty 1974:0 she smd:

"On Mardl j~, a ~mer gafi,g stole into our house, At gtUlpOint. they tied my fa.Jthe.F and my' elder brother 'With, r-opes. ail.d carted ~eI"I1 ,a;woay in a 'htlCk:.They looted lUry house and carried ~]I tbe loot with 'them .... " _

"In the a£rei1l0OD, a lJcl!\gali. boy [I W' ho h.a.d. known Q IIU' Wnily" DiEO'Ught, me the shocking news that the rebels ha,d, murdered my fa.~er and my brother and thrown, their bodies into the river. Whcnth.e Pakistan Army re-occupied Chi:rtagmtg" I brought my aged. mother tr-om, hee g~,tted- house to our home. My surviVed 'the slaughter .in the Port area .. , . . . .

"After' th,i':'. Indian vic:tory :in December 1971. the Mukti :Bahitrl went an 'the ramp.age ~gaillsf non ... ]3etlgaEis~ Ioeting and hlllin,g: .. We survived the carnage, In November 1972~ my hwban·d died, after a 3h.o:rt .iIlness. We ~rad no money lcftfm' moo.idlles" and pro,per medical treatment ror ih,e non-Bengelis in the hospitals was difficult to ~et.·'

Zaiuab Dim; 55, who lived 'with her two teenage SOD$ in IQuarter No. III: in Raufaba,d in Chittagong, thus DaITa'tOO the s~O\ry of the· murdlet ofher dea'f ,ones, by the lB1e11gaUre'helsin Match 1~91I:'

"On ,March ; ~whel1 the first raid! on the nOllses '0.( non ... BengaJis was conducted lry the Bengalirebels in C1Uttagpng~1!l1Y two sons M.a. I esm.p'ed.ju~ the nenrl1!J\VOnds and we ,s,pent the uigh t

there, ~' ., ~I ~ ! !I I! -

!"~iOn Mru:,ch .:2lj.,a, large ,IciUergang again r~idcd our Colony.

TbC}'" came so 'sudaen].yt'hat: we had no time to ~CJJjp¢. I made my '(wOSQDS slipunder the cot 'which had a Jru"UIriCS:S over it" IThe kUlers knew th,8!.t r \Vas a lViClow andrhat J h~CI two sons. They h,~ made ltH:}t1il:ies. abour my ,houtebo:]d 'before the mid. TheY' ~oot'edmy house 3.l1drook ,away even the rice in £he kirolmil. Just Whc'nthcy Were le!llvJi1Ig~ they rmlCmbcrc:,dth'e Dmtt[-e5S on my cot and one ofdlem rushed :ill~idle 'to pick it up. He 5.potte!d m ynvo sons, OOWie!:~lI.1g 111re:at under' tJ:IC eet. ,He

y. e .. '~ .. le.d',l!.tld!,.t. t.'l .. I!' kiJ.],.e,rg.,,~'aJ1. ,'g,.r~}HX~1n .. :·· ag.,am., ' .• " .•... D. me o.· •. ,"'. ' ped :and Id~~. me for hwmg my two sons Micl SaId tlJ.a;! they

would be :shot 'b~fare me, , m feUdo,"Wn OlJ! their feet ~1l;d begged d~e,nl, to sp,are .my beloved ~!ODS. But: the- kill~s, ha.dbeoome savages. T1tey lilled up .my two sons agj,ainst thew:-all and ,s11.ot them at point iM:altk range, J ftllshod 'towards them atld the

kil~en,basboo In}' hea,dwit1J a fjflehl!Jlt'~.. I lost conscieusness .

"Iwoke up in it h.ospim.L Thcmdenal cArmy h~d. 'tf.likeml me there :for treatment, Ire-hniiedro go b9tck 00 my home; ill' 'VmI, menfallly upset, . Tile dr.(."'a;df1l11 scene of the slaughter ,0 f my . two sons haunted '. me day .aud ruglu. ,I 'was .lodged. ina Rellef Calnp~ ~£teEthelnd:iat1S and tile Muikti B:..lhn1:i ,occupied Cltitmgong ill December ,I97lt the n.ol~-Befigalis 'WrLT.C' siJ;bject~dl :fi~a. flles:h: bloodba,m. by theviclous victors, I have no r,dadves: 1eft mtlbe WOidct . rhFehru~ I 97:.ti ] was repii,tr1atedl to K3.iIachi. I no longer liveIn 'CQrultllllt fear of ihe,b.rnfDes -who .killed my lovmg SOns but Lhave lost the zest [or Ufe and E a\Vaita. <la.te 'wim my

'L j' ~ 1~ .. ,.~,

,J.~UtiIJ~:1Il, IIII!!I l~ !II ,I· ,;!! II ~ L.J

HUiua Khatoo., 25, whose h1l1Sballd~MobiBlm.wd Yasiu, ~ employe~ in. the AmdllJ uteMills in Chin-agong~ lIv,ed in, a rented hoase :in the Sho[aShalUlf loooity :in Ghi:ttag\ong. They .,11ad escaped the' March 19/,1 msssscre af'non-Bengalis by' rurulfug oft'into t.h'e forest in the hick, nftiw~.. After th'!e Ind.i~n Army and the MJlJkti Bahini oeeupied, in the third week of DecemlbeI 1.97I,t a, nided ·their· locality. They ag:a:mn tried, to es,rnpe billt her hmbatul was hit in the le,g :by bullets, ,As Hasina leaned ovef' to .he,~p her husband to

rise and 'Mitlk, her4"",montb.~id daugh:iJer' slippedtrom her arm ,a~'kl hit the ;f' rotmd, head ftru. she 01tassagoo th,e ehild';s head and heart 'but

:,. '... I " I II ,--,-" - '-I 'I, __ !I', . IJ I

tJlea'by dJI0d on the roa.d. While llerhusband. 'Ynlthed m palll1, she

,d,ug a, !\ha'll~w' :gl',ave ,aud ]Jimied hC;l~ child, Repaeriared to L-U:';J."hi from Cbittagong :ill February, 1974. she ~ai,l ~

,ItA IGod~:fearin:g B.oogaH sar,W om: p,[jgJu and came to nut rescue, He took. mYWOffilded, husbal:J~d ~O. the main hospiitilll oo.ld p]eadn~, ~Ith the Bengali doctors IiO admit rum fortxeatm.ent. It seemed 'Elley were reluctant tOo do 50 because he 'WaS .9., Bihari, Mew,[:ai trel'tlnmt imp((l(Jve:d his: ron~UtiQio. I rook mJp etnp,j[oymen'll: in ~. homeand ga::ve him m.y e'anuRgs fo'E'lh~pllrchase {If medicil1e. On FelJ,yua:ry ,6 19721' when Iv."C11:t ,t-o see IUJu, in the Hospital I ~, to:ld ehache WitS dead.llearl1't ilia!."!: some Bihari pa.tieo'£s bad. died ill the hospital for want .of proper :ilttetuion ~u1d care .. ~,t

Hasitla H'V'ed in a. Red Cross Camp in Ch,ittagong for two yeus.

and was repatriated roPakistan in FebruaIJi I' 1974.

