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Food Urbanism - A Sustainable Design Option for Urban Communities

Food Urbanism - A Sustainable Design Option for Urban Communities

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As designers and planners of urban landscapes, landscape architects hold a vital tool in the growth of any Iowa community

. Both locally and globally food, has become a common theme in many discussions. Motivations include the lack of productive urban land,

lack of societal knowledge of food growing and preparation, urban/rural conflict at the urban fringe, food insecurity, lack of stable urban markets and uncontrolled urban growth. As a senior thesis in landscape architecture, the goal

was to research and design based on the theory Food Urbanism; how food relates to the organization of a city and how it becomes

infrastructure that transforms the urban experience. Continuous productive landscapes could become a tool and or mechanism to

sustainable growth in urban communities. As infrastructure in a city or town, continuous urban agriculture (UA) has the potential of

being a thread that is sewn through a community creating a rigid and ecological backbone to growth that connects neighborhoods, open

spaces, and urban markets. Research is based on case studies, interviews of producers and city officials in Ames, IA and studies of

a sustainable design option urban communities UA in London, UK. Productive landscapes as tools to sustainable growth havefor recently been written about in the U.S. and Canada. only

FOOD URBANISM

This research demonstrates that urban food systems have a potential of creating environmentally, socially

and economically productive communities in Iowa. and ecological backbone to growth that connects neighborhoods, open spaces, and urban markets. Research is based on case studies, interviews of producers and city officials in Ames, landscape architecture, planning, urban food systems, urban land inventory, sustainable agriculture, urbanism Productive landscapes as tools to sustainable growth have only recently been written about in the U.S. and Canada. This research
demonstrates that urban food systems have a potential of creating environmentally, socially and economically productive communities in Iowa. landscape architecture, planning, urban food systems, urban land inventory, sustainable agriculture, urbanism As designers and planners of urban landscapes, landscape architects hold a vital tool in the growth of any Iowa community. Motivations include the lack of productive urban land, lack of societal knowledge of food growing and preparation, urban/rural conflict at the urban fringe, food insecurity, and design based on the theory

Food Urbanism; how food relates to the organization of a city and how it becomes infrastructure that transforms the urban experience. Continuous productive landscapes could become a tool and or mechanism to sustainable growth in

lack of stable urban markets and uncontrolled urban growth.As a senior thesis in landscape architecture, the goal was to research

urban communities. As infrastructure in a city or town, continuous urban agriculture (UA) has the potential of being a thread that is sewn through a community creating a rigid and ecological backbone to growth that connects neighborhoods, open spaces, and urban markets. Research is based on case studies, interviews of producers and city officials in Ames, IA and studies of UA in London, UK.

Productive landscapes as tools to sustainable growth have only recently been written about in the U.S. and Canada. This research

demonstrates that urban food systems have a potential of creating environmentally, socially and economically productive and ecological backbone to growth that connects neighborhoods, open spaces, and urban markets. Research is based as tools to sustainable growth have only recently been written about in the U.S. and Canada. This research demonstrates that urban food systems have a potential of creating environmentally, socially and economically productive communities in Iowa. landscape architecture, planning, urban food systems, urban land inventory, sustainable agriculture, urbanism As designers and planners of urban landscapes, landscape architects hold a vital tool in the growth of any Iowa community. Both

communities in Iowa. landscape architecture, planning, urban food systems, urban land inventory, sustainable agriculture, urbanism

on case studies, interviews of producers and city officials in Ames, IA and studies of UA in London, UK. Productive landscapes

locally and globally food, has become a common theme in many discussions. Motivations include the lack of productive urban stable urban markets and uncontrolled urban growth.As a senior thesis in landscape architecture, the goal was to research and

land, lack of societal knowledge of food growing and preparation, urban/rural conflict at the urban fringe, food insecurity, lack of

Abstract
The goal of this project was to research urban food systems and design based on the theory Food Urbanism; how food relates to the organization of a city and how it becomes infrastructure that transforms the urban experience. Productive landscapes as tools to sustainable growth have only recently been written about in the U.S. and Canada. Continuous productive landscapes have the potential to become a tool and or mechanism to sustainable growth in urban communities. As infrastructure in a city or town, continuous urban agriculture (UA) has the potential of being a thread that is woven through a community creating a rigid and ecological backbone for growth connecting neighborhoods, open spaces, and urban markets. Research is based on case studies, interviews of producers and city officials in Ames, IA and observations of UA in London, UK. This research demonstrates that urban food systems have a potential of creating environmentally, socially and economically productive communities. Key Words: landscape architecture, planning, urban food systems, urban land inventory, sustainable agriculture, urbanism

JASON GRIMM BLA, Landscape Architecture and Environmental Studies
146 College of Design. Iowa State University. Ames, IA 50010 319.270.3890. jason.greenarch@gmail.com 146 College of Design. Iowa State University. Ames, IA 50010 Special thanks to:

Advisor: MIMI WAGNER, Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture

RICH PIROG, Associate Director of Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture RANDY BOECKENSTEDT, Transporation Research Specialist at ISU Center For Transportation
Research And Education Spring 2009 Research funded in part by the Iowa State University Foundation and Landscape Architecture Barbara King Scholarship

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food urbanism

p7

introduction why urban food systems?
environmentally productive economically productive sociologically productive

P I.......... the urban food system
p 10

p 15

the urban case study
research process policy + local controls + structure fundamentals of current local food system urban markets + nodes grocery + speciality food store + farmer’s market restaurant + convenience + food pantry landcover

P II......... how can an urban food system organize a city?
p 30

the urban food system typology
land inventory urban food system typology urban food system prototypes

p 50

the urban food system typology in the future urban fabric
typology of urban circulation within urban food system future urban circulation patterns

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p 61

the potential of an urban food system
calculating the potential of an urban system based on yield + scale of production calculating the potential of an urban system based on demand + yield ratio the potential of an urban farm + neighborhood farm + allotment garden how many acres to support 50% of urban population

P III........ urban food system proposals and case studies
p 66

implementation of urban food system
department/non-profit that implements urban system proposals of the urban food system typology in the urban case study the urban food system in 2025

p 78

case studies of city + county + state policies and guidelines of local food system
vancouver, british columbia cleveland, oh

p 82 p 84

definitions bibliography

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food urbanism

appendixes, tables and figures
appendix a: community officials’ sample interview questions appendix b: local producers’ sample interview questions appendix c urban farm capita calculations table appendix d: neighborhood farm capita calculations table appendix f: allotment/community garden capita calculations table table 1: C02 emissions of different distribution models in a food system figure 1: Urban Food System figure 2: South Chicago food deserts figure 3: urban food system outcomes figure 4: senior thesis research process figure 5: Ames urban fringe plan figure 6: urban case study urban markets and nodes figure 7: urban case study groceries, speciality food stores, and farmers’ markets figure 8: urban case study restaurants, convenience, food pantry figure 9: urban case study landcover figure 10: current urban food system flow diagram figure 11: urban case study land inventory figure 12: urban food system typology figure 13: private residence garden prototype figure 14: allotment/community garden prototype figure 15: food blvd prototype figure 16: non-profit institution prototype figure 17: religious institution prototype figure 18: neighborhood farm prototype figure 19: urban farm prototype figure 20: proposed urban food system flow diagram figure 20: typology of circulation within the future urban fabric figure 22: circulation within the future urban fabric guidelines figure 23: market blvd within the future urban fabric figure 24: private residence garden within the future urban fabric a sustainable design option for growing urban communities
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figure 25: allotment/communty garden within the future urban fabric figure 26: food blvd within the future urban fabric figure 27: institution within the future urban fabric figure 28: neighborhood farm within the future urban fabric figure 29: urban farm within the future urban fabric figure 30: urban food system typology within the future urban fabric figure 31: calculating the potential of an urban system based on yield and scale of production figure 32: the potential of an urban farm, neighborhood farm and allotment garden figure 33: how many acres to support 50% of urban case study population with fruits and vegetables figure 34: organizational chart of Community Agriculture and Design Center (CADC) figure 35: organizational chart of City of Ames figure 36: proposal of urban food system and circulation typologies in urban case study figure 37: Stange Market Blvd and Kingston Food Blvd section figure 38: Kingston Food Blvd section figure 39: Stange Market Blvd and Kingston Food Blvd aerial perspective figure 40: Kingston Food Blvd aerial perspective figure 41: Northridge Pkwy and Northridge Lane allotment garden aerial perspective figure 42: Neighborhood Farm and Elementary School aerial perspective

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introduction
Food has been the center of civilization and cultures since the formation of the first nomadic societies. In the next 20 years the global population is going to be 60% urban (Girardet 2004, 3) and food access is going to become a primary issue. In 2007, the globe became an urban society by passing the rural/urban threshold, while the U.S. has been primarily urban since 1910 (Kulikowski 2007). As designers and planners of urban landscapes, landscape architects hold a vital tool in the growth of any Iowa community. Food is both a local and global issue. The lack of productive urban land, food insecurity, uncontrolled urban growth, the lack of stable local food markets, land use conflicts in the peri-urban areas, and a general lack of societal knowledge of food growing and preparation fuel these discussions. Cleveland, Ohio and Vancouver, B.C. are prime examples of how legislation can impact the growth of urban food systems while improving other sectors of the community. Cleveland has implemented an urban garden zoning district and the program “Gardens to Greenbacks.” The Vancouver Food Policy Council has created their Vancouver Food Charter to identify goals and has also assisted in creating guidelines for urban agriculture in private development. Urban communities in Iowa have a agricultural heritage and urban food systems have an enormous potential. This report is meant to be a urban case study of the city of Ames’ food system and a manual about food urbanism; including proposals for the city of Ames.

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P I: the urban food system
An urban food system has the agenda to guide the development of a sustainable and integrated system of food production, processing, distribution, marketing, consumption and waste management in an urban landscape. An urban food system integrates live, work, and play into the activities of a productive landscape. Through infrastructure developments of roads, railroad lines, municipal utilities, walking and biking trails, and bike commuter lanes an integrated urban system can be created. Food infrastructure is the underlying foundation of a sustainable community. By utilizing the development of urban food production infrastructure as criteria for urban growth, a community can have urban growth while still on a sustainable path. The success of an urban food system relies on differing pieces of infrastructure to utilize each other’s resources. An urban transportation system should be in conjunction with the distribution of both products and residents in an urban landscape. Institutional and community food processing must be common amongst different schools, churches, NGOs, agencies, and governments. Food production must be integrated into the daily activities of all community residents through recreation and communal gatherings. Positive personal development can be achieved by integrating food production into community recreation parks. Marketing must be the common thread amongst all urban food producers and consumers. Through cooperative market outlets a larger series of food access points can be developed supplying healthy fresh and affordable food. And finally a sustainable community is based on an ongoing never ending system with little input. Waste management is the sector of an urban food system that must be integrated with a waste recycling and reuse program in a community to recycle the nutrients in the food production system. A healthy urban food system means a healthy and sustainably growing community that is economically, environmentally and most importantly a socially productive community.

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Production

URBAN FOOD SYSTEM

planting, management, harvesting...

Processing

washing, drying, canning, freezing, ...

composting, reuse...

Waste Mgmt

Distribution

storage, logistics trucking, rail, ship... farmer’s markets, coops, retail, CSA, direct, pantries...

cooking, meals, slow food, events...

Consumption

Marketing

festivals, pubic transportation, recreation, municipal utilities, religion, dining, education, bicycle commuting, work, recycling...

figure 1

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why urban food systems?
Last October in the New York Times Michael Pollen addressed the future new president as the Farmer in Chief (Pollen 2008). In his letter Pollen explained to the next president that food policy will become a leading issue above others during the next four years. He explained to him that by reinventing the entire food system it would reduce the impact of many other issues. He was trying to explain how every issue today is linked some how to the food system. These are the same issues that are being shared by organizations and individuals in the farming, health, human welfare and many other sectors. Access to healthy food is a critical issue. Chicago is only one city of many combating food deserts. Food deserts are populations either urban or rural that do not have access to grocery or food market stores. Convenience stores instead fill this void. These stores though only provide beer, soda, potato chips and other highly processed foods. Figure 1 represents food deserts present in South Chicago (Group 2006, 8).

