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You are on page 1of 25

:10BT70202

(An Autonomous Institution, Affiliated to JNTUA, Anantapur)

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

[ Electrical and Electronics Engineering ]

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

1.

b) Name the components of production cost and explain.

2.

Give algorithm for economic allocation of generation among generators of a thermal system taking

into account transmission losses. Give steps for implementing this algorithm and also derive

necessary equations.

3.

4.

a) Explain the mathematical modeling of speed governing system with block diagram approach.

b) Discuss briefly about small signal transfer function.

5.

Explain the dynamic response of load frequency control of an isolated power system with a neat

block diagram. Draw the plots of change in frequency with respect to time with and without making

approximations in the analysis.

6.

a) Explain how the tie-line power deviation can be incorporated in two-area system block diagram.

b) What are the features of the dynamic response of a two-area system for step load disturbances?

7.

b) Compare the different types of compensating equipment for transmission systems.

8.

What are the various entities of deregulated power system and explain in detail about their

functional operations.

CODE No.:10BT70202

(An Autonomous Institution, Affiliated to JNTUA, Anantapur)

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

[ Electrical and Electronics Engineering ]

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

1.

b) Explain different generation scheduling methods in steam plants.

Explain their merits and demerits.

2.

a) Assuming any relevant data and notation, derive the transmission loss formula.

b) Discuss about the optimum allocation of generators without line losses.

3.

4.

a) Explain the mathematical modeling of speed governing system with block diagram

approach.

b) Discuss briefly about small signal transfer function.

5.

a) Briefly explain the control area concept and control area error.

b) A power system has load of 1250 MW at 50 Hz. If 50 MW load is tripped,

find the steady state frequency deviation when

i) there is no speed control

ii) the system has a reserve of 200 MW spread over 500 MW of generation capacity

with 5 % regulation on this capacity. All the generators are operating with valves

wide open. Due to dead band, only 80 % of governors respond to load change.

Assume load damping constant B=1.5.

6.

Two areas are connected via an inter tie line. The load at 50 Hz, is 15000 MW in area 1 and

35000 in area 2. Area 1 is importing 1500 MW from area 2. The load damping constant in

each area is B=1.0 and the regulation R=6 % for all units. Area 1 has a spinning reserve of

800 MW spread over 4000 MW of generation capacity and area 2 has a spinning reserve of

1000 MW spread over 10000 MW generation. Determine the steady state frequency,

generation and load of each area and tie-line power for:

a) Loss of 1000 MW in area 2, with no supplementary control.

b) Loss of 1000 MW in area 2, with supplementary controls provided on generators

with reserve.

7.

0.85 p.f. lagging. The receiving end voltage is maintained at 11 kV by means of static

condenser drawing 2.1 MVAR from the line. Calculate the sending end voltage and power

factor. What is the regulation and efficiency of the feeder?

8.

a) Define Deregulation of Power systems and explain the need for deregulation in

Power systems.

b) What is the role of modern technology in deregulated power market?

R5

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

?????

1. (a) Discuss in detail about incremental heat rate curve and cost curve?

(b) Write the expression for hourly loss of economy resulting from error in incremental cost representation.

[8+8]

2. What is load factor and loss factor and state the criterion for economic operation

of power system?

[16]

3. (a) Explain the operation of two generating stations connected by a tie line.

(b) Explain about Maximum hydro efficiency method of hydro thermal scheduling.

[8+8]

4. Briefly explain swing equation with simplified diagram.

[16]

5. (a) With first order approximation explain the dynamic response of an isolated

power system for load frequency control.

(b) Two generating units rated for 250 MW and 400 MW have governor speed

regulations of 6.0 and 6.4 percent, respectively, from no load full load. They

are operating in parallel and share a load of 500 MW. Assuming the free

governor action, determine the load shared by each unit.

[8+8]

6. (a) What are the features of the dynamic response of a two area system for step

load disturbances?

(b) What are the considerations in selecting the frequency bias parameters? [8+8]

7. Explain the various criteria by which the performance of the system can judged in

case of two area load frequency control with integral action.

[16]

8. Explain the reasons for variations of voltages in power systems and explain any one

method to improve the voltage profile.

[16]

?????

1 of 1

R05

Code: R5410204

Time: 3 hours

1.