_ Batoolmi 40" whose 'hug'ba.nd wa.s '~p'l0'Yed, hlthe Al_rull Jute Mills ill! Cb.ittaJgonga~~dl ,vho lived in the Bibiilia,t ~oc~~ity,lJa,~d:'

HOn ,March 2:5. a. killer g, of Bengali rebels drove us out of 09~ ~\'l;se.a,t ,~~po._.hw~. Th.:ley locdre1d it-MId, '~h.en '~.'.~. it a~lla!e. Thekll~C"r8 said mat. there w-as no place fot U~ lm'J. Bast Pakistan,

When our house was reduced to' a I'ubbl.c', my husband~ M:oha. ...

. rned ~._~-ta~~ nly.]it,~e.da. ls [lgl~tet an~_~: s,,n ~ M?~qn~~ A~lothei[ g~ng of kilkn :I,aid.,J! th~;s,Ho[lSe, 'Of 'Godl. When,

iheywcregrappling with myhuslwui in order to . tie him up 'With,ropes, I tried to Slllll«;h ~ ,gun &,0111 oneofthe killers" He str'lllck me with a ba.yonet: ,and my arm bled. profusely. The kmersdntgged my h1LlS'band. to a w~it]m.g truc;k Qutside ;ethc mQS~lJe and sped a'Way 00' what [learnt 'WMOl limna:n abl'a'ttoir set u~P' ihj" t1~e Bengali ~rehel~, for mm:dedn,gtb.e non-Bengali men,

~~dfu~at~ 'W~, ~=dt:cu~a r;S,;t:e :~i:t:::G~~

We were: later on lodged in. a Remief Camp ...•...... ,' j

_ Batoolw and her ,daughter were repatriated to Karachi inFebruQitYl974·

Il~M- . ~'L. . ... 'Ii... . tL .··1IL1·· d - t.. _'IL. 'I . ".] . .1

. ar,cn 25~ I971 was tne D.o~na,1L'! e ,cry en ? .. "NaS, WluO,w'eL!i

by the .B~g~ rebels", 3,o-year..o!l.dZaibllllunj·S's:s, woo li~ed bl me


lierol%eshal[ qolony ill_ Chittagong~ Her 11l1Sbiilld~ Akhtar Hussain, 'was ,emp'loy,ed as a derk in t.he Ispahanitea rCompa:l!ly ,in Chittagollg., Repa'tliarea, to KaraJ£hi 'with her ,3, dl]}.dreu: in February 19-74~ zaUbun~ nissa said, =

"Our celony was midec]. inte~ittelldy ,boy _the Be.ngali r,ellels since Mard1l. 3 ~ IP11 but we lutd escaped ·dIe killen. 'On. M~ 2:5" a large .kJJIe.r gang anacked OlX loca:Uty and looted hundredi ofhol1:Se.,s and. bnmrmany, They loored rny house and trucked ;a:way aU the valuables, 'which we bad gathered over' the year'S. They lied up nly husband with: :ropes and took him a'\iVay in a truck,. Llearn t that the :Beugru1m rebels, in th;eir Mardh ::15' ra1Jl~ kidnapped. 1l0n-Bellgalimel1l. by the huudreds, Those' who, tri,ed tOeoc:tp~ were shot. The rebels, 1 'Was told, took my hw:b:ufJd to a slaughtet, ... house where he, ruO~lg with the other non .. Bengali capti",es.~ was butchered ... After thePakistan:i tr.OQPS re-occupied Chinagong, 1 visited jails, and, tb,e bulldings, where 'the rebels ha.d. 5e'f 'Up tIle human abattoirs but I (~Ou1,dJ fmdl no tfa{;'C of my husband. T11e rebels usually threw the dead bodies

:i:!' th . .". . ,,~~ ·K· . . .. 1L.]- •. .. ,~

,01 •. e:JIr V~Ct!l.m.s 1'0111.1 c . l ,·:1r.t~;~pITll I. river .. , . " .. ' ..

HI lost consciousness as I saw, in utter helplessness, the throa.t of' my husband being: slit by a BengaH cutthroat on Mard1. 3,. I971"',. said 4O-Yea:J:-old Malhila KlmtoOI1 who was, repatriated fronlCbittago,ng to Karachiwith her two children in Fehnl.U"y 19"74. Mahila lived in a shack ill the Wirei5~"i Colony in. Chitt~gon,g. Sire reportedr

~~My husband, Sheikb Amallat, was employed in 'the Jute Mills, in Cmtmgo'l'lg.. all Marclt 3" 1971 ~a huge mob of Bengali rebels, yelliog '~Joi ,Bang1a"'. invadOlll our predomi ... , "l1311dy non-Bengali Iocdity.. They looted .hundreds of houses a.ndlihW:ll.tma:ny of them. A.s tJwvictims fried to. ,cscupe frlo.m theirbb2iu!g houses, the rebels gunned them, A kiUer squad stormed Iny house; they stole every article of value that we h~d. They overp~,~~'cd. my husband, .. ~, _I l~gcd ~t _~ol1e lof ~ killers 'Who wa:s br,<lndlslulJ1g a. la;rg~c krllf:e; ready foI' the '~k1.u ,.

He struck me on. the hea,d and 1 feU do,vro. Thenext moment [ saw him, slashing tile threat ,of my helpless husband .. I lost my :;~8 and was unconscious. For three months, I had frll>-

:~Uienta'~ck~ 0. {delirium., !he: Pa. '~t.l.J1A~n .. ,I~Y r~."oved .. ~e a~~ llnychildk-en to a ,cam.p ~n the Sirdar B:l}md'(]r SdlOO1. fu

February 1$174. we were repaaia,tedto KaradU ~,


U,On March 23" j[9ryI~, a violent mob f[]:ided 011[' locality. They loo,ted and. burnt hundreds .of houses, My housewas also looted &nd put 'co the torch by the rebels. My hll~bmtd altd, I succeeded in esc:I(ping; to ,a, :nearby _Mosque. There were many other terrorised non ... Bengali families _shelteIed llld1le' MOSique. At nigllt~ we saw the Blames leaping from what tUltil yes.teI,day 'was a" populous. sm.iHng: settlement .. ' ..• ' ...

