Wall thickness calculation based on ASME B31 Code.

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Wall thickness calculation based on ASME B31 Code.

© All Rights Reserved

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Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional

Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.

Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi

Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos employees.

Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public

domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third

parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission

of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Mechanical

File Reference: MEX-101.03

PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556

Engineering Encyclopedia

Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

Section

Page

INFORMATION ............................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 5

FACTORS AFFECTING WALL THICKNESS CALCULATION........................................ 6

BACKGROUND ON PIPEWALL THICKNESS................................................................ 7

STEPS FOR CALCULATING PIPE WALL THICKNESS................................................. 9

PIPE WALL THICKNESS FOR THE INTERNAL DESIGN PRESSURE ....................... 11

Transportation Piping: ASME B31.4 and B31.8 (Thickness for Internal Pressure) .. 11

Design Pressure [P]............................................................................................ 12

Pipe Diameter [D] ............................................................................................... 14

The allowable stress [SETF]............................................................................... 14

Longitudinal Joint Factor [E] ............................................................................... 16

Temperature Derating Factor [T] ........................................................................ 16

Design Factors [F] .............................................................................................. 17

RER & PDI.......................................................................................................... 18

Sample Problem 1: Transportation Piping .............................................................. 21

Solution .............................................................................................................. 22

PROCESS PIPING: ASME B31.3, MINIMUM THICKNESS FOR INTERNAL

PRESSURE .................................................................................................................. 25

Design Pressure and Temperature .......................................................................... 26

Longitudinal Joint Factor [E] ............................................................................... 27

Basic Allowable Hoop Stress [S] ........................................................................ 28

The "Y" Factor for Plant Piping ................................................................................ 29

CORROSION, EROSION, AND THREAD ALLOWANCES........................................... 31

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SAES Limitations on Pipe Schedule ........................................................................ 32

Sample Problem 2 ................................................................................................... 33

Solution .............................................................................................................. 34

PIPE WALL THICKNESS FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE............................................. 36

GUIDELINES FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS ................................... 38

Sample Problem 3: External Pressure for Pipeline ................................................. 44

Solution .............................................................................................................. 44

Sample Problem 4: External Pressure for Plant Piping ........................................... 45

Solution .............................................................................................................. 45

TRAFFIC AND SOIL LOADS OVER BURIED PIPE ..................................................... 46

THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE OPERATING PRESSURE (MAOP).............................. 47

Guidelines for Calculating Maximum Design Pressure....................................... 47

MAOP of a Pipeline.................................................................................................. 49

Sample Problem 5. MAOP of a Pipeline ................................................................ 49

Solution .............................................................................................................. 50

Maximum Design Pressure for Process Plant Piping............................................... 51

Sample Problem 6: Process Piping......................................................................... 52

TYPICAL MISTAKES IN PIPE WALL THICKNESS CALCULATION ............................ 53

SUMMARY.................................................................................................................... 54

ADDENDUM ................................................................................................................. 55

ADDENDUM A .............................................................................................................. 56

ADDENDUM B .............................................................................................................. 62

ADDENDUM C.............................................................................................................. 69

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Stresses in the Pipe Shell due to Internal Pressure ....................................... 7

Figure 2. Schematic Diagram Explaining the Concept of RER and PDI ...................... 19

Figure 3. Variation of the Basic Allowable Stresses with Temperature for Grade B

Material. ......................................................................................................... 28

Figure 4. Effects of External Pressure ........................................................................ 37

Figure 5. Geometrical Factor A for External Pressure Calculations ............................. 41

Figure 5. Geometrical Factor A for External Pressure Calculations (continued) ......... 42

Figure 6. Material Factor B for External Pressure Calculations ................................... 43

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Level of Safety for Different Pipe Material Grade ......................................... 15

Table 2. Location Class and Design Factors for Transportation Piping ....................... 20

Table 3. The Y Factor as Extracted From ASME B1.3 TABLE 304.1.1 .................... 29

Table 4. Minimum Wall Thickness Schedule for Carbon Steel .................................... 32

Table A-1: ASME/ANSI B31.8 (Appendix D: Specified Minimum Yield

Strength for Steel Pipe) ............................................................................................... 56

Table A-2. ASME/ANSI Code B31.8, Table 841.115A, (Excerpt) Longitudinal

Joint Factor E. ............................................................................................................... 59

Table A-3. ASME/ANSI B31.8 Table 841.116A (Excerpt)Temperature

Derating Factor for Steel Pipe ..................................................................................... 60

Table A-4. SAES B-064 Rupture Exposure Radius ..................................................... 61

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for Metals ............................................................................................................. 62

Table B-2. Basic Quality Factors for Longitudinal Weld Joints In Pipes,

Tubes, and Fittings E ............................................................................................ 67

Table C-1. Table of Properties of Pipe ......................................................................... 70

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INFORMATION

INTRODUCTION

This module discusses the process of determining pipe wall

thickness, which is one of the first steps in specifying the design

of piping system components. Pipe wall thickness is based on

the internal pressure of a pipe and, if necessary, external

pressure or any additional loads. The pipe wall thickness is

calculated by using the equation for internal pressure thickness

in the applicable ASME B31 Code, modifying the thickness for

any external pressure or additional loads, selecting pipe

schedule based on manufacturer's tolerance. Also, calculating

the Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) for the

pipe after determining the pipe wall thickness will be covered.

The previous module discussed an early step in designing a

piping system: selecting pipe material. Selecting pipe material

sets parameters for the other facets of piping design and is

required to determine allowable design stress, which is

necessary to calculate the required wall thickness.

Knowledge of the following is necessary to achieve the

objectives of MEX 101.03:

as discussed in MEX 101.01.

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

In the process of calculating the wall thickness of a pipe several

parameters must be considered and accurately specified.

These parameters are listed below.

Pipe material: The pipe material will be specified as has been

discussed in the previous chapter. The material type identifies

basic design parameter, which is the allowable stress to be

explained in the coming sections.

Internal pressure: This the crucial parameter in piping design

because the main purpose pressure piping Codes and

Standards is to contain the pressurized fluid from escaping out

or rupturing the pipe.

Fluid temperature: The fluid temperature affects the allowable

stresses of the material and the designated Code because each

Code has temperature limitation.

External loads: These loads could be caused by external

pressure due to vacuum or water static head for submarine

lines. Also, dead weight of soil, snow or sand over burden load

on the pipe.

Construction: Construction of pipelines whether on land or off

shore could add additional construction requirement that may

increase the wall thickness of the pipe. In fact for off shore

pipeline, stresses on the pipe exerted on the pipe during lay-off

from the barges are the detrimental factor of the pipe wall

thickness. Another example is the elastic bend requirement to

follow the pipeline terrain for on land pipelines.

The industry Codes provide rules and guidelines for establishing

these parameters, however Saudi Aramco have established its

own rules that generally follow the industry Codes but with more

stringent requirement.