Environmentally Productive
As diabetes and other chronic diseases increase, health care costs will continue to rise. Last fall the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation released that employer sponsored health plan premiums are rising drastically and workers are paying on average $3,354 annually toward family coverage out of their own pay checks (Singh 2008).

figure 2

Environmental health is an enormous concern of many organizations and individuals in the local food system movement. On average food travels 1500-2500 miles from field to plate and in return is producing extreme levels of carbon dioxide at the same time. Rich Pirog in the Leopold Center has written about Iowa’s food system and, more specifically, the food system’s impact based on food miles. Pirog compared the impacts of a conventional system, page 10 food urbanism

Iowa-based regional system and a local system (Pirog 2001). He analyzed each system based on fuel consumption, value of the fuel consumed, C02 emissions and distance traveled. Table 1 shows Pirog’s findings for each food system and its impact on the climate based on food miles. His findings support that an urban food system would be environmentally productive as it would shorten the span between field and plate and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (Pirog 2001, 33). The conventual agricultural sector in 2005 produced 8.2% of the CO2 emissions based out of all the U.S. economic sectors. Transportation (27.5%), industry (18.6%) and electric power (33.5%) were the sectors ahead of the agricultural sector (Hofstrand 2008). The current agricultural sector is the primary cause of these other industries’ impact. For example the transportation sector releases many CO2 emissions because it must ship the agricultural products across the country. In addition to food miles, food deserts, and health care; urban land use is a common issue in urban communities. Manicured lawns, in the U.S., are out of control. Today manicured lawns are the largest crop in the U.S. There are three times more acres of lawn than irrigated corn covering an area of about 330,000 square miles (Lindsey 2005). table 1

Economically Productive
In 1929 Americans spent $4 out $5 at independent retailers but by the mid-50’s many consumer’s patterns were being drastically affected (Mitchell 2006). After WWII when a larger portion of the population was able to move and live in suburbs of American cities it opened up new land for chain stores to grow. Today chains have become the dominate market in all areas of the economy. In 2005 the top ten retail chains had a hold of 30% of consumer spending. Twenty percent of this spending was in food sales and 46% was dominated by 5 companies: Walmart, Kroger, Albertson’s Safeway, and Ahold. Independent groceries only had 17% of the sales. Even the clothing sales were being dominated by a few. Target along with specialty stores like GAP Inc. are leading the market. Forty percent of the prescription sales are by Walgreens, CVS and Rite Aid (Mitchell 2006, 11). This can be seen in many other areas such as books, restaurants/entertainment, and even on the World Wide Web. This narrowing of the market is even apparent in agriculture. In the U.S. we have 4 million fewer farmers today than we did in the 1930’s. Farms have gotten larger and are owned by a smaller group of people everyday (GRACE 2008). In 1910, a sustainable design option for growing urban communities
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42 cents of every dollar spent on food went to farmers and 59 cents went to marketers and input providers. By 1998 farmers only received 9 cents, input providers 24 cents, and marketers 67 cents (Shuman 1998, 58). In the mid 1940’s Walter Goldschmidt along with two other sociologist C. Wright Mills and Melville J. Ulmer each studied the effects of a local vs. nonlocal business base in similar communities (Mitchell 2006). Their studies compared two communities that were similar in population, climate, and distance from major urban centers. Goldschmidt compared the two communities of Arvin and Dinuba both located in the Sun Joaquin Valley in California. Goldschmidt’s findings allowed him to conclude that Dinuba had a higher standard of living because it had a base of local businesses instead of non local. His analysis of two communities showed that Arvin had a handful of large agri-businesses and Dinuba was only small family owned farms. Arvin’s farms were 9 times as large and had a larger median income. Dinuba though had much more impressive stats (Mitchell 2006 73-4). There was less income inequality and there were many farmers, small business owners, and independent processors. In addition compared to the one elementary school and tiny private playground in Arvin, Dinuba’s community infrastructure was enormous. It had better streets, sidewalks, and garbage services that were better in both quality and quantity. It had 4 elementary schools, 1 high school, 3 public parks, and twice the civic and social organizations. Its two newspapers were each larger than Arvin’s one paper (Mitchell 2006 73-4). Urban areas would be the best place to implement production without competing with the production of commodity crops outside of urban areas. Today in Iowa Dave Swenson from the Economics Department and the Leopold Center at Iowa State have combined forces to develop evidence of the positive economic impacts of increased fruit and vegetable production and consumption in Iowa. Swenson created a multiple of scenarios each varying in the amount of produce grown in Iowa, amount of consumption in Iowa, and the amount marketed directly vs. indirectly (Swenson 2006). In his second scenario he models 25% of the 37 fruits and vegetables consumed in Iowa as produced by Iowa farmers. The produce is then 50% direct marketed by farmers to consumers and the other half is indirect marketed through the wholesale distributors and conventional grocery stores. He concluded that there would be a total industrial output of $104.5 million, a labor income of $38 million made by 1,345 jobs. Swenson then concluded that this increased production had a net impact of $92 million of industrial output and $33.5 million in labor income made by 1,183 new jobs (Swenson 2006,17). By designing our communities around food production and only increasing fruit and vegetable production in Iowa by 25%, our Iowa economy would be benefited greatly.

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Sociologically Productive
In Dinuba and Arvin Goldschmidt concluded that since the residents had a higher standard of living they were more willing to engage in public affairs because they had built up community equity to the point where they felt they owned a piece of the community and should have a right to make decisions for its future. Thus the local economics of Dinuba created a sociologically productive community. Sociological productivity is more difficult to measure. Jan and Cornelia Flora of the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development have developed their Community Capitals Framework (Development 2008). This framework defines the seven types of capital in a community. Their framework explains that one local dollar protects natural capital and adds to cultural, human, social, political, financial, and built capital (Development 2008). By increasing social capital the Flora’s explain that a community will have a strong foundation and become a sustainable community. They argue that social capital creates the binds throughout the community and into the surrounding region. Jane Jacobs in her book, Death and Life of Great American Cities, calls local businessman public characters (Jacobs 1993). They are what bind communities together. When they talk to many people throughout the day they become like a news cast that spreads information between individuals (Mitchell 2006,78). Even though the relationships that are created between local businessman and other residents are informal they become personal and multifaceted and gain an interest in each other’s well being. As these relationships grow social capital is created. People learn many new faces and create informal relationships that reduce social diversions and foster empathy and friendship (Mitchell 2006, 80). When local residents speak with each other and create relationships between large groups of people social webs are created. These webs become avenues where job openings are advertised and filled, innovative ideas created, skills traded, and business trades made (Mitchell 2006, 80).

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urban food system outcomes

figure 3

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food urbanism

the urban case study
The first step in developing an urban food system is to conduct a urban food system audit. The city of Ames was chosen as the urban case study based on a criteria developed for selection. The case study is meant to evaluate the current status and flow diagram of the urban food system. Case study selection criteria included population (60,000 - 10,000), diverse ethnicity, access to base data, presence of linear ecological landscapes, land area, population density, home ownership, stable urban centers, stable local markets, population of local farmers, forward-thinking officials, population growth, and per capita median income. Ames was chosen both on the criteria and personal knowledge of the community. In addition to case studies and background knowledge (included in Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: a sustainable design option to growing urban communities in Iowa, research process phase one report) interviews were conducted E DG with city officials on the local controls, LE OW policy, and structure of Ames. To understand N the fundamentals of the current local food system, local producers were asked basic interview questions about the fundamental Wilbers Northside Market aspects of their food production. Figure 3 on the left represents the research process Rinehart’s Picket Fence Family Farm Creamery FUNCTIONAL followed to obtain an understanding of Blacks Ames and the theory of Food Urbanism. DeMoss Circle Heritage Pumpkin ELEMENTS OF FullFarm Farm Farm Appendixes A and B include interview Growing questions conducted with officials and Onion Harmony SYSTEM Farm Creek Farm producers. figure 4
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a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

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Additional research and analysis was then conducted on the number and location of the city’s urban markets and nodes, grocery, speciality food stores, and farmer’s markets, restaurants and convenience stores and landcover within the city limits
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policy + local controls + structure
It is important to understand the local controls, policy and structure of both Ames and unincorporated Story County. By interviewing local planners and officials data was gathered about Ames’ controls on temporary markets, urban growth strategies, the urban fringe plans, the local approach at managing vacant land, strategies used to manage park land, and controls on current community gardens within in Ames. In addition to current data and information a dialogue was created, with the local planners and officials, on designing communities around a framework of urban agriculture.

Managing Urban Growth/Urban Fringe Planning
Ames and Story County planners have a long term agreement to work together on all urban growth planning strategies. After working together for a long period of time the two cities along with the city of Gilbert have completed an Urban Fringe Plan. On the following page is the current Urban Fringe Plan for the city of Ames. After speaking with the planning directors, it was determined that planning is based on current utilities and services. Urban growth areas are first determined based on whether current utilities and services are able to support any new development. Utilities and services are defined as sewer, water, electricity, gas, emergency service, and etc. Other criteria that are considered are environmental constraints and current traffic patterns. City and county planners each agreed that the appropriate places to consider while studying food urbanism would be the Urban Service Areas, within the urban fringe plan. They agreed that urban food system infrastructure would be able to guide future growth into these areas. These areas are projected to be areas of future urban development based on urban growth plans. Within the city of Ames these areas are primarily located on the west and southwest edges of Ames along Hwy 30, North and South Dakota Avenues, and West Lincoln Way. Figure 4 represents the city of Ames urban fringe plan. County planners also recommend conservation easement lands and any land that is classified as agriculture or farm service areas. The planners recommended conservation easement lands because low impact periurban agriculture could be utilized as a management tool for these lands while conserving the parcels.

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food urbanism

LAND USE FRAMEWORK MAP Ames Urban Fringe Plan figure 5
GILBERT

180TH ST

NORTH DAKOTA AVE

GEORGE W CARVER AVE

W 190TH ST

E 190TH ST

CITY OF AMES
US HIG HW A Y3

0

STAGECOACH RD

US HIGHWAY 30

SOUTH DAKOTA AVE

Boone Co. Story Co.

KELLEY

LEGEND
Rural Service and Agricultural Conservation Area
Agriculture and Farm Service Rural Residential Parks and Recreation Areas

Rural Urban Transition Area
Priority Transitional Residential Highway-Oriented Commercial Rural Transitional Residential General Industrial Natural Areas Industrial Reserve/Research Park Agricultural/Subsurface Mining Agricultural/Long-term Industrial Reserve Gateway Protection Area Watershed Protection Area Transportation Corridor Protection Area Airport Protection Area

US HIGHWAY 69

Approved by Story County, City of Ames and City of Gilbert, July 17, 2006

Urban Service Area
Urban Residential Planned Industrial Community Commercial Node Conveneince Commercial

1

0.5

INTERSTATE HIGHWAY 35
0

1

2 Miles

Boone County Future Land Use
Ames Urban Fringe Area Located in Boone County. Future Land Use to be determined following completion of Boone County's Comprehensive Plan Update and discussion with other goverments.

Story County Study Area
Ames Urban Fringe Area Located in 'Story County Study Area'. Future Land Use to be determined following the completion of Story County's study and discussion with other governments.

Ames Urban Fringe Planning Boundary
Iowa State University Property Government Owned Land

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

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Managing Vacant Land
City planners in inteviews indicated that vacant land is seen as a valuable resource. Vacant land in the city of Ames was defined as parcels that are of nuisance to adjacent land uses or are hard to develop. The city assessor uses a existing use code in their parcel data to define vacant as empty parcels or empty structures. Planning staff expressed that studying existing aerials and current parcel data was the best way to locate vacant or underutilized parcels.

Temporary Markets
Since a urban food system would be economically productive and grow and harvest products, it is important that markets be created within the system. It is important though that these markets are regulated to prevent negative effects on the health and well being of the public population. Examples include the sale of contaminated food or illegal the sighting of a vending trailer in the public right of way. The central Iowa climate does not allow crops to be grown and harvested year around outdoors thus some markets within the system would only be temporary for 8-10 months of the year. In addition to understanding planning goals and strategies for the city of Ames it was also important to know any current regulations or laws that would regulate any form of a temporary market. Within the City of Ames Municipal Code there are many requirements for markets and vendors. Section 22.4 of the municipal code has restrictions on temporary obstructions. These requirements are meant to control the issuing of permits for obstructions and limit them so they don’t cause any harm to the public. Section 17.26 thus places requirements on specific outdoor markets. The code reads: that any person who, for the purpose of selling goods or services, occupies a place out of doors, other than on public property, or who for said purpose occupies an indoor place on an intermittent or temporary basis only, and who does not have any indoor place in the city where the same selling of goods and services is done by said person on a continuous and permanent basis, shall obtain and wear, in a manner plainly visible, a valid registration and identification badge issued by the City Clerk. It is required that all markets apply for a permit from the City Clerk so that all markets can be inventoried and regulated to avoid any potential harm to the public population. In addition to markets vending has many requirements. Their requirements in Section 22.11 – 22.23 read: It shall be unlawful to sell, or offer for sale, any food, beverage or merchandise on any street, sidewalk, alley, city parking lot or other thoroughfare without first obtaining the applicable license or permit, such as a Vendor’s License, a Newspaper Dispenser Permit, or a Sidewalk Cafe Permit.
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The following requirements and standards are placed on all vendors: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The vending stand shall be of such a size and so placed that it does not obstruct the orderly flow of pedestrian and/or vehicular movement(s). The vending stand shall be placed so as not to obstruct visibility at street intersections or to obstruct driveway entrances. All vending stands shall provide a litter receptacle which is available for the vendor’s patron’s use. All vending stands shall be attended at all times and removed during hours of non-operation. Upon removal of the stand, all litter and trash shall be picked up. Vending items shall be only those stated in the application. The vending stand shall be placed so as not to obstruct the view of merchandising displays of other businesses abutting the sidewalk. All vending from motor vehicles shall be conducted in such a way as not to restrict or interfere with the ingress or egress of the abutting property, create a public nuisance, increase traffic congestion or delay, constitute a hazard to traffic, life, or property, or be an obstruction to adequate access to fire, police, or sanitation vehicles.