(a)

(b)

2.

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

*****

Explain the following terms with reference to power plants, heat input - power output curve. Heat

rate input, incremental input, generation cost and production cost.

What are the methods of scheduling of generation of steam plants? Explain their merits and

demerits.

(a)

What is incremental transmission loss and derive the general transmission loss formula.

(b)

150 MW, 220MW, 220MW are the ratings of three units, located in a thermal power station. Their

respective incremental cost are given by the following equations

dc1/dp1 = Rs (0.11p1 + 12)

dc2/dp2 = Rs (0.095P2 +14)

dc3/dp3 = Rs (0.1p3 + 13)

Where p1, p2 and p3 are the loads in MW. Determine the economical load allocation between the

units, when the total load on the system is (i) 300MW. (ii) 450MW.

3.

4.

Draw the block diagram, turbine and synchronous generator indicating their transfer functions. For a

step disturbance ofP D, obtain the response of increment in frequency making suitable

assumptions for with and without PI controllers.

5.

(a)

(b)

Explain how the variation of load effects the frequency of a power system.

Two generators rated 200MW and 400MW are operating in parallel. The droop characteristics of

their governors are 4% and 5% respectively. From no-load to full-load. Assuming that the generators

are operating at 50Hz at no load, how would a load of 600MW be shared between them? Assume

free governor operation, repeat the problem if both the governors have a drop of 4%.

6.

(a)

(b)

Two generating stations A & B have full load capacities of 500MW and 210 MW respectively. The

interconnector connecting the two stations has a motor generator set (plant C) near station. A of full

load capacity of 50MW percentage changes of speed of A,B and C are 5,4 and 2.5 respectively. The

loads on bus bars A and B are 250MW and 100MW respectively. Determine the load taken by set C

and indicate the direction in which the energy is flowing.

7.

A 11KV supply bus bar is connected to a 11/132 KV, 100MVA, 10% reactance, transformer. The

transformer feeds a 132 KV transmission link consisting of an overheat line of impedance (0.014 + j

0.04) p.u and a cable of impedance (0.03 + j 0.01) p.u in parallel if lagging calculate the power and

reactive power carried by the cable and line. All p.u values relate to 100MVA and 132 KV bases.

8.

Explain clearly what you mean by compensation of line and discuss briefly, different methods of

compensation.

*****

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

?????

1. (a) What is an incremental fuel cost? How is it used in thermal plant operation?

(b) Name the components of production cost and explain.

[8+8]

2. The fuel cost functions in Rs./hr. for two thermal plants are given by

C1 =420+9.2P1 +0.004P1 2 , 100 P2 200

C2 =350+8.5P2 +0.0029P2 2 , 150P3 500

Where P1 , P2 , P3 are in MW and plant outputs are subjected to the following limits, Determine the optimal

scheduling of generation if the total load is 640.82MW. Estimate value of = 12Rs. /MWh

PL(pu) = 0.0346P1(pu) 2 +0.00643 P2(pu) 2 .

[16]

3. Derive the co-ordination equation for the optimal scheduling of hydro-thermal interconnected power plants. [16]

4. Two generators rated 100 MW and 200 MW are operating in parallel. The droop characteristics of their governors

are 3% and 5% respectively from no load to full load. Assuming that the generators are operating at 50 Hz at no

load, how would a load of 300 MW be shared between them? What will be the system frequency at this load?

Assume free governor operation. Repeat the problem if both the governors have a droop of 3%.

[16]

5. (a) With a neat diagram explain the process of speed governing system.

(b) Two generators are rated at 120 MW and 250 MW are operating in parallel. The governor settings on the

machines are such that they have 4 % and 3% droops. Determine

i. the load taken by each machine for a load of 200 MW

ii. The percentage adjustment in the no load speed to be made by the speeder motor if the machines are

to share the load equally.

[8+8]

6. Two areas are connected via an inter tie line. The load at 50 Hz, is 15000 MW in area 1 and 35000 in area 2.

Area 1 is importing 1500 MW from area 2. The load damping constant in each area is B=1.0 and the regulation

R=6 % for all units. Area 1 has a spinning reserve of 800 MW spread over 4000 MW of generation capacity

and area 2 has a spinning reserve of 1000 MW spread over 10000 MW generation. Determine the steady state

frequency, generation and load of each area and tie-line power for

(a) Loss of 1000 MW in area2, with no supplementary control.