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The main objective of piping codes is to insure that piping

systems will not under pressure. Piping systems are designed

and constructed to convey pressurized fluid, mostly flammable

and could be toxic, therefore Codes tend to very conservative in

respect to pressure containment of the pressurized fluids. This

explains why there are few failures reported due to

overpressure of the piping systems.

The basic theory for designing of wall thickness of a piping

system that contains the internal pressure is based on limiting

the hope stress developed by this pressure to an acceptable

value by the Code. The calculated hope stress in pipe shell,

refer to Figure-1, is based on Lame equation as follows:

Equation 1.

equation based on an intermediate diameter and introduced a Y

factor to correct the difference. Boardman's equation has

become the basis for calculating wall thickness B31 Codes for

pressure containing piping. Boardman's equation is as follows:

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Equation 2.

Sh = P (D Y t ) / 2 t

considered 0.4. For thicker pipe Y can be calculated as will be

discussed later.

Each code provides an equation that is used to calculate

internal pressure thickness. The equations may look different

and / or the approach varies, but the basic concept is the same.

The main concept is to limit the hoop stress, Sh, to an

acceptable and safe level.

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

Each engineer should be familiar with the steps followed to

determine the wall thickness of the pipe. He should be aware

that the thickness shall not be less than the minimum required

by the Code otherwise this would be a basic violation to the

relevant Code. At the same time it should not be over specified

because that would be reflected as unnecessary capital cost.

Over specifying wall thickness mostly will have significant

impact on capital investment in terms of millions of dollars. The

cost of line pipe is determined mainly by the tonnage, i.e. the

pipe diameter, wall thickness, length of order, as well as the

pipe grade and the type of alloying elements.

The steps to be followed during the process of wall thickness

calculation are as follow:

1. Determining the applicable ASME/ANSI B31 Code for the

piping system of concern. This has been discussed in MEX

101.01. The latest SAES should be always referenced, and

if there are potential savings by using different Code other

than specified, the issue should be highlighted to the

concerned specialists in CSD.

2. Identifying the applicable formula from the code for

calculating the wall thickness to sustain the internal design

pressure.

3. Setting the design parameters as specified in the design

data and in compliance with SAES-L-002 and SAES-L-003,

Design Stress Criteria for Pressure Piping.

4. Evaluating whether the minimum thickness is adequate for

structural rigidity (excessive deflection or buckling under the

pipe own weight.

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

for corrosion allowance and mill tolerance. This is

dependent on the Code and the SAES.

6. Checking if the calculated thickness for internal pressure is

also acceptable for external pressure and other applied

loads, as applicable such as traffic load, sand dunes dead

weight, etc.

7. Selecting a thickness from an ANSI/API table of standard

pipe thickness and checking the thickness against the Saudi

Aramco minimum thickness requirements. Selecting a

scheduled pipe is not always applicable for pipeline projects

involved with long distances and large diameter pipe.

The text of MEX 101.03 refers to ASME/ANSI B31.3 for plant

piping and B31.8, for transportation piping. The process

discussed in this module is consistent for all the B31 piping

codes. However, the equations, variables, and definitions or

values for allowable stress differ.

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Calculating the required pipe wall thickness to contain internal

pressure is the first step in determining pipe wall thickness. As

explained earlier the applicable Code for a particular piping

system will determine the method and rules governing the pipe

wall thickness calculations. Identifying the Code has been

already discussed in MEX-101.01. Therefore, in the following

two sections the calculation procedure and requirement for the

internal pressure design will be discussed. One section will

focus on the transportation piping and the other one will explain

internal pressure design for plant piping.

Transportation Piping: ASME B31.4 and B31.8 (Thickness for Internal Pressure)

This section outlines the method for calculating the pipe wall

thickness for piping systems that are designated as

transportation piping, ASME/ANSI B31.8, paragraph 841.11

states the rule for calculating the design pressure as follows:

Equation 3.

P = [2 S t / D] x FET

Even though this equation is given in the AMSE B31.8 Code for

gas transportation system, Saudi Aramco Standard calls for

applying it for all other transportation piping systems regardless

of the nature of the service. The differences will be in the

design factors and de-rating factors as discussed bellow.

This equation could be re-arranged to calculate the wall

thickness required for internal pressure containment for gas

transmission and distribution piping (as well as other

transportation piping) as follows:

Equation 4

t = P D / [ 2 SETF]

Where:

t

D = Outside diameter of pipe, in.

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E = Longitudinal-joint quality factor.

T = Temperature derating factor.

F = Design factor.

Each of the above parameters will be discussed thoroughly

next.

Design Pressure

[P]

In order to understand the significance of the pressure term in

the Equation - 4 the following topics will be discussed:

Pressure surge

4, shows us that the wall thickness is directly proportional to the

pressure, i.e. as the pressure becomes higher the thicker the

pipe becomes. On the other hand, as the pipe diameter

increases the pressure required to achieve certain flow drops

down. Consequently, maybe lower wall thickness is needed.

However, both the pipe wall and the diameter contribute to the

pipe cost. On the other hand lowering the discharge pressure

most probably will decrease the overall operating cost.

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exercise trying to optimize between the design pressure, pipe

diameter and pipe wall thickness in one side and the operating

cost in the other hand. These kind of studies are called

Pipeline Optimization Study. Details of this studies are

beyond the scope of this course.

Pumps & compressors shutoff: The design pressure is

dictated by the hydraulic requirement to achieve certain flow

rate through the pipeline. Also, the source of the pressure

upstream, such as the oil reservoir shut-in pressure, dictates the

design pressure. For a pipeline system connected to a pump or

a compressor, the design pressure will be affected by the pump

or compressor shut-off pressure in case the flow downstream

these rotating machinery was blocked and the pump or

compressor continue to operate. The pipeline will be subjected

to the highest pressure that the machine can produce.

Static head and pressure drop: Also, the hydrostatic head in a

liquid-filled piping system could also could be a detrimental

factor in cases where there is a large difference in elevation

along the pipeline route. In all cases the static head must be

considered when it is positive and adding to the internal of the

fluid. Our Standards do not allow taking advantage of or

pressure reduction due to pressure drop or due to negative

static head.

Pressure surge: The pressure surge condition in liquid

transportation pipeline must be considered, because sudden

change in the flow velocity caused by closure of a down stream

isolation or sudden stop of a downstream pump will create a

pressure surge in the line. This pressure surge will be

transmitted backward at the speed of sound in the transported

fluid and will create radial pressure in the line. The

development of pressure surges must be accounted in the

design of a pipeline. There are several approaches to reduce

the effect of pressure surges, for example increasing the closure

time of the valve that is creating the surge, slowing down the

rate at which the pump is stopped, or installing pressure surge

relief systems.

