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# Electrons in

Atoms

Light
Light is a kind of electromagnetic
All forms of electromagnetic
radiation move at 3.00 x 108 m/s.

Parts of a Wave
Crest

Wavelength
Amplitude

Origin

Trough

Parts of a Wave
Origin the baseline of a wave
Crest - high point on a wave
Trough - low point on a wave
The amplitude of a wave is the
waves height from the origin to a
crest, or from the origin to a
trough.

Wavelength
Wavelength (represented by ,
the Greek letter lambda) is the
shortest distance between
equivalent points on a continuous
wave.
Wavelength - distance from crest
to crest or trough to trough
Wavelength is usually expressed
in meters (m).

Frequency
Frequency (represented by f ) is the
number of waves that pass a given
point per second.
Units are cycles/sec or hertz (Hz)

Relationship Between
Frequency and Wavelength

c = fl

## They are inversely related, which

means that as one goes up the
other goes down.

## Different frequencies of light

correspond to different colors of
light.

The Electromagnetic
Spectrum

High
Low
energy
energy
Ultra- XGamma
waves waves .
violet Rays Rays
Low
High
Frequency
Frequency
Long
Short
Wavelength
Wavelength
Visible Light

## In 1900, the German physicist Max

Planck began searching for an
explanation as he studied the light
emitted from heated objects.

## The Quantum Concept

Matter can gain or lose energy
only in small, specific amounts
called quanta.
That is, a quantum is the
minimum amount of energy that
can be gained or lost by an atom.

## That is, while a beam of light has

many wavelike characteristics, it
also can be thought of as a stream
of tiny particles, or bundles of
energy, called photons.
Thus, a photon is a particle of
mass that carries a quantum of
energy.

## Planck went further and

demonstrated mathematically that
the energy of a quantum is directly
related to the frequency of the

## Energy and Frequency

E=hf
E = energy of the photon (J Joules)
f = frequency (Hz)
h is Plancks constant
h = 6.63 x 10-34 Joules.sec

## Looking at the equation, you can

see that the energy of radiation
frequency, f, increases.

## Scientists knew that the wave model

of light could not explain a
phenomenon called the photoelectric
effect.

## In the photoelectric effect,

electrons, called photoelectrons, are
emitted from a metals surface when
light of a certain frequency shines on
the surface.

## Einstein proposed that for the

photoelectric effect to occur, a
photon must possess, at a
minimum, the energy required to
free an electron from an atom of
the metal.

STOP HERE

## Niels Bohr, a young Danish physicist

working in Rutherfords laboratory in
1913, suggested that the single
electron in a hydrogen atom moves
around the nucleus in only certain
allowed circular orbits.

## The atom looked like a miniature

solar system. The nucleus is
represented by the sun, and the
electrons act like the planets.

Bohrs Model
The orbits are circular and are at
different levels.
Amounts of energy separate one level
from another.

Modern View
The atom has two
regions and is 3dimensional.
The nucleus is at
the center and
contains the
protons and
neutrons.

Modern View

The electron
cloud is the
region where you
might find an
electron and most
of the volume of
an atom.

Lets look
at the
Bohr
Model in
greater
detail

Bohrs Model
Bohr proposed that electrons must
have enough energy to keep them in
constant motion around the nucleus.
Electrons have energy of motion that
enables them to overcome the
attraction of the positive nucleus.

Bohrs Model
Nucleus
Electron
Orbit

Energy Levels

Bohrs Model
Increasing energy

Fifth

Fourth
Third
Second

First
Nucleus

Further away
from the
nucleus
means more
energy.
Electrons
reside in
energy levels.

The Quantum
Mechanical Model

## Building on Plancks and Einsteins

concepts of quantized energy
(quantized means that only certain
values are allowed), Bohr
proposed that the hydrogen atom
has only certain allowable energy
states.

The Quantum
Mechanical Model
The lowest allowable energy state
of an atom is called its ground
state.
When an atom gains energy, it is
said to be in an excited state.

The Quantum
Mechanical Model
When the atom is in an excited state,
the electron can drop from the
higher-energy orbit to a lower-energy
orbit.
As a result of this transition, the atom
emits a photon corresponding to the
difference between the energy levels
associated with the two orbits.

Atomic Spectrum
What Color Tells Us

Atomic Spectrum

By heating a gas
of a given
element with
electricity, we
can get it to give
off colors.

Atomic Spectrum
Each element
gives off its own
characteristic
colors.
The spectrum
can be used to
identify the atom.

line spectra.
Each is unique
to an element.

## The spectrum of light released from

excited atoms of an element is called
the emission spectrum of that
element.

## As the electrons fall from the excited

state, they release energy in the form of
light.

Ultraviolet

Visible

Infrared

## The further they fall, the greater the

energy.
This results in a higher frequency.

Question

## Use the Chemistry Reference

a) An electron falls from energy
level 5 to energy level 3.
What is the wavelength of the
light emitted?
(1282 nm)

Question
b) An electron falls from energy

## level 6 to energy level 2.

What is the wavelength of the
light emitted?

