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10ES43

Subject Code:10ES43

No. of Lecture Hrs./Week : 04

Total No. of Lecture Hrs.:52

IA Marks: 25

Exam Hours : 03

Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:

Modeling of Systems: Introduction to Control Systems, Types of control systems, Effect of

feedback systems, Differential equations of physical systems Mechanical systemsFriction, Translational systems (Mechanical accelerometer, Levered systems excluded),

Rotational systems, Gear trains. Electrical systems, Analogous systems.

6 Hours

UNIT 2:

Block diagrams and signal flow graphs: Transfer functions, Block diagrams, Signal Flow

graphs (Statevariable formulation excluded).

7 Hours

UNIT 3:

Time Response of feed back control systems: Standard test signals, Unit step response of

First and second order systems, Time response specifications, Time response specifications

of second order systems, steady state errors and error constants.

7Hours

UNIT 4:

Stability analysis: Concepts of stability, Necessary conditions for Stability, Routh-Hurwitz

stability criterion, Relative stability analysis; Special cases of RH criterion.

6 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:

RootLocus Techniques: Introduction, basic properties of root loci, Construction of root

loci.

6 Hours

UNIT 6:

Stability analysis in frequency domain: Introduction, Mathematical preliminaries, Nyquist

Stability criterion, (Inverse polar plots excluded), Assessment of relative stability using

Nyquist criterion, (Systems with transportation lag excluded).

7Hours

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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Control Systems

10ES43

UNIT 7:

Frequency domain analysis: Correlation between time and frequency response, Bode plots,

All pass and minimum phase systems, Experimental determination of transfer functions,

Assessment of relative stability using Bode Plots.

7 Hours

UNIT 8:

Introduction to State variable analysis: Concepts of state, state variable and state models for

electrical systems, Solution of state equations.

6 Hours

TEXT BOOK :

1. Control Systems Engineering, I. J. Nagarath and M.Gopal, New Age International (P)

Limited, 4 Edition 2005

2 Modern Control Engineering, K. Ogata, PHI, 5th Edition, 2010.

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Control Systems

10ES43

Table of contents

Sl .no

Contents

UNIT 1:Modeling of Systems:

Introduction to Control Systems

Page number

systems- Friction

5 to 12

Levered systems excluded)

Analogous systems.

Transfer functions

2

Block diagram

13 to 23

UNIT 3: Time Response of feed back control systems:

Standard test signals

24 to 46

steady

state errors and error constants.

UNIT 4: Stability analysis:

Concepts of stability

47 to 65

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Control Systems

10ES43

Introduction

5

66 to 84

UNIT 6: Stability analysis in frequency domain:

Introduction

Mathematical preliminaries

85 to 102

Correlation between time and frequency response

Bode plots

103 to 118

Concepts of state

8

119 to 127

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Control Systems

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UNIT-1

Modeling of Systems

Introduction to control systems

A system is an arrangement of or a combination of different physical components connected

or related in such a manner so as to form an entire unit to attain a certain objective

Control system is an arrangement of different physical elements connected in such a

manner so as to regulate, director command itself to achieve a certain objective

Requirements of good control system are accuracy, sensitivity, noise, stability, bandwidth,

speed, oscillations

A system in which the control action is totally independent of the output of the system is

called as open loop system

Example: Automatic hand driver, automatic washing machine, bread toaster, electric lift,

traffic signals, coffee server, theatre lamp etc.

A system in which the control action is somehow dependent on the output is called as

closed loop system

The elements of closed loop system are command, reference input, error detector, control

element controlled system and feedback element

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1. Command : The command is the externally produced input and independent of the

feedback control system.

2. Reference Input Element: It is used to produce the standard signals proportional to the

command.

3. Error Detector : The error detector receives the measured signal and compare it with

reference input. The difference of two signals produces error signal.

4. Control Element : This regulates the output according to the signal obtained from error

detector.

5. Controlled System : This represents what we are controlling by feedback loop.

6. Feedback Element : This element feedback the output to the error detector for

comparison with the reference input.

Example: Automatic electric iron, servo voltage stabilizer, sun-seeker solar system, water

level controller, human perspiration system.

In feedback system corrective action starts only after the output has been affected

Advantages of closed loop system:

1. Accuracy is very high as any error arising is corrected.

2. It senses changes -in output due to environmental or parametric change, internal

disturbance etc. and corrects the same.

3. Reduce effect of non-linearities.

4. High bandwidth.

5. Facilitates automation.

Disadvantages

1. Complicated in design and maintenance costlier.

2. System may become unstable.

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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1. They are simple in construction and design.

2. They are economic.

3. Easy for maintenance.

4. Not much problem of stability.

5. Convenient to use when output is difficult to measure.

Disadvantages of open loop system

1. Inaccurate and unreliable because accuracy is dependent on accuracy of calibration.

2. Inaccurate results are obtained with parameter variations, internal disturbances.

3. To maintain quality and accuracy, recalibration of controller is necessary from time to

time.

Feed forward system is that in which the corrective action is initiated without waiting for

the effect of disturbance to show up in the output

System having multiple inputs and multiple outputs is known as multiple output (MIMO)

control system

A servomechanism is a power amplifying feedback control system in which the controlled

variable is mechanical position or its time derivative such as velocity, acceleration

A regulator or regulating control system is a feedback control system in which the

reference input remains constant for long periods/entire intervals of operation

An adaptive control system is one that continuously and automatically measures the

dynamic characteristics of the plant.

The system which follows the principle of superposition and proportionality is called a

linear system.

The motion take place along a straight line is known as translational motion.

Rotational motion of a body is the motion about a fixed axis.

The elements of rotational system are inertia (J), damping coefficient (B) and torsional

stiffness (K).

Mechanical system

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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Control Systems

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DAlemberts principle states that, the algebric sum of externally applied forces and the

forces resisting motion in any given direction is zero.

For mechanical network, analogous electrical network can be obtained by using f-v and f-i

analogy.

Force-voltage analogy: In this method force is analogous to voltage.

Similarly,

displacement n charge q.

(a) Force-voltage analogy:

Mechanical coupling:

Laplace transform of signal x (t) is denoted by X (s)

Example problems:

Q 1. Draw the f-1 analogous mechanical system for the electrical circuit of fig. below:

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Control Systems

10ES43

f (t) is analogous to R.

f (t) frictional force f is analogous to r.

Spring constant K is analogous to reciprocal

Mass M is analogous to inductance L

system and obtain the transfer function.

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Control Systems

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The equation is

Ans. Force analogous to current

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Control Systems

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system and obtain the transfer function.

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Control Systems

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At node x

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Control Systems

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UNIT-2

Block diagrams and signal flow graphs

Transfer function

The ratio of laplace transform of the output to the laplace transform of input under the

assumption of zero initial conditions is defined as the transfer function Of system. It is

denoted by G(s).

1. It is used to give the gain of given blocksystem.

2. The system poles/zeros can be found from transfer function.

3. Stability can be determined from characteristic equation.

4. The system differential equation can be obtained from transfer function by replacing.

s-variable with linear differential operator

Significance of Transfer Function

Where

R(s) is laplace transform of input.

Transfer function gives the gain of the given block system.

Properties of Transfer Function

1. The transfer function is independent of the inputs to the system.

2. The transfer function of a system is the laplace transform of its impulse response for zero

initial conditions.

3. The system poles/zeros can be found out from transfer function.

4. The transfer function is defined only for linear invariant systems. It is not defined for

non-linear systems.

Limitations of transfer function are listed below

1 Transfer function is valid only for linear time invariant system.

2 It does not take into account the initial conditions initial conditions loose its significance.

3 It does not give any idea about how the present output is progressing.

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Control Systems

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Poles are the value of s which when substituted in the denominator of a transfer function,

make the transfer function value as infinity

Zeros are the value of s which when substituted in the numerator of transfer function,

make the transfer function value as zero

The characteristic equation can be obtained by equating the denominator polynomial of the

transfer function to zero

. The highest power of s in the characteristic equation is called the order o system

The number of poles at the origin defines the type of system

Block diagram algebra

Block diagram gives a pictorial representation of a control system by way of short handing

the transfer function Signal flow graph further shortens the representation of a control

system by eliminating summing symbol take-off point and block This elimination is

achieved by way of representing the variables by points called nodes

A pictorial representation of the relationship between input and output of a system is termed

as block diagram.