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is not practical to install surge relief systems, then the wall

thickness of the line must be designed to withstand these

pressure surges. The ASME B31.4, paragraph 402.2.4 states

that the MATP, maximum allowable transient pressure due to

the pressure surges, shall not exceed 110% of the design

pressure (MAOP) in the line.

Saudi Aramco SAES requires that a formal surge analysis shall

be made for liquid-packed services. In case that it is not

economical to increase the pipe thickness and pressure surge

could not be eliminated, then, surge protection systems shall be

installed if surge pressures are calculated to exceed 110% of

the MAOP. The Surge protection systems shall be of fail-safe

design with an installed, spare, surge-relief valve for each surge

protection system.

Pipe Diameter [D]

The design Equation-4 is based on the actual outside diameter

of the pipe. The engineer must be aware that the designated

outside diameter in the pipe data in API-5L or ASTM A53 or

other source of information provides NPS, nominal pipe sizes.

The nominal pipe size is less than the actual outside diameter

for NPS 12 inches and lowers and it is equal to the actual

outside diameter for 14 inches and above. Therefore, careful

review should be exercised during the calculation otherwise

fatal mistakes could happen. The table showing pipe

dimensions and other data are provided in Addendum A of this

module.

The allowable

stress [SETF]

The combined term of SEFT is actually gives the limiting

allowable hope stress for produced by internal pressure.

Accordingly, this term will determine the minimum pipe wall

thickness required for holding the internal pressure. A key

parameter in this combined term is S. The parameter SA is the

Specified Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS) of the material as

explained previously in MEX-101-02. The ASME codes B31.4 &

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

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SMYS. These tables are shown in Appendix A-1 of this chapter.

The engineer should be aware that the allowable stress for

transportation piping is based on material yield point. The main

reason for that is economical, because pipelines usually extend

for long distances therefore the intent of the Code is to utilize

the material to its limits of yielding. This approach is simple

which has some reasoning behind it because pipeline

construction and configuration are also relatively simple and not

complicated. However, grater caution should be exercised

when dealing with higher-grade materials.

To make this point clear, we must understand that the pipe

bursting pressure is governed by the ultimate tensile strength of

the material rather than the yield strength. Equation 5.

Equation 1 for the design pressure can be re-arranged as

follows:

Pd

SMYS x [t ET/ D] x F

Pd

the tensile strength of the material and defined as follows:

Pb

U t x [t D]; Assume A= t D

parameters)

Material

Grade

SMYS

psig

Ultimate

Tensile U t

psig

Design

Pressure

Pd

Bursting

Pressure

Pb

Pb / Pd

35000

60000

35000xAF

60000xA

1.71 / F

X52

52000

66000

52000xAF

66000xA

1.27 / F

X60

60000

75000

60000xAF

75000xA

1.25 / F

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X70

70000

82000

70000xAF

82000xA

1.17 / F

and burst pressure. The last column which gives the ratio

between the burst pressure to the design pressure shows that

as the pipe material become higher, the ration becomes less.

This implies that the actual safety factor is jeopardized as

materials with higher grade are used.

Longitudinal Joint

Factor [E]

The longitudinal joint factor is safety factor that represents the

quality of the pipe seam weld. As explained earlier in MEX101.2, this factor is dependent on both the manufacturing

process and the intended Code. Seamless pipe has a

longitudinal joint factor of on1 because in seamless pipes there

is no seam weld. All other welded pipe must have an E factor

ranging from 1 to 0.6. This factor will reduce the allowable

stress; consequently the wall thickness will increase. Appendix

A-2 of this chapter is an extract from AMSE B31.8, Table

841.115A.

The engineer should always refer to the latest edition of the

Code because this factor could be revised to be higher due to

improvement in the manufacturing process and inspection

techniques. At the same time it could be lowered due to

lessons learned or a more conservative approach by the Code

Committee.

Temperature Derating

Factor [T]

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constant and relatively low. Also, we should remember that

both ASME B31.4 & B31.8, as mentioned in MEX-101.01, are

limited in the design temperature to 250o F and 450o F

respectively. The temperature derating factor accounts for the

fact that the yield strength of materials is reduced as the metal

temperature increases. ASME B31.4 has no temperature

derating factor because it is limited to 250o F while ASME B31.8

provide Table 841.116A for these values. This table is in

Appendix A-3.

The design temperature is mostly dictated by the upstream

condition of the fluid transported in the pipeline. However, there

are cases when the temperature will increase as the fluid

progress due to turbulence in the flow or picking heat from sun

radiation. These effects should be carefully studied because

they could have adverse impact either on the safety of the

piping system if ignored. On the other hand, they have

significant cost impact if very conservative approach is utilized.

For example, a conservative approach may lead to assigning a

temperature derating factor which will be translated into heavier

pipe wall and more cost to be spent. Also, it may lead to

installing coolers downstream the pipeline that will never be

operated but have added cost to the initial investment and

additional cost for operation and maintenance.

Design Factors [F]

The design factor [F], sometimes called DF, is a safety factor

that accounts for the relative hazard created by the presence of

the pipeline to the surrounding population, environment, and

facilities. This design factor is affected by many factor some of

which are:

1. The nature of the fluid transported, service, whether it is

farmable, toxic, explosive or pollutant.

2. The density of the population in the area where this line is

passing through. The higher the population density the more

safety factor should be imposed.

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4. Level of conservatism of the Committee members

developing the Standards

ASME B31.4 has identified one single design factor equals to

0.72, while ASME B 31.8 goes further step and assign a

different design factor for a different area classification. Saudi

Aramco is further step ahead in this issue, where the concept of

location classification has been applied to liquid hydrocarbon

pipelines as well as gas pipelines. To determine the design

factor, F, both Standards SAES-B-064 and SAES-L-003 shall be

used identify the piping system location class.

RER & PDI

In the case of pipelines, to determine the design another factor

another two concepts need to be explained. Those are the

Rupture Exposure Radius (RER) and the Population Density

Index (PDI). As shown in Figure-2, RER is a measure of the

extent of the risk that a pipeline could make to the surroundings

when it ruptures. The second, PDI, is a measure of the

vulnerability of people to that risk. The rules and guidelines for

calculating RER and PDI are given is AMSE B31.8 paragraph

840.2 and further superseded by SAES-B-064. The, SAES-B064 specifies the values for RER based on pipeline service,

True Vapor Pressure, H2S concentration and the line size. The

values of RER based on SAES-B-064, issue 1997, are

summarized in a table in Addendum A-4.

PDI is measured by the number of existing buildings intended

for human occupancy and the land area planned for future

development, all falling within the RER as shown in Figure-2. It

is worth mentioning that temporary facilities which will be in

place for less than six consecutive months are not to be

included in these calculations The method of calculation is

detailed in the next Sample Problem 1.