"1n the forenoon of Ma,tG'h 24, j[,971, fifiy Bengm g'LUlln~Cn~ ridlngin _ trucks and. jeeps, stormed the Mosque '\vi~ 'blazing SlJtUl., They ()rdered,' an the 1lQn~llenpJi men. to assemble in dle ,compound 'of the' Mo~qlle.Thosewho,d to escape were :iIruned~;j;tcly shot, After lil1jUg 'Up rut theirvictim_s against the wan of tbe Mo~ue.the BengaJi g~U1D1en mowed them with thdit machine gums. 'Ther-e weI'C no survivors, The IclHers lj,tay,e,d in IbheMosql:le for rwo hours ill order' to ensure thaenone of rtl1cir murdered victhnIl, survived, We were ordered not to touch ,dIe bodies of our dear ones. ] los e censeiousness whet1J., I saw my .bmband :faUing to die groUfidl.'Wi~ blood bll:rsting: from IDS chest, Afte,r theee daY'J we u-ekk:ed. back to our burnt howes. Later 011, tbe:fcdetal, finny moved 'us. eo a Relief

C"m... n

ar p. iI'.'iI JlIIJIi

... ' 'f,. 'lrTL.~.. li j - ..:1L Jb L~ 1i[1I C·· 11 "p. 1.. ,~. J/;~O-!lDa. AllittoOll" _3,", lv'en tntne ,1_.3.UnuLut'· olony m lanartau

nil Chittagoog. Her 'hruhal1d; ,Azjjmr Rahman, V/a.s: ,employed as a Fifllf'1' ina Government workshop. They had escaped the: ~Ud:l [97~ massacre of nOll-:Bengali~ in C' But her elder brother and his wife mdlchitdren were slaughtered in tJhci~ bouse in Dmajpm and their bodies 'were bl!llfl1t. The brothers ,o,fher hillshand were murdered in March 197] .: m Mymetwingh and iDnl, Kalurgha:t iu Cbi'ttag"Oug. She 10 sf her h'llsha.ttd in January !9''72 when the ,Mukd Bahlni was in control -andanother bloodbath, of non.";BengaliS ~ 1being conducted, Repatriated to Karachi inJanuaxy 1974, Mobina Khatoon said:

,~,~ 0 J a 1, b 11 'i!~,._Jf lef .. 1) '1). - •

·'In ; 'm11U11], o~ IP72, my ,",,'IUS 'anu was lUi ne i t;:J;t 'uIC: house In

ord.~r .~,go 'to the J:l0spi~~ Fo~_ !:r., "eatn_lent. ~'.~ the. ~y., h.e was waybl4 15'1 ~ ,Mtdc:u Bshini g;m,g which gunned rum to deatlL

A,t night, I meftmy ~101Ue ,in seaech of him. Some Bett,galis who had known Us: told me th~t tbey 11!ad seen a dead _body lying :in ~ ,djoclh a. fm'lon,g!wny. I,:r'~ltowards it. Inside the pit lay the 1Jt1l1et-riddled body of my husband. I felt ~b ki1Ung myself' burthe thought of ,my children made me Miv:e

PI' -

O'Doj! • 'I' II •• II !I!

Sao.Je.edaKhatoou, 3 S ,I whose, l1mbQ[ld 'WOr];,ed ill\the E]b::wi(;' Supply o:flice i~l Chittagon._g, lived in a small house in the fhlishaha:r lo~,]jty in Chi:uago'ng. Repatria,t'ed to Karachi 111l ,)<llllttary' ]974,; S~jeeda ,gave this, pla, account of the murder ot her hlWiband by

t"h e Bengali rebels in MaJ1;h 197I:: .

~:'llpanic,..Stridrei1 by thegrueson~e 'rdaughtet co"wiuctcd 'by 'the ,rdjcl:s; in non ... Beitg~i setdementiS in Ghittagong since' ,M;u1t:h 3" about 250 non-Bengali men, Woft1e'n and children of OUI' IO{:'aHty

L ""1=;.'......., 'I 11'11 "ii' 'b"-;::~'I" M 'II.., "'_ - JI dId

OOOKII~ut;,e m. a ,a.rgewatu~d. . UJiJl)C!l111,g. I., Y fillS band an . , ~In '

our three ,chi1drerl were in d~is b1JUdmg.Our house was, .1olotOOJ and burnt by the rebels in the course ofr.ud;s, en our loeoility in

the past :rew 'we,ch ... " .. " . .

uOnMMd121~ about. ,00 ;aJ1',m.edl rebe~s, SCNme brM1:dishi1l:~g mach~, ine guns, stormed our 1huiMillg. We wen:, dcEc:nreless;- we did. no t have even a, kitchen knife. Resistance was: out of questiOn. The k:i11'els~ ,aimIt:s:g guns at US;; told tch:e' menfolk 'that if 'they wanted 'their WOlilen and ,children to Rive t~ey should line ~P' ill

~.e' oO~_fOlm, d,:' olf,th~ bu,il~ding= TIle: ~.~~~ t~irr chil.'d.i~ .. and said,e- 'to theIr wwes" _mothers. and 'SIlS£eI'S. They

were lined up in 'the compound and, in less than ten :minutes; the Bengali ,gtm:nmen mowed them with b:n:allets", .. ,' ... ' .

'(~:nle' ki~ler gangthen led usto a godowuwniCh lo~kedll&e a, s tim.~kill,g dU1lg~o~" There was filthd ,over tb:eSoor'.W'e were herdedmsid.e it" I had .fosttlle urge t? lirv,e becaus:e ufthe mt~tder of my husband by the rebels in. the: buDding. My child... zen were 8tafving. 'in dlis IdLllllgeon ~ eVel1lYla.ter was ,d!en:ied to' us. I h.leartl one 0, ,f the Be. ngali guards sa:v 'that on 'tho ~ Ie Mon'OW they would burn ns to death. The ki11flf~ had brotlg~ht kerosine otl tins to bum the gO&ow,ll. At night, ldippedlmy ]il:tie Slott out


o f awindQw and. adood him to 'unlock. 'the mamdoor of the godown w'hjch ~51m:lted in i]remiddle and not locked., The· :BengaU :!llIM<ls~ it seemed t had been dlmfredby d~e rebelsto btock 'the advance of the Paids:talmi troops wnohad goDJe into action apinst the rebels, O~tt escape bid 'WaS succcs-.sfllll and, w,e ,r,~o~ t"Ow,wtdfi, the main ,HOspital which, :had ,~omeli1nderthe At1Uy~s control, ,Mm1.y of us were almost naked, beclusc our Sar~~ wer,e t!):tM in ~~e ¢s~pe bid. '1'he{e&er:al troops ~'Ve' us' dothes ro 'wear. Some of uswere k .. dJgedliol ReUief Crum:p~ 'Othersmn t to '~ive with their relatives "m.o llad sttrviv,oo die


massaC[lE:. • ., • ,. . • ,

EY'e-'m messes gave, heil.[·vM~eildfug{\coo'I.J ~J~S of We murder 0 f 11,O!UB"ngaU employees in the 'Usmallia Gl~ss.W()Ir,k.~ Or! MardI 27, and in.