The direction of flow of signal from one block to other is indicated by an arrow.

The point in a block diagram at which signal can be added or subtracted is termed as

summing point.

Gain is the ratio of laplace transform of output to laplace transform of input .

Blocks in series are algebraically combined by multiplication.

The lines drawn between the blocks to indicate the connections between the blocks are

termed as branches.

The point from which a signal is taken for the feedback purpose is called as take-off point.

The order of summing point can be changed if two or more summing points are in series.

Signal Flow Graphs

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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Control Systems

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A signal flow grow is a pictorial representation of a system and it displays graphically, the

transmission of signal in system

Node: It is a point from where branches originate or terminate or pass through.

Branch : It is connecting link between two nodes.

Path : The time traced by connecting two or more node is called path.

Loop : It is a path that originates and terminates on same node and along which node other

node is traversed more than once.

Mason s gain formula is used to find the gain of signal flow graph

According to Masons gain formula

where

= Gain of ith forward path

= System determinant

= 1 (sum of all individual loops) + (sum of all gain products of two nontouching loops) - (sum of all gain product of three non-touching loops) +.

The gain associated with each branch is called branch transmittance

The independent and dependent variable of a control system are represented by small

circles as nodes.

The relationship between nodes is represented by drawing a line between two nodes Such

lns are called branches.

Example problems:

2010

Dec/Jan

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Control Systems

10ES43

There is only one forward path

There are two loops. Thus

Step IV. Obtain transfer function

Calculate the phase shift at

Ans.

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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Control Systems

10ES43

Ans.

Ans.

The term

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Control Systems

2011

flow graph and determine the overall gain relating

10ES43

June/July

.

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Control Systems

10ES43

--no

Step V. Find the value of

Overall transform function

2010

function relating C(s) and R(s).

June/July

Ans.

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Control Systems

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Q. 21. From the block diagram shown in the figure below draw the corresponding

signal flow graph and evaluate close loop transfer function relating

Dec/Jan 2006

the output and input.

Individual loop,

Non-touching loops = 0

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Control Systems

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Determine the state model in canonical form using parallel decomposition method.

Ans.

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Control Systems

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Ans.

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Control Systems

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UNIT 3

Time Response of feed back control systems

In time-domain analysis the response of a dynamic system to an input is expressed as a

function of time. It is possible to compute the time response of a system if the nature of

input and the mathematical model of the system are known.

Usually, the input signals to control systems are not known fully ahead of time. In a radar

tracking system, the position and the speed of the target to be tracked may vary in a random

fashion. It is therefore difficult to express the actual input signals mathematically by simple

equations. The characteristics of actual input signals are a sudden shock, a sudden change, a

constant velocity, and constant acceleration. The dynamic behavior of a system is therefore

judged and compared under application of standard test signals an impulse, a step, a

constant velocity, and constant acceleration. Another standard signal of great importance is

a sinusoidal signal.

The time response of any system has two components: transient response and the steadystate response. Transient response is dependent upon the system poles only and not on the

type of input. It is therefore sufficient to analyze the transient response using a step input.

The steady-state response depends on system dynamics and the input quantity. It is then

examined using different test signals by final value theorem.

Standard test signals

a) Step signal:

r (t ) Au(t ).

b) Ramp signal:

r (t ) At; t 0.

c) Parabolic signal: r (t ) At 2 / 2; t 0.

d) Impulse signal: r (t ) (t ).

Let us consider the armature-controlled dc motor driving a load, such as a video tape. The

objective is to drive the tape at constant speed. Note that it is an open-loop system.

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Control Systems

G( s)

10ES43

kk

kk

ak1km

W ( s)

a ak k

1 m ; If r (t ) au(t ) , W ( s) 1 m 1 m

R( s ) m s 1

ms 1 s

s

s 1/ m

t

wr

the motor

k1km

We are interested not only in final speed, but also in the speed of response. Here, m is the

time constant of motor which is responsible for the speed of response.

The time response is plotted in the Figure in next page. A plot of et / m is shown, from

where it is seen that, for t 5 m the value of et / m is less than 1% of its original value.

Therefore, the speed of the motor will reach and stay within 1% of its final speed at 5 time

constants.

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Control Systems

Here, T ( s)

10ES43

k1km / ( m s 1)

k1km

kk

W ( s)

1 o

R( s) 1 k1k2 km / ( m s 1) m s (1 k1k2 km ) o s 1

where, ko

km

m

and o

.

1 k1k2 km

1 k1k2 km

t / o

If a is properly chosen, the tape can reach a desired speed. It will reach the desired speed in

5 o seconds. Here, o m . Thus, we can control the speed of response in feedback system.

Although the time-constant is reduced by a factor (1 k1k2 km ) , in the feedback system, the

motor gain constant is also reduced by the same factor. In order to compensate for this loss

of gain, the applied reference voltage must be increased by the same factor.

Ramp response of first-order system

Let, k1k0 1 for simplicity. Then, T ( s)

1

W ( s)

. Also, let, r (t ) tu(t ) .

o s 1 R( s )

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Control Systems

10ES43

o2

1

1 o

Then, W ( s) 2

;

s ( o s 1) s 2 s o s 1

The error signal is, e(t ) r (t ) w(t )

Or, e(t ) o (1 et / o )u(t )

ess (t ) o

Thus, the first-order system will track the unit ramp input with a steady-state error o ,

which is equal to the time-constant of the system.

Consider the antenna position control system. Its transfer function from r to y is,

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Control Systems

T ( s)

10ES43

k1k2 km

k1k2 km / m

n2

Y ( s)

R( s) m s 2 s k1k2 km s 2 1 s k k k /

s 2 2n s n2

1 2 m

m

where, we define,

n2 k1k2 km / m and

2n

ratio and n is called the natural frequency. The system above is in fact a standard second

order system.

The transfer function T ( s) has two poles and no zero. Its poles are,

s1 , s2 n jn 1 2 jd .

The location of poles for different are plotted in Figure below. For 0 , the two poles

jn are purely imaginary. If 0 1 , the two poles are complex conjugate. All possible

cases are described in a table shown below.

n2

s 2n

1

1

1

2

Suppose, r (t ) u(t ), R( s) ; Y ( s) 2

2

s s 2n s n s s 2n s n2

s

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Control Systems

10ES43

Or,

Natural frequency, n

The natural frequency of a second order system is the

frequency of oscillation of the system without damping.

s 2n

s n n

1

1

Y ( s)

2

2

2

s ( s n ) n (1 ) s ( s n )2 (n 1

Performing

inverse Laplace

transform,

Damping ratio,

The damping ratio is defined as the ratio of the damping

factor, to the natural frequency n .

b

.

T (s) 2

s as b

Suppose,

nt

e

2

) 1 standard equation,

1 2 cos(an 21

n and

)t sin(n 1 2 )t

or, y(twith

Comparing

1 2

b.

2

n

y (t ) 1

or,

d n 1 2 and tan 1

ent

1

sin(d t ) ,where,

1 2 / cos 1

n t

e sin(d t )

d

.(01)

y (t ) 1

or,

The steady-state response is,

yss (t ) lim y(t ) 1

t

The pole of T ( s) dictates the response,

e t sin(d t ) .

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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Control Systems

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Control systems are generally designed with damping less than one, i.e., oscillatory step

response. Higher order control systems usually have a pair of complex conjugate poles with

damping less than unity that dominate over the other poles. Therefore the time response of

second- and higher-order control systems to a step input is generally of damped oscillatory

nature as shown in Figure next (next page).

In specifying the transient-response characteristics of a control system to a unit step input,

we usually specify the following:

1. Delay time, t d

2. Rise time, tr

3. Peak time, t p

4. Peak overshoot, M p

5. Settling time, t s

6. Steady-state error, ess

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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Control Systems

10ES43

1. Delay time, t d : It is the time required for the response to reach 50% of the final value in

first attempt.