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The values of the design factor, F, corresponding to the location

class and the PDI are provided in Table-2. Most probably, a

single transportation pipeline may have multiple location

classifications associated with it, based on the PDA results

along its length. It is very essential that engineers must

understand the intent of these factors rather than using them as

they are. These factors if not well understood and regularly reevaluated, this may lead to situation where some of the

pipelines may become safety hazard to people and

environment. On the other hand, these factors could

substantially increase the pipeline construction cost with no

logical reason.

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Location

Class

Design

Factor F

Population

Density

Index PDI

0.72

10

Water service lines.

0.60

11-29

0.50

30 and above

0.40

Special

Cases

areas or parallel to highways

Plant piping designed to B31.4 /

B31.8

Highly populated complexes such

as hospitals and malls.

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A 48-inch cross-country pipeline conveying sour gas from

Uthmaniyah to Shedgum. Refer to Fihgure-2 for clarification.

Most of the pipeline passes through a desert except for 2-Km

section that traverses along the border of an industrial park.

The industrial park is 400 meters away from the pipeline. Also,

within this industrial park, there is an area planned for future

development. Identify the design factor for this pipeline and

calculate the minimum wall thickness required for internal

pressure. The following data is given.

Pipe Diameter: 48 inches

Design Pressure: 740 psig

Design temperature: 175oF

Pipe specification: API 5L carbon steel,

Material grade: X65

Pipe manufacturing: Double Submerge Arc Welded (DSAW)

Two-story building is: 11 buildings

Five-story building is: 4 buildings

Future development: 1200 m2

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Solution

Since this is a transportation piping system,

Equation 2 applies as follow:

t

= P D / [ 2 SETF]

P = 740 psig

D = 48 inches

S = 65000 psi (Addendum A-1 for API 5L X-65)

E = 1 (Addendum A-2 for DSAW pipe)

T = 1 (Addendum A-3 for T < 250 oF)

What is left to identify is the design factor F. At this point we

should be aware that there is a possibility that two design

factors may be assigned to this pipeline.

F for the undeveloped and desert area:

Based on Table-1 the pipeline is considered in location class1,

therefore

F = 0.72

t

t

0.374 inches

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To determine the design factor, F, a population density analysis

must be performed.

RER = 5000 m for the 48 sour gas pipeline, (based on SAESB-064 shown in Addendum A-4)

This means that the industrial park is located within the RER.

Therefore, a formal population density analysis (PDA) must be

conducted to determine the location class, thus the design

factor F.

PDI

= Existing DI + Virtual DI

PDI

= EDI + VDI

EDI

= N1 + N3

N1 = Number of 3-story

N3 = Number of more than 3-sorty x Number of the

stories / 3 (rounded to the next number)

N1 = 11

N3 = 4 x 5 / 3 = 6.666

N3 = 7

EDI

= N1 + N3 = 11 + 7 = 18

VDI

PDI

PDI

= 20

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considered in location class-2, therefore

F = 0.60

t = 730 x 48 / ( 2 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 0.60 x 65000 )

0.449 inches

calculation is complete.

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PROCESS PIPING:

INTERNAL PRESSURE

This section outlines the method for calculating the minimum

pipe wall thickness for plant piping systems designated as

process plant piping ASME B31.3., as discussed in earlier in

MEX-101.01. The minimum pipe wall thickness for Process

Piping requires meeting three criteria. Those are:

1. Internal pressure requirement

2. Corrosion, erosion and mechanical requirement

3. Mill under-tolerance must be considered

The first and the second factors are composed in the equation

of paragraph 340 of ASME B31.3 as follows:

Equation 6.

t

tm

= t+c

strength

Calculation of t for internal pressure is detailed as follows.

ASME B31.3, paragraph 304 gives the rule for calculating the

wall thickness requirement. Also, it provides several equations

to conduct the calculation. The following equation is the mostly

used one.

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Equation 7. t = PD / [ 2( SE + PY ) ]

where:

t

D = Outside diameter of pipe, in.

E = Longitudinal-joint quality factor.

S = Basic Allowable (hot) hoop stress, psi.

Y = Wall thickness correction factor.

For thickness t < D/6, the internal pressure thickness for straight

pipe shall not be less than that calculated in the above equation.

For t > D/6 or for P/SE > 0.385, calculation of pressure design

thickness for straight pipe requires special consideration of

factors such as theory of failure, effects of fatigue, and thermal

stress. This module will not discuss this situation.

The parameters for calculating wall thickness of the process

plant piping are similar to the transportation piping, but the

parameters are different. These parameters will be explained

afterward.

Design Pressure and Temperature

The design pressure and temperature are used to calculate the

internal pressure thickness of pipe. The design pressure is

used directly in the thickness calculation equation, as previously

shown. The design temperature is used to determine the

allowable stresses from the ASME B31, 3 tables for Basic

Allowable Stress. The worst combination of design pressure

and temperature should be used for piping thickness

calculations. The process engineer based on process

requirements typically determines these values for design

pressure and temperature

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

based on the design conditions of the equipment to which the

piping is attached. Determining the piping design conditions

consists of:

1. Identifying the equipment to which the piping system is

attached.

2. Determining the design pressure and design temperature for

the equipment.

3. Considering contingent design conditions, such as upsets

not protected by pressure-relieving devices.

4. Verifying values with the process engineer.

For example, a plant piping system that is attached to two

process vessels, each with different design conditions, will have

specified design pressure and design temperature based on the

more severe design conditions of the two vessels.

In another example regarding variation of T and P is a

regeneration line which may be subjected to different

combination of pressure and temperature. During steaming out

the temperature is very high but the pressure is low, while

during processing the pressure is high and the temperature is

low.

Longitudinal Joint

Factor [E]

As stated earlier the longitudinal joint factor is dependent on

piping Code as well as manufacturing process itself. Therefore,

there is possibility that for the same pipe manufacturing

process, two different factors E will be assigned by the two

different Codes.

Generally, the values for E are lower for ASME B31.3 Process

Piping Code than those for Transportation piping Codes.

These values are listed in Table A-1B of the Code and attached

in Addendum B-2 of this module. Comparing the value of E in

this table we could tell that they are generally lower than the

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B31.3 piping, only seamless pipe has a longitudinal weld factor

equivalent to one.

Basic Allowable

Hoop Stress [S]

The basic allowable hoop stress (stress in the circumferential

direction) is the allowable stress in tension for the pipe material

It is defined by ASME B31.3 and appears in Table A-1 in an

appendix-A of B31.3. An excerpt for these tables are shown in

Addendum B-1.

For plant piping, the allowable hoop stresses is a function of

temperature and material, and considers the yield, tensile, and

creep strengths of the material at the design temperature.

Figure 3 gives graphical presentation of how these allowable

stresses are defined and developed.

Temperature for Grade B Material.

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allowable stress for plant piping.

temperature column at the specified material, and use linear

interpolation between temperatures if required.

solid line is not recommended. Going beyond the double

solid line is prohibited.

