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Steering Behavior For

Autonomous Characters
Reviewing Craig W. Reynolds paper,1999

Abstract
This paper presents solutions for one requirement of
autonomous characters in animation and games: the ability
to navigate around their world in a life-like and
improvisational manner. These steering behaviors are
largely independent of the particulars of the characters
means of locomotion. Combinations of steering behaviors
can be used to achieve higher level goals (For example: get
from here to there while avoiding obstacles, follow this
corridor, join that group of characters...) This paper divides
motion behavior into three levels. It will focus on the middle
level of steering behaviors, briefly describe the lower level of
locomotion, and touch lightly on the higher level of goal
setting and strategy.

A hierarchy of motion
behaviors

Motivation

Task

Motor

A Simple Vehicle Model

This vehicle model is based on a


point mass approximation. On the
one hand that allows a very simple
and computationally cheap
physically-based model (for
example, a point mass has velocity
(linear momentum) but no moment
of inertia (rotational momentum)).

This use of an oversimplified nonphysical vehicle model is merely for


convenience and intended to be
without loss of generality it
should always be possible to
substitute a more plausible, more
realistic physically based vehicle
model.

A Simple Vehicle Model

Flying Vehicle

Surface Hugging

Steering Behaviors

Seek

Flee

Steering Behaviors

Pursuit

Evasion

Steering Behaviors

Offset pursuit

Steering Behaviors

Arrival

Steering Behaviors

Obstacle avoidance

Steering Behaviors

Wander

Steering Behaviors

Unaligned collision avoidance

Steering Behaviors

Steering Behaviors

Separation

Cohesion

Alignment

Leader following

Combining Behaviors

A character may sequentially switch between


behavioral modes as circumstances change in its
world.

some kinds of behaviors are commonly blended


together, effectively acting in parallel.