2. Rise time, tr : It is the time required for the response to rise from 0 to 100% of the final

value for the underdamped system.

3. Peak time, t p : It is the time required for the response to reach the peak of time response

or the peak overshoot.

4. Settling time, t s : It is the time required for the response to reach and stay within a

specified tolerance band ( 2% or 5%) of its final value.

5. Peak overshoot, M p : It is the normalized difference between the time response peak and

the steady output and is defined as,

%M p

c(t p ) c()

c ( )

100%

6. Steady-state error, ess : It indicates the error between the actual output and desired

output as t tends to infinity.

ess lim[r (t ) c(t )] .

t

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Control Systems

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Let us now obtain the expressions for the rise time, peak time, peak overshoot, and settling

time for the second order system.

1.

Rise

time,

tr :

Put

t tr , sin(d tr ) 0 sin , tr

; cos1 .

d

2.

Put

Peak

time,

tp :

dy

0 and

dt

y(t ) 1

at

for

t tp ;

solve

n t

e sin(d t ) n e t cos(d t ) .

d

tan(d t p )

1 2

d n 1 2

tan , d t p k

k 0,1, 2,

3. Settling time, t s : For 2% tolerance band,

n t

4

e

0.02 , ts 4T .

d

s

4. Steady-state error, ess : It is found previously that steady-state error for step input is

zero.

Let us now consider ramp input, r (t ) tu(t ) .

Then, ess lim s{R( s) Y ( s)} lim s{

s 0

s 0

n2

1 1

}

s 2 s 2 s 2 2n s n2

2

2

2

n2

1

1

s 2n s n n

ess lim {1 2

} lim

s 0 s

s 0 s

s 2n s n2

s 2 2n s n2

2n 2

.

2

n

n

The steady-state performance of a stable control system is generally judged by its steadystate error to step, ramp and parabolic inputs. For a unity feedback system,

E ( s)

R( s )

sR( s)

, ess lim sE ( s) lim

.

s 0

s 0 1 G ( s )

1 G( s)

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It is seen that steady-state error depends upon the input R( s) and the forward transfer

function G( s) . The steady-state errors for different inputs are derived as follows:

1. For unit-step input: r (t ) u (t ), R( s)

s 0

s 0

1

s

1

1

1

1 G( s) 1 G(0) 1 k p

s 0

s 0

1

s2

1

1

1

lim

;

s 1 G( s) s 0 sG( s) kv

kv is

called

velocity

error

constant.

3. For unit-parabolic input: r (t ) t 2 / 2, R( s)

s 0

s 0

1

s3

1

1

1

lim 2

; k a is called acceleration error

s

0

s 1 G( s)

s G ( s ) ka

2

const.

The open-loop transfer function of a system can be written as,

G( s)

K ( s z1 )( s z2 )( s z3 )

s n ( s p1 )( s p2 )( s p3 )

s n (Tp1s 1)(Tp 2 s 1)(Tp 3s 1)

If n = 0, the system is called type-0 system, if n = 1, the system is called type-1 system, if n

= 2, the system is called type-2 system, etc. Steady-state errors for various inputs and

system types are tabulated below.

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Control Systems

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The error constants for non-unity feedback systems may be obtained by replacing G(s) by

G(s)H(s). Systems of type higher than 2 are not employed due to two reasons:

1. The system is difficult to stabilize.

2. The dynamic errors for such systems tend to be larger than those

types-0, -1 and -2.

Let a zero at s = -z be added to a second order system. Then we have,

( s z )n2 / z

n2

n2

C (s)

s

2

.

2

2

2

2

2

R( s) s 2n s n s 2n s n z s 2n s n

The multiplication term is adjusted to make the steady-state gain of the system unity. This

gives css = 1 when the input is unit step. Let cz(t) be the response of the system given by

the above equation and c(t) is the response without adding the pole. Manipulation of the

above equation gives,

cz (t ) c(t )

1d

c(t ).

z dt

The effect of added derivative term is to produce a pronounced early peak to the system

response which will be clear from the figure in the next page. Closer the zero to origin, the

more pronounce the peaking phenomenon. Due to this fact, the zeros on the real axis near

the origin are generally avoided in design. However, in a sluggish system the artful

introduction of a zero at the proper position can improve the transient response. We can see

from equation (03) that as z increases, i.e., the zero moves further into the left half of the splane, its effect becomes less pronounced.

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Control Systems

10ES43

A control system is generally required to meet three time

response specifications: steady-state accuracy, damping factor

(or peak overshoot, Mp) and settling time ts. Steady-state

accuracy requirement is met by suitable choice of Kp, Kv, or Ka

depending on the type of the system. For most control systems

in the range of 0.7 0.28 (or peak overshoot of 5 40%) is

considered acceptable. For this range of , the closed-loop pole

locations are restricted to the shaded region of the s-plane as

shown in Figure.

For

the

system, n k1k2 km / m ;

antenna

1

2n m

; ess

ramp

position

2

; ts

control

parameter. If we increase k 2 , n will increase and thus settling time will decrease. At the

same time, will decrease, this indicates the increase in peak overshoot. Thus by merely

increasing gain, we cannot improve both transient and steady-state error specifications. We

need to add additional components to the system. These are called compensators. It will

allow improvement of both transient and steady-state specifications.

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Control Systems

10ES43

proportional feedback control can reduce error responses but that it still allows a non-zero

steady-state error for a proportional system. In addition, proportional feedback increases the

speed of response but has a much larger transient overshoot. When the controller includes a

term proportional to the integral of the error, then the steady-state error can be eliminated.

But this comes at the expense of further deterioration in the dynamic response. Addition of

a term proportional to the derivative of the error can damp the dynamic response.

Combined, these three kinds of actions form the classical PID controller, which is widely

used in industry.

This principle mode of action of the PID controller can be explained by the parallel

connection of the P, I and D elements shown in Figure 3.1 From this diagram the transfer

function of the PID controller is

(3.1)

The controller variables are

Gain

integral action time

derivative action time

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Control Systems

10ES43

(3.2)

, and

are usually tuned within given ranges. Therefore, they

are often called the tuning parameters of the controller. By proper choice of these tuning

parameters a controller can be adapted for a specific plant to obtain a good behaviour of the

controlled system.

If follows from Eq. (3.2) that the time response of the controller output is

(3.3)

, i.e.

, the step response

of the

PID controller can be easily determined. The result is shown in Figure 3.2a. One has to

observe that the length of the arrow

the impulse.

Figure 3.2: Step responses (a) of the ideal and (b) of the real PID controller

In the previous considerations it has been assumed that a D behaviour can be realised by the

PID controller. This is an ideal assumption and in reality the ideal D element cannot be

realised . In real PID controllers a lag is included in the D behaviour. Instead of a D element

in the block diagram of Figure 3.1 a

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Control Systems

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(3.4)

is introduced. From this the transfer function of the real PID controller or more precisely of

the

controller follows as

(3.5)

and

it follows

(3.6)

of the

controller is shown in Figure 3.2b. This response from

gives a large rise, which declines fast to a value close to the P action, and then

migrates into the slower I action. The P, I and D behaviour can be tuned independently. In

commercial controllers the 'D step' at

can often be tuned 5 to 25 times larger than the

'P step'. A strongly weighted D action may cause the actuator to reach its maximum value,

i.e. it reaches its 'limits'.