Strategies in Managing Park Land
It is also important to understood the strategies of the parks and recreation department. A urban food system will utilize current open space and it will act as the missing piece that creates a network of open spaces. Within the parks department all future planning is done through the park master plan and the city’s Capital Improvement Plan. Mowing and controlling weeds and invasive plants is the primary management strategy for each park. Currently within the city there is one example of community gardens. Thirty-six plots are located south of the Department of Transportation service yards along Squaw Creek on park land. The plots are 10’x40’ and are on an annual rent cycle of $15/year. They are managed by the Iowa Natural Heritage Foundation. Even though there is interest in more community gardens there is a concern by the city of the hours needed to manage a system.

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fundamentals of current local food system
In order to design a urban food system in the case study community it was important to understand the fundamental systems and infrastructure that make the local food system operate. Through interviewing eight local producers a better understanding was gathered of current producers, markets, and products in the local supply chain. During a three week interview process producers were interviewed on their mechanics, storage, markets, processing, products, labor, size, their struggles, and their input on programs to bring farmers into urban areas. Interviews were with: Picket Fence Creamery Onion Creek Farm Black Heritage Farm Growing Harmony Farm Rinehart’s Family Farm Wilber’s Northside Market Full Circle Farm DeMoss Pumpkin Farm

Story County, Iowa: Local Food System
As part of an increasing rise in local food awareness, the Story County Planning and Zoning department completed a study on the county food system (Department 2008). They found that the county was very diverse with 18 growers and 50 producers counting the surrounding counties. These producers are marketing their products in the region. In 2006 there were 17 CSAs in the region, 2 farmers markets in Ames, grocery stores that were selling local products (Wheatsfield Coop, HyVee, and Fareway), and a handful of restaurants using local goods in their menus (Department 2008, 13-14). In a survey that was administered by the department producers replied saying they were looking to expand production or to build greenhouses. Many though replied explaining the hardest issues of local production. Many explained that there was enough labor but the access to land was limited. This restricted the number of new farmers. The largest concern in Story County as with other counties is the lack of regional food processing or meat lockers to add
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food urbanism

value to their goods before market. Livestock producers were the most concerned because there are few federally or state inspected processors in the region. This limits their ability to market their meat for resale and to have it certified organic. This is a concern because by law in order to sell beef, pork, chicken or any other meat in a resale market the carcass has to be inspected by a certified individual before it can be divided into its respectful parts and stamped for resale. The senior thesis interviews focused on the fundamentals of the local producers’ operations. In order to design and plan a local urban food system it was important to understand where current producers are farming, what mechanics they are using and the markets they are selling their products at. Each interview was conducted at each of the producers farms.

Peri-urban/Rural Production
Of the eight producers interviewed, four were located slightly outside of city limits. The four producers located near any city limits were in prime locations. Their locations allowed them to create direct markets so that their customers could purchase their products directly on the farm. This allowed the farmers to create a transparent system so that customers understood how their products were being produced. The other four producers were located in rural areas that were primarily row crop agriculture. One of these four produced grass fed beef just outside of Ledges State Park. Since the producer was using rotational grazing his farm acted as a buffer between the State Park and the row crop agriculture that surrounding the farm. The smallest producers ranged about 2 – 5 acres while the largest producer had 100 acres for vegetables and 700 for row crops. This represents the scale of local producers in the region very well. Even between the two producers that market grass-fed beef each is at opposite ends of the spectrum. One producer has 160 acres of pasture and is looking to expand this part of his business; in addition to his dairy production. The other producer outside of Ledges State Park has 40 acres and 15 head of cattle. Both producers agreed that two acres per head is a suitable planning calculation per year. All producers expressed the importance of some land being laid fallow every year as part of a crop rotation system. They expressed this because it allowed the soil to rest between production years. To return fertility to the soil all of the producers either add organic matter or compost and some will plant green manure crops after they harvest. These crops then are tilled into the soil and added to the organic matter content in the soil. Since the price of land is high currently many producers mentioned how hard it is to expand. One producer has recently just started to rent 20 acres and grows produce, as a voluntary agreement between the landowner and themselves, on another acre parcel.

Mechanics/Infrastructure of the Regional Food System
a sustainable design option for growing urban communities
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A urban food system will be commercially productive and will incorporate parks and community gardens into its network. To be able to design commercially productive areas, it is important to understand what infrastructure is required. All producers explained that most of the labor is done by hand instead of by equipment. The crops that are primarily grown cannot be harvested by equipment efficiently for the small quantity produced. Many if not all farmers though did use roto-tillers to prepare their land for planting and to control weeds. Then depending on the scale of production and crops produced some producers owned small utility tractors, mowers, skid loaders, planters, and other tillage equipment. In addition to the larger equipment every producer had some form of a wheel barrel or garden cart and all the shovels and rakes one could want. Many producers expressed the constant battle with weeds and ways they control them. Many explained by using straw or plastic barriers many weeds can be prevented. For those weeds that did grow though stir-up hoes, propane torches, and/or natural products were sprayed to control weeds and pests.

Storage, Processing, and Delivery
Since many producers sold to farmers markets or had their own direct markets they needed a place to store and process their products. Every producer had some form of a storage building. Some were simply lean-tos that protected one from the elements and others had garages and sheds. Within these small structures producers would use coolers to store produce that needed to be cool and others would use old refrigerators or shelves as storage. After products had been harvested producers washed all products to remove soil from root crops or remove any pests or soil from greens. After washing the products they would be packaged in cardboard boxes or plastic crates by weight. Whether the producer was putting together shares for their CSA members or getting ready to make a shipment to Hy-Vee, this system allowed him/her to quickly and easily sell his product at a certain unit per pound. Each producer had a different system of getting products to their customers. For those producers selling to re-sale markets the grocery store produce manager would contact them when they were ready for a new shipment. Producers otherwise would either prepare for farmer’s markets the day before hand or early the morning of. CSA producers would deliver their shares to their members or have their members pick up their own shares at the farm. Producers would use small trucks and sometimes enclosed trailers. One farmer just outside of Ames used an electric truck to make his deliveries to the restaurants he sold to. For those producers that had livestock or dairy they would either do their own processing or take their livestock or milk to a processing plant. Many producers expressed the issue of the lack of a regional meat processing facility. One producer that sells free range chickens expressed that because he has to haul his livestock to an inspected facility in far southwest Iowa it about offsets him producing his chickens in a free range system.
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food urbanism

Local Markets
All producers had found their own niche in the local markets. Many producers marketed their products to Hy-Vee, Fareway, Wheatsfield, and ISU Dining’s program, Farm to ISU. Producers rarely marketed their products in a single fashion. Between the CSAs the number of shares varied between 15-64 families. Others sell at farmer’s markets in Ames, Johnston, Des Moines, and other communities. As was mentioned earlier some producers direct market their goods from the farm. This allows them to market their products everyday of the week. Direct marketing goods also creates other avenues for producers to work together and sell each other’s products. And finally, some producers also sell to restaurants like the Café in Ames or the Raccoon River Brewery in Des Moines.

The Potential of Programs to Create Inventories of Land within City Limits for Production; To Assist In the Management of Vacant or Underutilized Land
As a part of each interview each producer was asked about their thoughts and ideas about a program that would create an inventory of urban parcels that are vacant or underutilized that could be used for production. Each producer thought this was a great idea as it would decrease the distance that products would have to be delivered, it utilized land to its potential, and helped managed land within the city. The producers expressed that to make it efficient to be farmed commercially the site would have to be half an acre or greater. The smaller sites could be used for community gardens instead. In addition to the question many producers also recommended that old schools or other vacant buildings could be used as processing centers, job training centers, other education programs or housing.

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urban markets +nodes
Urban markets and nodes create the foundation to the marketing of products within an urban food system. This evaluation within the urban case study evaluated the location of each urban market and node within the city of Ames. These nodes and market centers are important to the food system because they are the centers were products within the urban food system can be marketed to the greater city population. Outdoor markets, grocery stores, speciality stores, and other commercial activities can be located at these nodes because they are intersections of circulation. Diverse nodes and markets create an active streetscape at every hour. This evaluation informed the site chosen as a existing urban fabric to be used as a case study to implement the proposed urban food system typology and circulation. figure 6

*radii = 10 min. walk at average speed
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food urbanism

grocery + specialty food store + farmer’s market
With the rise of food deserts and food insecurity becoming an issue it was important to evaluate the location of current points of access to healthy food. In 2006, in Story county there were 13 grocery stores, 36 convenience stores, 6 specialty food stores and 2 farmer’s markets. There were 6,446 people per the 13 grocery stores and 13,967 per the 6 specialty food stores (Eathington 2008). It is important to understand the number and location of these markets today in addition to the outdoor farmer’s markets. Since Ames is the home of Iowa State University and since Ames has a very diverse population it is important that food items are available for each culture. For example the Indian culture is very large within the community thus it is important that Pammel Grocery is a source of food items specific to their food culture. figure 7

*radii = 10 min. walk at average speed a sustainable design option for growing urban communities
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restaurant + convenience + food pantry
Since 2000 households receiving food assistance has more than doubled (720-2,048) in Story county. The average benefits per person have nearly doubled as well ($75.16 $148.96) (Iowa State Data Center). Food assistance (recently changed from food stamps) supports families and individuals near or below poverty. Without an ample supply of fresh food items it is important that households have supplementary access points to sources that accept food stamps. Restaurants including fast food, convenience stores and food pantries become the second tier following grocery stores and markets. It is important though that fast food restaurants and convenience stores do not become the first tier of food access as in food deserts. In 2007, in Story county it was estimated that 34.4% of the population was overweight, 24.9% obese and 5% diabetic (Eathington 2008). figure 8

*radii = 10 min. walk at average speed
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food urbanism

landcover
Sprawl and a monoculture of a few land uses are a rising concern by researchers. Part of this concern is the ever larger expanses of lawn and larger single family homes. Below the GIS analysis of the urban case study has found that 4,500 acres of manicured lawn, grasslands, and agricultural land exists within the city limits. This excludes floodplains and steep slopes because for ecological reasons it is important that these areas area protected and kept intact. If one assumes that only half of these 4,500 acres are productive it still means that about 2000 acres of underutilized land could possibly be used to support the fruits and vegetables demanded by the Ames population.

figure 9

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

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As for the urban case study of Ames there is many issues and opportunities present in both Story county and the city. Interviews have concluded that producers are stable and wanting to expand but land prices and the lack of local processing restricts their growth. The local controls, policy and structure is in a stable but flexible state. Land development concerns are presently related to urban growth and the ample amount of underutilized land. City departments though are concerned about expanding the current small community garden program to a much larger community wide system. Aside from the physical and productive sectors of the current food system food access and health is a serious concern both in the county and city. As the food system flow diagram represents below there is very few points of food access for community members. This is both a concern for the consumer and the producer as the distributor and the processor has much of the control over the system. The producer has very few points at which to market new products after a production expansion. Producers also have few local sources to process meats and for added agriculture. Valued added means to process vegetables and fruit into sauces, jams, and other additives through canning, drying, freezing, etc. Even though there are many issues, analysis of landcover and land use within the city limits represents a high amount of potential of meeting the city’s fruits and vegetables demands within the city limits. Earlier calculations determined that 970 acres for vegetables and 930 acres for fruit would be needed to supply the fruits and vegetables for 6 months of the year for the city’s approximate 2007 population of 55,000. As stated earlier the landcover analysis found 4,500 acres of mown lawn, grassland and current agricultural land within the city limits. This represents that there is an enormous potential of food production within the city of Ames.

current urban food system flow diagram
community member/ consumers

local producer urban market/ coop/grocery store/ restaurant/processing

figure 10

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food urbanism

P II: how can an urban food system organize a city?

