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FUNCTIONS

Trigonometric Functions
Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle:
CCSS.Math.Content.HSF.TF.A.2
Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of
trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of
angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle.

This means students will know and be able to explain how radian measures of
angles rotated counterclockwise in a unit circle are in a one-to-one
correspondence with the nonnegative real numbers, and that angles rotated
clockwise in a unit circle are in a one-to-one correspondence with the nonpositive real numbers.

Example :what is sin ( 30 ° ) ?

CCSS.Math.Content.HSF.TF.A.3
(+) Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine,
tangent for π/3, π/4 and π/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine,
cosine, and tangent for x, π + x, and 2π - x in terms of their values for x, where x is
any real number.

This means students will know and be able to Use 30º-60º-90º and 45º-45º90º triangles to determine the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for values
of

π π ,∧π
,
.
3 4 6
Example:

CCSS.Math.Content.HSF.TF.A.4
(+) Use the unit circle to explain symmetry (odd and even) and periodicity of
trigonometric functions.

This means students will know and be able to use the unit circle and
periodicity to find values of sine, cosine, and tangent for any value of 0, such
as

π + 0,2 π +0,

where 0 is a real number. Use the values of the

trigonometric functions derived from the unit circle to explain how
trigonometric functions repeat themselves. Use the unit circle to explain that
f(x) is an even function if f(-x) = f(x), for all x, and an odd function if f(-x) =
-f(x). Also know that an even function is symmetric about the y-axis

Example :isthe sine function odd∨even ?

Model periodic phenomena with trigonometric functions:
CCSS.Math.Content.HSF.TF.B.5
Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

This means students will know and be able to use sine and cosine to model
periodic phenomena such as the ocean’s tide or the rotation of a Ferris wheel.
Given the amplitude; frequency; and midline in situations or graphs,
determine a trigonometric function used to model the situation.

Example :find the amplitude , period ,∧equation of axis of this sine function :

CCSS.Math.Content.HSF.TF.B.6

(+) Understand that restricting a trigonometric function to a domain on which it is
always increasing or always decreasing allows its inverse to be constructed.

This means students will know and be able to know that the inverse for a
trigonometric function can be found by restricting the domain of the function
so it is always increasing or decreasing.

´ . Find the value of x ∈degrees :sin ( x ) = √ 2
Example : x is an ange
2

CCSS.Math.Content.HSF.TF.B.7
(+) Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in modeling
contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them in terms of
the context.*

This means students will know and be able to use the inverse of
trigonometric functions to solve equations that arise in real-world contexts.
Also, Use technology to evaluate the solutions to the inverse trigonometric
functions, and interpret their meaning in terms of the context.

Example : How many values of θ ( 0 ≤ θ<2 π ) are solutions ¿this equation:
sin ( θ )=−2 0,1∨2 ?
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.IF.C.7.E
Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior,
and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.

This means students will know and be able to, when given Exponential and
logarithmic functions, show intercepts and end behavior. And with
trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.

Example : Find the amplitude of this graph of sin ( x ) :

Prove and apply trigonometric identities:
CCSS.Math.Content.HSF.TF.C.8
Prove the Pythagorean identity sin2(θ) + cos2(θ) = 1 and use it to find sin(θ), cos(θ),
or tan(θ) given sin(θ), cos(θ), or tan(θ) and the quadrant of the angle.

This means students will know and be able to use the unit circle to prove the
2
2
Pythagorean identity sin ( θ ) +cos ( θ )=1 . Given the value of the sin (θ) or cos

(θ), use the Pythagorean identity
trigonometric ratios.

Example : If sin(θ)=

2
2
sin ( θ ) +cos ( θ )=1

to calculate other

12
∧0 ° <θ<90 ° , what is csc(θ)?
13

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(+) Prove the addition and subtraction formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent and
use them to solve problems

This means students will know and be able to prove the addition and
subtraction formulas

sin ( α ± β ) , cos ( α ± β ) ,∧tan ( α ± β ) . Also, use the addition

and subtraction formulas to determine exact trigonometric values such as

π

sin(75º) or cos( 12

¿.

Example :What is sin ( 30° ) +sin ( 60 ° )=sin ( 90 ° ) ?

GEOMETRY
Similarity, Right Triangles, & Trigonometry
Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles:
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Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the
angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles.

This means students will know and be able to use a corresponding angle of
similar right triangles, show that the relationships of the side ratios are the
same, which leads to the definition of trigonometric ratios for acute angles

Example :find the sine of ∡ A

CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.C.7
Explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary
angles.

This means students will know and be able to explore the sine of an acute
angle and the cosine of its complement and determine their relationship.

Example :sin x=0.9 .What iscos ( 90 °−x ) ?

CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.C.8
Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in
applied problems.*

This means students will know and be able to apply both trigonometric ratios
and Pythagorean Theorem to solve application problems involving right
triangles.
Example: A hummingbird's nest is 15 meters high in a tree and a
flower is on the ground 8 meters away from the base of the tree. How
far will the hummingbird need to fly to get from its nest to the flower?

Apply trigonometry to general triangles:
CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.D.9
(+) Derive the formula A = 1/2 ab sin(C) for the area of a triangle by drawing an
auxiliary line from a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side.

This means students will know and be able to For a triangle that is not a right
triangle, draw an auxiliary line from a vertex, perpendicular to the opposite
side and derive the formula,

1
A= ab sin ⁡( C ) , for the area of a triangle,
2

using the fact that the height of the triangle is,

Example :

h=a sin ⁡( C ) .

CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.D.10
(+) Prove the Laws of Sines and Cosines and use them to solve problems.

This means students will know and be able to use trigonometry and the
relationship among sides and angles of any triangle, such as sin(C) = (h/a),
prove the Law of Sines. Using trigonometry and the relationship among sides
and angles of any triangle and the Pythagorean Theorem to prove the Law of
Cosines. Also use the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to solve problems.

Example :usingthe Law of Sines find v :

CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.D.11
(+) Understand and apply the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find unknown
measurements in right and non-right triangles (e.g., surveying problems, resultant
forces).

This means students will know and be able to understand and apply the Law
of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find unknown measures in right triangles.
Also, understand and apply the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find
unknown measures in non-right triangles.

Example :