As special cases of PID controllers one obtains for:

a)

the PI controller with transfer function

(3.7)

b)

the ideal PD controller with the transfer function

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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(3.8)

and the

(3.9)

c)

and

(3.10)

The step responses of these types of controllers are compiled in Figure3.3. A pure I

controller may also be applied and this has the transfer function

(8.11)

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In addition, the different cases should be compared with respect to the normalised

maximum overshoot

a)

The P controller shows a relatively high maximum overshoot

settling time

, a long

b)

The I controller has a higher maximum overshoot than the P controller due to the

slowly starting I behaviour, but no steady-state error.

c)

The PI controller fuses the properties of the P and I controllers. It shows a

maximum overshoot and settling time similar to the P controller but no steady-state

error.

d)

The real PD controller according to Eq. (3.9) with

has a smaller

maximum overshoot due to the 'faster' D action compared with the controller types

mentioned under a) to c). Also in this case a steady-state error is visible, which is

smaller than in the case of the P controller. This is because the PD controller

generally is tuned to have a larger gain

due to the positive phase shift of the D

action. For the results shown in Figure 3.5 the gain for the P controller is

and for the PD controller

e)

The PID controller according to Eq. (3.6) with

fuses the properties of a

PI and PD controller. It shows a smaller maximum overshoot than the PD controller

and has no steady state error due to the I action.

The qualitative concepts of this example are also relevant to other type of plants with

delayed proportional behaviour. This discussion has given some first insights into the static

and dynamic behaviour of control loops.

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at the input to the plant

for different types of

controllers

Example problems:

Q. 1. Consider the system having transfer function

Calculate the settling time for 2% tolerance band, for the unit step response.

Ans.

Comparing with

we get

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setting time

differential equation

(1)

Now standard equation of a second order system is given as

(2)

so comparing eq (1) and (2), we get

Q.3. For a second order system the roots of its characteristic equation are

underdamped natural frequency of the system will be.

(a) 4 rad/sec

(b) 3 rad/sec

(c) 5 rad/sec

(d) 7 rad/sec

the

Ans.

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Q. 4. What will be the response of a first order system with unit step input?

Ans. We have

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be

when subjected to a unit step input. Determine the undamped

natural frequency and damping ratio of the system.

Ans.

Comparing, we get

Natural frequency

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Determine the value of K and B such that the closed loop until step response has w = 3

rad/sec and

Ans. The characteristics equation of the system is 1 + G (s) = 0

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UNIT 4

Stability Analysis

Concepts of stability

Because of its feedback structure a control system can become unstable, e.g. oscillations

with increasing amplitudes in the signals can occur .

A linear time-invariant system is called ( asymptotically) stable, if its weighting function

decays to zero, i.e. if

(4.1)

is valid. If the modulus of the weighting function increases with increasing to infinity, the

system is called unstable.

A special case is a system where the modulus of the weighting function does not exceed a

finite value as

or for which it approaches a finite value. Such systems are called

critically stable. Examples are undamped

S and I elements

This definition shows that stability is a system property for linear systems. If Eq. (4.1) is

valid, then there exists no initial condition and no bounded input signal which drives the

output to infinity. This definition can be directly applied to the stability analysis of linear

systems by determining the value of the weighting function for

. If this value exists,

and if it is zero, the system is stable. However, in most cases the weighting function is not

given in an explicit analytic form and therefore it is costly to determine the final value. The

transfer function

weighting function

, there is an equivalent stability condition for

according to

Eq. (4.1). The analysis of this condition shows that for the stability analysis it is sufficient to

check the poles of the transfer function

characteristic equation

of its

(4.2)

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The following necessary and sufficient stability conditions can be formulated:

a)

Asymptotic stability

A linear system is only asymptotically stable, if for the roots

equation

of its characteristic

for all

is valid, or in other words, if all poles of its transfer function lie in the left-half

plane.

b)

Instability

A linear system is only unstable, if at least one pole of its transfer function lies in the

right-half plane, or, if at least one multiple pole (multiplicity

imaginary axis of the plane.

) is on the

c)

Critical stability

A linear system is critically stable, if at least one single pole exists on the imaginary

axis, no pole of the transfer function lies in the right-half plane, and in addition no

multiple poles lie on the imaginary axis.

It has been shown above that the stability of linear systems can be assessed by the

distribution of the roots of the characteristic equation in the plane (Figure 5.2). For control

problems there is often no need know these root with high precision. For a stability analysis

it is interesting to know whether all roots of the characteristic equation lie in the left-half

plane or not. Therefore simple criteria are available for easily checking stability, called

stability criteria. These are partly in algebraic, partly in graphical form.

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Figure 4.2: Stability of a linear system discussed by the distribution of the roots of the

characteristic equation in the plane

Routh criterion

For given coefficients of the characteristic equation the method of Routh, which is an

alternative to the method of Hurwitz, can be applied,. Here the coefficients

will be arranged in the first two rows of the Routh schema, which contains

rows:

The coefficients

first two rows according to

in the third row are the results from cross multiplication the

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Building the cross products one starts with the elements of the first row. The calculation of

these values will be continued until all remaining elements become zero. The calculation

of the values are performed accordingly from the two rows above as follows:

From these new rows further rows will be built in the same way, where for the last two rows

finally

and

A polynomial

a)

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all coefficients

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are positive,

b)

all coefficients

Example 1

For proving instability it is sufficient to build the Routh schema only until negative or zero

value occurs in the first column. In the example given above the schema could have been

stopped at the 5th row.

Another interesting property of the Routh scheme says, that the number of roots with

positive real parts is equal to the number of changes of sign of the values in the first

column.

Example 2

Determine the stability of the system whose characteristics equation given by

a(s) s 6 4s 5 3s 4 2s 3 s 2 4s 4.

The above polynomial satisfies the necessary condition for stability since all the

coefficients are positive and nonzero. Writing the Routh array, we have

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Control Systems

s6

s5

1

4

s4

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3

2

4.3 1.2

1

4

4

.2 4.0

2 2

5

s2

s1

12

3( ) 4.2

76

5

s0

2

5

5 12

2.0 ( )

4.4 1.0

4

.4 4.4

12 2

5

5

15

4

5

s3

4.1 4.1

4

0

2.4 .0

2

4

2

76

.4 0

4 15

76

15

We conclude that the system has roots in the right half plane, since the elements of the

first column are not all positive. In fact there are two roots in the right half plane, since

there are two sign changes. In other words two closed loop poles of the system lie in the

right half plane and hence the system is unstable.

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a(s) s 5 5s 4 11s 3 23s 2 28s 12.

Writing the Routh array, we have

s5

1

11

s4

28

23

12

6.4

25.6

12

s3

s

s1

Since the entire row is zero, we construct an auxiliary equation by taking the coefficients

of the previous row, i.e.,

a1 (s) 3s 2 12.

Differentiating the above equation with respect to s, we get

da1 (s)

6s.

ds

(1)

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s1

6

0

0

s

12

Since there are no sign changes in the first column of the Routh array, there are no roots

in the right half plane. However, since one entire row in the Routh array was zero, there

are roots in the imaginary axis. The roots in the imaginary axis can be obtained by

solving the auxiliary equation. Therefore,

3s 2 12 0,

s 2 4 0,

s j2

Example 4. Consider the system shown below. The stability properties of the system are a

function of the proportional feedback gain k. Determine the range of k over which the

system is asymptotically stable.

s 1

s(s 1)(s 6)

1 k

s 1

s(s 1)(s 6)

0,

s 3 5s 2 (k 6)s k 0.

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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s3

s2

s1

1

5

k-6

k

(4k 30)

5

s0

For the system to be stable, it is necessary that all the elements in the first column of the

Routh array must be positive. Therefore,

4k 30

5

k 7.5

and

and

k 0,

k 0,

k 7.5

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.

7 12 1

x

x u,

0 0

1

y 1 2x.

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For the system to be stable, the poles of the system should lie in the left half plane. In other

words all the real poles should be negative or the real parts of complex poles must be

negative. The poles of the system are nothing but the eigenvalues of the A matrix of the

system. The MATLAB code is shown below

a = [-7 -12; 1 0];

[v,d] = eig(a)

The result is

v =

-0.9701

0.2425

0.9487

-0.3162

d =

-4

0

0

-3

The diagonal elements of the matrix d are eigenvalues of the system and columns of the

matrix v represent the corresponding eigenvectors.

Example problem:

Q. 1. Calculate the value of k for which the unity feedback

system

Ans.

