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Receiving

Receiving

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Published by Nicoel
Purchasing, Receiving & Storing Safe Food

Flow of Food




Inspection ± make sure that food deliveries meet standards for food safety Receiving ± taking food delivered into operation ± unloading, inspecting, accepting or rejecting, labeling, & storing the items in a timely manner

General Purchasing & Receiving Principles








Buy only from reputable suppliers/sources Schedule deliveries during off-peak hours with trained staff Inspect deliveries for proper labeling, temperature
Purchasing, Receiving & Storing Safe Food

Flow of Food




Inspection ± make sure that food deliveries meet standards for food safety Receiving ± taking food delivered into operation ± unloading, inspecting, accepting or rejecting, labeling, & storing the items in a timely manner

General Purchasing & Receiving Principles








Buy only from reputable suppliers/sources Schedule deliveries during off-peak hours with trained staff Inspect deliveries for proper labeling, temperature

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Published by: Nicoel on Mar 28, 2010
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08/19/2015

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Purchasing, Receiving & Storing Safe Food

Flow of Food  

Inspection ± make sure that food deliveries meet standards for food safety Receiving ± taking food delivered into operation ± unloading, inspecting, accepting or rejecting, labeling, & storing the items in a timely manner

General Purchasing & Receiving Principles 
   



Buy only from reputable suppliers/sources Schedule deliveries during off-peak hours with trained staff Inspect deliveries for proper labeling, temperature, appearance Use properly calibrated thermometers to check temperatures Check shipments for intact packaging Label items with delivery date or use-by date

Receiving Criteria for Meat 


Accept Temperature: ”41rF (5rC) Color:
Beef: bright cherry red Lamb: light red Pork: light pink meat, firm white fat 



Reject Temperature: > 41rF (5rC) Color:
Beef: brown or green Lamb: brown, whitish surface covering the lean meat Pork: excessively dark color, soft or rancid fat  



Texture: firm and springs back when touched Odor: no odor Packaging: intact and clean 

 

Texture: slimy, sticky, or dry Odor: sour odor Packaging: broken cartons, dirty wrappers, torn packaging, vacuum packaging with broken seals

6-3

Receiving Criteria for Meat
Accept Reject

Receiving Criteria for Poultry 
  



Accept Temperature: ”41rF (5rC) Color: no discoloration Texture: firm and springs back when touched Odor: no odor Packaging: should be surrounded by crushed, self-draining ice 

  

Reject Temperature: > 41rF (5rC) Color: purple or green discoloration around the neck; dark wing tips (red tips are acceptable) Texture: stickiness under the wings or around joints Odor: abnormal, unpleasant odor

Accept

Reject

6-6

Receiving Criteria for Fish 
   



Accept Temperature: ”41rF (5rC) Color: bright red gills; bright shiny skin Texture: firm flesh that springs back when touched Odor: mild ocean or seaweed smell Eyes: bright, clear, and full Packaging: should be surrounded by crushed, self-draining ice 

   

Reject Temperature: > 41rF (5rC) Color: dull gray gills; dull dry skin Texture: soft flesh that leaves an imprint when touched Odor: strong fishy or ammonia smell Eyes: cloudy, red-rimmed, sunken

Accept

Reject

Receiving Criteria for Shellfish    

Accept Temperature: ”45rF (7rC) Odor: mild ocean or seaweed smell Shells: closed and unbroken Condition: shipped alive; identified by shellstock identification tag  

  

Reject Temperature: > 45rF (7rC) Odor: strong fishy smell Shells: broken shells; open shells that do not close when tapped Condition: dead on arrival Texture: slimy, sticky, or dry

Receiving Criteria for Shellfish
Accept Reject

Receiving Criteria for Crustacean
Accept Temperature: ”45rF (7rC) Odor: mild ocean or seaweed smell Shells: hard & heavy for lobsters & crabs Condition: shipped alive; packed with seaweed & kept moist Reject Temperature: > 45rF (7rC) Odor: strong fishy smell Shells: soft Condition: dead on arrival; tail fails to curl when lobster is picked up    

   

Receiving Criteria for Fresh Eggs  

 

Accept Temperature: air temperature ”45rF (7rC) Odor: none Shells: clean & unbroken Condition: firm, high yolks that are not easy to break & whites that cling to the yolk  



Reject Temperature: air temperature > 45rF (7rC) Odor: abnormal smell Shells: dirty or cracked

Fresh vs Stale Eggs

Receiving Criteria for Dairy Products
Accept Temperature: ”41ºF Milk: sweetish flavor Butter: sweet flavor, uniform color, firm texture Cheese: typical flavor & texture & uniform color Reject Temperature: >41ºF Milk: sour, bitter or moldy taste Butter: sour, bitter or moldy taste; uneven color; soft texture Cheese: unnatural mold, uneven color, abnormal flavor & texture 

  