The Y factor is a correction factor for simplifying the original

Lame equation. It accounts for geometrical relation between D

& t. The "Y" factor is a function of the type of steel and the

temperature, and is determined from Table 304.1.1 of

ASME/ANSI B31.3, which is shown in Table 3 next.

Table 3. The Y Factor as Extracted From ASME B1.3 TABLE 304.1.1

o

Temperature, F

950

1,000

1,050

1,100

1150

and

above

482 and

below

510

538

566

593

621 and

above

Ferritic Steels

0.4

0.5

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

Austenitic Steels

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.7

Other Ductile

Metals

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

o

Temperature, C

900

and

below

0.

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relation to Equation 4:

For D/t > 6 , Y can be calculated as:

Y= ( d + c ) / ( D + d + 2c )

where:

D = outside diameter

d = inside diameter

c

equals to 0.4 or ignored.

The Y factor becomes significant for the combination of very

high pressure and small diameter. The factor should be used in

the case of high temperature and pressure because significant

saving in material could be achieved specially for alloy

materials.

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Allowances for corrosion, erosion, or threads must be

accounted for in determining the required pipe wall thickness.

This is more of a problem in plant piping because high fluid

velocities or changes in the pressure of the fluid can corrode a

pipe. Thread allowances apply only to smaller diameter pipes,

which may be threaded. Corrosion, erosion, and thread

allowances are determined in conjunction with the corrosion or

process engineer and are often specified in a pipe specification.

The appropriate allowance is added to the thickness that was

calculated for internal pressure to arrive at a total required pipe

wall thickness.

The following Sample Problems-2 will be used to illustrate the

method of calculating the pipe wall thickness for the process

piping.

Manufacturer Mill Tolerance

The pipe specification for manufacturing pipe such as API 5L

and ASTM A 53 or ASTM-A106, allow the manufacturer certain

tolerance in the wall thickness positive and negative. There are

some legitimate reasons for these tolerances because any

manufacturing process always works within some specified

range. The maximum manufacturer's under-tolerance for pipe

wall thickness is 12.5% for carbon and low-alloy steels. For

high-alloy steels it is 10%. Most seamless piping systems will

be in the 12.5% category. When pipe is supplied, the actual

thickness can be minus 12.5% of the nominal thickness.

Therefore, for ASME B31.3 piping, after the required minimum

wall thickness is determined, the next greater available standard

pipe thickness must be selected, taking into account the

manufacturer's under tolerance. In other word, the pipe wall

thickness after deducting the negative mill tolerance must be m,

equal to or more than t, specified in Equation 7.

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tolerance was not addressed for transportation pipelines. One

reason is that it is not economical to add for the mill tolerance,

because pipelines usually extend for long distances, could be

thousands of kilometers. Another reason is that the Code

consider the mill tolerance indirectly in the design safety factor.

SAES Limitations on Pipe Schedule

SAES-L-005 and SAES-L-006 impose additional requirement

over the calculated wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness

(Schedule) of carbon steel pipe shall be as follows:

Table 4. Minimum Wall Thickness Schedule for Carbon Steel

Nominal Size

mm

Hydrocarbon

Service

Low-Pressure

Utility Service

in.

50

SCH 80

3-6

75 - 150

SCH 40

SCH 40

8 - 32

200 - 800

34

850

Diameter /135

Diameter/135

Note: Schedule 160 nipples shall be used for 50 mm (2 in.) and smaller

pipe sizes in vibration service where bracing cannot be effectively provided.

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Sample Problem 2

A 16 re-generation line will be installed to connect to the

reactor at Ras Tanura Refinery.

The following data is provided:

Pipe Diameter: 16 inches

Pipe specification: ASTM 335, (1/1-4 Cr - 1/2 Mo)

Pipe material grade: P11

Pipe manufacturing: Seamless

Temperature: 1000 oF

Temperature: 400 oF

Corrosion allowance: 0.0625 inches

Perform the following calculations:

1. Find the minimum wall thickness for the internal design

pressure

2. The minimum wall thickness by ASME B31.3 code

3. Select the pipe schedule that meets the Code requirements.

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Solution

The minimum wall thickness for the internal design pressure:

Since this is a process plant piping system, Equation 6 applies

as follows:

t

= PD / [ 2( SE + PY ) ]

A-1B)

In order to determine the thickness the calculation must be

performed for both cases independently.

CASE 1:

P = 300 psig

T = 1000 oF

S = 6300 psi (Addendum B-1, B31.3 Appendix A-1)

Y = 0.7 (based on Table-3)

t = 300 x 16 / [2 x ( 6300x1 + 300x0.7 ) ]

t = 0.369 inches

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CASE 2:

P = 900 psig

T = 400 oF

S = 2000 psi (Addendum B-1, B31.3 Appendix A-1)

Y = 0.4 (based on Table-3)

t = 900 x 16 / [2 x ( 20000 x 1 + 900 x 0.4) ]

t = 0.354 inches

Therefore the required t, thickness for internal pressure case is

t = 0.369 inches

The minimum wall thickness by ASME B31.3 code:

In this case, a 15 mm (0.0625 in.) corrosion allowance has been

specified. Therefore:

tm = t + c = 0.369 + 0.0625

tm = 0.4315 inches

The pipe schedule which meets the Code requirements:

Checking the pipe data available in Addendum C-3:

The next pipe schedule above t

0.500

= 0.4315 , is XS with T =

Therefore 16 XS pipe meets the Code requirement.

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A piping system may be exposed to an external pressure, and

external pressure rather than internal pressure may govern the

required wall thickness. This might be the case for largediameter/thin-walled process plant piping that is subject to

vacuum conditions, or underwater pipelines, which must

withstand the hydrostatic head of the water above them.

Therefore, calculations must be conducted to ensure that the

pipe wall thickness is adequate for a given external pressure. If

it is not adequate, the thickness must be increased.

Pipe is subject to compressive forces such as those caused by

dead weight, wind, earthquake, and vacuum. The process

engineer often identifies these forces. For example, a

submarine pipeline may be exposed to an external pressure due

to the liquid head of surrounding water being greater than the

internal pressure. Piping components behave differently under

these forces than when they are exposed to internal pressure.

This difference in behavior is due to buckling or elastic instability

that makes the pipe weaker in compression than in tension.

In failure by elastic instability, the pipe may collapse or buckle.

This applies particularly to pipe that has a fairly low internal

pressure, large diameter, and thin wall. Figure 4 shows a

section of pipe that bucked under external pressure.

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The left photo shows the pipe that buckled under external

pressure developed between the pipe and the sleeve. The right

shows the section after removal from the sleeve.

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The pressure piping Codes do not outline procedure to perform

the calculation for external pressure but refer to the ASME

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1,

Paragraph UG-28. That paragraph provides a procedure for

evaluating cylindrical shells under external pressure. Pipe

geometry factors, (unsupported length, outside diameter, and

thickness), material strength, and design temperature are used

to determine the thickness required to resist external pressure.