Routh array

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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Q. 2. A closed loop system is shown in the following fig. Find out the largest possible

value of

Ans. As we know

Now

Now the Routh array can be written as

So,

Q. 3. By means of Routh criterion, determine the stability of the system represented by

the following equation

Ans. This equations states

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So it is being replaced by

Imaginary roots make system unstable and response is continuous oscillatory. Therefore

system is unstable.

Q. 4. Consider the closed loop feedback system shown in the figure below. Determine

the range of K for which the system is stable.

Ans.

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Q. 5. Discuss the Routh Hurwitz criteria for determining the stability of a control

system and calculate the range of K for stable operation of following characteristic

equation

Ans. Routh-Hurwitz criterion helps in determining relative stability of a control system. From

the characteristic equation of control system Rouths array is constructed. In case there is no

change of sign in first column and the system is stable.

Given characteristic equation is

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system and calculate the range of K for stable operation of following characteristic

equation.

Ans. Routh-Hurwitz criterion helps in determining relative stability of a control system.

From the characteristic equation of control system Rouths array is constructed. In case there

is no change of sign in first column and the system is stable.

Given characteristic equation is

using Routh Hurwitz criterion.

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Differentiate auxiliary equation

Since the last element is negative, there is a sign change in first column, the system is

unstable.

Since terms corresponding to S3 are zero, we will form -auxiliary equation corresponding

to

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Differentiating

2s = 0

Q. 9. Find the range of K for stability of

Ans. Given characteristic equation is

Rouths array for given equation is

- For system to be stable all elements in first column should be greater than zero.

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0 < K < 0.44.

Q. 10. Determine the stability of the system whose characteristic equation is given by

Ans.

Rouths array is

Q. 11. A unity feedback control system is characterized by open loop transfer function

Using Rouths criterion, calculate the range of values of K for

the system to be stable.

Ans. The characteristic equation is

1 + G(s). H(s),

H(s)=1

1 + G (s)

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For s K + 1 > 0

K > 1

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UNIT 5

Root-locus techniques

Introduction

A designer can determine whether his design for a control system meets the specifications if

he knows the desired time response of the controlled variable. By deriving the differential

equations for the control system and solving them, an accurate solution of the system's

performance can be obtained, but this approach is not feasible for other than simple systems.

It is not easy to determine from this solution just what parameters in the system should be

changed to improve the response. A designer wishes to be able to predict the performance by

an analysis that does not require the actual solution of the differential equations.

The first thing that a designer wants to know about a given system is whether or not it is

stable. This can be determined by examining the roots obtained from the characteristic

equation

(5.1)

of the closed loop. The work involved in determining the roots of this equation can be

avoided by applying the Hurwitz or Routh criterion. Determining in this way whether the

system is stable or unstable does not satisfy the designer, because it does not indicate the

degree of stability of the system, i.e., the amount of overshoot and the settling time of the

controlled variable for a step input. Not only must the system be stable, but the overshoot

must be maintained within prescribed bounds and transients must die out in a sufficiently

short time.

The root-locus method described in this section not only indicates whether a system is stable

or unstable but, for a stable system, also shows the degree of stability. The root locus is a plot

of the roots of the characteristic equation of the closed loop as a function of the gain. This

graphical approach yields a clear indication of the effect of gain adjustment with relatively

small effort.

With this method one determines the closed-loop poles in the plane - these are the roots of

Eq.(5.1) - by using the known distribution of the poles and zeros of the open-loop transfer

function

. If for instance a parameter is varied, the roots of the characteristic equation

will move on certain curves in the plane as shown by the example in Figure5.1. On these

curves lie all

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for

possible roots of the characteristic equation for all values of the varied parameter from zero to

infinity. These curves are defined as the root-locus plot of the closed loop. Once this plot is

obtained, the roots that best fit the system performance specifications can be selected.

Corresponding to the selected roots there is a required value of the parameter which can be

determined from the plot. When the roots have been selected, the time response can be

obtained. Since the process of finding the root locus by calculating the roots for various

values of a parameter becomes tedious, a simpler method of obtaining the root locus is

desired. The graphical method for determining the root-locus plot is shown in the following.

An open-loop transfer function with poles at the origin of the plane is often described by

(5.2)

where

is the gain of the open loop. In order to represent this transfer function in terms of

the open-loop poles and zeros it is rewritten as

(5.3)

or

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(5.4)

with

and

is

(5.5)

(5.6)

or

(5.7)

root locus.

, represent the

must always be unity and its

phase angle must be an odd multiple of . Consequently, the following two conditions are

formalised for the root locus for all positive values of

a)

Magnitude condition:

(5.8)

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b)

Angle condition

(5.9)

for

(

determined. The magnitude conditions is the same, but the angle must satisfy the

c)

Angle condition

) can be

(5.10)

for

angle condition are the loci of the poles of the closed loop by varying

. The calibration of

the curves by the values of is obtained by the magnitude condition according to Eq. (5.8).

Based upon this interpretation of the conditions the root locus can constructed in a

graphical/numerical way.

Once the open-loop transfer function

has been determined and put into the proper form,

the poles and zeros of this function are plotted in the plane.

The plot of the locus of the closed loop poles as a function of the open loop gain K,

when K is varied from 0 to +00.

When system gain K is varied from 0 to +oo, the locus is called direct root locus.

When system gain K is varied from -oo to 0, the locus is called as inverse root locus.

The root locus is always symmetrical about the real axis i.e. x-axis.

The number of separate branches of the root locus equals either the number of open

loop poles are number of open-loop zeros whichever is greater.

A section of root locus lies on the real axis if the total number of open-loop poles and

zeros to the right of the section is odd.

If the root locus intersects the imaginary axis then the point of intersection are

conjugate. From the open loop complex pole the root locus departs making an angle

with the horizontal line.

The root locus starts from open-loop poles.

The root locus terminates either on open loop zero or infinity.

The number of branches of roots locus are:

N if P>Z

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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and M if P<Z

where N > No. of poles P

M > No. of zeros Z

Based on the pole and zero distributions of an open-loop system the stability of the closedloop system can be discussed as a function of one scalar parameter. The root-locus method

shown in this module is a technique that can be used as a tool to design control systems. The

basic ideas and its relevancy to control system design are introduced and illustrated. Ten

general rules for constructing root loci for positive and negative gain are shortly presented

such that they can be easily applied. This is demonstrated by some discussed examples, by a

table with sixteen examples and by a comprehensive design of a closed-loop system of higher

order.

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Example Problems:

Q.1. Consider the example

with

and

and

As

and

transfer function are identical with those of the open-loop transfer function

values

a)

. For other

:

Both roots

and

and

b)

:

The roots

and

, and the imaginary part Im

The curve has two branches as shown in Figure 6.2.

,

.

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At

is the breakaway point of the two branches. Checking the angle

condition the condition

and

and

and the

magnitudes

and

. The triangle (

) in Figure 6.2 yields the angle

condition. Evaluating the magnitude condition according to Eq. (6.8)

The value of

is

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Table 5.1 shows further examples of some 1st- and 2nd-order systems.

Table 5.1: Root loci of 1st- and 2nd-order systems

root locus

root locus

To facilitate the application of the root-locus method for systems of higher order than 2nd,

rules can be established. These rules are based upon the interpretation of the angle condition

and the analysis of the characteristic equation. The rules presented aid in obtaining the root

locus by expediting the manual plotting of the locus. But for automatic plotting using a

computer these rules provide checkpoints to ensure that the solution is correct.

Though the angle and magnitude conditions can also be applied to systems having dead time,

in the following we restrict to the case of the open-loop rational transfer functions according

to Eq. (5.3)

(5.11)

or

(5.12)

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)

and

or

(5.13)

(5.14)

(5.15)

for

follows. Here

and

denote the angles of the complex values

and

,

respectively. All angles are considered positive, measured in the counterclockwise sense. If

for each point the sum of these angles in the plane is calculated, just those particular points

that fulfil the condition in Eq. (5.15) are points on the root locus. This principle of

constructing a root-locus curve - as shown in Figure 5.3 - is mostly used for automatic rootlocus plotting.

