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Basic Trigonometric

Identities and
Equations
By the end of this chapter, you should be
able to:
-identify non-permissible values for trigonometric
expressions
-show that a trigonometric identity is true for all
permissible values of the variable by using
algebra (not just by substituting numbers in for
the variable or by graphing)
-Use trigonometric identities to simplify more
complicated trigonometric expressions

Trigonometric Identities
Quotient Identities

sin
tan
cos

cos
cot
sin

Reciprocal Identities

1
sin
csc

1
cos
sec

1
tan
cot

Pythagorean Identities
sin2+ cos2 = 1

tan2+ 1 = sec2

cot2+ 1 = csc2

sin2= 1 - cos2

tan2= sec2- 1

cot2= csc2- 1

cos2 = 1 - sin2

5.4.3

Where did our pythagorean identities come from??

Do you remember the Unit


Circle?
What is the equation for the unit circle?

x 2 + y2 =
1

What does x = ? What does y = ?


(in terms of trig
functions)
2
2

sin + cos = 1

Pythagorean
Identity!

Take the Pythagorean Identity


and discover a new one!
Hint: Try dividing everything by cos2
sin2 + cos2 =
1 .
2
22
cos
cos
tan + 1 = sec2
Quotie cos2
nt
Identit
y

another
Pythagorean
Identity

Reciproc
al
Identity

Take the Pythagorean Identity


and discover a new one!
Hint: Try dividing everything by sin2
sin2 + cos2 =
1 .
2
22
sin

sin
1 + cot =
sin22
Quotie csc
nt
Identit
y

a third
Pythagorean
Identity

Reciproc
al
Identity

Using the identities you now


know, find the trig value.
1.) If cos = 3/4, find sec
csc.

1
1
4
sec

cos 3
3
4

2.) If cos = 3/5, find


sin 2 cos2 1
2

3
sin 2 1
5
25 9
sin 2

25 25
16
2
sin
25
4
sin
5

1
1
5
csc

sin 4
4
5

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions


Identities can be used to simplify trigonometric expressions.
Simplify.
a)

cos sin tan


sin
cos sin
cos
sin2
cos
cos
cos sin

cos
1

cos
2

sec

cot 2
1 sin2

b)

cos 2
2
sin

2
cos
1

cos 2
1

2
2
sin cos

1
sin2

csc 2
5.4.5

Simplifing Trigonometric Expressions


c)

(1 + tan x) - 2 sin x sec x


2

1
cos x
sin x
2
1 2 tan x tan x 2
cos x
1 tan2 x 2tan x 2 tan x
2

(1 tan x) 2 sinx

sec2 x

d)

csc x
tan x cot x
1

sinx
sinx cos x

cos x sin x
1

sinx
sin2 x cos 2 x
sin xcos x
1

sinx
1
sinx cos x
1
sinx cos x

sinx
1
cos x

Simplify each
expression.

cos x
cos x
sin x
sin x

sin
cos
sin

1 sin x
cos x

sin x cos x

1
sin

sin cos

1
sec
cos

cos2 x sin 2 x

sin x
sin x
cos2 x sin 2 x
sin x
1
csc x
sin x

Simplifying trig Identity


Example1: simplify

tanxcosx
sin
x cosx
tanx
cos x

tanxcosx = sin x

Simplifying trig Identity


Example2: simplify

sec x
csc x
1
cos
sec x
csc
1x
sin x

1
sinx
x
cos x
1

sin x
cos x

= tan x

Simplifying trig Identity


Example2: simplify

cos2x - sin2x

cos x
cos2x - sin
1 2x

cos x

= sec x

Example
Simplify:

= cot x (csc2 x - 1) Factor out cot x


= cot x (cot2 x)

= cot3 x

Use pythagorean ide

Simplify

Example
Simplify:

= sin x (sin x) + cos xUse quotient identit


cos x
cos
x
2
= sin x + (coscos
x) x Simplify fraction
with LCD
cos x
= sin2 x + cos2x
cos x
=
1
cos x
= sec x

Simplify numerator

Use pythagorean id

Use reciprocal ident

Your Turn!
Combine
fraction
Simplify the
numerator
Use pythagorean
identity

Use Reciprocal
Identity

One way to use identities is to simplify expressions involving trigonometric


functions. Often a good strategy for doing this is to write all trig functions in
terms of sines and cosines and then simplify. Lets see an example of this:

substitute using each


identity

sin x
tan x
cos x

tan x csc x
Simplify:
sec x
simplify

sin x 1

cos x sin x
1
cos x

1
cos x
1
cos x

1
csc x
sin x
1
sec x
cos x

Another way to use identities is to write one function in terms of another


function. Lets see an example of this:

Write the following expression


in terms of only one trig function:
cos x sin x 1
2

= 1 sin 2 x sin x 1

This expression involves both sine and


cosine. The Fundamental Identity makes a
connection between sine and cosine so we
can use that and solve for cosine squared
and substitute.