(b) Loss of 1000 MW in area2, with supplementary controls provided on generators with reserve.

[8+8]

TP =10 sec,

Tg = 0.3 sec, Tt =0.2 sec,

KP =200 Hz/pu MW,

R=6 Hz/pu MW,

PD =0.5 pu MW,

Ki =0.5.

Compute the time error caused by a step disturbance of magnitude 0.5 pu (as given above). Prove, in particular,

that the error is reduced by increasing the given Ki . Express the error in seconds and cycles if the system

frequency is 50 Hz.

[16]

8. A 3 feeder having a resistance of 3 and reactance of 10 supplies a load of 2 MW at 0.85 p.f. lagging. The

receiving end voltage is maintained at 11 kV by means of static condenser drawing 2.1 MVAr form the line.

Calculate the sending end voltage and power factor. What is the regulation and efficiency of the feeder?

[16]

?????

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

?????

1. A constant load of 300 MW is supplied by two 200 MW generators 1 and 2, for which the respective incremental

fuel costs are:

d C1

d PG = 0.10 PG1 + 20.0

1

d C2

d P G2

With power PG in MW and costs C in Rs/hr. Determine:

(a) The most economical division of load between the generators.

(b) The saving in Rs./ day there by obtained compared to equal load sharing between two generators.

[16]

(b) Derive the condition for the optimum scheduling of generation of units in a steam power plant.

3. Write the advantages of operation of hydro thermal combinations.

[8+8]

[16]

4. Two generators rated 200 MW and 400 MW are operating in parallel. The droop characteristics of their governors

are 4% and 5% respectively from no load to full load. Assuming that the generators are operating at 50 Hz at

no load, how would a load of 600 Mw be shared between them? What will be the system frequency at this load?

Assume free governor operation. Repeat the problem if both the governors have a droop of 4%.

[16]

5. A power system has load of 1250 MW at 50 Hz. If 50 MW load is tripped, find the steady state frequency

deviation when

(a) there is no speed control

(b) the system has a reserve of 200 MW spread over 500 MW of generation capacity with 5 % regulation on

this capacity.

All the generators are operating with valves wide open. Due to dead band only 80 % of governors respond to

load change. Assume load damping constant B=1.5.

[16]

6. (a) Explain how the tie-line power deviation can be incorporated in two-area system block diagram.

(b) Two areas of a power system network are interconnected by a tie-line, whose capacity is 500 MW, operating

at a power angle of 350 . If each area has a capacity of 5000 MW and the equal speed regulation of 3 Hz/Pu

MW, determine the tie line power deviation for step change in load of 85 MW occurs in one of the areas.

Assume that both areas have the same inertia constants of H = 4 sec.

[8+8]

7. Obtain an expression for steady state response of a load frequency controller with integral control. How it is

different from with out integral control.

[16]

8. (a) Write short notes on compensated and uncompensated transmission lines.

(b) Explain briefly about the shunt and series compensation of transmission systems.

?????

[8+8]

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

?????

1. (a) Explain input - output characteristics of thermal power stations.

(b) Define in detail cost curve of thermal stations.

[8+8]

2. What is load factor and loss factor and state the criterion for economic operation of power system?

[16]

[16]

4. A 2- pole, 50hz, 11 KV, turbo - generator has a rating of 60MW, Power factor of 0.85 lagging. Its rotor has a

movement of inertia of 8800 kg - m2 . Calculate its inertia constant in MJ / MVA and its momentum in MJ - s.

/electrical degree.

[16]

5. Determine the primary ALFC loop parameters for a for a control area with the following data:

Total generation capacity = 2500 MW

Normal operating load =1500 MW

Inertia constant=5 kW-seconds per kVA; Load damping constant, B=1 %; frequency, f=50 Hz; and Speed

regulation, R=2.5 Hz / p.u MW.