tlle Ha_fi ... I~ ]u. l~e ...• M.' Jlh.- ... al.ld.·'~ ... Eh_e F8P .. '. ahan.i,Jutle ,MmS.,. ill Chi1l: .. _.ta.,- !~Q . .n. gi~t."M.· _Rrell .td Apr]f I'S)7I.. In tbeda.tig.h tel mn the ,AWll1 Jute MdI]!~ :at :B1J!lnrha;t~ llon.-Bellgam members of the st~af£' aDd ehe:lJr' £1:m.iUe~were ~Jau;g11te'red,.. In the USllrmniaGfass: WO:tki~ odmost. an the 'West PalJstani .st;];'ffmembc:rs,'W'e~ebul~chcrndL Indle Hafiz JIil~l': MiUs~ a. km~f mob looted! and, 'burut the home of its non ... Ih,"!ugaU Prop'deltior and tined llsoilnn":JBengali empioyeeE: and their- :.fatrillles. IR the l:spahilhi Jute Milk, there ~e very fe"WSl1l"¥lV!Q)n: o:fthe ~~a\~ghtet 01£ .noIl~:BengaU!i .. , Stacks Ofmtlti]~:ted dead! oodies of the haple~, vktiEm~ whose blood hid. beendrained out before tIl!!}1' 'were done to deaJth~ w!ereto1lllud hydie fedenm uoops in the ~cEe:.uio::n Clllrb for Mill w, which the rebels used as a human :abatoolr'.,.

M.a:ny ,oibcrpans of tn:c dutJtagon g .Division wer-e strickaUt by the Awa.tni .Le,~g~insugated c!vn strife .in Much and, Aprit I97L Wi~.esses sa:id that :fkbe .dayi:ng ofoon-DC11g;a1ls and. the W311t.:J;n 'looting of dlf.1[ propeny ham taken 1?~a:ce in N azHhll!t~Arw"W<ll;a~ Dol1a2ari.~ K,[]J1')jr,I, an.d.Ha.thi1lzui. Wlle:nknsionW1s ::iparked ,ofF:at these places in tllemiddle 0.£ Ma,reb, lIm ~,lnally .1lO:n~B~1)gali fallllliesfted. 'to Chiltta:gQng city" In thejr abst:11lce,valmlals looted thdr:h.OtllSt:fl,. A few nCJn; {am.ilies,in Cox's D\\lzar w,e:r-eallsothevicnlIi!E ,of'

"JI] • 1 ,gen.ocr~-a. . VlOJ!.e:il1Ve.

Mass',acres'- in Ch,an,,gho'na" Ranga,mat:i

Wajihmmisu, 3 S'" whose 11usband w~s clnp]oy,ed, in the CeiltW J!!xc_ise Department and was posted at Chllnd-rngIiona, gam~ 'tills account ,0 f the March 1971 slanghtcrofnon.-BengaHs :in her tow!lsllip:

~'Il1 'che secondweek .ofMa.r'ch 1971!f A:Wmll Lesgue glling~vi~hed rhenon-Bengalk inour ~,oc:aHty and assured them ·tll,at 110 11.Hm 'wowd ,['C),'uch, them if dIeY SUrreJutoced their 'weapons. ,My has ha~l,dl, Maq,sood Alam; who 'was an excellent m,ar:ksman" 'complied with tbeir instrueeions and gave up his gun, • ' ••.. , •

"Ia the tlm,d week of Marcht roving bands of armed Ammi leaguers terrorised the :11011~BengaUs and extorted moneyfrom them. They bad blocked ,all the escaperoutes.

_ 'f~O.:l1 MardI.' :.' _' .26~ a.n. ar.m. ed &.IOUp., o .. f' Awa. T.l1i.leagu,ers .. · .• caned .. at our house and! ordered my hLlS~:nd to go. witk them, to his affine'. I knew that it was _ a ruse and that they ¥refe after ·the 'b.lQod of my htmband. .. '" ...

u:01'1_ March _27" another kjJle.rga.ngra:ided my house. They' told. me and lhe three brothers; of Iny husband mat, the Dqm_ty CO'hutliS-5ioner of Rallgaulatihad instructed that 'we lihoold be

~~e.n 110 his: o~ce ... to.· .. ,pIote~t us.. As. w.;e prep.a~ea., .. to. go" the

kiD.' .... ers as~.·~,-;(l tn.f:. · .. ··.l1.t. goo. ·_ ... pmn.,-.·.t~:o.,·s,tay ~ad: .. - .. , Th t. ,ey :ro oped lny

brothers ... in-law tng:etherand put them 111 a it:nu;k .. , "

"In 'the afternoon, a huge mob of' Bengali eebels raided, our ~oa,1ity and looted the houses of non ... Benga1is. Om :menfon~ had been kidna,pped. A 'killer ga'f.!.g laIlSacked myho'n~e and E?oood ~efYt1ting~ exc~P'[ t1\e .. cciling~, ,md ow:udr:ob,cs. They drov~ the non ... BI=,llgah Wo]netl and. cru_1dren,t like cattle, _ to 3, large oompound 'where 'we' we're order:e;d to. stay. F'o'r fifteen darys: we were starv'ed, and we p.l'a}red '~O 'God for belp. IOn

~p1rJI [. 3~ OnrC:l.:pro.· .•.. [.S 1.C~Ullt rl. 'Iat the e wel}e~~ .. 'Itl8: ~owauJs Cha:J1<ci'ragliol!!l3,. Ther.c'hels: ordered us to faU IlJ1.

lineand we :knew that they 'W'O 1!dd open fiIe on us, Same of us trioo, to 'break leo a,e and ther·e W3iS a melee . .All of a sudden ,31 11 .. '.fd .. "i't ... an. d .•.. ~.l1.r.s,t . a .... ' fe .. '. w ....•. · Y.··f .. <1<f1cis." · .... a .... wa.~y .. ~. fi ...•. llom." .. i~.e c.;,qm.'. E .. OOlll.1.l.d.'. w.,.h .. if .. ~J.C we 'wert: herded hy Qiuraprors. We s,aw III the :&l'. disranee a

comp,aJily ofl"akj~tM:~ soldfers, waving 'me Green al1d Crescene jag" ra.cingtDwaniS1L1S" OUlrcowardly C(lpWfi too.k f[i,ghtand scampered like Juice mtlf.~ing ~way UOto a. ca t, Th;ePakjstm.i troop'.s gave· tts w,tror and food. They freed 200 non-Bengali. women and ,dJ:iMr'cnwho 'U'e-If held caprive in anotber camp' in Cl1.andrngbona. We learnt that antlJ:enon~B.etlgaJilMe11 who had been kjml~l'~ed ibyd .. e rebels from Chandfil:gnolla were

slaiUghtcr,od anddumpedin to the Karnaphl1H river , ..