(410 nm)

Question
c) An electron falls from energy

## level 3 to energy level 1.

What type of electromagnetic
visible or ultraviolet)?
(UV)

Question
d) An electron falls from energy

## level 4 to energy level 2.

What type of electromagnetic
visible or ultraviolet)?
(visible)

Question
e) An electron falls from energy

## level 5 to energy level 2.

What color of visible light is
emitted?

(blue)

Question
f) An electron falls from energy

## level 3 to energy level 2.

What color of visible light is
emitted?

(red)

The Quantum
Mechanical Model

## Like Bohrs model, Schrodingers

quantum mechanical model limits
an electrons energy to certain
values.

## The space around the nucleus of

an atom where the atoms
electrons are found is called the
electron cloud.

A three-dimensional region
around the nucleus called an
atomic orbital describes the
electrons probable location.

Energy Levels

## In general, electrons reside in

principal energy levels.

Energy Levels

## As the energy level number

increases, the orbital becomes
larger, the electron spends more
time farther from the nucleus, and
the atoms energy level increases.

Sublevels
Principal energy levels contain
energy sublevels.
Principal energy level 1 consists of
a single sublevel, principal energy
level 2 consists of two sublevels,
principal energy level 3 consists of
three sublevels, and so on.

Sublevels
Sublevels are labeled s, p, d, or f.
The s sublevel can hold 2 electrons,
the p sublevel can hold 6 electrons,
the d sublevel can hold 10
electrons, and the f sublevel can
hold 14 electrons.

s block
p block

d block

f block

Orbitals
Sublevels contain orbitals.
Each orbital may contain at most
two electrons.

s orbitals
One s orbital
for every
energy level
Spherical
shaped
Called the 1s, 2s, 3s, etc orbitals

p orbitals
Start at the second energy level
3 different directions
3 different dumbbell shapes

p Orbitals

d orbitals
Start at the third energy level
5 different shapes

f orbitals
Start at the fourth energy level
Have seven different shapes

f orbitals

Summary
# of
Max # of
shapes electrons

Starts at
energy level

10

14

s block
p block

d block

f block

s1

s- block

s2

## Really have to include

helium.
Helium has the properties
of the noble gases.

s2

d1

d2

d3

d4

d5

d6

d7

d8

d9 d10

The p-block

p1 p2

p3

p4

p5

p6

f - block

1
2
3
4
5
6

## Each row (or period) is the energy

level for s and p orbitals.

## d orbitals fill up after previous energy

level so first d is 3d even though its in
row 4.
1
2
3
4
5

6
7

3d

2
3

4
5
6
7

4f

5f

## f orbitals start filling at 4f

Electron Configurations
Electron configurations represent
the way electrons are arranged in
atoms.
Aufbau principle - Electrons enter
the lowest energy first.

Electron Configurations
This causes difficulties because of
the overlap of orbitals of different
energies.
At most there can be only 2
electrons per orbital, and they must
have opposite spins.

Electron Configuration

## Hunds Rule - When electrons

occupy orbitals of equal energy,
they dont pair up with an electron
of opposite spin until they have to.

7s 7p 7d 7f
6s 6p 6d 6f
5s 5p 5d 5f
4s 4p 4d 4f
3s 3p 3d
2s 2p
1s

1s2
2 electrons

## Fill from the bottom up

following the arrows
7s 7p 7d 7f
6s 6p 6d 6f
5s 5p 5d 5f
4s 4p 4d 4f
3s 3p 3d
2s 2p
1s

1s2 2s2
4 electrons
total

## Fill from the bottom up

following the arrows
7s 7p 7d 7f
6s 6p 6d 6f
5s 5p 5d 5f
4s 4p 4d 4f
3s 3p 3d
2s 2p
1s

12 electrons
total

## Fill from the bottom up

following the arrows
7s 7p 7d 7f
6s 6p 6d 6f
5s 5p 5d 5f
4s 4p 4d 4f
3s 3p 3d
2s 2p
1s

3p6 4s2

20 electrons
total

## Fill from the bottom up

following the arrows
7s 7p 7d 7f
6s 6p 6d 6f
5s 5p 5d 5f
4s 4p 4d 4f
3s 3p 3d
2s 2p
1s

5s2
38 electrons
total

## Fill from the bottom up

following the arrows
7s 7p 7d 7f
6s 6p 6d 6f
5s 5p 5d 5f
4s 4p 4d 4f
3s 3p 3d
2s 2p
1s

3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6
5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2

56 electrons
total

## Fill from the bottom up

following the arrows
7s 7p 7d 7f
6s 6p 6d 6f
5s 5p 5d 5f
4s 4p 4d 4f
3s 3p 3d
2s 2p
1s

## 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6
5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2
4f14 5d10 6p6 7s2

88 electrons
total

## Fill from the bottom up

following the arrows
7s 7p 7d 7f
6s 6p 6d 6f
5s 5p 5d 5f
4s 4p 4d 4f
3s 3p 3d
2s 2p
1s

## 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6
5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2
4f14 5d10 6p6 7s2
5f14 6d10 7p6

108 electrons
total

Electron Configuration

## Lets determine the electron

configuration for phosphorus.