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In the following the most important rules for the construction of root loci for

are listed:

Rule 1 Symmetry

As all roots are either real or complex conjugate pairs so that the root locus is

symmetrical to the real axis.

Rule 2 Number of branches

The number of branches of the root locus is equal to the number of poles of the

open-loop transfer function.

Rule 3 Locus start and end points

The locus starting points (

points (

) are at the open-loop zeros.

branches end at infinity. The

number of starting branches from a pole and ending branches at a zero is equal to the

multiplicity of the poles and zeros, respectively. A point at infinity is considered as an

equivalent zero of multiplicity equal to

.

Rule 4 Real axis locus

If the total number of poles and zeros to the right of a point on the real axis is odd,

this point lies on the locus.

Rule 5 Asymptotes

There are

(5.16)

For

Figure 5.4.

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The real axis crossing

of the asymptotes is at

(5.17)

At least one breakaway or break-in point

exists if a branch of the root locus

is on the real axis between two poles or zeros, respectively. Conditions to find such

real points are based on the fact that they represent multiple real roots. In addition to

the characteristic equation (6.1) for multiple roots the condition

(5.18)

(5.19)

for

. If there are no poles or zeros, the corresponding sum is zero.

Rule 8 Complex pole/zero angle of departure/entry

The angle of departure of pairs of poles with multiplicity

is

(6.20)

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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(5.21)

The labels of the values of

(5.22)

For

the denominator is equal to one.

Rule 10 Asymptotic stability

The closed loop system is asymptotically stable for all values of for which the

locus lies in the left-half plane. From the imaginary-axis crossing points the critical

values

can be determined.

Eq. (5.10) for negative values of some rules have to be modified. In the following these

rules are numbered as above but labelled by a *.

Rule 3* Locus start and end points

The locus starting points (

points (

) are at the open-loop zeros.

branches end at infinity. The

number of starting branches from a pole and ending branches at a zero is equal to the

multiplicity of the poles and zeros, respectively. A point at infinity is considered as an

equivalent zero of multiplicity equal to

.

Rule 4* Real axis locus

If the total number of poles and zeros to the right of a point on the real axis is even

including zero, this point lies on the locus.

Rule 5* Asymptotes

There are

(5.23)

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The angle of departure of pairs of poles with multiplicity

is

(5.24)

(5.25)

The root-locus method can also be applied for other cases than varying

. This is possible as

long as

can be rewritten such that the angle condition according to Eq. (5.15) and the

rules given above can be applied. This will be demonstrated in the following two examples.

Q.2. Given the closed-loop characteristic equation

rewritten as

Q.3.Given the closed-loop characteristic equation

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it is required to find the effect of the parameter

equation is rewritten into the desired form

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on the position of the closed-loop poles. The

Using the rules 1 to 10 one can easily predict the geometrical form of the root locus based on

the distribution of the open-loop poles and zeros. Table 6.2 shows some typical distributions

of open-loop poles and zeros and their root loci.

Table 6.2: Typical distributions of open-loop poles and zeros and the root loci

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For the qualitative assessment of the root locus one can use a physical analogy. If all openloop poles are substituted by a negative electrical charge and all zeros by a commensurate

positive one and if a massless negative charged particle is put onto a point of the root locus, a

movement is observed. The path that the particle takes because of the interplay between the

repulsion of the poles and the attraction of the zeros lies just on the root locus. Comparing the

root locus examples 3 and 9 of Table 5.2 the 'repulsive' effect of the additional pole can be

clearly seen.

The systematic application of the rules from section 5.2 for the construction of a root locus is

shown in the following non-trivial example for the open-loop transfer function

(5.26)

one zero (

four poles (

,

,

,

2). First the poles (x) and the

zeros (o) of the open loop are drawn on the plane as shown in Figure 5.5. According to rule

3 these poles are just

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underlined.

those points of the root locus where

. Values of

. We have

branches that go to infinity and the asymptotes of these three branches are lines

which intercept the real axis according to rule 6. From Eq. (5.17) the crossing is at

(5.27)

(5.28)

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i.e.

The asymptotes are shown in Figure 5.5 as blue lines. Using Rule 4 it can be checked which

points on the real axis are points on the root locus. The points

with

and

belong to the root locus, because to the right of them the number of poles and zeros is

odd. According to rule 7 breakaway and break-in points can only occur pairwise on the real

axis to the left of -2. These points are real solutions of the Eq. (5.19). Here we have

(5.29)

or

roots

and

and

. The real

of the root locus from the complex pole at

determined from Figure 5.6 according to Eq. (5.20):

can be

(5.30)

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Figure 5.6: Calculating the angle of departure

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of the complex pole

With this specifications the root locus can be sketched. Using rule 9 the value of can be

determined for some selected points. The value at the intersection with the imaginary axis is

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UNIT 6

Frequency Domain Analysis

Bode plot

If

the

absolute

value

and

the

phase

of

the

frequency

response

Figure 6.1: Plot of a frequency response: (a) linear, (b) logarithmic presentation (

logarithmic scale) (Bode plot)

on a

amplitude response and the phase response. Both together are the frequency response

characteristics.

and

decibels [dB] By definition this is

scale in this diagram and is called the magnitude.

will be specified in

The logarithmic representation has some advantages for series connections of transfer

functions. For complicated frequency responses, e.g. with

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for

, it can be represented as series connections of the frequency responses of simple

elements of the form

and

for

with

for

and

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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with

for

and

for

. Thus, the frequency response of a

series connection is obtained by addition of the individual frequency response characteristics.

A further advantage of this logarithmic representation is for the determination of the inverse

of a frequency response, that is for

. Here

and

line) and

and

(0-

and

and that of

can be approximated by line segments. This

approximation by lines allows the analysis and synthesis of control systems using simple

geometric constructions. They are important concepts for the control engineer.

Improtant points:

The magnitude and phase relationship between sinusoidal input and steady state

output of a system is known as frequency response.

The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G (jw) is plot of the magnitude of G

(jw) versus the phase angle of G (jw) on polar coordinates as co varied from zero to

infinity.

The phase margin is that amount, of additional phase lag at the gain crossover

frequency required to bring the system to the verge of instability.

The gain margin is the reciprocal of the magnitude l G(jw) l at the frequency at which

the phase angle as _1800.

The inverse polar plot at G (jw) is a graph of 1/G (jw) as a function of w.

Bode plot is a graphical representation of the transfer function for determining the

stability of control system.

Bode plot is a combination of two plot - magnitude plot and phase plot.

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The transfer function having no poles and zeros in the right -half s-plane are called

minimum phase transfer function.

System with minimum phase transfer function are called minimum phase systems.

The transfer function having poles and zeros in the right half s-plane are called nonminimum phase transfer functions systems with non-minimum phase transfer

function. are called non-minimum phase system.

In bode plot the relative stability of the system is determined from the gain margin

and phase margin. .

If gain cross frequency is less than phase cross over frequency then gain margin and

phase margin both are positive and system is stable.

If gain cross over frequency is greater than the phase crossover frequency than both

gain margin andphase margin are negative.

It gain cross over frequency is equal to me phase cross over trequency me gain marg

and phase margin are zero and system is marginally stable.

The maximum value of magnitude is known as resonant peak.

The magnitude of resonant peak gives the information about the relative stability of

the system.

The frequency at which magnitude has maximum value is known as resonant

frequency.

Bandwidth is defined a the range of frequencies in which the magnitude of closed

loop does not drop 3 db.

Example Problems:

with

This system can now be decomposed into an integrator, two PD and two

is

elements, that

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From this simple analysis the Bode plot can be determined by adding the Bode plots of the

elements

to

Figure: Representation of a dynamic system by two frequency response diagrams: (a) Bode plot, (b)

Nyquist plot

in the terms

for

and are the breakpoint frequencies in the

Bode plot. Also shown in Figure 4.20 is the Nyquist plot of the frequency response. Both

representations of Figure 4.20 basically contain the same information about the system.