1. Determine the maximum unstiffened length of the pipe, L.

2. Use the value of t as determined for internal pressure

thickness as a starting point. Calculate L/D and D/t (D is

equivalent to DO in the ASME Code procedure).

3. Enter Figure G of part D, subpart 2 of the ASME Code,

Section II, with L/D. For L/D greater than 50, use L/D = 50.

This figure is excerpted in Figure 5.

4. Move horizontally to the line for D/t. Use linear interpolation

for intermediate values of D/t. Move vertically downward to

find Factor A.

5. Using the value of A, enter the applicable figure from Section

II, Part D of the ASME code based on the pipe material,

such as Figure CS-2, excerpted in Figure 8. Move vertically

to an intersection with the material/temperature line. Use

linear interpolation for intermediate temperatures. If A falls

to the right of the material/temperature line, use the

horizontal projection of the line. If A falls to the left of the

material/temperature line, go to Step 8. Note that the ASME

Code contains figures similar to Figure 6 for different

material categories, and the correct figure must be used for

this evaluation.

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and read the value of Factor B.

7. Calculate the maximum allowable external pressures, Pa, as

follows:

Equation- 8 Pa = 4B/3(D/t)

8. If factor A falls to the left of the material/temperature line,

then:

Equation- 9 Pa = 2AE/3(D/t)

9. Note that in this case, E is equal to Youngs Modulus of

Elasticity at the design temperature, not the longitudinal-joint

quality factor. E is found from the applicable material figure

from Section II of the ASME Code as shown in Figure 6.

10. If Pa is smaller than the external design pressure, select a

larger value of t and repeat the design procedure until Pa is

equal to or exceeds the external design pressure. As an

alternative, external stiffening rings may be added or the

distance between them reduced, to reduce the value of L

that is used in the calculations.

11. Calculate tm = t + c to obtain the pipe thickness required for

external pressure and mechanical, corrosion, and erosion

allowances.

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Nomenclature

t

(1) distance between flanges or welded stiffening rings

or ring girders, (2) distance between the point of

tangency on an elbow or cap and a flange or stiffening

ring, or (3) the distance between the points of

tangency of two elbows or caps if there are no

intermediate flanges or stiffening rings, in.

D = Actual outside diameter of pipe, in.

A = Factor from ASME Code, Section II.

B = Factor from ASME Code, Section II, psi.

E = Modulus of elasticity of material at design

temperature, psi.

Pa = Allowable external pressure, psi.

tm = Required external pressure thickness, including

allowances, in.

c

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(continued)

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Sample Problem 3:

Assume the pipeline discussed in Sample Problem 1 also must

be capable of withstanding full vacuum [100 kPa (15 psi)

external pressure].

Solution

T

D / t = 48 / 0.374 = 128

Based on Figure-5 the A factor is found as:

A = 0.00007

Refer to Figure-6 for B factor, use the upper curve:

B = 9500

The A factor is on the left side of the curves, therefore

Use Equation 9

Pa = 2AE/3(D/t)

6

The pipe is not adequate for vacuum, therefore alternative shall

be evaluated a follows:

1. Increase the pipe wall thickness, which is very costly

2. For underground this may need more analytical study.

3. Impose operational guideline to avoid vacuum.

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Sample Problem 4:

For Sample Problem-1, assume the longest straight pipe section

is 80 feet, otherwise there might be flanges, tee or valves acting

as stiffener. Verify if the line is capable of withstanding full

vacuum [100 kPa (15 psi) external pressure].

Solution

t

= 0.449 inches

L = 80 x 12 = 960 inches

L/D

= 960 / 16 = 60

D/t

= 16 / 0.4315 = 37

Refer to Figure-6 for B factor, use the upper chart.

T = 900 F: B = 9500

Therefore, use Equation- 8:

Pa = 4B/3(D/t)

Pa = 4 x 9500 / (3 x 37 ) = 342 psia

Therefore, the line is adequate for vacuum condition.

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Transportation pipelines often have buried sections of pipe. The

required thickness of these buried sections will be affected by

soil and traffic loads, in addition to the design pressure. These

loads cause a circumferential bending stress in the pipe. The

Saudi Aramco engineer needs to determine if the pipe is thick

enough for these soil and traffic loads.

Specific requirements for how traffic loads are determined are

found in SAES-L-046, Pipeline Crossings Under Roads and

Railroads. The pipe must be designed for the traffic load, soil

weight, and passive soil reaction.

At railroad and highway crossings where the loads may apply,

the pipe must be designed according to API Recommended

Practice 1102, Liquid Petroleum Pipelines Crossing Railroads

and Highways. It provides the formula for determining

circumferential stress in a carrier pipe with internal pressure due

to external loads at highway and railroad crossings. The

equation gives a stress that is based upon the thickness,

internal pressure soil and traffic loads as follows:

The stress calculated in accordance with this equation is limited

to the Specified Minimum Yield Stress times the design factor,

F, without considering the longitudinal joint factor.

It should also be noted that SAES-L-046 contains criteria for

when a protective casing is required, and how the casing should

be designed.

Saudi Aramco has a computer program that makes the

calculation. This can be done through the Consulting Services

Department (CSD.) All the load factors required by SAES-L-046

are in the computer program, as well as the required

parameters. It is beyond the scope of this course to determine

the stress.

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There are many cases where the purchased pipe wall is thicker

than what is required for the design pressure. This would allow

the designer to increase the actual design pressure of the pipe

as long as it is not limited by other factors, such as flange rating

as would be discussed in MEX-101.04. For transportation

piping system, this maximum permissible pressure is called

maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP). For process

plant piping this is called design pressure.

The engineer must determine MAOP for pipe as well as other

piping components. This module discusses MAOP for pipe.

The MAOP of a pipe or other piping component will be at least

equal to the design pressure. However, the MAOP can be

higher than the design pressure since use of a standard wall

thickness will typically provide an additional margin.

Guidelines for

Calculating

Maximum Design

Pressure

1. Subtract mill tolerance, (expressed as a decimal fraction), m,

from the nominal pipe wall thickness, Tn, for ASME B31.3

piping to determine the minimum possible as - supplied

thickness, T , as follows:

T = ( 1 m ) x Tn

Where: Tn is the nominal pipe wall and m is the mill

tolerance; m shall be taken as zero for ASME

B31.4 and B31.8 piping systems.

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c, to calculate the minimum possible pipe thickness, t, as

follows:

t =Tc

Usually c is zero for transportation piping.

3. Reverse the applicable internal pressure equation to

calculate a value for maximum design pressure

For ASME/ANSI B31.3, Process Piping, use the following

equation to calculate Maximum Design Pressure:

MDP =

2tSE

D 2tY

the following equation to calculate MAOP:

2St

MAOP=

FET

D

4. Calculate maximum design pressure with the factors

identified earlier.