[16]

6. Two areas are connected via an inter tie line. The load at 50 Hz, is 15000 MW in area 1 and 35000 in area 2.

Area 1 is importing 1500 MW from area 2. The load damping constant in each area is B=1.0 and the regulation

R=6 % for all units. Area 1 has a spinning reserve of 800 MW spread over 4000 MW of generation capacity

and area 2 has a spinning reserve of 1000 MW spread over 10000 MW generation. Determine the steady state

frequency, generation and load of each area and tie-line power for

(a) Loss of 1000 MW in area 1, with no supplementary control.

(b) Loss of 1000 MW in area 1, with supplementary controls provided on generators with reserve.

[16]

7. Draw the block diagram of a power system showing the governor, turbine and synchronous generator, indicating

their transfer functions. For a step disturbance of PD , obtain the response of increment in frequency, making

suitable assumptions.

(a) Without proportional plus integral controller and

(b) With proportional plus integral control.

[16]

8. (a) A single-phase motor connected to a 230 V, 50 Hz supply takes 30 A at a p.f of 0.7 lag. A capacitor is

shunted across the motor terminals to improve the p.f to 0.9 lag. Determine the capacitance of the capacitor

to be shunted across the motor terminals.

(b) Explain the specifications of load compensation.

?????

[8+8]

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

?????

1. The fuel cost functions in Rs./hr. for three thermal plants are given by

C1 = 400+8.4P1 +0.006P1 2 ,

100 P1 600

2

C2 = 600+8.93P2 +0.006P2 ,

60P2 300

2

C3 = 650+6.78P3 +0.004P3 ,

300 P3 650

Where P1 , P2 , P3 are in MW. Neglecting line losses and including generator limits, determine the optimal

generation scheduling Where PD = 550MW.

[16]

2. 100 MW, 150 MW and 280 MW are the ratings of three units located in a thermal power station. Their respective

incremental costs are given by the following equations:

dc1/dp1 = Rs(0.15p1 + 12);

dc3/dp3 = Rs(0.21p3 + 13)

dc2/dp2 = Rs(0.05p2 + 14)

Where P1 , P2 and P3 are the loads in MW. Determine the economical load allocation between the three units,

when the total load on the station is 300 MW.

[16]

3. .Discuss optimal power flow procedures with its inequality constraints, and how to handle dependent variables

with penalty function.

[16]

4. Discus in detail the following components of excitation system.

(a) Error Amplifier

(b) SCR Power Amplifier

(c) Main Exciter and

(d) Alternator.

[4+4+4+4]

(b) Derive the expression for the frequency deviation, when a step load disturbance occurs in a single control

area.

[8+8]

6. In the actual block diagram of a two area interconnected system, the system 2 represents a system so large that

it is effectively an infinite bus. The inertia constant M2 is much greater than inertia constant M1 and the

frequency deviation in system 2 is zero. Draw a block diagram including tie-line between the areas 1 and 2.

What is the transfer function for a load change in area 1 and the tie flow?

[16]

7. Discuss in detail the economic dispatch control in a single area load frequency control.

[16]

8. Explain the reasons for variations of voltages in power systems and explain any one method to improve the

voltage profile.

[16]

?????

RR

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

?????

1. (a) What is an incremental fuel cost? How is it used in thermal plant operation?

(b) Name the components of production cost and explain.

[8+8]

2. (a) Incremental fuel cost in Rupees per mega watt hour for two units comprising a plant are given

by the following equations.

dc1

dc2

dp1 = .012p1 +21; dp2 = .01p1 +18;

Assume that both units are operating at all times, that total load varies from 40 to 200 MW and

the maximum and minimum loads on each unit are to be 125 and 20 MW respectively. Find the

incremental fuel cost & the allocation of loads between units for the minimum cost of various

total loads. Derive the formula used.

(b) Discuss the costs associated with hydro plants.

[10+6]

3. Using steepest descent method obtain the optimal power flow solution with controlled and uncontrolled

parameters.

[16]

4. Making suitable assumptions, derive the T.F.of syn generator and the steam turbineset.

[16]

5. A control area has a total rated capacity of 10,000MW. The regulation R for all the units in the area

in 2Hz/pu MW. A 1% change in frequency causes a 1% change in load. If the system operates at half

of the rated capacity and the load increases by 2%

(a) Find the static frequency drop

(b) If the speed governor loop were open, what would be the frequency drop. Derive the formula

used.

[16]

6. (a) Explain tie line bias control for multi area power system.