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the urban food system typology
The first step to organizing a city based on the theory food urbanism is to develop a land inventory of the city. This report explains how a land inventory of the urban case study allowed for the development of a typology and vocabulary of a productive urban landscape. As part of the land inventory of the city of Ames potential sites were compiled that were classified based on their size and potential user group. From these potential sites a typology was then created explaining the characteristics of each type of food production within the theory of food urbanism. This typology can thus be used to classify sites within future land inventories in other Iowa communities. The following pages and chapters provide examples and tools in developing an urban food system.

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food urbanism

figure 11

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

URBAN CASE STUDY LAND INVENTORY
page 31

page 32

typology
religious/education/ non-profit

private residence garden food blvd.
farm

community/ allotment garden

institution neighborhood urban farm

user/producer/ manager

independent user local producer

institution

(religious, education, non-profit)

urban food system typology

scale

productive space

figure 12

3.5 acres

varies

>1/2 acres varies varies

1-3.5 acres

3.5 + acres

characteristics

staff

& utilities/infrastructure provided

# of community services

% public

production types

present structure supporting facility hothouse
$

$

market

circulation

distribution/ markets

food urbanism

optional

direct

After creating a land inventory the urban food system typology can be used to classify sites. Each types then have their own attributes. The typology can also be used to help find a site that meets a certain criteria. For example if a community organization is wanting to develop a new community garden the typology specifies that the site needs to be under .5 an acre in size. It will then be the organizations responsibility to manage that community garden based on citywide policies of management. As specified in the typology, renters of plots in community gardens have the option to utilize the ability to market their goods in the larger food system; most typically at a farmer’s market. These members would be required to meet all inspections as other producers and community members to be able to sell food at a market. This example is the same if a municipality is interested in providing fruits and vegetables for a higher percentage of the cities population. The city could meet this requirement either through a new urban or neighborhood farm. They would then ask for RFQs from urban farmers that are interested in managing the new proposed farm. This farm manager and their staff would then have the requirement to provide community services such as farmer training or educational courses for example on food processing. The following 7 prototypes are examples of each type within the urban food system typology. The page leading each prototype explains the attributes of each. It is important to understand how designers/officials of a local CADC would provide assistance in each instance of a new prototype.

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+Private Residence Garden
User/Producer/Stakeholder:
Managed by a private homeowner or independent user

Location/Scale:
All production will be provided by the landowner/user within the property boundaries. This production is possible at many scales. An entire private residence could be retrofitted to produce food or just the rear 20 ft of a lot could be managed.

Characteristics/Scenario:
Special instances that create prime scenarios to have a productive landscape as a homeowner are large lawn expanses, the presence of an alley, large street setbacks and/or clear solar exposure. Street setbacks are good examples because these spaces usually are not intended for use but are meant to provide a visually pleasing setting on approaching the entrance.

Production Types:
The type of production and items being produced are dependent on the homeowner/users ambitions/goals. Chickens, fish, and/or fruit and vegetables could be produced or managed. These activities could be primarily within a greenhouse, a plot or multiple of pots, raised beds or a combination of these and others.

Designers Role:
The designer would be able to assist in constructing or developing plans for a private residence. Plans could be created that best utilize the entire property for food production. Examples: using permaculture techniques to maximize production, rainwater harvesting, circulation amongst production plots, or rotation plans. He/she could assist in developing goals/objectives of an independent production operation.

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food urbanism

figure 13

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

page 35

+Community/Allotment Garden
User/Producer/Stakeholder:
Managed by a neighborhood organization. Plots rented to community members and managed independently by renter. Rents are paid annually and set by the neighborhood organization in charge of management. The neighborhood organization will follow rules and guidelines created by the local CADC.

Location/Scale:
The site of a community/allotment garden would be equal or less than ½ an acre. The site could be on private property, within a public park, on vacant land, or a school yard.

Characteristics/Scenario:
A community/allotment garden would characterized by a multiple of individual plots ranging within a variety of scales. Plots are rented on an annual growing year for the private use of the renter. Tools, storage, and composting would be managed independently or collectively based on the structure created at the time of implementation of the community/allotment garden. Water access and security would be provided as part of the annual fee to rent a plot. Security would be provided by fencing and locked gates.

Production Types:
The plot could consist of food production and/or an ornamental garden. Production would be within raised beds, plots, pots and/or on vertical surfaces. Production could be managed independently for personal consumption/revenue or the community/allotment garden user population could collectively market products for revenue.

Designers Role:
The designers role would be to assist in locating an appropriate site for a community/allotment garden. Plans would be created based on the neighborhood organization’s goals/objectives or their garden space. The designer would organize the growing techniques, circulation, materials, hardware and storage and composting systems.

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food urbanism

figure 14

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

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+Food Blvd
User/Producer/Stakeholder:
Managed by a municipal, neighborhood or non-profit organization. Plots rented to community members or local producer and managed independently by renter.

Location/Scale:
A food blvd is a street retrofitted or designed as a productive landscape. Prime scenarios of streets that could be retrofitted are not arterial streets, do not have parking along them, are excessively wide, have excessive parking along them, or are streets where parking is located at the rear of the property. The scale of the productive landscape is dependent on the scale of the food blvd.

Characteristics/Scenario:
A food blvds function is to provide a source of circulation for pedestrians and cyclists in addition to a continuous productive landscape. A food blvd is able to more intensively use a linear landscape that is designed primarily for the car. A food blvd can consist of multiple scales as long as production and both modes of transportation are able to coexist. Fencing or other trespassing measures would be dependent on the designer and the client of the food blvd. Vertical growing walls could be used in instead of fencing as an example of other options to create boundaries separating the different users of the blvd. All fencing or barriers though are required to be transparent to allow for clear site lines of activities. Small structures meeting local food production guidelines are allowed but are provided by the builder.

Production Types:
The plot could consist of food production and/or an ornamental garden. Production would be within raised beds, plots, pots and/or on vertical surfaces. Production could be managed independently for personal consumption/revenue or for commercial marketing by a local producer. In order for a food blvd to be farmed commercially the production space must be larger than ½ an acre. Dependent on the renter it would be their responsibility to supply storage, tools, and composting facilities. Water access would be provided as part of the design of the food blvd.

Designers Role:
The designer’s role in retrofitting streets would be to actively search out prime cases and prepare plans for the local CADC. Designers and developers would have the responsibility to implement food boulevards. Cycle and pedestrian lanes, fencing and/or other mechanisms of creating edges to the production spaces are the responsibility of the developer and designer.
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food urbanism

figure 15

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

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+Institution
Non-profit Institution User/Producer/Stakeholder:
Owned/rented by a non-profit organization. Production is managed and organized by the nonprofit organization that owns/rents the land or in agreement with a local producer.

Location/Scale:
A non-profit productive landscape is a productive landscape that is either owned or rented by a non-profit organization. Dependent on the goals/objectives of the non-profit organization the amount of production will be determined.

Characteristics/Scenario:
A non-profit organization’s goal/objectives of food production would be based on the mission of the association. After submission of a tax-exempt status, a certification as a non-profit, it is the organization’s responsibility to provide programs and services that are of public benefit that are not otherwise provided by local, state or federal entities. Examples of possible services would be farmer training, home food processing/cooking training, or housing. In addition to these services the non-profit would produce foods and/or materials that would be consumed internally or externally for example through a CSA.

Production Types:
Production would be within hot houses, rotational plots, aquaculture, raised beds, pots and/ or on vertical surfaces. Production could be managed independently for internal consumption or for commercial marketing as part of a CSA, farmers market or a local food market. It would be the non-profit organization’s responsibility to supply water, storage, tools, and composting facilities.

Designers Role:
The designer’s role would be to provide technical assistance and help in securing funding for operations. Plans would be created based on the goals/objectives of the NPO. The plans would layout the production operations dependent on the types of production.

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food urbanism

Religious Institution User/Producer/Stakeholder:
Owned by a religious organization. All production is managed and organized by the religious institution and/or a local producer or other joint stakeholder organization.

Location/Scale:
A religious productive landscape is a productive landscape that is part of a religious institution’s grounds. Dependent on the goals/objectives of the institution the amount of production will be determined. In order for a local producer to have all or some part of the responsibilities in managing production the site must be greater than ½ an acre.

Characteristics/Scenario:
A religious organization’s goal/objectives of food production will determine the scale of production possibly determined by how the produce will be marketed and/or consumed. The institution could also provide the services of farmer training, home food processing/cooking training just as a non-profit organization. Produce foods and/or materials that would be consumed internally or externally for example through a CSA.

Production Types:
Production would be within hot houses, rotational plots, aquaculture, raised beds, pots and/or on vertical surfaces. Production could be managed independently for internal consumption or for commercial marketing as part of a CSA, farmers market or local food market. It would be the organization’s responsibility to supply water, storage, tools, and composting facilities.

Designers Role:
The designer’s role would be to provide technical assistance and help in securing funding for operations. Plans would be created based on the goals/objectives of the organization. The plans would layout the operations dependent on the types of production.

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Education Institution User/Producer/Stakeholder:
Owned by a private/public school/university. All production is managed and organized by the institution and/or a local producer or other joint stakeholder organization.

Location/Scale:
A school/university productive landscape is part of the institution’s land. Dependent on the goals/objectives of the institution the amount of production will be determined. In order for a local producer to have all or some part of the responsibilities in managing production the site must be greater than ½ an acre.

Characteristics/Scenario:
The school/university goal and objectives of food production will determine the scale of production by how the produce will be marketed and/or consumed. The institution could also provide services for example as farmer training or home food processing/cooking training. Produce foods and/or materials would be consumed externally or for example internally in a school dining center.

Production Types:
Production would be within hot houses, rotational plots, aquaculture, raised beds, pots and/or on vertical surfaces. Production could be managed independently for internal consumption or for commercial marketing as part of a CSA, farmers market or local food market. It would be the organization’s responsibility to supply water, storage, tools, and composting facilities.

Designers Role:
The designer’s role would be to provide technical assistance and help in securing funding for operations. Plans would be created based on the goals/objectives of the school. The plans would layout the operations dependent on the types of production.

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food urbanism

figure 16

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

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figure 17

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food urbanism

+Neighborhood Farm
User/Producer/Stakeholder:
Owned by a neighborhood organization, local institution, municipality or private landowner. All production is managed and organized by a local producer.

Location/Scale:
A neighborhood farm ranges between 1-3 ½ acres or equal to a city block. The farm would be located within a residential neighborhood.

Characteristics/Scenario:
A neighborhood farm would be a source of food production and recreation. Playgrounds and sports courts/fields would be required per neighborhood farm. Community members would be allowed to assist in production with the local producer. Annual neighborhood organization dues would supplement operation costs of the farm.

Production Types:
Production would be within hot houses, rotational plots, aquaculture, raised beds, pots and/ or on vertical surfaces. Production would not be limited to crops but also small livestock (ex: poultry). Production could be managed for commercial marketing as part of a CSA, farmers market or local food market. It would be the farm’s responsibility to supply water, storage, tools, and composting facilities.

Designers Role:
The designer’s role would be to provide technical assistance and help in securing funding for operations. Plans would be created based on the goals/objectives of the neighborhood organization and local producer. The plans would layout the operations dependent on the types of production.

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figure 18

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food urbanism

+Urban Farm User/Producer/Stakeholder:
Owned by a local institution municipal government or local landowner. All production is managed and organized by a local producer.

Location/Scale:
A city farm would be greater than 3 ½ acres or a city block. The farm would be located within diverse urban area of multiple land uses. This would provide equal access by community members and provide a substantial amount of fresh produce and goods to the community.

Characteristics/Scenario:
A city farm would be a source of food production and as a center for a farmers market or local food processing hub. Playgrounds, sports courts/fields, trails, and other recreation could be additional amenities per city farm. The local producer and farm management staff would be in control of all operations. Annual municipal taxes would supplement operation costs of the farm.

Production Types:
Production would be within hot houses, rotational plots, aquaculture, raised beds, pots and/ or on vertical surfaces. Production would not be limited to crops but also small livestock (ex: poultry and sheep). Production would be managed for commercial marketing as part of a farmers market or local food market. It would be the farm’s responsibility to supply water, storage, tools, and composting facilities.

Designers Role:
The designer’s role would be to provide technical assistance for all operations. Plans would be created based on the goals/objectives of the farm management staff and municipal agriculture department. The plans would layout the operations dependent on the types of production.