5. For ASME/ANSI B31.3, Process Piping, the following

equation should be used to calculate maximum design

pressure:

Maximum Design Pressure = 2x t x SE / ( D 2xtxY)

6. For ASME/ANSI B31.4 or B31.8, Transportation Piping, use

the following equation to calculate MAOP:

2St

MAOP =

FET

D

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MAOP of a Pipeline

For transportation piping, the MAOP is calculated by Equation 3.

The pipe wall thickness to be used in the equation is the

nominal wall thickness. There should be no deduction for mill

tolerance. This is illustrated in the next sample problem.

Sample Problem 5.

MAOP of a Pipeline

A 36 inch pipeline carrying crude oil passing through an area

classified as Class 2. The required design pressure is 500 psig,

and design temperature is 200 F. A double submerge arc

welded (DSAW) API 5L grade X52 pipe was specified. A 36

inch pipe with 0.375 inch wall is available. Verify if this pipe is

adequate for the design pressure by calculating the MAOP of

this pipe.

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Solution

Since this a pipeline, it would be designed to ASME B31.4/

B31.8, Equation-3 will be used to find The MAOP:

P = [2 S t / D] x FET

P = MAOP psig.

D = 36 in.

S = 52000 psi.

E = 1

T = 1

F = 0.72

MAOP = 2 x 52000 x 0.375 (0.6x1x1) / 36

MAOP = 650 psig

The MAOP is higher than the design pressure of 500 psig,

therefore the line pipe is acceptable for the design condition.

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From a terminology point of view, the word MAOP is not used

by the Process Piping Code ASME B31.3. Paragraph 302.2.4

gives the rules on how to exceed the design pressure. The

design pressure can be exceeded as follows:

by 33% for continuous 10 hours but not more than 100 hours

per year

hours in a year.

piping, a pipe could be purchased thicker to what is deeded for

the actual design condition. The back calculation of the

maximum design pressure (not the MAOP) will be illustrated in

the following steps. This maximum design pressure can be

used for the pressure exceeding criteria as set by the ASME

B31.3.

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Sample Problem 6:

Process Piping

Using the results of Sample Problems 2, determine the

maximum design pressure that can be sustained by the pipe

and maximum permissible pressure.

T = (1-m)

Tu = (1 - 0.125) (0.50) = 0.6563 in.

t n = Tu - c

t n = 0.0.4375 - 0.0625 = 0.375 in.

MDP = 2 t n S E / ( D 2 t n Y )

Apply Case-1 ( T = 1000 o F)

MDP = 2 x 0.375 x 6300 x 1/ ( 16 2 x 0.375 x0.7 )

MDP = 305 psig

33% over MDp = 405 psig ( for 10 hours)

20% over MDp = 366 psig ( for 50 hours)

Apply Case-2 ( T = 400)

MDP = 2 x 0.375 x 20000 x 1/ ( 16 2 x 0.375 x0.4 )

MDP = 955 psig

33% over MDp = 1270 psig ( for 10 hours)

20% over MDp = 1146 psig ( for 50 hours)

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Even though the calculation for wall thickness is relatively

simple and straight forward, people do make mistakes that most

of the time cost the company more capital investment than

necessary. These mistakes are summarized as follows:

1. Specifying a design pressure that is higher than what is

required to fulfill the operational requirement.

2. Selecting the wall thickness to match the flange rating and

thickness. This might be acceptable for plant piping but for

pipelines it could add additional cost.

3. Setting the design pressure based on a pre-selected or

existing flange rating more what is actually required for

operation.

4. Applying the wrong Code.

5. Specifying the wrong allowable stresses in the formula

6. Inaccurate interpretation of the SAES-L-006 regarding the

minimum wall thickness requirement. Some of these

requirements are intended for inventory purposes, therefore

for line pipe purchased to be installed for a specific project

the criteria should not be applied if there is great economic

incentives. Following the standards without understanding

the intent could lead to purchasing of line pipe thicker than

what is required which means additional material and

construction cost.

7. Surprisingly, pure mathematical mistakes are frequently

made in the calculations reflected in possibly unsafe designs

or costly material.

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SUMMARY

MEX 101.03 discussed the process of determining pipe wall

thickness, one of the first steps in specifying the design of piping

system components. Pipe wall thickness is based on the

internal pressure of a pipe, and if necessary, on any additional

external pressure or loads. The pipe wall thickness is

determined by using the equation for internal pressure thickness

in the applicable code, adjusting the thickness as necessary for

any applicable external pressure or additional loads, adding the

corrosion or other allowances, accounting for the manufacturer's

mill tolerance, and selecting pipe schedule. After selecting the

pipe schedule, the Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure for

the pipe may be calculated.

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ADDENDUM

Index of Addendum

Page(s)

ADDENDUM A .............................................................................................................. 56

ADDENDUM B .............................................................................................................. 62

ADDENDUM C.............................................................................................................. 69

LIST OF TABLES

Table A-1. ASME/ANSI B31.8 (Appendix D: Specified Minimum Yield Strength for

Steel Pipe) ................................................................................................. 56

Table A-2. ASME/ANSI Code B31.8, Table 841.115A, (Excerpt) Longitudinal Joint

Factor E ..................................................................................................... 59

Table A-3. ASME/ANSI B31.8 Table 841.116A (Excerpt)Temperature Derating

Factor for Steel Pipe.................................................................................. 60

Table A-4. SAES B-064 Rupture Exposure Radius..................................................... 61

Table B-1. ASME/ANSI B31.3 (Excerpt) Basic Allowable Stresses In Tension

for Metals................................................................................................... 62

Table B-2. Basic Quality Factors for Longitudinal Weld Joints In Pipes, Tubes,

and Fittings E ............................................................................................ 67

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ADDENDUM A

Table A-1: ASME/ANSI B31.8

(Appendix D: Specified Minimum Yield Strength for Steel Pipe)

SPEC. NO.