(b) Two power stations A & B each have regulation (R) of 0.1 p u (on respective capacity bases) and

stiffness K of 1.0 p. u. The capacity of system A is 1500 MW & of B 1000 MW. The two systems

are interconnected through a tie line and are initially at 60 Hz. If there is 100 MW load change

in system A, calculate the change in the steady-state values of frequency and power transfer P12

without the participation of governor control.

[7+9]

7. (a) Explain about the losses that occur due to VAR flow in power systems.

(b) Explain how the generators act as VAR sources in a power network.

[8+8]

8. Explain clearly what do you mean by compensation of line and discuss briefly different methods of

compensation.

[16]

?????

Set No. 1

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain the following terms with reference to power plants: Heat input power output curve, Heat rate input, Incremental input, Generation cost and

Production cost.

(b) What are the methods of scheduling of generation of steam plants? Explain

their merits and demerits?

[9+7]

2. (a) Incremental fuel cost in Rupees per mega watt hour for two units comprising

a plant are given by the following equations.

dc2

dc1

= .012p1 +21; dp

= .01p1 +18;

dp1

2

Assume that both units are operating at all times, that total load varies from

40 to 200 MW and the maximum and minimum loads on each unit are to be

125 and 20 MW respectively. Find the incremental fuel cost & the allocation

of loads between units for the minimum cost of various total loads. Derive the

formula used.

(b) Discuss the costs associated with hydro plants.

[10+6]

3. Give the computational procedure for optimal power flow with out in equality

constraints.

[16]

4. Making suitable assumptions, derive the T.F.of syn generator and the steam turbineset.

[16]

5. (a) Derive the generator load model and represent it by a block diagram.

(b) Consider the block diagram model of LFC given in figure 5b. Make the following

approximation:

(1 + sTsg )(1 + sTt ) = 1 + (Tsg + Tt )s = 1 + sTeq

Solve for f(t) with parameters given below. Given Pd = 0.01 pu

Teq = 0.9 s; Tps = 20 s; Ksg Kt = 1; Kps = 100; R = 3.

[16]

1 of 2

Set No. 1

Figure 5b

6. Give a typical block diagram for a two-area system inter connected by a tie line and

explain each block. Also deduce relations to determine the frequency of oscillations

of tie line power and static frequency drop. List out assumptions made.

[16]

7. Find the rating of synchronous compensator connected to the tertiary winding of a

132 kV star connected, 33 kV star connected, 11 kV delta connected three winding

transformer to supply a load of 66 MW at 0.8 power factor lagging at 33 kV across

the secondary. Equivalent primary and tertiary winding reactances are 32 ohm and

0.16 ohm respectively while the secondary winding reactance is negligible. Assume

that the primary side voltage is essentially constant at 132 kV and maximum of

nominal setting between transformer primary and secondary is 1:1.1.

[16]

8. Explain clearly what do you mean by compensation of line and discuss briefly

different methods of compensation.

[16]

2 of 2

Set No. 2

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain how the incremental production cost of a thermal power station can

be determined.

(b) Explain the various factors to be considered in allocating generation to different power stations for optimum operation.

[8+8]

2. Give algorithm for economic allocation of generation among generators of a thermal

system taking into account transmission losses. Give steps for implementing this

algorithm, and also derive necessary equations.

[16]

3. Write short notes on:

(a) Equations of Load flow.

(b) Solving of Load flow equations.

[16]

4. Making suitable assumptions, derive the T.F.of syn generator and the steam turbineset.

[16]

5. (a) Derive the generator load model and represent it by a block diagram.

(b) Consider the block diagram model of LFC given in figure 5b. Make the following

approximation:

(1 + sTsg )(1 + sTt ) = 1 + (Tsg + Tt )s = 1 + sTeq

Solve for f(t) with parameters given below. Given Pd = 0.01 pu

Teq = 0.9 s; Tps = 20 s; Ksg Kt = 1; Kps = 100; R = 3.

[16]

Figure 5b

6. (a) Draw the block diagram representation of load frequency control.

1 of 2

Set No. 2

(b) For two-area load frequency control with integral controller blocks, derive an

expression for steady values of change in frequency and tie line power for

simultaneously applied unit step load disturbance inputs in the two areas.