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figure 19

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food urbanism

The proposed urban food system flow diagram represents how implementation of the urban food system typology would increase food access points for community members. Community members would have the option to purchase food directly from the farmer at the farm store or by a share in a CSA. The consumer could also buy food at a neighborhood or urban farm of their choice. The consumer could then also go to their favorite grocery store or farmer’s market just as they do today. In the proposed food system there will be a greater quality of local products since local producers, neighborhood farms, urban farms, institutions, and allotment renters all have the ability to market their goods at a store. By increasing the URBAN LANDSCAPE: CONTINUOUS PRODUCTIVEnumber of access points of fresh products food insecurity will be reduced be much stronger than the current conventional food system.
private residence garden community/ allotment garden

urban food system flow diagram deserts will disappear. The transparency and resiliency of the local food system will and food

typology

food blvd.

religious/education/ non-profit

institution neighborhood urban farm
farm

user/producer/ manager
independent user local producer

proposed urban food system flow diagram
market/distribution channels urban/neighborhood farm institution institution community member/ consumers

institution
(religious, education, non-profit)

scale
productive space 3.5 acres

local producer urban market/ coop/grocery 1-3.5 acres store/ varies restaurant/processing

varies

>1/2 acres

varies

3.5 + acres

characteristics
staff

allotment/ community garden

figure 20
% public

& utilities/infrastructure provided # of community services

distribution/markets of urban food system types
private residence garden community/ allotment garden food blvd.

production types
present structure supporting facility hothouse $ market circulation

typology

religious/education/ non-profit

institution neighborhood urban farm
farm
$

user/producer/ distribution/ manager markets
independent user optional local producer direct

institution
(religious, education, non-profit)

scale
productive space 3.5 acres

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities
varies >1/2 acres varies varies

page 49
1-3.5 acres 3.5 + acres

the urban food system typology in the future urban fabric
Market Blvds would be implemented before new development begins. The market blvds would be implemented by the local CADC along with sewers and storm systems. Developers would be required to pay up-front for any infrastructure costs. Within new development all developers would be required to implement the urban food system typology and the typology of circulation within the future urban fabric. The local CADC would create new guidelines for private development. (Ex: New urban private developments must provide growing plots for more than 50% of all residential units that do not have access to 100 sq ft of private outdoor space (City of Vancouver, B.C.)). The following typology of streets would fit within a block structure of 250’wide blocks for pedestrian and bicyclist circulation and 500’ wide blocks for auto and transit circulation. Pages 51-58 represent the urban food system typology implemented into the typology of circulation within the urban fabric of a hypothetical site.

Typology of Circulation
Market blvd– major arterial for transit, emergency, and bicyclist circulation incorporated along a continuous productive landscape organized into community/allotment gardens and/or plots managed by local producers. Outdoor markets and activities associated are the core of market blvds. Major Arterial – for auto and transit circulation; typical section dependent on traffic capacity Minor Arterial – for auto, transit and bicyclist; typical section – two lanes + bike lanes; max. speed 35 mph Local Street – local auto and bicyclist; circulation barriers limit use of local street to auto for more than four blocks; typical section – one-two lanes + bike lanes; max. speed 25 mph Food Blvd – pedestrian and bicyclist; food blvds function is to provide a source of circulation for pedestrians and cyclists in addition create a connection to the nearest market blvd.
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food urbanism

market blvd local street food blvd

major arterial

minor arterial

mode of transportion

level of traffic

max speed

25mph 35 mph

45 mph

25mph

typology of circulation within the future urban fabric

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

street cross section

pedestrian

production

bicycle lane

transit/auto lane

landscaped median

auto + transit circulation 500’ bicycle + pedestrian circulation 250’

figure 21

page 51

minor arterial major arterial

minor arterial

food blvd

local street

minor arterial market blvd

local street

food blvd

major arterial

figure 22

The circulation diagram above for the typology of circulation represents the levels of traffic intensity on each type of circulation. By implementing this typology the core of the 250’ blocks is much more pedestrian friendly. The food blvds are protected from vehicular traffic and create a continuous landscape that connects areas of the community together create a walkable community. The food blvds, local streets, and market blvds would provide safe routes to school. The diagram represents how a market blvd is the core of pedestrian and bicyclist circulation. Each are able to safely reach a market blvd with very little confrontation with cars.

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food urbanism

figure 23

The market blvd as the core of the typology of circulation would become the core of the urban food system and would guide new development. By implementing market blvds as a piece of leading infrastructure in new development it would have the same impact as a transit oriented development but also be productive. The level of activity would be consistent to that of a busy business district, bike path, and linear park like that along the Lea River navigational channel in East London.

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

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figure 24

Just as important as any piece of the urban food system typology guidelines would require that private development use edible landscaping and provide private outdoor space to a required percent of residential units. Private residence owners could supplement their vegetables and fruits with those they grow in their own yard.

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food urbanism

figure 25

Just as guidelines for new development would require a set percent to be for private outdoor use; community gardens could be a form of this requirement. Community/allotment gardens would allow individuals to work and socialize together while working on each others plots.

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figure 26

The food blvd is the heart and soul of the pedestrian and bicyclist movement. Instead of walking along a busy street and a harsh building edge pedestrians can follow a food blvd and purchase items at market stands along the food blvd. The food blvd would create a safe route for children walking to school.

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food urbanism

figure 27

The institution would provide a long list of services to the community including beginning farmer training, home food processing classes, and etc. The institution would range in scale depending on the institutions site and mission statement.

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page 57

figure 28

Neighborhood farms with the capability of supporting 112 people with their fruit and vegetables would be an enormous asset to neighborhoods. In addition to producing food neighborhood farms would also be a community park. By connecting neighborhood and urban farms together to active parks with food blvds a continuous productive landscape network of alternative routes would be created. The neighborhood farm would provide many community services and also be busy with activities.

page 58

food urbanism

figure 29

The urban farm would be like a city park with bike trails, wildlife areas, playgrounds, and active recreation fields and courts. As part of these activities food production would be intermixed in the web of activities. A family would be able to spend an entire day at an urban farm because they could have breakfast at the restaurant in the farm and spend time helping the farmer pick apples in the morning and then play soccer as part of an organized league in the afternoon.

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page 59

figure 30

Every piece of the urban food system typology implemented together in this diagram begins to represent the continuous productive urban landscape that begins to form. Forget the car today and maybe the bus and walk over to the community garden and work for an hour and then bike along the food blvd and hit up Gary’s market along the market blvd since he said he would have carrots this morning.

page 60

food urbanism

the potential of an urban food system
Earlier landcover analysis has created signs that an urban food system has a huge potential but how many people could a typical urban or neighborhood farm and a community garden plot support? The Economic Research Service within the U.S. Department of Agriculture annually publishes per capita demands of fruits and vegetables. Calculations can decipher the potential of a urban food system. As tools both for producers and local CADCs there are two ways of calculating the capita that could be supported by a specific scale of production. The following calculations on the next page are examples of each and are based on tomatoes and potatoes grown on a 5 acre urban farm. The first example calculating the potential of an urban system based on yield + scale of production is inefficient. As the example shows two different sizes of groups of consumers have to be marketed to be able to sell all the potatoes and tomatoes grown on an urban farm to prevent waste. In this example a producer or grocerer is able to market potatoes and tomatoes to 252 people both at the same time. This means that when a consumer comes to the urban farm or grocery store they can purchase both their potatoes and tomatoes that they demand annually. There is still tomatoes remaining after all the potatoes have been sold. Now a producer or grocer needs to find and market just tomatoes to another 414 individuals. This requires more time and money on their part. The second example calculating the potential of an urban system based on the demand + yield ratio is the correct and most efficient way of calculating the potential of an urban food system. Opposite from the first example calculations are now based on the demand and yield ratio rather than only yield. By basing calculations on this ratio a producer is able to determine a specific amount of land that should be designated to a certain crop so that after marketing all the grown product there is very little or no amount of a certain product left over. This saves money and time and prevents waste. Appendixes C-E are spreadsheets that would assist a CADC official or producer in calculating the potential of a known scale of production.

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

page 61

calculating the potential of an urban system based on yield + scale of production figure 31
demand/capita
tomatoes tomatoes potatoes potatoes 37 lbs 37 lbs 20 lbs 20 lbs

1 acre yields 13,333 lbs .7 acre yields 9,333 lbs 9,333 lbs / 37 lbs = 252 people capita

1 acre yields 44,444 lbs .3 acre yields13,333 lbs 13,333 lbs / 20 lbs = 666 people capita

666 people -252 people 414 more people needed to be marketed to sell remaining tomatoes before spoiling

calculation based on a 5 acre urban farm

calculating the potential of an urban system based on demand + yield ratio

demand/capita
37 lbs

potatoes tomatoes

1 acre yields 13,333 lbs 37 lbs 13,333 lbs = .002790 capita acre capita acre = 11% of 5 acres will be dedicated to capita growing potatoes Total capita/acre .026430 acre

potatoes

/

20 lbs 37 lbs

.55 acres x 13,333 lbs/acre = 7,333 lbs = 200 people 37 lbs/capita 1 acre yields 44,444 lbs 20 lbs 44,444 lbs = .000448 capita acre capita acre = 2% of 5 acres will be dedicated to capita growing potatoes Total capita/acre .026430 acre

tomatoes

20 lbs

/

.1 acres x 44,444 lbs/acre = 4,444 lbs = 200 people 20 lbs/capita
page 62

food urbanism

the potential of a urban farm + neighborhood farm + allotment garden figure 32

5 acre urban farm 189 PEOPLE

2.5 acre neighborhood farm 112 PEOPLE

300 square feet allotment .4 PEOPLE

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

page 63

The graphics on page 61 represent the potential of a 5 acre urban farm, 2.5 acre neighborhood farm and a 300 sq foot community garden plot. Calculations were based on the demand and yield ratio example from page 60 and were based on the fruits and vegetables represented within the graphic on page 61. These calculations represent a large potential of both the urban and neighborhood farm and support the assumption that a 300 sq foot community garden would only be able to provide just below half of the vegetables needed by an individual. The graphic below represents how the potential of the urban and neighborhood farm can be used to inform an urban food systems potential. The city of Ames’ 2007 population minus the approximate 8,500 students that live within ISU dorms, was 46,245. thus to support 50% of the population of Ames with fruit and vegetables there would need to be approximately 62 urban farms and 103 neighborhoods; assuming that half of the produce is grown at urban farms and half at neighborhood farms. These farms would require approximately 570 acres of land within the city limits. figure 33
189 112 112 189 112 112 189 189 112 112 112 112 112 189 189 112 112 189 112 189 112 112 112 112 189 112 112 112 189 189 112 112 112 112 112 112 189 112 189 112 112 189 112 112 189 112 189 112

112 112

urban farm 5 acres neighborhood farm 2.5 acres

population 54,745 (2007) - population in ISU residence halls 8,500 = population minus ISU halls 46,245 x 50% of population = 23,124 population supported by urban farms and neighborhood farms x 50% = 11,562 capita supported by urban farms / 189 captia supported per urban farm = 62 urban farms x 5 acres per urban farm

= =

310 acres dedicated to urban farms

11,562 capita supported by neighborhood farms / 112 captia supported per neighborhood farm = 103 neighborhood farms x 2.5 acres per neighborhood farm
= =

* calculations do not include community plots within community gardens and food blvds. plus private residence gardens

568 acres dedicated to urban and neighborhood farms to support 50% of the population of Ames minus ISU residence halls with their annual fruit and vegetables
food urbanism

258 acres dedicated to neighborhood farms

page 64

P III: urban food system proposals and case studies

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

page 65

implementation of urban food system
department/non-profit that implements urban system
Community Agriculture and Design Center (CADC) In order for research to be applicable to growing urban communities it is important that duties and responsibilities be established for the organization/department that would have jurisdiction over developing an urban food system. Using Ames as an example for other communities, Ames (pg 67) and other community structures were studied to determine where such an organization/department would be best housed in the community governance structure. Every community management structure is different so Ames was only an example. CADC would have the responsibility of the planning and design of a productive urban landscape in a urban food system. Within Ames the CADC will be located within the Department of Community Development, currently planning and housing. The CADC will be in the same department as planning, housing and economic development. In this location they would have a direct connection to the city governance system that is partially funded by the city and produces additional funding from its own work sector. Responsibilities The organization’s responsibilities would be to develop UA proposals, strategize with existing stakeholders, provide technical design assistance and provide grants and funding to: • Institutions • Grocers • Neighborhood Organizations • Individual Community Members/Local Producers • Municipal Departments That want to develop a: • Urban farm • Neighborhood Farm • Non-profit CSA/production gardens • Community/allotment garden • Urban market
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food urbanism

• • • • •

Local food processing center Grocery store Restaurant Local producer wanting product marketing assistance CSA (community supported agriculture)

Additional responsibilities of the CADC will be to develop a community land inventory establishing a catalog of appropriate sites that are suitable to be developed for urban agriculture. With this inventory the organization will establish a relationship with the city planning and development office, community school districts, religious organizations, community gardening organizations and the housing, planning, and economic development departments. After establishing these relationships, staff with the CADC will develop proposals, strategize with existing stake holders, provide technical design assistance and provide grants and funding. Assistance will be provided to stakeholders developing productive landscape retrofits or for new urban private developments. The CADC will with current stakeholders in the community food system establish continuous production, processing and distribution channels, and develop goals that set standards for access to local food within the community. These goals will be achieved through new development policies that create guidelines for new development and retrofits of existing underutilized urban land. Figure 1 represents the organizational chart within the CADC including its responsibilities and some example stakeholders.