Based on the example given above the procedure for constructing a Bode plot of a

given system can be recapitulated:

a)

The given transfer function must be put into the form

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Control System

with

where possible poles of

according to their multiplicity .

b) Then for

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at

and

.

c) If necessary corrections of the approximations can be performed.

Compensation technique is used to make the unstable system stable by introducing the

poles and or zeros at suitable place.

In control system design, if the designed specifications do not satisfy the

requirements of the system or leads to expensive and conflicting demands, then it is

required to insert an additiohal component within the structure of feedback system.

This adjustment is called compensation.

Compensators are of three types:

(a) Lag phase compensator(b) Lead phase compensator

(c) Lead-lag compensator.

Depending on the location the compensation is divided in following types:

(a) Series or cascade compensation

(b) Parallel or feedback compensation

(c) Load compensation.

Load compensations is provided to damp out oscillations in the system having

mechanical output.

Primary function of the lead compensator is to reshape the frequency response curve

to provide sufficient phase lead angle to offset the excessive phase lag associated with

the components of fixed systems.

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frequency range to give a system sufficient phase margin.

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Phase lag network is shown in figure below. The primary function of lag compensator is to

provide attenuation in high frequency range to give a system sufficient phase margin. Various

design steps of phase lag network are

Example Problems:

Q1. The asymptotic magnitude Bode plot of a system is given in the figure below Find

the transfer function of the system analytically It is known that the system is minimum

phase system.

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Q 2. Sketh the Bode Plot for the transfer function given by,

and from Plot find (a) Phase and Gain cross rer frequencies (b) Gain Margin and Phase

Margin. Is this System Stable?

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The gain crosses 0db axis at co = 1.24 rad/sec, the gain crossover frequency is co = 1.24

rad/sec.

The phase crosses 180 line at co = 0.4 rad/sec, therefore phase crossover frequency

is co = 0.4 rad/sec.

At phase cross over the gain is 20 dB, therefore gain margin is 20 dB.

At gain crossover the phase angle is 2150, the phase margin is 180 + (215) = 35.

As both gain and phase margins are negative, the system is unstable.

Q3. Sketch the bode plot for the transfer function given by

Ans.

On 0)-axis mark the point at 23.7 rad/sec. since in denominator (jw) term is having power

one, from 23.7 draw a line of slope 20 db/decade to meet y-axis. This will be the starting

point.

Step 1.

From the starting point to I corner frequency (0.33) the slope of the line is 20 db/decade.

From I corner frequency (0.33) to second corner frequency (1) the slope of the line will be

20 (20) = 40 db/decade.

From II corner frequency to IV corner frequency (2) the slope of the line be 40 + (20) =

20

db/decade.

From III corner frequency to IV corner frequency, the slope of line will be 20 + (20) =

40 db/decade.

From IV corner frequency (5) to V corner frequency the slope will be 40 (+20) = 20

db/decade.

After V corner frequency, the slope will be (20) (20) = 40 db/decade.

Step 2.

Draw the phase plot.

Step 3.

From graph

Phase margin = +34

Gain margin =infinity

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Q 4. State the advantages of bode plots. Determine the value of K in the transfer

function given below such that

(a) Time gain margin is 20 dB

(b) The phase margin is 30

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On the phase plot, we made this poirtt and extend the line tO magnitude plot where it

intersects. For required phase margin shift magnitude plot upwards

Total shift = 19 dB (from graph)

20 log K = 19

K =8.91.1

Q.5.Design a suitable compensator such that the system will have K= 10 and phase

margin = 50.

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rad/sec.

rad/sec to

From bode plot it is noted that uncompensated system is stable having a phase margin

of 30 and the gain crossover occurs at o = 6.75 rad/sec.

To increase the phase margin to 50 the gain crossover point is to be shifted to a higher

value of frequency and this is possible by introducing a phase lead compensation network.

The required phase lead is:

compensation network transfer function at

ofphase lead

is determined below:

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UNIT 7

Stability in frequency domain

Nyquist criterion

This graphical method, which was originally developed for the stability analysis of feedback

amplifiers, is especially suitable for different control applications. With this method the

closed-loop stability analysis is based on the locus of the open-loop frequency response

. Since only knowledge of the frequency response

practical approach for the following cases:

a) For many cases

are known.

is necessary, it is a versatile

considered directly.

can be

d) Using the frequency response characteristic of

not only the stability analysis, but also the

design of stable control systems can be easily performed.

To derive this criterion one starts with the rational transfer function of the open loop

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their multiplicity)

To determine

, the locus

can be drawn on the Nyquist diagram and

the phase angle checked. Expediently one moves this curve by 1 to the left in the

plane. Thus for stability analysis of the closed loop the locus

according to Figure 5.5 has to be drawn.

Here

and

is the continuous change in the angle of the vector from the so called critical point (-1,j0)

for

the point (-1,j0) or where it has points at infinity correspond to the zeros and poles of

on the

imaginary axis, respectively. These discontinuities are not taken into account for the derivation of .

Figure shows an example of a

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where two discontinuous changes of the angle occur. Thereby the continuous change of the angle

consists of three parts

the Nyquist criterion follows:

The closed loop is asymptotically stable, if and only if the continuous change in the angle of the

vector from the critical point (-1,j0) to the moving point of the locus

the case with a positive

time in the open loop.

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It follows from that for an open-loop stable system, that is

Therefore the Nyquist criterion can be reformulated as follows:

and

, then

If the open loop is asymptotically stable, then the closed loop is only asymptotically stable, if

the frequency response locus of the open loop does neither revolve around or pass through

the critical point (-1,j0).

Another form of the simplified Nyquist criterion for

'left-hand rule':

with poles at

is the so called

The open loop has only poles in the left-half plane with the exception of a single or double

pole at

(P, I or

behaviour). In this case the closed loop is only stable, if the critical

.

This form of the Nyquist criterion is sufficient for most cases. The part of the locus that is

significant is that closest to the critical point. For very complicated curves one should go back

to the general case. The left-hand rule can be graphically derived from the generalised locus

The orthogonal (

a curve with

hand side of

passes through the critical point (-1,j0). Such a curve is always on the left.

Because of the simplicity of the graphical construction of the frequency response

characteristics of a given transfer function the application of the Nyquist criterion is often

more simple using Bode plots. The continuous change of the angle

critical point (-1,j0) to the locus of

response of

. From figure

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Control System

the left-hand side of the critical point

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it can be seen that this change of the angle is directly related to the count of intersections of

the locus with the real axis on the left-hand side of the critical point between

. The

Nyquist criterion can therefore also represented by the count of these intersections if the gain

of the open loop is positive.

Regarding the intersections of the locus of

with the real axis in the range

,

the transfer from the upper to the lower half plane in the direction of increasing values are

treated as positive intersections while the reverse transfer are negative intersections

(Figure 5.7). The change of the angle is zero if the count of positive intersections

is equal

to the count of negative intersections

. The change of the angle

depends also on the

number of positive and negative intersections and if the open loop does not have poles on the

imaginary axis, the change of the angle is

In the case of an open loop containing an integrator, i.e. a single pole in the origin of the complex

plane (

), the locus starts for

at

, where an additional

change of the angle. For proportional and integral behaviour of the open loop

is added to the

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at

Figure : Count of the intersections on the left-hand side of the critical point for

open loop

as a negative one if

behaviour of the

(and accordingly

) no intersection. This follows from the detailed

investigation of the discontinuous change of the angle, which occurs at

. As only a continuous

change of the angle is taken into account and because of reason of symmetry the start of the locus

at

is counted as a half intersection, positive for

and negative for

analogous to the definition given above For continuous changes of the angle

has

, which is

single (

) or double pole (

) at

. If the locus of

has

positive and

negative intersections with the real axis to the left of the critical point, then the closed loop is

only asymptotically stable, if

is valid. For the special case, that the open loop is stable (

negative intersections must be equal.

From this it follows that the difference of the number of positive and negative intersections in

the case of

that for

the number

is even, for

the number

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Control System

all cases

valid if

10ES43

is an even number, such that the closed loop is asymptotically stable. This is only

.

