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# Basic Trigonometric

Identities and
Equations
By the end of this chapter, you should be
able to:
-identify non-permissible values for trigonometric
expressions
-show that a trigonometric identity is true for all
permissible values of the variable by using
algebra (not just by substituting numbers in for
the variable or by graphing)
-Use trigonometric identities to simplify more
complicated trigonometric expressions

Trigonometric Identities
Quotient Identities

sin
tan
cos

cos
cot
sin

Reciprocal Identities

1
sin
csc

1
cos
sec

1
tan
cot

Pythagorean Identities
sin2+ cos2 = 1

tan2+ 1 = sec2

cot2+ 1 = csc2

sin2= 1 - cos2

tan2= sec2- 1

cot2= csc2- 1

cos2 = 1 - sin2

5.4.3

## Do you remember the Unit

Circle?
What is the equation for the unit circle?

x 2 + y2 =
1

## What does x = ? What does y = ?

(in terms of trig
functions)
2
2

sin + cos = 1

Pythagorean
Identity!

## Take the Pythagorean Identity

and discover a new one!
Hint: Try dividing everything by cos2
sin2 + cos2 =
1 .
2
22
cos
cos
tan + 1 = sec2
Quotie cos2
nt
Identit
y

another
Pythagorean
Identity

Reciproc
al
Identity

## Take the Pythagorean Identity

and discover a new one!
Hint: Try dividing everything by sin2
sin2 + cos2 =
1 .
2
22
sin

sin
1 + cot =
sin22
Quotie csc
nt
Identit
y

a third
Pythagorean
Identity

Reciproc
al
Identity

## Using the identities you now

know, find the trig value.
1.) If cos = 3/4, find sec
csc.

1
1
4
sec

cos 3
3
4

sin 2 cos2 1
2

3
sin 2 1
5
25 9
sin 2

25 25
16
2
sin
25
4
sin
5

1
1
5
csc

sin 4
4
5

## Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

Identities can be used to simplify trigonometric expressions.
Simplify.
a)

sin
cos sin
cos
sin2
cos
cos
cos sin

cos
1

cos
2

sec

cot 2
1 sin2

b)

cos 2
2
sin

2
cos
1

cos 2
1

2
2
sin cos

1
sin2

csc 2
5.4.5

c)

## (1 + tan x) - 2 sin x sec x

2

1
cos x
sin x
2
1 2 tan x tan x 2
cos x
1 tan2 x 2tan x 2 tan x
2

(1 tan x) 2 sinx

sec2 x

d)

csc x
tan x cot x
1

sinx
sinx cos x

cos x sin x
1

sinx
sin2 x cos 2 x
sin xcos x
1

sinx
1
sinx cos x
1
sinx cos x

sinx
1
cos x

Simplify each
expression.

cos x
cos x
sin x
sin x

sin
cos
sin

1 sin x
cos x

sin x cos x

1
sin

sin cos

1
sec
cos

cos2 x sin 2 x

sin x
sin x
cos2 x sin 2 x
sin x
1
csc x
sin x

## Simplifying trig Identity

Example1: simplify

tanxcosx
sin
x cosx
tanx
cos x

tanxcosx = sin x

## Simplifying trig Identity

Example2: simplify

sec x
csc x
1
cos
sec x
csc
1x
sin x

1
sinx
x
cos x
1

sin x
cos x

= tan x

## Simplifying trig Identity

Example2: simplify

cos2x - sin2x

cos x
cos2x - sin
1 2x

cos x

= sec x

Example
Simplify:

= cot x (cot2 x)

= cot3 x

Simplify

Example
Simplify:

## = sin x (sin x) + cos xUse quotient identit

cos x
cos
x
2
= sin x + (coscos
x) x Simplify fraction
with LCD
cos x
= sin2 x + cos2x
cos x
=
1
cos x
= sec x