''The federal Army a:cc:o:rnmodatedus ill a:ReUef. Canlp' m. A.f'iter tile Indian ArnihY and the Mu'kti HaMIll ,captm'ed . CljittfllgQng. w. dH~ third week of M3Luh 197I~ they lli[l~eashed dea:t!l. and d.est.mcttOll Dn the uen-Bengelis. My little cmughte.r caught a. chill intne wintery Gold[; 110hQ5-pital W.a:s wimllg toUeat t'he ,chiM o:t a Biha.ri. sb:c cU.~d. in my aIms .. , I ~\'3 mnved eo ~, Red, Cross Cru:np aHer some day~. III Fe'bniNry ]"974, ] W'IS f.I::pr1.uiatedw Kar:achLu

Witnesses nOlll Chittagom.g ~aid that iin [971" the Bc:u,g)di l~ehels looted the Karnapluili Paper and R.a:yoll. M11ls and slaughtered the: non-Bengali ·statE' and their :familieis.Not .. many escaped the massacre, Hu.ndreds of t.eenag~girrs~ 16d.napped. Qfrerbhe~r fathers or hMSblluds· had becnrnurdercd,Vf;-e£'C ravished by their BetlgaH cap'" ton in hoeses rued. for mass :sJa ughter and sex =1:i201t., It is. ~dnmted ~1.t moze bhan j~OOO non-Bengalis i~hed. in the massacre in ChandmghOJla in Mat('h~ApriI 197.1. Fhis is far in excess: of the iroitiat

6.ig?~e of,;2I,ooo 'de.1 ad., gwe. n.· .. O.iUDt, b.~cy th.'c. "iq:rov,~.ent i.ill' ~.·.ts .AUS"D ... st ~97I, WhIte ,.lIlpa on meB."tSt Pakistan cnsrs, Rebel snkhen of th.e .: East

BengaJRegimellt and the ,B~;.'i:t: P~ldstafil,R1B·es lcoted.~] thecash the Kat.naphuli Paper aD_([ Rayon M,ms. and spared tltc Uves of some senior naif membees :anijr ·they paid! dIem h'l.~ge ~Illm of [lKlrllCJ as r;a.:n&om.


R,ru!~gmn~ti .is. ~ picturesque 'CQ"iNh situated in 'l\:11:e Cj)J1tmgQfl.g HiD, Tr.acts. Portytivf.l miles fromChiuag:cmg,. it lies on the bank of tIm Ka;rrJ;~p1htlliR[ve..I". .En .Mar:ch-ApdII9iI ~ the A:wami league's

rehelHon ,engulfed it in the ftan1£S of conflict and ID': l1o~n .. :Beng:alis were 1C"xterminated by the hlmdr,eds. In April 1911, aU the non~Eengalj~:

UvinS in 'Ranp_nuti "Wef0 rounded up by armed :g.wgs of, :c1be1_j and sla.ughue1ned he£oroe 'me feda:aJ Artuy aIrived. Tile Cireui t: House in, 'which attracted tourists fr-om ,far and. 'wide~ was used as the operaeional b~ by the rebels :£lromMlere they dWI~tte,d dre campajgn '00 liquidMeulc nOl1:-:B,el1lga.lis, in Chsndaraghona ;md Ranga.mati~

Abid Husmin,3;"b wll)o' '''~ employed in the Karllapbuli P,a:p6~ and Rayon Mill3~ Biycn ina, small houseia ltang:ama tibecause be Cioidd not g:et a staft' Iqu~rer in the MiU premises, Repatriated to Karachi wi rh his w.ife in. Febnt:u;y ][1974 ~ ,Ile res,titled,::

"The fws,t ntajoI incident in tJJe Kamaphuli Pm:p(:t artd Rayo'll M]Us occurred on Mm:cll 18 whell, Avralnj League miHtan.ts incited ~he B'cng-ali miUhan,& 'to kill the non .. &ngali staff ,and their tnwilies and occupy '[heMin. kealjsin,gwhat lay in st-O.rc for~.s, Il'lJsh~ to. ,nCil.y house and, aJkmlgwitl1 my '\ViCe. we took shelter ill the house of ,3, Go,d-fearmg and trustworthy

'0-- . 11~: C. '. ' . .::1 u '

,D,engan :tneHQ •••• " •

_ _ _ Som_e Ics;~~p~e, 6'o~ tbe~~, Le~~ue:"s teJt-!Or}n ~RID1~~ma6 sought refug;ern _ thesh_aCb of Ch~kma tribesmen 111 Apr]~. 19'71 and t:neytrekkedb~ck i1JO ~11,ga:rnati t1ft-er tJirePakis£a1], ,Army had. estab&:h'ed contro] ,ova· .it,.

_ ,Witnesses said. that 'time l'eb_t:i gangs used to dump, at night t-rnck ... loads o,f,co'rp~BS into the Karna,phuli river, Mflny of these dead bodies ~oa.tte,d into 'the Ba.y of 13" ng;al ,and the ,cr,e.w, and p,assengers on boatd for:clgn ships reported sighting:l1lafiy Moated .human cotp\llCS in ttb.e sea.

Fire end De,ath' in Khulna

. . The·. A~Leag,Li!e'8 .r-en,eUion triggered :1 ruh of distu_ribmoesand lawlessness in Khulna, ~he hub of Bau Pakistan's jute uacte and :intill'Str)'". in the first week, 10£ MarCh 197I.,

0,0.. March 4,3. eio tous crowd ~ .led byarmed .A wa"mliLeag[!lC'l'S,. rai~ed th.e,local Tc,Je:pbone B.-..::~}:mge,w£ecked a ,part of th,e ,eqll'ip.mcn t and S:la:-y,ed a number Qf cmployces,molScly non-Bengalis, 'Th,!! next day.,. a ]al'.ge, killer g~mg;, :h1ranldishitJ;g ,rDle.s,. sickles. spears and knives, looted, ~hQPsand,bum:t a hotel in the heart of the city. A.nother mo'b,~ ,a;rmed 'with exp]!OtS.ivC'S guns, :spe-ars mild 'b.lwllOO poles~,~tta.eked_ non-Bengali shops. and homes in-the l1cighbouriIllt townsllips of Da*tp~r and. ,Kba]spu:r ,and mmde:rnd .57 pernons.Their ,mutilated Cle-rui lbocHes, were' Eo~md afrer some dal~.'