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

page 67

organizational chart of the Community Agriculture and Design Center

neigborhood farm

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CADC
Community Agriculture + Design Center

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urban farm

figure 34

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page 68

S es

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food urbanism

organizational chart of the city of ames

figure 35

ORGANIZATIONAL CHART FOR THE CITY OF AMES

MARCH 2005

CITIZENS OF AMES

Hospital Board1

Library Board2 Mayor & City Council1

Transit Board3

Conference Board4

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities
City Attorney5 City Manager5
Ames Public Library
Administrative Accounting Budget Customer Service: •Meter Readers Information Services Purchasing: •Print Shop •Warehouse Administrative Administrative

Mary Greeley Medical Center

City Assessor

Human Resources

Fleet Services

Parks & Recreation

Legal Department

Finance Department

City Manager’s Office
Administrative

Public Works
Administrative Engineering

Electric Services
Administrative Distribution

Water & Pollution Control
Administrative Water Plant Engineering Meter Water Meter Water Pollution Control Plant

CyRide

Planning & Housing
Administrative Operations Maintenance Administrative

Ames Fire Department
Administrative Inspection

Police Department
Administrative Animal Control Planning: •Current •Long-Range •G.I.S. Rental Housing Sanitation Financial Crimes General Investigation

Administrative

Administrative

Administrative

Staffing

Fleet Services

Ames/ISU Ice Arena

Employee Relations

Fleet Replacement

Aquatics

Public Relations: •Cable TV (Channel 12) (Channel 16)

Community Center

Employee Development Center

Services: •Circulation •Information •Media •Outreach •Technical Services •Youth Services

Records Management/ City Clerk

Operations: •Facilities •Grounds •Streets •Utility Maintenance Resource Recovery Traffic Parking Signs & Meters

Production Laboratory Plant Control

Homewood Golf Course

Housing: •Affordable •Leased Economic Development

Fire Suppression Fire Prevention

Juvenile Narcotics Parking Enforcement Patrol Records & Dispatch

Risk Management

Parks Maintenance

Employee Benefits

Recreation

page 69

proposals of the urban food system typology in the urban case study
Within the theory of food urbanism, the urban food system typology and the typology of circulation both form the guidelines and backbone to a community’s organization that is related to food. The following proposals are examples of the implementation of the urban food system typology and typology of circulation. The proposals are focused within the Somerset neighborhood in Northwest Ames. Guidelines and plans provide an example of how UA can be established in new urban development. This example is a representation of how the food relates to the organization of new development. The proposals are signs of how development could progress north and west on the urban fringe of Ames and be guided by UA guidelines. The plan of Somerset on the following page diagrammatically inserts the urban food system typology. Stange Rd has been retrofitted into a market blvd with public transportation and bicyclists commuting along the production plots managed by urban farmers and community members. The new residential development north of Aspen Road and west of Stange Rd has been developed along food blvds where community members are managing plots they rent annually. The food blvds provide safe routes to the proposed elementary school in the heart of Somerset. Children during science, history and health class could use the neighborhood farm to learn about the natural cycles of the earth, agriculture and where their food comes from. The community garden at Northridge parkway and Northridge lane is managed by the neighborhood organization made up by the residents that live within the condos, townhomes, and apartments in the southwest corner of Somerset. George Washington Carver Ave and Bloomington Rd are major arterials directing auto traffic along with the minor arterials of Northridge Pkwy, Aspen Rd, and Stange Rd. Local streets within the residential area are local traffic only because of limited access from major arterials and minor arterials. Bicyclists and pedestrians are still able to circulate along the food blvds and market blvds. As new development progresses north across Bloomington Rd the extension of food blvds and Stange Market Blvd will create the framework that development will infill around.

page 70

food urbanism

proposal of urban food system and circulation typologies Somerset, Ames, IA
bloomington road

stange market blvd extension multi-family housing existing single family housing
george washington carver ave

food blvd private production gardens stange market blvd cpul proposed commerical + retail + office + housing
AA BB

kingston food blvd allotment gardens existing apartments

asp en

road

aspen food blvd neighborhood farm proposed elementary school existing commercial + office

stange road

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allotment gardens existing apartments/townhomes

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figure 36
page 71

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

figure 37
kingston street

the urban food system in 2025
There are many activities happening today Friday June 5th near the intersection of Stange Market Blvd and Kingston Food Blvd. Stange is the center of activity in Ames from the beginning of spring to the first snow fall of the year. The core of the all the activities are the urban farmers and community members growing fruits and vegetables for personal consumption and/or commercial resale in the urban food system. The urban farmers are managing parcels half an acre or larger and processing their crops in their own market building. The farmer and their staff are washing the produce and then canning, drying or freezing items. As community members circulate along the bike trails and food blvds they can stop at the market and purchase items from the urban farmer. The urban farmer though also sells his products at the grocery store across the street from his parcel. There is no need for any truck because his garden cart is faster. Across the food blvd’s bike path community members, that rent plots, have organized themselves into a CSA. Today they are picking the weekly shares for their members to pick up in a couple of hours. Each of their 10 plots of 300 sq ft are producing about 10 different items from salad greens, onions, tomatoes, and eggplant. As part of their rental fee they use a small space in the storage building to wash all their produce and box it up in the CSA crates. When their CSA members pick up their crates they will bring back an empty crate in exchange of the new weekly share. Its about 10 am this Friday morning. Bicyclist and CyRide buses have been going up and down Stange just on the
page 72

processing/storage/ market stand

vegetables/fruit trees

kingston food blvd

food urbanism

STANGE MARKET BLVD + KINGSTON FOOD BLVD

Stange Road

stormwater/vegetation buffer

section AA

0

5

10

20ft

housing/office/commercial

figure 38

other side of the vegetated stormwater buffer. The buffer helps catch any emissions that may drift from the street and it also helps capture all the stormwater from the surrounding streets and buildings. The buffer sure makes the production plots a lot quieter and attracts a lot of bird species and wildlife. Tomorrow is our annual beginning of the summer community food festival. The festival is meant to celebrate the new year and meet the urban farmers that are farming along the market blvds, food blvds, and city farms. The CADC holds community garden clean up days throughout the year and tomorrow they are having their second of the year. Tomorrow’s clean up day will be meant to clean up any waste from the year’s first crops and condense all the compost in the community at a few of the city farms. Community members and urban farmers all are able to get compost from the CADC throughout the year that has been collected. Saturdays are always very busy on the market blvd. The blvd is a continuous landscape that families and individuals bike and walk along. The blvd is a safe route to the city farms, parks and schools where the more active recreation activities are centered. Today Saturday June 6 as part of the festival the food blvds are busy with community members selling produce at the stands. Small market buildings can be rented from the CADC to sell produce to community members. Today though as part of the festival CADC removes the fee to rent the small market buildings so many community members rent them together in advance.

bike trail housing/office/commercial pedestrian

production/processing/market stand

pedestrian

Every Saturday morning is the same. When you walk done the market blvd cafes and restaurants have their doors open and have set up tables and chairs outdoors. You can smell the sweet butter milk pancakes and peppery sausage. The smells always seem much richer when the milk and sausage are grown on the urban farms from the peri-urban page 73 a sustainable design option for growing urban communities section BB

KINGSTON FOOD BLVD

0

2

4

8ft

processing + storage composting

Kingston Food Blvd community plots fruit trees

Stange Road public transportation + bicyclists only

managed by urban farmer

rentable market stand

storage + processing + market stand

figure 39 edges of the city. At the peri-urban edge livestock and small grains are produced. Today though because of the festival the streets and businesses are overflowing with community members. Farmers are giving tours and children are running up and down the rows of carrots, lettuce and cabbage. Most of the community members always go to one neighborhood farm or urban farm. As community members part of their taxes go to support the farmers at these farms. The tours allow community members to meet their farmers and create a relationship with each other. For the rest of the morning community members will be coming and going from the local cafes and restaurants and visiting with community members and farmers at the small market stands along the market blvd and food blvds. Today as part of the festival the afternoon is filled with events from the clean up day to sports games at the neighborhood farm and school. Within the neighborhood along the food blvds neighborhood organizations have recently in the last two years created block garden parties. Many of the blocks have organized themselves and have been holding these parties to show off their beautiful gardens and in some cases sell many of their products that they are growing in their gardens. Colors along the food blvds are vibrant blues, pinks, yellows and violets. Community members have begun to market fresh cut flowers and many individuals along the blocks have even created businesses out their own backyards.
page 74

STANGE MARKET BLVD+ KINGSTON FOOD BLVD
looking west

The perspective above represents Stange Road. The current road would be retrofitted into market blvd in Somerset from Northridge Pkwy to Bloomington Rd. The road would then continue north from Bloomington as a backbone that development would follow. Community plots would be created and rented by individuals annually and .5 acre and larger parcels would be managed for commercial production by new urban farmers.

food urbanism

KINGSTON FOOD BLVD
looking west

You would think that you were in a ghost town on the weekends if you would happen to drive down one the streets. During the weekend when families are not off to work or school the food blvds and market blvds are the primary route to and from places either by bike or walking. The paths are lined with edible landscaping such as gooseberries and apples trees. 5 years ago the CADC had inventoried all the fruit trees in the city. Community members can list their fruit trees so that others may come and share in on the harvest every year. During the week you can always pick out the urban farmers because during the weekend these parcels become empty and the community gardens are crawling with members managing their plots. The food blvd is a linear community garden. Within the food blvd members are able to share tools or bring their own. Washing stations and composting areas are provided for members to share. The community garden is basically the same except all the storage and processing happens in one building. Plots are 300 sq ft or larger so that community members can choose how large of plot they would like to have. All the rents each year support the upkeep of the community gardens such as new raised beds, weed control, and new tools. The community gardens are ran by the neighborhood

The perspective below represents the food blvd connecting Stange Road with the proposed residential development in Somerset. The food boulevard is only for pedestrians and bicyclists. Community plots would be created along the boulevard to be rented by individuals annually.
private lots

figure 40
private fruit trees private production plots pedestrians + bicyclists only

composting

private storage

washing station + tool storage

300 sq ft community plots

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

page 75

processing + storage composting + rainwater harvesting shared community plot 300 sq ft community plots

e

figure 41 organizations in the city and recently many of them have begun to capture the rainwater from the rooftops of the small buildings and washing stations. All the members then share the rainwater to be used in the garden. Just like the community gardens the neighborhood and urban farms are flourishing with activity on the weekends. Neighborhood farms act as neighborhood parks and the urban farms are destination parks. An urban farm was started 5 years ago on the southeastern corner of Somerset and now today it competes with Ada Hayden park near the north central edge of town. Community members walk the trails, along the prairie pothole wetlands that are historic to this area of Iowa, on the farm and visit the cafe at the farmer’s market. Each neighborhood farm and urban farm has their own processing facilities and market on the farm. The farms offer classes from urban farmer training, composting 101, aquaculture, and food preservation. Many of the neighborhood farmers also provide employment opportunities for school children and low income individuals. The farmers teach them many skills from growing your own food to simple skills as time management, business etiquette, and other life skills. The neighborhood farm today in Somerset as part of the festival is offering special classes on things such as how to build a raised bed and how to start a vermiculture box
page 76

NORTHRIDGE PKWY + NORTHRIDGE LANE ALLOTMENT GARDEN
looking southwest

The perspective below represents a community garden in the existing residential neighborhood of Somerset. Community plots would be created to be rented by individuals annually.

food urbanism

No

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NEIGHBORHOOD FARM + ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
looking south