## The atomic number of

phosphorus is 15, so we need to
account for 15 electrons.

Electron Configuration
7s 7p 7d 7f
6s 6p 6d 6f
5s 5p 5d 5f
4s 4p 4d 4f
3s 3p 3d
2s 2p
1s

## 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3

15
2 electrons
4
12
electrons
The 4s sublevel
does not need to be
used to get the 15
electrons.

Electron Configuration

## Lets determine the electron

configuration for chromium.

## The atomic number of chromium

is 24, so we need to account for
24 electrons.

Electron Configuration
7s 7p 7d 7f
6s 6p 6d 6f
5s 5p 5d 5f
4s 4p 4d 4f
3s 3p 3d
2s 2p
1s

## 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d4

24
2 electrons
4
12
20
electrons
The 4p and 5s
sublevels do not need
to be used to get the
24 electrons.

Question

aluminum (Al).

Question

neon (Ne).

Question

calcium (Ca).

Question

iron (Fe).

Question

bromine (Br).

Example

## Identify the element with the

following electron configuration:
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

together and find the element with
that atomic number.

Example

## 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

2 + 2 + 6 + 1 = 11

Question

## Identify the element with the

following electron configuration:
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4

(sulfur - S)

Question

## Identify the element with the

following electron configuration:
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d9

(copper - Cu)

Question

## Identify the element with the

following electron configuration:
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p2

(germanium - Ge)

## Electron Configuration Using a

Noble Gas Abbreviation

## In order to write this type of

configuration, find the noble gas
(from Group 8A) that comes
before the element in question.

## Electron Configuration Using a

Noble Gas Abbreviation

## Put the symbol for the noble gas

in brackets and then write the part
of the configuration that follows to
reach the desired element.

Example

## Write the electron configuration

using a noble gas abbreviation for
magnesium (Mg).

## Neon is the noble gas that

proceeds magnesium.

Example

[Ne]

## Now use the periodic table to

determine the rest of the
configuration.

s block

p block

2
3

d block

4
5
6
7

f block
Neonnoble
The
is in light
gas configuration
electron
blue; magnesium
configuration
is 3s2is.
in bright
for
magnesium
yellow. is: [Ne] 3s2

Example

## Write the electron configuration

using a noble gas abbreviation for
nickel (Ni).

proceeds nickel.

Example

[Ar]

## Now use the periodic table to

determine the rest of the
configuration.

s block

p block

2
3

d block

4
5
6
7

f block
Argon
The
noble
is ingas
lightconfiguration
electron
blue; nickel
configuration
is
is in
4s2 3d8.
bright
(Remember
for
nickel
yellow.
is: you
[Ar] subtract
4s2 3d8 1 from the d
sublevel row number.)

Question

## Write the electron configuration

using a noble gas abbreviation for
fluorine (F).

Question

## Write the electron configuration

using a noble gas abbreviation for
silicon (Si).

Question

## Write the electron configuration

using a noble gas abbreviation for
zirconium (Zr).

## ([Kr] 5s2 4d2)

Valence Electrons

## The electrons in the outermost energy

level are called valence electrons.

## You can also use the periodic table as

a tool to predict the number of valence
electrons in any atom in Groups 1, 2,
13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18.

Valence Electrons

## All atoms in Group 1, like

hydrogen, have one valence
electron. Likewise, atoms in
Group 2 have two valence
electrons.

Valence Electrons

## All atoms in Group 13 have three

valence electrons.

## All atoms in Group 14 have four

valence electrons.

## All atoms in Group 15 have five

valence electrons.

Valence Electrons

## All atoms in Group 16 have six

valence electrons.

## All atoms in Group 17 have seven

valence electrons.

## All atoms in Group 18 have eight

valence electrons, except helium
which only has two.

Valence Electrons

## All atoms in sublevels d and f

have 2 valence electrons.

Question

## How many valence electrons

does each of the following
elements have?
a) carbon (C)

(4)

b) bromine (Br)

(7)

Question
c) iron (Fe)

(2)

d) potassium (K)
e) aluminum (Al)

(1)
(3)

## Because valence electrons are so

important to the behavior of an
atom, it is useful to represent them
with symbols.

## A Lewis dot diagram illustrates

valence electrons as dots (or other
small symbols) around the chemical
symbol of an element.

## Each dot represents one valence

electron.
In the dot diagram, the elements
symbol represents the core of
the atomthe nucleus plus all
the inner electrons.

## Put one dot for each

valence electron.

## Dont pair electrons up

until you have to.

Question
Write a Lewis dot diagram for
chlorine.

Question
Write a Lewis dot diagram for
calcium.

Question
Write a Lewis dot diagram for
potassium.