. On MardI 6, B~,a!i m'ilitauts ,took out a big precession to fri-

ghten the non-Bengali~ in Khuma. Some 'of the armed pl"OtiCSSiOn1stS tticdto loot ar-ms and ammunition sho ps; and in tla.e fr:ru:as there "Were' qm'~ a few, casual ties. Tll_e .a.vic ,ad:minist~:tiQn in 'the-tO"WTil was, pa[~~ ly~Qd!; dIe poUice beca:m,e in.eS'ective ~ndthe Awa.mi League ~itants 'whipped up mass. hysteria against dre flon:-Bengt\lis and the. federal govenml~:t-. Fede-r,al and provmcial officials, who did, Dot side 'With

~L _ t'_ I ,., ._ .1

me reeea, were ten-or.!Sw.

In the second week of MarCh~ the Awami Leagur;'s rebellious movement gained momentum in Khwna and the nOIl,I,..j8engaHswere Ilin_gled out .ro·,r, teuorl53"ticm. and ab:ridgem~nt" In me third week of the mQnih~ ,m·e A -wawi Leagne'~'s. regime o.£"violence and '~:r heM Khn1lm mel its ne~gh:bow:~ to'W'nS under its full s:way.' The Khulna-je8IDte Road was· 'blocked, and 'barricaded 'by the rebels atV:arious, points. 'The SUIVNors: of dJ:~' M~r,ch s: kiUJit:l,go.f' the non-Ben g:iUs in Khdna we're ;sui~Jecmd to fresh attacks ,afl d . ~ntimida;tory pfif:SS1J!'e by :~ Awami Leag:ue mili.tants and 'tile :re'lbe1s €rom the East Pakistan Rifles.

:poop]c.. All dmough the week: of Maroch , until ili~ federal arnlY move~ in", ,th~ Bengali re'be'ls s~god the bloodbsrh of nOll-:Bcllg,dis. They' had. set-up gl\oul1ish ,skL'1!mgiltCl ... houses where llon··Bengdi men w'Omem~, dlildren were done 'fD , ill a. gruesome manner. Th,r: re'Deb fttlDg: many of'rhe dead bodies into the dver:s :it:!! Kh,wnn. and. its neigh.homing to'Wi1~hips,. Before 'being guillotined" the nonBe1".l,~i and, some p~o~f(id.etal Bengali victimswere eortured.


_' E,Y ,e-wi'tl~ses. sa~ ma~y dead bodies ~ith sU~.· tl~~~.'s ~d r"ippe,d stomachs floanng m 'dJte T1VICXiS. _ The rebels looted cUlc1l,'Teckcd a.

JJ:wnber ofJuk m.ins, a.nd other industrial establlilmlf:ncs in Khulna and its vicinity. IGlk':r gamgs, tossed DOD ... 13engaU millhsnds :mw stel~ 1boH£rs. In tIn: mon..:n~ga]i residential areas :in XhSi]jSPUJL and D':;mlar~ pur3,k.:iHcr :~gg, ,g,llJU1cd, the innocents 'with 'Wanton saya~ery. Their houses and shandes,wer-e put to the toI'ch~ All th:rcmgh he last week ofMar,c-h,,~h,js dr,c"ad.ful1 p.Q:g:JClDm against tb,e nQJl~13,enga1ljjs w~, conducted by die r:eb.els of the :east P'amta.n :Ri!lIes, the police,the ,Ansar Volt:m/!teer Force and ,tbe artnOOmilitants of ' the AW:Jmi L~gll'le w,ith rntbJess ferocity.

The Awatui Leagu~ had O(~'5tah]i lied parn~mi1it'fllrYffaini(ig camps in K.huLna n1Jthe secondweek of MaI-chwhcr,e ttu: p;u:ty's. vorunt~s rrainedwith guns and ammunition for ':ilOpcrntil?n Leor, Burnmd ]{l~r'.. In the industrial and commercial parts ofK.huln2 ,(ity, sooxes of WestP'~kistani businessmen and factory ,executiv,es ~mid 'their fa.m~i,~, were kidnnpped and held for raEsom. S(l~e ofth.em w~e s~2ugbtered. by tl~eir ea:prors even,er th,eir re1!3it1iv,t"Jl, hId, paid the mmo,m money •

,£" ' "Ill ~ 1',~.~ :l.~_1L '1' , _j ~''- " 'B' ali C':'_"' J - 'II

~cm'e ,iQ'eDg~ W'JW sne tl:I'ea WeIr non- __:_eng: . i rnenos were <Ii.!lSO

done to' Ideath 'by the rebel gangs. SurviVOD of the genocidal fury' of' Much ]971 report that on Mardh ~9t'"a da-y hcfor.e.ilie :&:d.eral army ree&r:a,1b~ishoo ir;s; contrcl over tile city) Kh,~lna looked ~ikca wrecked '~OWl1 on the 1nO:fIO'W of a l),uclear ,attaCk,

Estimates, of the death ton .in XhuJna, and, its neighbouring towniliipos, ,during the Awami Leagu~'s r:ebeUion ofMnrch 1971 are at con-

• ~I "t.l . . _j ~-.: 1. • .

~iliuera,D. ,e y.u!.tn,oe, Foreigtl atm. _ _l?,tlK-istani newsmen wnO vivl'ed

Khullla. in ,AFi'~ ... May 19-71 wer,e 'tOld by ,army officers ~a~ at"leas'cp. 000 persons we~e killed_bydt: AWAml.' Lc~gue. mlli.~~ts: R.l1d.thek suppor·w.; rs, But eye--WI~e'l\ses ]lDtenr'~ewed fordm, book,ethat nem-Iy 50',;000

nOl~-B;~gaIls: pe~~ ,in._ Kh.ulna, dunng . dlckies; of Match 'I97I" Aside bo,m the murder 'of tens ofthol1SaDd5 of non ... :e,c:ngaHs rcsid'eDt

in Khtll na ,and its irreigb:bourhood!! 'tltey ;~sert'~ tna.tly bWi,dreds of non:Bel1gali :f:tnillies who B:ed from rebel rerrOE ill other ID'MlS 'of:Khnlna disttkt were clone. to death on the access roads ttl the city 'w!l1ch we-lie

under rebel control, -

AcooDcimg, m 'Witl1>essc<s froDI Klllllna,. the n()illFBengaU ti.eartlh toil]! in the savage attackon the People's Jute Mill and 'the Creicent Jute: ,Mill bya huge mob ofarmed Beuga1is 0'11, March 2.8 I I 9'71 ~ exceeded :S .ooo .. ,ind~g:women and [rhii£dr~,. .Tn 'dIe pog~(Hnm the Radlwa,. Colonry in Khulna,,_,mosc of its o~ooo non":Bcllgali-resi,d.ents 'were Ilutchered by the' Benga]l rebds. ,Hwdreds of non~Benga.~iYOlo.1(J)IWo.menWieie marched 'by their eaptorsm aeighboudng villages where theywer:c! ass::uihed and. r~ped in cordoned oilfhuts. Many were lcilled 'b,y their' capro'I'S., Some e~apod to .Bari!i41, and, were hmiught by the Pwst:!n ~nny to Dacca and lodged in 'R.eHef Ca.mps in MQhamme,dpu[ and Mirpu_r ..