This neighborhood farm (1-3.5 acres) in Somerset would be sited adjacent to a new elementary school. With 2.5 acres of productive growing area the neighborhood farm would be able to supply 112 residents with their fruit and vegetables based on demand and yield. The farm would be managed as a commercial business by a urban farmer. The farmer’s staff would assist in production, processing and marketing. Hoop houses would allow year around production of a select number of crops.
hoop houses rotational production plots

at your home. The neighborhood farm in Somerset is part of the elementary school. The farmer here works with the teachers and students on their own garden at the school. The students are able to help plant in the spring and harvest vegetables from the gardens throughout the year. Today students are showing their parents the garden as they head to the soccer field. The community soccer league is wrapping a spring soccer season. The neighborhood farm and school is a community park. Tonight as a special event during the festival the CADC as organized a community wide outdoor film festival. A big screen will be assembled on the soccer field at the elementary school and community members and their children are invited to the event. The focus of the film festival is the Ames food system. CADC has gathered a set of films from the last 15 years from community members. The films are created by urban farmers, community members, and students all on true stories of events they have each been involved in. The most important aspect of the urban food system is how the community has come together around food.

figure 42
storage,processing, indoor market fruit trees trail connection to school customer parking elementary school fruit & berries buffer

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

page 77

case studies of city + county + state policies and guidelines of local food systems
The City of Vancouver, B.C. and Cleveland are important case studies to be evaluated when developing urban food system policies and guidelines. The City of Vancouver intiated their policies early while Cleveland has just recently enacted their programs out of response to the enormous amount of urban agriculture occurring voluntarily and the amount of vacant land within the city. Vancouver, B.C. The city of Vancouver is a leader in the local food system movement because of their municipal supported urban agriculture. Their intiative began in 2003 with the Food Policy Task Force that was given the task of developing a Food Action Plan to foster the development of a just and sustainable food system for the City of Vancouver. The first action item that the task force recommended to the city was the creation of their first elected Food Policy Council. In the 2004 the council began to integrate and build upon items in the Food Action Plan. Their first step was the creation of the Vancouver Food Charter that identified the five principles of the cities food system (Council 2007,2). • • • • • Community Economic Development Ecological Health Social Justice Collaboration and Participation Celebration

Recently in 2009 the Managing Director of Social Development and Director of Planning along with Manager of Sustainability and the Director of Development Services recommended to the City Council to approve their urban agriculture guidelines for the private realm. At the time two developments were encouraging urban agriculture thus the city felt it was important to have guidelines for future developments and to require private outdoor space for residential units. The guidelines specified specific design considerations, facilities, number and size of plots, and plant species as part of edible landscaping (Services, 2009).

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food urbanism

The following is Design Considerations 3.1.3 Number and Size of Garden Plots A: Where a consolidated common outdoor amenity space is provided, garden plots should be provided for 30% of the residential units that do not have access to private outdoor space of more than 100 square feet. Cleveland The City of Cleveland has acted out of response and concern of the thousands of acres of vacant land and the enormous potential that urban agriculture has shown in the city. The city’s first policy enacted was meant to protect the current urban agriculture activities in the city. The city thus established the Urban Garden District Zoning Code to unsure that urban agriculture is “appropriately located and protected to meet needs for local food production, community health, community education, garden-related job training, environmental enhancement, preservation of green space, and community enjoyment on sites for which urban gardens represent the highest and best use for the community” (Cleveland, 2008). The following is an excerpt from the city’s zoning code. 336.01 Urban Garden District The “Urban Garden District” is hereby established as part of the Zoning Code to ensure that urban garden areas are appropriately located and protected to meet needs for local food production, community health, community education, garden-related job training, environmental enhancement, preservation of green space, and community enjoyment on sites for which urban gardens represent the highest and best use for the community. (Ord. No. 208-07. Passed 3-5-07, eff. 3-9-07) 336.02 Definitions (a) “Community garden” means an area of land managed and maintained by a group of individuals to grow and harvest food crops and/or non-food, ornamental crops, such as flowers, for personal or group use, consumption or donation. Community gardens may be divided into separate plots for cultivation by one or more individuals or may be farmed collectively by members of the group and may include common areas maintained and used by group members. (b) “Market garden” means an area of land managed and maintained by an individual or group of individuals to grow and harvest food crops and/or non-food, ornamental crops, such as flowers, to be sold for profit. (c) “Greenhouse” means a building made of glass, plastic, or fiberglass in which plants are cultivated. page 79 a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

(d) “Hoophouse” means a structure made of PVC piping or other material covered with translucent plastic, constructed in a “half-round” or “hoop” shape. (e) “Coldframe” means an unheated outdoor structure consisting of a wooden or concrete frame and a top of glass or clear plastic, used for protecting seedlings and plants from the cold.(Ord. No. 208-07. Passed 3-5-07, eff. 3-9-07) 336.03 Permitted Main Uses Only the following main uses shall be permitted in an Urban Garden District: (a) community gardens which may have occasional sales of items grown at the site; (b) market gardens, including the sale of crops produced on the site. (Ord. No. 208-07. Passed 3-5-07, eff. 3-9-07) 336.04 Permitted Accessory Uses Only the following accessory uses and structures shall be permitted in an Urban Garden District: (a) greenhouses, hoophouses, cold-frames, and similar structures used to extend the growing season; (b) open space associated with and intended for use as garden areas; (c) signs limited to identification, information and directional signs, including sponsorship information where the sponsorship information is clearly secondary to other permitted information on any particular sign, in conformance with the regulations of Section 336.05; (d) benches, bike racks, raised/accessible planting beds, compost bins, picnic tables, seasonal farm stands, fences, garden art, rain barrel systems, chicken coops, beehives, and children’s play areas; (e) buildings, limited to tool sheds, shade pavilions, barns, rest-room facilities with composting toilets, and planting preparation houses, in conformance with the regulations of Section 336.05. (f) off-street parking and walkways, in conformance with the regulations of Section 336.05. (Ord. No. 208-07. Passed 3-5-07, eff. 3-9-07) 336.05
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Supplemental Regulations food urbanism

Uses and structures in an Urban Garden District shall be developed and maintained in accordance with the following regulations. (a) Location. Buildings shall be set back from property lines of a Residential District a minimum distance of five (5) feet. (b) Height. No building or other structure shall be greater than twenty-five (25) feet in height. (c) Building Coverage. The combined area of all buildings, excluding greenhouses and hoophouses, shall not exceed fifteen percent (15%) of the garden site lot area. (d) Parking and Walkways. Off-street parking shall be permitted only for those garden sites exceeding 15,000 square feet in lot area. Such parking shall be limited in size to ten percent (10%) of the garden site lot area and shall be either unpaved or surfaced with gravel or similar loose material or shall be paved with pervious paving material. Walkways shall be unpaved except as necessary to meet the needs of individuals with disabilities. (e) Signs. Signs shall not exceed four (4) square feet in area per side and shall not exceed six (6) feet in height. (f) Seasonal Farm Stands. Seasonal farm stands shall be removed from the premises or stored inside a building on the premises during that time of the year when the garden is not open for public use. (g) Fences. Fences shall not exceed six (6) feet in height, shall be at least fifty percent (50%) open if they are taller than four (4) feet, and shall be constructed of wood, chain link, or ornamental metal. For any garden that is 15,000 square feet in area or greater and is in a location that is subject to design review and approval by the City Planning Commission or Landmarks Commission, no fence shall be installed without review by the City Planning Director, on behalf of the Commission, who may confer with a neighborhood design review committee. If one exists, so that best efforts are taken to ensure that the fence is compatible in appearance and placement with the character of nearby properties. (Ord. No. 208-07. Passed 3-5-07, eff. 3-9-07 In addition to the Department of Planning that intiated the new zoning code last year the Department of Economic Development just began a new program titled “Gardening to Greenbacks” The program is meant to provide low interest loans and grants up to $3,000 for members of farmer cooperatives and other community supported agriculture programs that produce and sell local food. The grants are meant to assist in start up costs that may include tools, irrigation systems, rain barrels, greenhouses and signage (Development, 2009). page 81 a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

definitions
agricultural conservation easements - deed restrictions landowners voluntarily place on their property to keep land available for agriculture agricultural urbanism - prescribes the full integration of the agri-food system within the planning, design, development and function of cities and vice-versa. Agricultural Urbanism is a mechanism to connect urbanites to their environment and to their agri-food system, reduce their dependence on an ecologically unsound and increasingly vulnerable global-scale agrifood system and create a significant regional economic sector. (Kent Mullinix 2008) city manager - appoints all department heads and is responsible to the city council for proper administration of all city business and for all the annual budget; hired by the city council (city of Ames) community agriculture and design center (CADC) - the organization/department that would have jurisdiction over developing an urban food system; duties and responsibilities would be to develop UA proposals, strategize with existing stake holders, provide technical design assistance and provide grants and funding to institutions, grocers, neighborhood organizations, individual community members, local producers and municipal departments community design center - non-profit organization that offers grants and technical assistance to help organizations/individuals/neighborhoods use professional architectural and planning services (Pittsburgh CDC) community supported agriculture (CSA) - form of marketing by a producer where a family or individual purchases a share annually at the time of planting in return for a share during the harvest each week; producer and shareholders shares the risk together in this agreement continuous landscape - a network of planted open spaces in a city which are literally spatially continuous, such as linear parks or inter connected open spaces that are virtually car free allowing for bicyclists and pedestrian movement (Andre Viljoen 2005) continuous production - community scale; all individuals managing community gardens up to urban commercial farms are involved in food production, processing and marketing market blvd - a form of circulation within an urban community specially for public transportation and/or bicyclists and pedestrians; this form of circulation is incorporated with a
page 82

food urbanism

continuous productive landscape managed by individuals and/or local producers food access - both geographical and monetary degree of access to food, determined by income, supply, transport, storage and other factors (Andre Viljoen 2005) food council - group of stakeholders that provides support to governments and citizens in developing policy and programs related to the local food supply food district - geographical sector of an urban community centered around the facilities and activities of production and processing including retail, institutions, education, office, architectural and landscape character and community events food miles - the average distance that food travels from field to plate food security - giving populations both economic and physical access to a supply of food, sufficient in both quality and quantity social level and income (Andre Viljoen 2005) food urbanism - how food relates to the organization of a city and how it becomes infrastructure that transforms the urban experience land trust - an agreement where by one party (trustee) agrees to hold ownership of a piece of real property for the benefit of another party (beneficiary) local food system - chain of activities connecting food production, processing, distribution, consumption and waste management including the regulatory institutions and activities non-profit organization (NPO) - solely to provide programs and services that are of public benefit that are otherwise not provided by local, state and federal entities peri-urban agriculture - agriculture occurring on the urban/rural fringe of a city usually at larger scales than urban agriculture urban agriculture (UA) - high yield market gardens for fruit and vegetable growing found on the ground rooftops, facades and fences sometimes including nuts, timber, animals, and aquaculture

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

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bibliography
Adams, Don, interview by Jason Grimm. Owner of Full Circle Farm (November 6, 2008). Andre Viljoen, Katrin Bohn and Joe Howe. Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Designing Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities. Oxford: Architectural Press, 2005. Bailkey, Martin. A Study of the Contexts within which Urban Vacant Land is Accessed for Community Open Space. Dissertation, Madison: ProQuest Information and Learning Company, 2003. Benson, Jeff, interview by Jason Grimm. City of Ames Planning and Housing: Planner (October 23, 2008). Bhattarya, Shefali. Strategy for Identifying and Evaluating Sites for Urban Agriculture: A Case Study of Gainesville, FL. Dissertation, Gainesville: University of Florida, 2005. Black, Norine, interview by Jason Grimm. Owner of Blacks Heritage Farm (November 4, 2008). Bowman, Ann O’M. Terra Incognita: Vacant Land and Urban Strategies. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2004. Burkhart, Jeff and Jill, interview by Jason Grimm. Owners of Picket Fence Creamery (October 5, 2008). Cleveland, City of. Chapter 336 Urban Garden District. June 30, 2008. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/ clevelandcodes/cco_part3_336.html (accessed March 25, 2009). Council, Vancouver Food Policy. Vancouver Food Charter: Context and Background. professional report, Vancouver: City of Vancouver, 2007. DeMoss, Richard, interview by Jason Grimm. Owner of DeMoss Pumpkin Farm (November 1, 2008). Department, Story County Planning and Zoning. The Story County Local Food System. Professional Report, Nevada: Story County Planning and Zoning Department, 2008. Development, City of Cleveland Department of Economic. Small Businesses and Retail. 2009. http:// www.city.cleveland.oh.us/CityofCleveland/Home/Government/CityAgencies/EconomicDevelopment/Sm allBusinessandRetail#gardening (accessed March 25, 2009). Development, North Central Regional Center for Rural. Community Capitals. June 23, 2008. http:// www.ncrcrd.iastate.edu/projects/commcap/7capitals.htm (accessed November 11, 2008). Girardet, Herbert. Cities People Planet. Chicheaster: John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 2004. GRACE. Sustainable Table. 2008. http://www.sustainabletable.org (accessed November 10, 2008). Group, Mari Gallagher Research & Consulting. Examing the Impact of Food Deserts on Public Health in Chicago. professional report, Chicago: LaSalle Bank, 2006. Guthrie, Gary and Nancy, interview by Jason Grimm. Owners of Growing Harmony Farm (November 11, 2008). Hofstrand, Eugene Takle and Don. Global warming - agriculture’s impact on greenhouse gas emissions. April 2008. http://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/articles/others/TakApr08.html (accessed December 3, 2008).