[7+9]

7. (a) Discuss in detail about the generation and absorption of reactive power in

power system components.

(b) A load of (15 +j10) MVA is supplied with power from the busbars of a power

plant via a three phase 110 kV line, 100 km lagging. The transmission line is

represented by -model and has the following parameters.

R= 26.4 ohms, X = 33.9 ohms, B = 219 109 mho

Voltage across the power plant bus bars V1 = 116 kV. Find the power consumed

from the power plant bus bars.

[8+8]

8. A three(S)phase transmission line has resistance and inductive reactance of 25

and 90 respectively. With no load at the receiving end a synchronous compensator

there takes a current lagging by 900 , the voltage at the sending end is 145 kV and

132 kV at the receiving end. Calculate the value of the current taken by the

compensator. When the load at the receiving end is 50 MW, it is found that the

line can operate with unchanged voltages at sending and receiving ends, provided

that the compensator takes the same current as before but now leading by 900 .

Calculate the reactive power of the load.

[16]

2 of 2

Set No. 3

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Describe in detail, with suitable examples, the methods of optimum scheduling

of generation of power from a thermal station.

(b) What is Production cost of power generated and incremental fuel rate?

(c) Write the expression for hourly loss of economy resulting from error in incremental cost representation.

[6+5+5]

2. (a) Discuss and define the loss formula coefficients.

(b) What is the objective in economic scheduling?

[8+8]

3. Discuss the optimization of power flow with suitable cost function without inequality constraints.

[16]

4. (a) Explain the necessity of maintaining a constant frequency in power system

operation.

(b) Two generators rated 200 MW and 400 MW are operating in parallel. The

droop characteristics of their governors are 4% and 5% respectively from no

load to full load. Assuming that the generators are operating at 50 Hz at no

load, how would a load of 600 Mw be shared between them? What will be the

system frequency at this load? Assume free governor operation. Repeat the

problem if both the governors have a droop of 4%.

[6+10]

5. Draw the block diagram of a power system showingthe governor, turbine and

syn.generator, indicating their transfer functions. For a step disturbance of

PD , obtain the response of increment in frequency, making suitable assumptions.

(a) Without proportional plus integral controller, and

(b) With proportional plus integral control.

[16]

6. (a) What is load frequency control problem in a 2-area power system? Why is it

essential to maintain constant frequency in an inter-connected power system?

(b) Two power stations A & B are inter connected by tie line and an increase

in load of 250 MW on system B causes a power transfer of 150 MW from A

to B. When the tie line is open the frequencies of system A is 50 c/s and of

system B is 49.5c/s. Determine the values of KA & KB which are the power

frequency constants of each generator.

[8+8]

7. (a) Explain about the losses that occur due to VAR flow in power systems.

(b) Explain how the generators act as VAR sources in a power network.

1 of 2

[8+8]

Set No. 3

8. Explain clearly what do you mean by compensation of line and discuss briefly

different methods of compensation.

[16]

2 of 2

Set No. 4

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain the following terms with reference to power plants: Heat input power output curve, Heat rate input, Incremental input, Generation cost and

Production cost.

(b) What are the methods of scheduling of generation of steam plants? Explain

their merits and demerits?

[9+7]

2. (a) Develop the loss formula coefficients for a two plant system. State the assumptions made.

(b)

The transmission loss coefficients

in p.u. on a base of 100 MVA are given by

0.009 0.001 0.002

0.001

0.0015 0.003

0.002 0.003

0.025

The three plants, A, B and C supply powers of PA = 100MW, PB = 200MW,

PC = 300MW, into the network. Calculate the transmission loss in the network

in MW and the incremental losses with respect to plants A,B,C.

[7+9]

3. Explain how the load flow equations are solved using gauss-seidel method.

[16]

4. (a) With a neat diagram, explain briefly different parts of a turbine speed governing system.

(b) Two generators rated 200 MW and 400 MW are operating in parallel. The

droop characteristics of their governors are 4% and 5% respectively from no

load to full load. The speed changers are so set that the generators operate

at 50 Hz sharing the load of 600 MW in the ratio of their ratings. If the load

reduces to 400 MW, how will it be shared among the generators and what will

the system frequency be?