= sin 2 x sin x 2
sin 2 x cos 2 x 1

cos 2 x 1 sin 2 x

Sum and Difference


Identities

Combined Sum and Difference Formulas

sin sin cos cos sin


cos cos cos sin sin
tan tan
tan
1 tan tan

These identities are useful to find


exact
answers for non-special angles
Example Find the exact value of the following.
(a) cos 15

(or 60 45)

cos15 cos(45 30 )
o

cos 45 cos30 sin 45 sin 30o


o

5
(b) cos
12

cos

2 3
2 1
6 2


2 2
2 2
4

2 3

5
cos
cos cos(45 30)
12
12 12
6 4


cos cos sin sin
6
4
6
4
3 2 1 2
6 2

2 2 2 2
4

Example Find the exact value of the following.


(a) sin 75
(b) tan 712
(c) sin 40 cos 160 cos 40 sin 160
Solution
o
o
o
sin
75

sin(45

30
)
(a)
sin 45o cos 30o cos 45o sin 30o

2 3
2 1
6 2


2 2
2 2
4

tan
(b) tan
12
3 4

tan tan
3
4

1 tan tan
3
4

3 1

1 3 1
2 3
(c) sin 40cos 160 cos 40sin 160
=sin(40-160)
3

= sin(120)
2

Example
Find the exact value of ( cos 80 cos 20 sin 80 sin 20) .

Solution The given expression is the right


side of the formula for cos( - ) with 80
and = 20.
cos( ) cos cos sin sin
cos 80 cos 20 sin 80 sin 20 cos (80 20)

cos 60 1/2

Example

Write the following expression as the sine,


cosine, or tangent of an angle. Then find the
exact value of the expression.

7
sin cos cos sin
12 12
12 12
Solution:

sin
cos cos
sin
12
12
12
12
6
7
sin
sin
12
12 12

sin 1
2

DOUBLEANGLE
IDENTITIES

sin2sincos

If we want to know a formula for sin 2 we could use


the sum formula.

sin 2 sin sin cos cos sin

we can trade these places

sin cos sin cos 2 sin cos

This is called the double angle formula for sine since it


tells you the sine of double

cos2cosin
22

Let's try the same thing for cos 2

cos 2 cos cos cos sin sin

cos sin 1 sin sin


2
2
2
sin 1 cos 1 2 sin
2

cos 1 sin
2

cos 1 cos 2 cos 1


2

This is the double angle formula for cosine but by


substiuting some identities we can express it in a
couple other ways.

t
a
n

t
a
n

12tan21
tan
2
t
tanan
Double-angle Formula for Tangent

sctioansn22
s

i1c
co22tsan
n

s
o
2
i21n

Summary of
Double-Angle Formulas

Your Turn: Simplify an Expression


Simplify cot x cos x + sin x.
Click for answer.
cos x
cot x
sin x

cos x
cos 2 x
cos x sin x
sin x
sin x
sin x

cos 2 x sin 2 x
1

csc x
sin x
sin x

Your Turn:
Cosine Sum and Difference Identities
Find the exact value of cos 75.
Click for answer.

cos 75 cos(30 45)


cos 30 cos 45 sin 30 sin 45
3 2 1 2
6 2

2 2 2 2
4

Your Turn:
Sine Sum and Difference Identities
Find the exact value of
Click for answer.

7
sin .
12

7
3 4

sin

sin
sin
12
12 12
4 3

sin cos cos sin


4
3
4
3

2 1
2 3
2 6

2 2
2 2
4

Your Turn: Double-Angle


Identities
If cos x 1 , find sin 2x given sin x < 0.
3

Click for answer.

Your Turn: Double-Angle Identities


1
cos x , sin 2 x cos 2 x 1
3
1
sin x
3
2

sin 2 x

8
2 2
sin x
9
3

2 2 1 4 2

sin 2 x 2 sin x cos x 2
3 3
9