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Kent Mullinix, Deborah Henderson, Mark Holland, Janine de la Salle, Edward Porter, and Patricia Fleming. Agricultural Urbanism and Municipal Supported Agriculture: A New Food System Path for Sustainable Cities. professional report, Vancouver B.C.: Kwantlen Polytechnic University, 2008. Kulikowski, Dr. Ron Wimberley and Mick. “Mayday 23: World population becomes more urban than rural.” NC State University News Service, May 22, 2007. Lindsey, Rebecca. Looking for Lawns. scholarly report, California: NASA’s Ames Research Center, 2005. Lynch, Joe and Lonna, interview by Jason Grimm. Owners of Onion Creek Farm (Oct 29, 2008). Mitchell, Stacy. Big-Box Swindle: the true cost of mega-retailers and the fight for America’s independent businesses. Boston: Beacon Press, 2006. Newstrom, Ryan, interview by Jason Grimm. Story County, Iowa: County Planner/Long Range Planning Manager (October 23, 2008). Pirog, Rich. Food, Fuel, and Freeways: An Iowa perspective on how far food travels, fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions. Scholarly Report, Ames: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, 2001. Pollen, Michael. “Farmer in Chief.” New York Times, October 10, 2008. Rinehart, Greg, interview by Jason Grimm. Owner of Rinehart’s Family Farm (November 1, 2008). Services, City of Vancouver Community. Urban Agriculture Guidelines for the Private Realm. professional report, Vancouver: City of Vancouver, 2009. Shawgo, Steve, interview by Jason Grimm. City of Ames Parks and Recreation: Super Intendent of Parks (October 23, 2008). Singh, Craig Palosky and Rakesh. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. September 24, 2008. http:// www.kff.org/newsroom/ehbs092408.cfm (accessed March 24, 2009). Swenson, Dave. The Economic Impacts of Increased Fruit and Vegetable Production and Consumption in Iowa: Phase II. Scholarly Report, Ames: Regional Food Systems Working Group: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, 2006. Wilber, Scott and Julie, interview by Jason Grimm. Owners of Wilber’s Northside Market (October 7, 2008).

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Community Officials
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. a. b. c. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. What is the current city boundary? What are your requirements on temporary markets? What requirements does your health inspector have on farmers market? How do the planning office and the municipal comprehensive plan address sites for urban growth? Does your parks department or the city manage any type of agriculture within municipal boundaries? How has your parks department funded management of park land? Does your parks department see any future growth in the foreseeable future? Does the community have any community gardens currently? How do you define vacant land or developable land? Zero building value No structure City owned property considered vacant + developable How do you feel about vacant land negative/positive? What are your intentions or policies of vacant land? What planning practices are involved in the process of passing over control of vacant parcels? Please define the status of your park land and how you see it changing in the future? What are your strategies in managing open space/park land and how do you define its potential or user group? Revenue sources Own programs Do you see a program of urban agriculture being a vital source of your parks program?

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appendix a

food urbanism

Local Producers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What type of products do you produce or harvest on your land? How many laborers do you require to manage your farm? What type of markets do you sell your goods too? Do your goods require any processing before resale? If so do you do your own processing or do you take your goods somewhere else? What infrastructure does your business require for you to plant, manage, harvest, process, and market your goods? How many acres of land or livestock are you able to manage? In your first hand perspective what are the hardest issues local farmers are being faced with? Where do you produce your goods? Rural/Urban, Miles from market If a RFP was sent out to local farmers to manage and harvest open space with an Iowa Community what type of infrastructure would be required?

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

appendix b

page 87

page 88
Enter Total Acres Available Here: lbs/acre 13333 8888 3888 44444 18883 13333 14444 3888 3000 12000 13000 8000 3333 3333 3333 3333 4000 16000 11000 13000 20000 15000 2000 12222 8000 4000 30000 9000 645 1053 5000 8000 4.6 1 4.6 0.1 17.8 15.9 0.4 8.6 3 0.3 0.000150 0.000245 0.001075 0.000100 0.000530 0.001978 0.000155 0.004368 0.000200 0.000575 0.026430 5 0.000333 4.8 0.000240 1.7 0.000131 0.5 0.000045 19.8 0.001238 5% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 4% 0% 2% 7% 1% 17% 1% 2% 100% 2 0.000500 2% 0.4 0.000120 0% 15 0.004500 17% 0.3 0.000090 0% 0.5 0.000150 1% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.3 0.000788 3% 0.00 8.2 0.000631 2% 0.00 6.1 0.000508 2% 0.00 7 0.002333 9% 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.8 0.000720 3% 0.00 0 1 0.000069 0% 0.00 0 2.1 0.000158 1% 0.00 0 8.7 0.000461 2% 0.00 0 19.9 0.000448 2% 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 0.000283 1% 0.00 0 0 4.6 0.000518 2% 0.00 0 0 37.2 0.002790 11% 0.00 0 0 lbs/capita "capita"/acre % of total acres acres dedicated pounds produced consumers needed square feet dedicated 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Urban Farm

appendix c
Total "capita"/acre

food urbanism

Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Asparagus Tomatoes Carrots Green Beans Eggplant Garlic Bell Peppers Broccoli Cabbage Cucumbers Collard Greens Kale Lettuce (leaf) Mustard Greens Spinach Onions Radishes Cauliflower Pumpkin Squash Basil Snow Peas Sweet Corn Raspberries Watermelon Apples Apricots Cherries Plums Peaches

Neighborhood Farm
Enter Total Acres Available Here: lbs/acre 13333 8888 3888 44444 18883 13333 14444 3888 3000 12000 13000 8000 3333 3333 3333 3333 3333 16000 11000 13000 20000 15000 2000 12222 4000 20000 9000 5000 5000 5000 8000 1 4.6 4.6 0.1 17.8 15.9 0.4 3 0.3 0.000150 0.000245 0.000100 0.000795 0.001978 0.000020 0.000920 0.000200 0.000575 0.022137 5 0.000333 4.8 0.000240 1.7 0.000131 0.5 0.000045 19.8 0.001238 6% 0% 1% 1% 2% 1% 1% 0% 4% 9% 0% 4% 1% 3% 100% 2 0.000600 3% 0.4 0.000120 1% 15 0.004500 20% 0.3 0.000090 0% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.5 0.000150 1% 0.00 6.3 0.000788 4% 0.00 8.2 0.000631 3% 0.00 6.1 0.000508 2% 0.00 7 0.002333 11% 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.8 0.000720 3% 0.00 0 1 0.000069 0% 0.00 0 2.1 0.000158 1% 0.00 0 8.7 0.000461 2% 0.00 0 19.9 0.000448 2% 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 0.000283 1% 0.00 0 0 4.6 0.000518 2% 0.00 0 0 37.2 0.002790 13% 0.00 0 0 lbs/capita "capita"/acre % of total acres acres dedicated pounds produced consumers needed square feet dedicated 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities
Total "capita"/acre

Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Asparagus Tomatoes Carrots Green Beans Eggplant Garlic Bell Peppers Broccoli Cabbage Cucumbers Collard Greens Kale Lettuce (leaf) Mustard Greens Spinach Onions Radishes Cauliflower Pumpkin Squash Basil Snow Peas Raspberries Watermelon Apples Apricots Cherries Plums Peaches

appendix d page 89

page 90

Allotment/Community Garden
Enter Total Square Feet of Plot Available Here: lbs/acre 13333 8888 3888 44444 18883 13333 14444 3888 3000 12000 13000 8000 3333 3333 3333 3333 3333 16000 11000 13000 20000 15000 2000 12222 lbs/capita 37.2 4.6 1.1 19.9 8.7 2.1 1 2.8 7 6.1 8.2 6.3 0.5 0.3 15 0.4 2 19.8 0.5 1.7 4.8 5 0.3 3 square feet dedicated 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 "capita"/acre 0.002790 0.000518 0.000283 0.000448 0.000461 0.000158 0.000069 0.000720 0.002333 0.000508 0.000631 0.000788 0.000150 0.000090 0.004500 0.000120 0.000600 0.001238 0.000045 0.000131 0.000240 0.000333 0.000150 0.000245 0.017549 % of total sq ft 16% 3% 2% 3% 3% 1% 0% 4% 13% 3% 4% 4% 1% 1% 26% 1% 3% 7% 0% 1% 1% 2% 1% 1% 100% pounds produced consumers needed 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00

appendix e
Total "capita"/acre

Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Asparagus Tomatoes Carrots Green Beans Eggplant Garlic Bell Peppers Broccoli Cabbage Cucumbers Collard Greens Kale Lettuce (leaf) Mustard Greens Spinach Onions Radishes Cauliflower Pumpkin Squash Basil Snow Peas

food urbanism

a sustainable design option for growing urban communities

page 91

As designers and planners of urban landscapes, landscape architects hold a vital tool in the growth of any Iowa community. Both locally and globally food, has become a common theme in many discussions. Motivations include the lack of productive urban land,

lack of societal knowledge of food growing and preparation, urban/rural conflict at the urban fringe, food insecurity, lack of stable urban markets and uncontrolled urban growth.As a senior thesis in landscape architecture, the goal was to
that transforms the urban experience. Continuous productive landscapes could become a tool and or mechanism to sustainable growth in urban communities. As infrastructure in a city or town, continuous urban agriculture (UA) has the potential of being a thread

research and design based on the theory Food Urbanism; how food relates to the organization of a city and how it becomes infrastructure

that is sewn through a community creating a rigid and ecological backbone to growth that connects neighborhoods, open spaces,

and urban markets. Research is based on case studies, interviews of producers and city officials in Ames, IA and studies of UA in

London, UK. Productive landscapes as tools to sustainable growth have only recently been written about in the U.S. and Canada. This

research demonstrates that urban food systems have a potential of creating environmentally, socially and economically productive communities in Iowa. and ecological backbone to growth that connects neighborhoods, open spaces, and urban markets. Research is based on case studies, interviews of producers and city officials in Ames, landscape architecture, planning, urban food systems, urban land inventory, sustainable agriculture, urbanism Productive landscapes as tools to sustainable growth have only recently been written about in the U.S. and Canada. This research
demonstrates that urban food systems have a potential of creating environmentally, socially and economically productive communities in Iowa. landscape architecture, planning, urban food systems, urban land inventory, sustainable agriculture, urbanism As designers and planners of urban landscapes, landscape architects hold a vital tool in the growth of any Iowa community. Motivations include the lack of productive urban land, lack of societal knowledge of food growing and preparation, urban/rural conflict at the urban fringe, food insecurity, and design based on the theory

Food Urbanism; how food relates to the organization of a city and how it becomes infrastructure that transforms the urban experience. Continuous productive landscapes could become a tool and or mechanism to sustainable growth in

lack of stable urban markets and uncontrolled urban growth.As a senior thesis in landscape architecture, the goal was to research

urban communities. As infrastructure in a city or town, continuous urban agriculture (UA) has the potential of being a thread that is sewn through a community creating a rigid and ecological backbone to growth that connects neighborhoods, open spaces, and urban markets. Research is based on case studies, interviews of producers and city officials in Ames, IA and studies of UA in London, UK.

Productive landscapes as tools to sustainable growth have only recently been written about in the U.S. and Canada. This research

demonstrates that urban food systems have a potential of creating environmentally, socially and economically productive and ecological backbone to growth that connects neighborhoods, open spaces, and urban markets. Research is based as tools to sustainable growth have only recently been written about in the U.S. and Canada. This research demonstrates that urban food systems have a potential of creating environmentally, socially and economically productive communities in Iowa. landscape architecture, planning, urban food systems, urban land inventory, sustainable agriculture, urbanism As designers and planners of urban landscapes, landscape architects hold a vital tool in the growth of any Iowa community. Both

communities in Iowa. landscape architecture, planning, urban food systems, urban land inventory, sustainable agriculture, urbanism

on case studies, interviews of producers and city officials in Ames, IA and studies of UA in London, UK. Productive landscapes

locally and globally food, has become a common theme in many discussions. Motivations include the lack of productive urban stable urban markets and uncontrolled urban growth.As a senior thesis in landscape architecture, the goal was to research and

page societal knowledge of food growing and preparation, urban/rural conflict at the urban fringe, food insecurity, lack of land, lack of92

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