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# Table of Laplace and Z-transforms

X(s)

x(t)

1.

2.

3.
4.

1
s
1
s+a

x(kT) or x(k)

1(t)

1(k)

e-at

e-akT

5.

1
s2

kT

6.

2
s3

t2

(kT)2

7.

6
s4

t3

(kT)3

8.

a
s (s + a )

1 e-at

1 e-akT

9.

ba
(s + a )(s + b )

e-at e-bt

e-akT e-bkT

te-at

kTe-akT

(1 at)e-at

(1 akT)e-akT

t2e-at

(kT)2e-akT

10.
11.
12.

(s + a )

(s + a )2

Tz 1

(1 z )
T z (1 + z )
(1 z )
T z (1 + 4 z + z )
(1 z )
(1 e )z
(1 z )(1 e z )
(e e )z
(1 e z )(1 e z )
1 2

(s + a )

akT 1 + e-akT

14.

s + 2

sin t

sin kT

15.

s
s + 2

cos t

cos kT

e-at sin t

e-akT sin kT

e-at cos t

e-akT cos kT

s+a

17.

(s + a )

18.

ak

19.

ak-1
k = 1, 2, 3,

20.

kak-1

21.

k2ak-1

22.

k3ak-1

aT

k4ak-1

24.

ak cos k

x(t) = 0
for t < 0
x(kT) = x(k) = 0 for k < 0
Unless otherwise noted, k = 0, 1, 2, 3,

bT

bT

Te aT z 1

(1 e

aT

z 1

1 (1 + aT )e aT z 1

(1 e z )
T e (1 + e z )z
(1 e z )
[(aT 1 + e )+ (1 e aTe )z ]z
(1 z ) (1 e z )
1 2

aT

aT

aT

1 3

aT

aT

1 2

aT

aT

z 1 sin T
1 2 z 1 cos T + z 2
1 z 1 cos T
1 2 z 1 cos T + z 2
e aT z 1 sin T
1 2e aT z 1 cos T + e 2 aT z 2
1 e aT z 1 cos T
1 2e z 1 cos T + e 2 aT z 2
1
1 az 1
z 1
1 az 1
aT

z 1

(1 az )
z (1 + az )
(1 az )
1 2

23.

aT

aT

at 1 + e-at

1 4

aT

a2
2
s (s + a )

1 3

1
1 z 1
1
1 e aT z 1

aT

(s + a )

z-k

13.

16.

X(z)

## Kronecker delta 0(k)

1
k=0
0
k0
0(n-k)
1
n=k
0
nk

1 3

z 1 1 + 4az 1 + a 2 z 2

(1 az )

1 4

z 1 1 + 11az 1 + 11a 2 z 2 + a 3 z 3

(1 az )

1 5

1
1 + az 1

## Definition of the Z-transform

Z{x(k)} = X ( z ) =

x(k ) z k

k =0

## Important properties and theorems of the Z-transform

x(t) or x(k)

Z{x(t)} or Z {x(k)}

1.

ax(t )

aX (z )

2.

ax1( t ) + bx2 ( t )

aX 1 ( z ) + bX 2 ( z )

3.

x( t + T ) or x( k + 1 )

zX ( z ) zx( 0 )

4.

x( t + 2T )

z X ( z ) z 2 x( 0 ) zx( T )

5.

x( k + 2 )

z 2 X ( z ) z 2 x( 0 ) zx( 1 )

6.

x( t + kT )

z k X ( z ) z k x( 0 ) z k 1 x( T ) K zx( kT T )

7.

x( t kT )

z k X ( z )

8.

x( n + k )

z k X ( z ) z k x( 0 ) z k 1 x( 1 ) K zx( k1 1 )

9.

x( n k )

z k X ( z )

10.

tx( t )

Tz

d
X( z )
dz

11.

kx( k )

d
X( z )
dz

12.

e at x( t )

X ( zeaT )

13.

e ak x( k )

X ( ze a )

14.

a k x( k )

z
X
a

15.

ka k x( k )

16.

x( 0 )

17.

x( )

## lim 1 z 1 X ( z ) if 1 z 1 X ( z ) is analytic on and outside the unit circle

18.

x( k ) = x( k ) x( k 1 )

(1 z )X ( z )

19.

x( k ) = x( k + 1 ) x( k )

(z 1)X ( z ) zx( 0 )

20.

x( k )

1
X( z )
1 z 1

21.

x( t , a )
a

X ( z,a )
a

22.

k m x( k )

z X( z )
dz

23.

x( kT ) y( nT kT )

X ( z )Y ( z )

k =0

d z
X
dz a

[(

z 1

) ] (

k =0

24.

x( k )
k =0

X (1)