GRADE

TYPE (NOTE 1)

SMYS, PSI

API 5L (Note 2)

A25

BW, ERW, S

25,000

API 5L (Note 2)

ERW, S, DSA

30,000

API 5L (Note 2)

ERW, S, DSA

35,000

API 5L (Note 2)

X42

ERW, S, DSA

42,000

API 5L (Note 2)

X46

ERW, S, DSA

46,000

API 5L (Note 2)

X52

ERW, S, DSA

52,000

API 5L (Note 2)

X56

ERW, S, DSA

56,000

API 5L (Note 2)

X60

ERW, S, DSA

60,000

API 5L (Note 2)

X65

ERW, S, DSA

65,000

API 5L (Note 2)

X70

ERW, S, DSA

70,000

API 5L (Note 2)

X80

ERW, S, DSA

80,000

ASTM A 53

TYPE F

BW

25,000

ASTM A 53

ERW, S

30,000

ASTM A 53

ERW, S

35,000

ASTM A 106

30,000

ASTM A 106

35,000

ASTM A 106

40,000

EFW

(NOTE 3)

ERW

30,000

ASTM A 134

ASTM A 135

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(Appendix D: Specified Minimum Yield Strength for Steel Pipe), Continued

ASTM A 135

ERW

35,000

ASTM A 139

EFW

30,000

ASTM A 139

EFW

35,000

ASTM A 139

EFW

42,000

ASTM A 139

EFW

46,000

ASTM A 139

EFW

52,000

ASTM A 333

S, ERW

30,000

ASTM A 333

S, ERW

35,000

ASTM A 333

35,000

ASTM A 333

S, ERW

35,000

ASTM A 333

S, ERW

35,000

ASTM A 333

S, ERW

75,000

ASTM A 333

S, ERW

46,000

ASTM A 381

CLASS Y-35

DSA

35,000

ASTM A 381

CLASS Y-42

DSA

42,000

ASTM A 381

CLASS Y-46

DSA

46,000

ASTM A 381

CLASS Y-48

DSA

48,000

ASTM A 381

CLASS Y-50

DSA

50,000

ASTM A 381

CLASS Y-52

DSA

52,000

ASTM A 381

CLASS Y-56

DSA

56,000

ASTM A 381

CLASS Y-60

DSA

60,000

ASTM A 381

CLASS Y-65

DSA

65,000

GENERAL NOTE: This Table is not complete. For the minimum specified yield

strength of other grades and grades in other approved specifications, refer to the

particular specification.

NOTES:

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(1) Abbreviations: BW - furnace butt-welded; ERW - electric-resistance welded; S seamless, FW - flash-welded; EFW - electric-fusion welded; DSA - doublesubmerged arc welded.

(2) Intermediate grades are available in API 5L.

(3) See applicable plate specification for SMYS.

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(Excerpt) Longitudinal Joint Factor E.

Spec. Number

Pipe Class

E Factor

ASTM A53

Seamless

1.00

Electric-Resistance

Welded

1.00

0.60

Furnace Welded

ASTM A106

Seamless

1.00

ASTM A134

Electric-Fusion Arc

Welded

0.80

ASTM A135

Electric-Resistance

Welded

1.00

ASTM A139

Electric-Fusion

Welded

0.80

ASTM A211

Spiral-Welded Steel

Pipe

0.80

ASTM A381

Double-Submerged

Arc Welded

1.00

ASTM A671

Electric-Fusion

Welded

1.00*

ASTM A672

Electric-Fusion

Welded

1.00*

59

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(Excerpt) Longitudinal Joint Factor E (Continued)

Spec. Number

Pipe Class

E Factor

API 5L

Seamless

1.00

Electric-Resistance

Welded

1.00

Electric-Flash Welded

Submerged Arc Welded

1.00

1.00

0.60

Furnace Butt-Welded

*1.00 for classes 12,22,32,42,52

0.80 for classes 13,23,43,53

Table A-3. ASME/ANSI B31.8 Table 841.116A

(Excerpt)Temperature Derating Factor for Steel Pipe

TEMPERATURE

o

C

TEMPERATURE

DERATING FACTOR, T

o

F

120 OR LESS

250 OR LESS

1.000

150

300

0.967

177

350

0.933

204

400

0.900

232

450

0.867

Source: ASME/ANSI B31.8 - 1992. With permission from the American

Society of Mechanical

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

Service

Diameter

TVP

H2S

RER

inches

psig

% Mole

meters

Comments

Crude

< 24

< 14.5

< 1..5

200

RER study by

LPD not required

Crude

> 24

< 14.5

< 1.5

400

RER study by

LPD not required

Gas/ liquid

hydrocarbon

< 24

> 14.5

< 1.5

1000

done by LPD

Gas/ liquid

hydrocarbon

< 24

> 14.5

> 1.5

3000

done by LPD

Gas/ liquid

hydrocarbon

> 24

> 14.5

< 1.5

2000

done by LPD

Gas/ liquid

hydrocarbon

> 24

> 14.5

> 1.5

5000

done by LPD

General Notes:

1. LPD: Loss Prevention Department, which is responsible for SAES-B-064.

2. RER study can be done for services other than the first two. The RER shall not be

less than the value specified in the first two items for the respective diameter.

3. Regardless of calculations, RER shall not be greater than the values specified in the

last for items for the respective pipeline diameter.

4. TRV: is the true vapor pressure for flammable liquid lines

61

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ADDENDUM B

Table B-1. ASME/ANSI B31.3 (Excerpt)

Basic Allowable Stresses In Tension for Metals

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(Excerpt) Basic Allowable Stresses In Tension for Metals (Continued)

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

(Excerpt) Basic Allowable Stresses In Tension for Metals (Continued)

64

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

(Excerpt) Basic Allowable Stresses In Tension for Metals (Continued)

65

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

(Excerpt) Basic Allowable Stresses In Tension for Metals (Continued)

51. Special P-1, Sp-2, SP-3, SP-4, and SP-5 of carbon steels

are not included in P-No 1 because of possible high-carbon,

high-manganese combinations, or micro-alloying, which

would require special consideration in qualification.

Qualification of any high-carbon, high-manganese grade

may be extended to other grades in its group.

52. Copper-silicon alloys are not always suitable when exposed

to certain media and high temperature, particularly above

212F. The user should satisfy himself that the alloy

selected is satisfactory.

53. Stress relief treatment is required for service above 450F.

54. The maximum operating temperature is arbitrarily set at

500F because hard temper adversely affects design stress

in the creep rupture ranges.

55. Pipe produced to this specification is not intended for hightemperature service. The stress values apply to either

nonexpanded or cold-expanded material in the as-rolled,

normalized, or normalized temperature conditions.

56. Because of thermal instability, this material is not

recommended for service above 800F.

57. Conversion of carbides to graphite may occur after

prolonged exposure to temperatures over 800F.

58. Conversion of carbides to graphite may occur after

prolonged exposure to temperatures over 875F.

59. For temperature above 900F, consider the advantages of

killed steel.

Source: ASME/ANSI B31.3 - 1990. With permission from the

American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

66

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

Table B-2. Basic Quality Factors for Longitudinal Weld Joints In Pipes, Tubes,

and Fittings E

67

Engineering Encyclopedia

Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

Table B-2. (TABLE A-1B) Basic Quality Factors for Longitudinal Weld

Joints In Pipes, Tubes, and Fittings E (continued)

68

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

ADDENDUM C

Engineering and Design Data Table of Properties of Pipe

References for Pipe Data

Standard pipe wall thickness are specified in the following

standards:

Pipe (for carbon and low-alloy steel pipe).

pipe that meets this specification).

69

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Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation

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78

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