   

Receiving Criteria for Dry Goods
Accept Packaging: intact & in good condition Reject Packaging: Holes, tears, or punctures Product: contains insects, insect eggs, or rodent droppings; has an abnormal color or odor, spots of mold, or a slimy appearance   

Receiving Criteria for MAP, Vacuumpacked & Sous vide Packaged Foods 
 

Accept Temperature: ”41ºF Frozen foods should be received frozens Packaging: intact & in good condition 

 

Reject Temperature: >41ºF Packaging: leaking Product: expired code date; unacceptable product color; appears slimy or has bubbles

Controlled Atmosphere Packaging vs. Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Controlled Atmosphere Packaging  An active system which continuously maintains the desired atmosphere within a package throughout the shelflife of a product by the use of agents to bind or scavenge oxygen or a sachet containing compounds to emit a gas  Defined as packaging of a product in a modified atmosphere followed by maintaining subsequent control of that atmosphere. Modified Atmosphere Packaging  A process that employs a gas flushing and sealing process or reduction of oxygen through respiration of vegetables or microbial action.  Defined as packaging of a product in an atmosphere which has had a one-time modification of gaseous composition so that it is different from that of air

Sous vide Packaging vs. Vacuum Packaging
Sous Vide Packaging  A specialized process of reduced oxygen packaging for partially cooked ingredients alone or combined with raw foods that require refrigeration or frozen storage until the package is thoroughly heated immediately before service  Involves a pasteurization step that reduces bacterial load but is not sufficient to make the food shelf-stable Vacuum Packaging  Reduces the amount of air from a package and hermetically seals the package so that a nearperfect vacuum remains inside

Receiving Criteria for Canned Goods
Accept Packaging: can & seal in good condition Reject Packaging: swollen ends, leaks & flawed seals, rust dents, no labels  

Monitoring Time & Temperature
To prevent time-temperature abuse:     

Cook, hold, cool, & reheat food properly Discard food that spends >4h in the TDZ Build time-temperature controls into recipes Make calibrated thermometers available Remove only as much food from storage as necessary

Time Temperature Devices
Common Types of Thermometers

Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometer

Digital Thermometers

Infrared Thermometer

Photos courtesy of Cooper-Atkins Corporation

Bi-Metallic Stemmed Thermometers   

Most common & versatile type Measures temperature through a metal probe with a sensor in the end Temp. range: 0ºF ± 220ºF (-18ºC ± 104ºC)

Digital Thermometers  



Measure temperature through a metal probe or sensing area Display results on a digital readout Come with interchangeable probes

Photos courtesy of Cooper-Atkins Corporation

Types of Probes 
 

Immersion probe: for liquids Surface probe: for flat cooking equipment Penetration probe: for internal temperatures of food

Immersion Probe

Surface Probe

Penetration Probe

Photos courtesy of Cooper-Atkins Corporation

Infrared Thermometers  

 

Used to measure surface temperature of food/equipment Must be held as close to product as possible Remove barriers between thermometer and product Follow manufacturer¶s guidelines

Photo courtesy of Cooper-Atkins Corporation

Time-Temperature Indicators (TTI)  

Self-adhesive tags or sticks attached to food shipments Provides irreversible record when product¶s temperature has exceeded safe limits during shipment or storage

General Thermometer Guidelines 
   

Clean & sanitize them between uses Calibrate regularly & accurately Insert the thermometer stem or probe into thickest part of product Wait for reading to steady before recording temperature Never use mercury or spirit-filled glass thermometers to check food temperature

Calibrating Thermometers
Ice-Point Method

Step 1 Fill container with crushed ice and water

Step 2 Submerge sensing area of stem or probe for 30 seconds

Step 3 Hold calibration nut and rotate thermometer head until it reads 32ÛF (0ÛC))

5-13

Calibrating Thermometers
Boiling-Point Method
Step 1: Bring a deep pan of water to a boil Step 2: Submerge sensing area of stem or probe for 30 seconds Step 3: Hold calibration nut and rotate thermometer head until it reads 212rF (100rC)

5-14

General Storage Guidelines  

Discard food that has passed its manufacturer¶s expiration date Potentially hazardous, ready-to-eat food that was prepared in-house:
Should be stored at ”41rF (5rC) Must be discarded if not used within 24h after being thawed

General Storage Guidelines 

Follow FIFO
Identify the use-by, expiration, or preparation date of products Shelve products with earliest dates in front of those with later dates Use products stored in front first

General Storage Guidelines 

Label potentially hazardous, ready-to-eat food prepared on-site, with either:
The date it was prepared The date it should be sold, consumed, or discarded

General Storage Guidelines
Check temperatures of stored food and storage areas

Photo courtesy of Roger Bonafield and Dingbats

General Storage Guidelines  

Store food only in designated storage areas Do not store food:
Near chemicals or cleaning supplies In restrooms In locker rooms In furnace rooms In janitor closets Under stairways or pipes