Simplify numerator

Use pythagorean id

Combine
fraction
Simplify the
numerator
Use pythagorean
identity

Use Reciprocal
Identity

## One way to use identities is to simplify expressions involving trigonometric

functions. Often a good strategy for doing this is to write all trig functions in
terms of sines and cosines and then simplify. Lets see an example of this:

identity

sin x
tan x
cos x

tan x csc x
Simplify:
sec x
simplify

sin x 1

cos x sin x
1
cos x

1
cos x
1
cos x

1
csc x
sin x
1
sec x
cos x

## Another way to use identities is to write one function in terms of another

function. Lets see an example of this:

## Write the following expression

in terms of only one trig function:
cos x sin x 1
2

= 1 sin 2 x sin x 1

## This expression involves both sine and

cosine. The Fundamental Identity makes a
connection between sine and cosine so we
can use that and solve for cosine squared
and substitute.

= sin 2 x sin x 2
sin 2 x cos 2 x 1

cos 2 x 1 sin 2 x

Identities

## sin sin cos cos sin

cos cos cos sin sin
tan tan
tan
1 tan tan

## These identities are useful to find

exact
Example Find the exact value of the following.
(a) cos 15

(or 60 45)

cos15 cos(45 30 )
o

o

5
(b) cos
12

cos

2 3
2 1
6 2

2 2
2 2
4

2 3

5
cos
cos cos(45 30)
12
12 12
6 4

cos cos sin sin
6
4
6
4
3 2 1 2
6 2

2 2 2 2
4

## Example Find the exact value of the following.

(a) sin 75
(b) tan 712
(c) sin 40 cos 160 cos 40 sin 160
Solution
o
o
o
sin
75

sin(45

30
)
(a)
sin 45o cos 30o cos 45o sin 30o

2 3
2 1
6 2

2 2
2 2
4

tan
(b) tan
12
3 4

tan tan
3
4

1 tan tan
3
4

3 1

1 3 1
2 3
(c) sin 40cos 160 cos 40sin 160
=sin(40-160)
3

= sin(120)
2

Example
Find the exact value of ( cos 80 cos 20 sin 80 sin 20) .

## Solution The given expression is the right

side of the formula for cos( - ) with 80
and = 20.
cos( ) cos cos sin sin
cos 80 cos 20 sin 80 sin 20 cos (80 20)

cos 60 1/2

Example

## Write the following expression as the sine,

cosine, or tangent of an angle. Then find the
exact value of the expression.

7
sin cos cos sin
12 12
12 12
Solution:

sin
cos cos
sin
12
12
12
12
6
7
sin
sin
12
12 12

sin 1
2

DOUBLEANGLE
IDENTITIES

sin2sincos

the sum formula.

## This is called the double angle formula for sine since it

tells you the sine of double

cos2cosin
22

## cos sin 1 sin sin

2
2
2
sin 1 cos 1 2 sin
2

cos 1 sin
2

2

## This is the double angle formula for cosine but by

substiuting some identities we can express it in a
couple other ways.

t
a
n

t
a
n

12tan21
tan
2
t
tanan
Double-angle Formula for Tangent

sctioansn22
s

i1c
co22tsan
n

s
o
2
i21n

Summary of
Double-Angle Formulas

## Your Turn: Simplify an Expression

Simplify cot x cos x + sin x.
cos x
cot x
sin x

cos x
cos 2 x
cos x sin x
sin x
sin x
sin x

cos 2 x sin 2 x
1

csc x
sin x
sin x

Cosine Sum and Difference Identities
Find the exact value of cos 75.

## cos 75 cos(30 45)

cos 30 cos 45 sin 30 sin 45
3 2 1 2
6 2

2 2 2 2
4

Sine Sum and Difference Identities
Find the exact value of

7
sin .
12

7
3 4

sin

sin
sin
12
12 12
4 3

## sin cos cos sin

4
3
4
3

2 1
2 3
2 6

2 2
2 2
4

Identities
If cos x 1 , find sin 2x given sin x < 0.
3

1
cos x , sin 2 x cos 2 x 1
3
1
sin x
3
2

sin 2 x

8
2 2
sin x
9
3

2 2 1 4 2

sin 2 x 2 sin x cos x 2
3 3
9