[The ,New York Times, in. a dC'spaltlch fro:m its ,(,or:rcspondCfl't,,Ma1w,hn W., Browoe" who touredBast Pakistan ill the :h1istweek of May~ repo.rred i11 :i,ts: issue OIf May P', 1971:

'4,t A 1TL._~ 'b c. "I" • 'L~·. c:

.••..•. '. ··t An:Wna~ nC'VlSm.eD w.:em s rown RCI_IUes wJ.X're rrames

w,em said to have been set up, 'to hold!! pr,isoDefs for dec-apitatioft .. :Fragnten:1:S ofbloQdy do,thing and tresses o.f'wo'men's hair 'W'Cte :strewn a.bout. Th,e ,hee' "WaS said to 'hav;e been used. 'by the Bengali insurgents fori 'IDe exeeudon otthomm.nds ofnon-:Bengali resldenes, . ~ . . ., . .

A. more horrifying descr.iption of ihe _ d~u:ghteI of nonBengalis, aJ?pean~d inthe Washin,gtr.m Sandal" SIll" en Ma,Y9, 197";::

II,., •••• ,. " • In Khulna; neW'SQ1,en on all anny...oonducted. 'tom )1l:S'" ter.da.;y~c- .. sa'W wha,t a n .. on-Ber .. lgAll.resident d.' .,escf1 .. had .. as .a]unnan s[augh'ter~hnU5e. SIH~lds 'were said to have been used. by ~t

Pak:iStan~s: domlnaru: Bengalis; in mass IdUiugs o£'UihMi immig;mnts: from :mdia, West P:mstru:ds and other n.o:n ... Bengalis .d~~g'~dl and !eatly April tlt the height of the secessiowst

uprlISJDg, ..... ' ••••

"There 'Wi;S 3l for,m ,of a, g~ow attached to <t tf«" w~ere the

residents s~id victlmswtle ,cholka!,w d~~t:h. VordsRttacltoed

. . j'_~ .f. _-1' . 11. " "D jJ~'

to one tree were aeseneea as !tmng"lng nooses, .uo!;.)ues w'e:I"e'

said to lr.avebocn tilr,O'Vll 'OY'CI a ,low-waU moo the 'riverr~g

~lo~ide .. '., . . . .

~~,Lo,mJg f'OWS ,of shiD1psmd homes ill 'the l1on~cngrui sector 0.£'

Xhuh1a werebGd1y burned, app:acnclyby Bengalis .. ' ,1'

The ev,i&eftce 'Of ey'e-wiru.~ses;s:how.; th,olt after the fed,eraJ. - troops drove out the insurgen,tsfoomK:hu]lla~nd' ilrSllearhy townmips, the rends, hea.a.ed scu-aight for India wnere the Inman ,aitmor.itieswcioo'med thml asheroesand g~ve dtC::tu 5,3!_tI,CtuLry'. Malty amQng~t!l:hekil1ers in Kholna were Bengali RiudlklSWha halt.edl the non-Bengalis, especially Ulle, immigrantS &om Bihlil:r In In&iill. ''l1!1e~(lirity of tihe Eengali POptUiilltion m. KluIJn.a,WMro tc·tro:disOO by thehardccee Awa:mi. Les~u.etsthat it dared not pn'.!test;]gains.t dlere,i:~] .of,teIfCif tudeashed on m.e· non .. :B,engali£ ..

. .Ni~M.A1Im,ednaa~ J7~ who, \VaS. the headmm.ster of ~ high s6hQ:o~ in tlhe Khallspru: inchmstricl_cowndrlp in Khnlna, had this grim l\eco~k""tro:ll of the' AWo1l!m.i leag;De' s terror regime :fm Mnch 1971: t

"'f:Oll Marm. 23, m:m.ed bsnds of A~ .:LeagUIC vo]uDt.eeEsaud rebels fro·mthe :Ea:st Pakistan Rif'Iles :md 'f;hl~ police itcsccra:red the P'aik1staru flag m. Kha.Hspur and! no]s:redthdr E:mg~a._Ded1"g atop bmJ1dings and frlCIDI,ies in ORr township.. Shloothe mjdd}e of ,Mru:ch~ the 13e.aJJlgM. rebels were 011 the ' the D01iJ1,,"~eng~Si!lUdwe heard rumours that eh~bo:ratep'repa;ratiQ:ns

were bcli1,g m.ade for' out slaugh:te·Jj' ," .. , .. " , -

"'1' 'il" .~c.111 e- . ~_j'lt_ - ., .1." ~ .• :ilL f!'·M· IT

Jl. JI1V&l m a rtnl!:eOfiOttse lome !!.rIO secto!! In tne ,;,a.tewute .•. own

in KhaJIiJspur' .loca1tty. My schco~ was locar~dl IMthevidn1jty of ~ 'P,eople~s Jute Mill . Closete it ]irv,ea some [:5.000. .m:m .... .Bengali5~. :rmny·:in sh:m.ti~s. They were 3iSS,uu:d.1bythe low AwaDri LeagUeFs ,oody. in the nrst_ek: ofMan:h that:·they 'WO.d not heclisturbed or hanaed, In. :&ct~, local Awami League. ]~ dlers and .siO:~Bell,gallii police o.lfic.ersmetd~ [epr~e[l'taQ\1ic;s of the: non-:Bengalffis .in the ma,im:!. Mosq:ue in tub lcH_"a,lity.In the ,ereseloce ot the non .. Beng,mUhnam (P,riest)~ they took an o~th

":'1... ;c t'II'nlO: _.1 ~ b hs ~.~.;;II 'i'fr'!'L" . .l •

mat nonM~Jo'en&~ 'WOw~ ·.fl. .I.·~", -,I!,lllSM'StlI'MlGe ens-

made& tbefion~B engali~ £rom, twking. any 8d£=defe,~e.!Il1e;1sl1\r¢s or moving flO 'D~ocafoU[srufety •....••• "

I'm ehe ru~ght of March. 23 and aUrthr:opgh, tlie n,ext daYt mil!

Bengali rebels wellt on the ramp'age against t:he llon~Be:n:gaHs :in this 1'(H::a'iity~ 'The [.ebe~s Mo~.ked all the access roads ,and sealed off' the montes of escape for :the non .. Bengalis. Armed 'wi'chd6es" sten guns, hand gren~des~, knives andspears, a huge kml1~[ meb fell upo:n~eha:p'~ess~oll .. 13engaH men, w,omen ~and childrem. The rehds burned and blasted the entire ne,igl1~ol1[~

hoo, d '; t,hey 1,0, '_,~te~ _ the, homes. ',of,Ro,n-, Bengalis and jas dle v~i,~tims. ran out of tlreiJr h01llSes,;, a nail 'Qf gunfire' mo'wc,d thrm dawn.