Do not store food this way

General Storage Guidelines 

Keep all storage areas and equipment clean and dry
Clean up spills immediately Clean dollies, carts, transporters, and trays often

General Storage Guidelines 


Transfer food between containers properly If you take food out of its original package:
Put it in a clean, sanitized container Cover it Label with product name and original useby/expiration date

Refrigerated Storage   

For short-term holding of fresh perishable foods at internal temp. of ”41ºF Monitor food temperature regularly Do not overload the refrigerator

Refrigerated Storage   

Store raw meat, poultry & fish separately from cooked & ready-to-eat food Air temp. in the ref should be 2ºF lower than the food temp. Wrap foods properly with covers

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Eggs Fresh, in shell Raw yolks, whites Hardcooked Liquid pasteurized eggs, egg substitutes Opened Unopened
Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Length of Storage 3 to 5 weeks 2 to 4 days 1 week

3 days 10 days

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Commercial mayonnaise after opening Deli & Vacuum-packed products Store-prepared (or homemade) egg, chicken, ham, tuna, macaroni salads Length of Storage 2 months

3 to 5 days

Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Hot dogs & Luncheon meats Hot dogs, packaged Opened Unopened Luncheon meats, packaged Opened Unopened Length of Storage

1 week 2 weeks 3 to 5 days 2 weeks

Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Bacon & Sausage Bacon Sausage, raw Patties Pepperoni Length of Storage 7 days 1 to 2 days 7 days 2 to 3 weeks

Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Ham, Corned Beef Corned beef, in pouch with pickling juices Length of Storage 5 to 7 days

Ham, canned--labeled "Keep Refrigerated" Opened
Unopened

3 to 5 days 6 to 9 months

Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Ham, fully cooked Length of Storage 2 weeks ³Use-by´ date 7 days 3 to 5 days 3 to 4 days

vacuum sealed at plant, undated, unopened vacuum sealed at plant, dated, unopened Whole Half
Slices
Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Fresh Beef, Pork Length of Storage 3 to 5 days 3 to 5 days 3 to 5 days 1 to 2 days 1 day

Steaks Chops Roasts Liver, Tongue
Pre-stuffed, uncooked pork chops

Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Soup & stews Length of Storage 3 to 4 days 3 to 4 days 1 to 2 days 1 to 2 days 1 to 2 days 1 to 2 days

Meat Leftovers Cooked meat Gravy and meat broth Fresh Poultry
Chicken, whole Chicken, pieces Giblets
Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Cooked Poultry Fried chicken Chicken casserole Pieces, plain Pieces covered with broth, gravy Chicken nuggets, patties Length of Storage 3 to 4 days 3 to 4 days 3 to 4 days 1 to 2 days 1 to 2 days

Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Pizza Juices Dairy Butter Buttermilk Hard cheese Soft cheese Length of Storage 3 to 4 days 3 weeks unopened 7 to 10 days opened 1 to 3 months 7 to 14 days 6 months, unopened 3 to 4 weeks, opened 1 week

Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Dairy (cont«) Cream cheese Whipped cream, ultrapasteurized Margarine Milk Sour cream Yogurt Length of Storage 2 weeks 1 month 4 to 5 months 7 days 7 to 21 days 7 to 14 days

Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Refrigerator Storage
Food Product Fish Lean fish (tilapia) Fatty fish (mackerel, milkfish, tuna) Cooked fish Smoked fish Shellfish Shrimp, squid, mussels, oysters Live crab, lobster Cooked shellfish
Source: USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services

Length of Storage 1 to 2 days 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 days 14 days 1 to 2 days 2 to 3 days 3 to 4 days

Refrigerator Storage

Freezer Storage (”0ºF )  

 

Check unit & food temperatures regularly Rotate frozen food using FIFO Store foods in their original containers Wrap foods tightly with labels

Freezer Storage (”0ºF ) 
  



Use caution when placing hot food Regularly check foods that may be damaged by lengthy freezing Never re-freeze thawed food until it has been thoroughly cooked Keep the unit closed as much as possible Defrost freezers regularly

Deep-Chill Storage (26ºF ² 32ºF)  

Storage used to hold food for short time periods Best for meat, fish, poultry, & sous vide

Dry Storage (10ºC ² 21ºC)   

Keep storerooms cool, dry & well-ventilated (50-60% humidity) Store food in their original packages if possible; air-tight containers & label Store dry goods at least 6 inches off the floor & out of direct sunlight

References:
Seafood Network Information Center. (2007). Chapter 8: Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Fish and Fishery Products. [URL: http://seafood.ucdavis.edu/haccp/compendium/chap t08.htm]. Accessed on April 28,2008. USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. (2002). Food Safety: Chill/Cold Storage Chart. [URL: http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/f01chart.html]. Accessed on April 28, 2008.

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