[8+8]

5. (a) Explain the concept of control area in the load frequency control of a power

system.

(b) Show how the steady state error of frequency in a typical load frequency control

of a power system is reduced to zero.

[8+8]

6. Two power stations A & B each have regulation (R) of 0.1 p u (on respective

capacity bases) and stiffness K of 1.0 p. u. The capacity of system A is 1500 MW

& of B 1000 MW. The two systems are interconnected through a tie line and are

initially at 60 Hz. If there is 100 MW load change in system A, calculate the change

in the steady-state values of frequency and power transfer P12 (with and without

the participation of governor control).

[16]

1 of 2

Set No. 4

7. (a) Discuss in detail about the generation and absorption of reactive power in

power system components.

(b) A load of (15 +j10) MVA is supplied with power from the busbars of a power

plant via a three phase 110 kV line, 100 km lagging. The transmission line is

represented by -model and has the following parameters.

R= 26.4 ohms, X = 33.9 ohms, B = 219 109 mho

Voltage across the power plant bus bars V1 = 116 kV. Find the power consumed

from the power plant bus bars.

[8+8]

8. What is load compensation? Discuss its objectives in power system.

2 of 2

[16]

Set No. 1

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. Explain the problem of scheduling hydro - thermal power plants. What are the

constraints in the problem?

[16]

2. (a) Derive the conditions to be satisfied for economic operation of a loss less power

system.

(b) 150 MW, 220 MW and 220 MW are the ratings of three units located in a

thermal power station. Their respective incremental costs are given by the

following equations:

dc1/

dp1 = Rs(0.11p1 + 12);

dc3 /dp3 = Rs(0.1p3 + 13)

dc2 /dp2 = Rs(0.095p2 + 14)

Where P1 , P2 and P3 are the loads in MW. Determine the economical load

allocation between the three units, when the total load on the station is

i. 350 MW

ii. 500 MW.

[7+9]

3. Define the cost function of power flow problem with control variables and explain

a method to obtain the solution.

[16]

4. Making suitable assumptions, derive the T.F.of syn generator and the steam turbineset.

[16]

5. Define area control error ACE in a power system. Discuss how the proportional

plus Integral control system is implemented to minimize the Integral of ACE

with time for a step load disturbance.

[16]

6. Give a typical block diagram for a two-area system inter connected by a tie line and

explain each block. Also deduce relations to determine the frequency of oscillations

of tie line power and static frequency drop. List out assumptions made.

[16]

7. (a) Explain about the losses that occur due to VAR flow in power systems.

(b) Explain how the generators act as VAR sources in a power network.

8. What is load compensation? Discuss its objectives in power system.

1 of 1

[8+8]

[16]

Set No. 2

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain how the incremental production cost of a thermal power station can

be determined.

(b) Explain the various factors to be considered in allocating generation to different power stations for optimum operation.

[8+8]

2. Give algorithm for economic allocation of generation among generators of a thermal

system taking into account transmission losses. Give steps for implementing this

algorithm, and also derive necessary equations.

[16]

3. Write short notes on:

(a) Equations of Load flow.

(b) Solving of Load flow equations.

[16]

4. (a) Derive the model of a speed governing system and represent it by a block

diagram.

(b) A 100 MVAsynchronous generator operates on full load at a frequency of 50

Hz. The load is suddenly reduced to 50 MW. Due to time lag in the governor

system, the steam valve begins to close after 0.4 secs. Determine the change

in frequency that occurs in this time. H=5 KW-s/KVAof generator capacity.

[8+8]

5. The following data is available for an isolated area, capacity 4000MW, frequency

50Hz, operating load 2500MW, speed regulation constant 2HZ/pu MW. Inertia

constant = 5secs. 2% of change in load takes place for 1% change in frequency.

Find

(a) Largest change in step load if steady state frequency is not to exceed by more

than 0.2Hz

(b) Change in frequency as a function of time after a step change in load. Derive

the formula used.

[8+8]

6. (a) What is load frequency control problem in 2-area power system? Why is it

essential to maintain constant frequency in an inter-connected power system?

(b) Explain the power frequency characteristics of an inter-connected power system?

[8+8]

7. (a) Write short notes on compensated and uncompensated transmission lines

1 of 2

Set No. 2

(b) Explain briefly about the shunt and series compensation of transmission systems.