Many wo,meo aDd,child:reIlS(nl1~ght refuge in the' main Mo£que an,cl in my ,school buildi:h,g., Th'e killen ,Dlurd,C!f,ed 'the Imam mriest) w-kG begged them in tile name' of ,Allah to sp,Mle th.C"

~::I. 1T'1...' ~j'L__.l' b ~n'· LL_ £_11

mno,ccnm. ' & ue w,omrner,cy t1au, 1_ ecomc ill.e,ll t,o U.ll,'; reOtas .. ~ ,

oflT~~ag~ Gi~]s ~nd,y~~~ WO'~~ ki,d~,~~ped, hY,~eIBCl~I,~i rebels, were lodged m, the school building .. , , At nIght, they

mr(: r:a;p1ed. by' ,their c.tpton.. Thc~e who IeWt,edwelie immema...; tely shot. Some hapless women jumped frOom the t·o:of of the, ~e;x ,a:srsa:ult dla:i:Dbets to escape their violarers ' .... ~ ..•.

"Some Qlld .men, wo,men .iUild, children were marched. by :ilic rebels 'to, tbe ,river-side Lllman abat1:oir where tlley we~I,e: s]aug)ieered 31:l4 dum_:ped, into the liver" The' killers trucked, ,away many dead lxu:Ues from the' town to the J:iver 'OOnk. wher,c they ~~e're tiUDg w'oo·tne 'W':a\iCf. • • .• '. ~ .

,lli:Ne-arrmy schuol was t-hc.h.ouse'of a .dear fd-end, .s~ghir Ahmed

'l7'1L _~ rM_~ I-ill-' ...... ~~ O'! ":rHI-'lL'e _f J"n' t"" 1~.~... [L, ~ ""1'1..)' ,""I .. rh' ;-

A.illU:l" ,J.,;oe K ',6.L b~ ,Sll,~,-.m 'Q " ,'..., 11........ .JlJlO'use :_.~ ~. I'me

g1.1ld:iled, e'Yeq- .inm:Lte. His house was looted and. partly burnt ...

,n1 did not go to my' smoo.I om MaTCh ~, the lday of the massacre. 11,r l,e,ne,nf1.ay, all ~ i 'il,ttiend,,'~ltD,I,"t ,cameto myho, CUeS'&: in Satdllitc Town and gaVe ,me gri~'y detW5. of the kining.. ,HwuJred! of

dead 'b~dies" many O(YOtlJ:Jg women~ hesaid, lay in. .hea.P5 intbt:' scL.o,ol· 'buidin1g. , ... ' .• ' ...

On M~ch ]o()" when the federa1troops entered Khu1na. and the rebels r,etreated~1 I went' to my school. ,:It ,!as: ahD~rifYin:g spectade'_ Blo3.ted~ decomposeddemd.baaies I:a::y in hundtlflds '3tul the stench of rotting Idead 'Wti, nauseating. .It tOQk me' ;iiJmolM; a whole ,moll'dr [:6 bury the deadJ to clean up' ,the bloo.cllstilins

d to 1"·, '. ~ ,,'1L ,. L U

an I·,' fllUllna.d! we ~w~ .. ' ... ~ . ~ .'

Nis~r Ahmed Khan escaped mNepaJinI97'2 afret d'H'; second ~sa\cre of the llO:D~Bw.g,djs by the vlctorioU:l ,Mukti .BahIni: in Khulna ~a:te. in. December, 1:'971. In April T.'973~ he came ro Pakistan &om Kathmandu and setdcdim Kau,chi.

MaLLoo'b Alam~, .39fWho W,'3J~S: a senior ACCOI1R[S C1'rulkin dle Feop]e~ s JU'li'e Min .:in Kilmna, and who W'"J.S :1rep.1triate:d to PakistMl ill february I!!J'4-~ testi£ea:

'~,m: JivOO ill 2, rented. house in dll!1! old Colony .in, I-~::··. iQ, ~. ru .•. _~na._ . .A1 .• ·.mo~t.hat.f.,of.t~e no.n~~eng;lli. F.'o~pubtl._·~ _.of _~ulna.· '-'_='.' ih stnct W,I]:S concentrated In KhaJ~sptu" and many of them had

hunt attractive houses. Nolt far from our Colo:ny 'Wa'i: asettlement of Beng~li labourers wilo'Wor.koo in the jUttl'. ,mills. The ~·w·armi Leaguers ~ inciting'Orl!~ agaim-t the non .. ::Beng;a1i po_pu]aoo •. ~ . _ .

UThe rebels ha.d set up;a; slaughkT ... hcn:t~ ,iu our locality where: they 'tJO;rtn:roo., ma!ily :afBucnt nO!Il"' bdbre s,~aYID8, th~ Women :fr-om a6lne!11t herneswere ,forced at to .,d1isdoS!c tin'!' plare wheEeih~h3Jd ll~dden (hell" ()!111U11fllts: and cash; their door ones 'weresl:':Mlg]];tere,d hefor-e tbek eye8~ ....•• "

~ Mahbo()i:l, Alam who we~tmto hidin It"! in t]:l1e home efa tru'Swd B~g~l.:&iend escaped the .ma;s.s3cae. Many o£his, 11cda.dves 'were delle to ,CiIeath.,

ADsa .Ahm:ed, 3'O~, who, owned o milo:ringshQj?' in SII'ttlUte TOl'wm

in lTL,_,l"'rt-'O.,Wl' in .Kb.uJna.-. narf'at.ed itL!~ :acoo"un*:oP ~jlr .. ,-:.,.-:I:T . "ir,!I'I"7--'jf

fi.L~"'J:' ,- - .... -" .' __ .~.l!J,Ilj ,~,_,iII, IJI_X M~~t .II.;:O.'~'"

daughter' {')f'non"":lgengalis,:

nO'r] .Mardi :231' a large mOb of afl11ed Awa..mi Leaguer.smd rebels from the East pmsm.nRJ&s ~tt:Wked. $e,non':Bien,gali Immes ill Omf 1vcalit)Tand condncted ~ bloodl'~atih 10[' 50 me ·24 houn. 'They looted" buftlt and :mot innceent ptuple w[~ the fury of smwges. mac few hOQr-s~ the entire ,colony was 'turned :mto ,an inferno. o::f6re" bl~)od an~ d~th. MallY nt)n-i6'eH:§~ 'W~ mowed ,doW'B by therebds~ :gl~e wlb!~n they-tried 'mescar,e