The Nyquist criterion can now be transferred directly into the representation using frequency

response characteristics. The magnitude response

, is always positive at the intersections of the locus with the real axis in the range of

. These points of intersection correspond to the crossings of the phase response

with lines

lines crosses from below to

top and reverse from top to below on a negative intersection as shown in Figure 5.9. In the

following these crossings

and negative (-) crossings of the phase response

with the -180 line

will be defined as positive (+) and negative (-) crossings of the phase response

over the

particular

lines, where

may be valid. If the phase response starts at 180 this point is counted as a half crossing with the corresponding sign. Based on the discussions

above the Nyquist criterion can be formulated in a form suitable for frequency response

characteristics:

The open loop with the transfer function

has poles in the right-half plane, and possibly a

single or double pole at

.

are the number of positive and

of negative crossings of the

phase response

over the

lines in the frequency range where

valid. The closed loop is only asymptotically stable, if

Department of EEE, SJBIT

is

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must be valid.

Table 7.1: Examples of stability analysis using the Nyquist criterion with frequency response

characteristics

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Finally the 'left-hand rule' will be given using Bode diagrams, because this version is for the

most cases sufficient and simple to apply.

The open loop has only poles in the left-half plane with the exception of possibly one single or one

multiple pole at

if

(P, I or

has a phase of

for the crossover frequency

at

This stability criterion offers the possibility of a practical assessment of the 'quality of

stability' of a control loop. The larger the distance of the locus from the critical point the

Department of EEE, SJBIT

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farther is the closed loop from the stability margin. As a measure of this distance the terms

gain margin and phase margin are introduced according to Figure below

Bode diagram

and

or

Example Problems:

Q1 The polar plot of the open-loop transter of feedback control system intersects the

real axis at2 Calculate gain margin (in dB) of the system.

Q2. What is the gain margin of a system in decibels if its Nyquist plot cuts the negative

real axis at 0.7?

Ans.

a = 0.7

Q4. Consider a feed lock system with the open-loop transfer function. Given by

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Examine the stability of the closed-loop system. Using Nyquist stability theory

.

Q 5. Draw the Nyquest plot for the open loop transfer function given below:

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Q6. Consider a feed lock system with the open-loop transfer function. Given by

stability theory.

Q7. Sketch the Nyquist plot for the system with the open loop transfer function

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Construct Nyquist plot for the system whose open loop transfer function is

Ans.

Using the characteristic equation the Nyquist plot is drawn. A feedback system is

sable if and only if, the i.e. contour in the G (s) plane does not encircle the (1, 0)

point when the number of poles of G(s) in the right hand s plane is zero.

If G (a) has P poles in the right hand plane, then the number of anticlockwise

encirciements of the (1, 0) point must be equal to P for a stable system,

N=P0

where N = No of clockwise encirclements about (1, 0) point in C (s) plane

P0 = No of poles G (s) in RHP 0

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UNIT 8

Introduction to State variable analysis

State-variale representation of single-input-single-output systems

In the following a short introduction into the representation of systems using state-variable

techniques is given. For this purpose, the example of the

network from Figure is used.

The dynamical behaviour of this network is completely defined for

initial conditions

, if the

and the

input variable

for

and

. The variables

and

characterise the 'state' of the network and are therefore

called state variables of the network.

The differential equations describe the dynamical behaviour of this network. Inserting into

one obtains the 2nd-order differential equation according to which completely describes the

system with respect to the input-output behaviour. But one can also use the two original

differential equations and can write them in vector notation so that the 1st-order vector

differential equation

(8.1)

with the initial condition

is obtained. This linear 1st-order vector differential equation describes the connection

between the input variable and the state variables. To complete a state-space system, one

needs an additional equation that describes the dependence of the output variable on the state

variables. In this example, it is the direct relationship

Introducing the state vector

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and

with the matrix

and

one obtains the general state-space representation of a linear time-invariant single-inputsingle-output system:

(8.2)

initial condition

(8.3)

The Eq. (8.2) is the state equation, and in the general case it is a linear system of 1st-order

differential equations of

state variables

vector

. Eq. (8.3) is the output equation, which maps the states and inputs

linearly to the output. This is an algebraic equation, whereas the state equation is a

differential equation.

The Eqs. (8.2) and (8.3) describe an th-order linear time-invariant single-input-singleoutput system. For linear multi-input-multi-output systems of order with inputs and

outputs these equations become

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(8.4)

(8.5)

where the following notation is used:

state vector

) vector

input vector

) vector

output vector

) vector

system matrix

) matrix

input matrix

) matrix

output matrix

) matrix

feedthrough matrix

) matrix

It goes without saying that the general representation of Eqs. (8.4) and (8.5) also includes the

single-input-single-output case. The matrices

and

have constants elements. If

these elements are time-varying, the matrices of the corresponding time-varying system are

substituted by matrix functions of time, e.g.

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representation

In the following, the Eqs. (8.4) and (8.5) will be transformed into the domain using the

Laplace transform, which will be done analogously to the scalar case . For this, the operator

notation

from section 2.1 is adopted and when applying it to Eq. (8.4), one obtains

or rearranged

(8.6)

with

(8.7)

Similarly, for Eq. (12.5) yields

Substituting

has to be set to

zero. For a single-input-single-output system according to Eqs. (8.2) and (8.3) the system

output is

Comparing this equation with Eq. (8.3) the transfer function is given by

(8.8)

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Control System

The matrix

represented by

10ES43

(8.9)

where

(8.10)

and

(8.11)

which is the characteristic polynomial of the system. The zeros of this polynomial are the

poles of the transfer function and at the same time eigenvalues of the system matrix . If the

system in the state-space representation is fully controllable and observable (see section 8.6),

then the number of poles are equal to the number of eigenvalues.

The key advantage of transfer functions is in their compactness, which makes them suitable

for frequency-domain analysis and stability studies. However, the transfer function approach

suffers from neglecting the initial conditions. Not only does state-space representation serve

as an alternative to transfer functions, but also it is not limited to linear and time-invariant

systems and it has the following advantages:

1. Single-input-single-output and multi-input-multi-output systems can be formally

treated equal.

2. The state-space representation is best suited both for the theoretical treatment of

control systems (analytical solutions, optimisation) and for numerical calculations.

3. The determination of the system response in the homogeneous case with the initial

condition

is very simple.

4. This representation gives a better insight into the inner system behaviour. General

system properties, for example, the system controllability or observability can be

defined and determined.

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Initially it sounds paradoxical that the choice of the state variables is not unique. This means

that for one and the same system with the input , the output and state variables, there

exist an infinite number of state-space representations. For each value of time one gets the

state in the -dimensional state space. The values are the cartesian coordinates of the state

where the unit vectors are -dimensional linear independent vectors. Their elements are besides the th element, which has the value of 1 - all zero. For describing the state also other

basis vectors can be used. Candidates are all linear independent and -dimensional vectors

. Therefore, it is always possible, to write the state as

(8.12)

(8.13)

The constant and regular matrix is a so-called transformation matrix. Now, instead of the

state the new state can be used and its behaviour analysed. Describing the system in the

new coordinates the state from Eq. (8.13) is inserted into Eqs. (8.4) and (8.5) and one

obtains

(8.14)

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(8.15)

The benefits of the transformation of systems into different state-space representations are:

Most system properties do not depend on the choice of the state variables. They

remain unchanged after a regular transformation and may be analysed in an

appropriate representation form.

The computational determination and analysis of system properties can be

tremendously simplified if the representation form is specifically selected. In

particular certain canonical forms are of interest.

Example 12.5.1 In order to demonstrate a transformation, the example from Eq. (8.1) is

used with the system parameters

,

and

. The initial condition is assumed

to be zero and therefore omitted. With these values one obtains the state equation as

Page 123

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consists of two decoupled differential equations with respect to the state variables

and

The analysis and treatment of a system in such a structured representation form, as shown in

the example above, is doubtless more simple. As the representation form must be specifically

selected depending on the type of analysis or synthesis problem, the different representation

forms, for example, the canonical forms, are not discussed separately and are introduced in

the following sections when they are needed.

Page 124

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