[8+8]

8. A three(S)phase transmission line has resistance and inductive reactance of 25

and 90 respectively. With no load at the receiving end a synchronous compensator

there takes a current lagging by 900 , the voltage at the sending end is 145 kV and

132 kV at the receiving end. Calculate the value of the current taken by the

compensator. When the load at the receiving end is 50 MW, it is found that the

line can operate with unchanged voltages at sending and receiving ends, provided

that the compensator takes the same current as before but now leading by 900 .

Calculate the reactive power of the load.

[16]

2 of 2

Set No. 3

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) State what is meant by base-load and peak-load stations. Discuss the combined hydro- electric and steam station operation.

(b) Discuss about the incremental fuel cost and production cost.

[8+8]

2. (a) Derive the conditions to be satisfied for economic operation of a loss less power

system.

(b) 150 MW, 220 MW and 220 MW are the ratings of three units located in a

thermal power station. Their respective incremental costs are given by the

following equations:

dc1/

dp1 = Rs(0.11p1 + 12);

dc3 /dp3 = Rs(0.1p3 + 13)

dc2 /dp2 = Rs(0.095p2 + 14)

Where P1 , P2 and P3 are the loads in MW. Determine the economical load

allocation between the three units, when the total load on the station is

i. 350 MW

ii. 500 MW.

[7+9]

(a) Equations of Load flow.

(b) Solving of Load flow equations.

[16]

4. Making suitable assumptions, derive the T.F.of syn generator and the steam turbineset.

[16]

5. A control area has a total rated capacity of 10,000MW. The regulation R for all the

units in the area in 2Hz/pu MW. A 1% change in frequency causes a 1% change in

load. If the system operates at half of the rated capacity and the load increases by

2%

(a) Find the static frequency drop

(b) If the speed governor loop were open, what would be the frequency drop.

Derive the formula used.

[8+8]

6. Give a typical block diagram for a two-area system inter connected by a tie line and

explain each block. Also deduce relations to determine the frequency of oscillations

of tie line power and static frequency drop. List out assumptions made.

[16]

1 of 2

Set No. 3

(b) Explain briefly about the shunt and series compensation of transmission systems.

[8+8]

8. Explain clearly what do you mean by compensation of line and discuss briefly

different methods of compensation.

[16]

2 of 2

Set No. 4

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

[16]

2. The equations of the input costs of three power plants operating in conjunction

and supplying power to a system network are obtained as follows:

C1 = 0.06 P12 + 15 P1 + 150 Rupees/hour

C2 = 0.08 P22 + 13 P2 + 180 Rupees/hour

C3 = 0.10 P32 + 10 P3 + 200 Rupees/hour.

The incremental loss-rates of the network with respect to the plants 1,2 and 3

are 0.06, 0.09 and 0.10 per MW of generation, respectively. Determine the most

economical share of a total load of 120 MW which each of the plants would take

up for minimum input cost of received power is Rupees per mMWH.

[16]

3. Define the lagrangian function for optimization of power flow solution with controlled variables and using the gradient method obtain the solution.

[16]

4. (a) Explain the necessity of maintaining a constant frequency in power system

operation.

(b) Two generators rated 200 MW and 400 MW are operating in parallel. The

droop characteristics of their governors are 4% and 5% respectively from no

load to full load. Assuming that the generators are operating at 50 Hz at no

load, how would a load of 600 Mw be shared between them? What will be the

system frequency at this load? Assume free governor operation. Repeat the

problem if both the governors have a droop of 4%.

[6+10]

5. A control area has a total rated capacity of 10,000MW. The regulation R for all the

units in the area in 2Hz/pu MW. A 1% change in frequency causes a 1% change in

load. If the system operates at half of the rated capacity and the load increases by

2%

(a) Find the static frequency drop

(b) If the speed governor loop were open, what would be the frequency drop.

Derive the formula used.

[8+8]

6. Draw the block diagram for two-area load frequency control with integral controller

blocks, and explain each block.

[16]

7. (a) Explain about the losses that occur due to VAR flow in power systems.

(b) Explain how the generators act as VAR sources in a power network.

1 of 2

[8+8]

Set No. 4

types of static compensators.

[16]

2 of 2

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