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2


2009
1

.., ..
51(075.8)
22.173
48


( 14/18.2 516 10.03.2005)
:
. . + ,
;
. . + ,
.

. ., . .
48 : .
2+ . .: , 2009. 594 .
ISBN 978-966-364-928-3


.
, , +
.

ISBN 978-966-364-928-3
2

. ., . ., 2009.
, 2009.





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3

.., ..

+
+
,
,
.

.. +
+ +
.

I.

.
1.1. ,
1.1.1.
A

(aij )mun m u n ,

m n .

a11

a21
...

am 1

a12
a22
...
am 2

a1n

... a2 n
.
... ...

... amn
...

, +
: A
: A

aij

mu n

, +

[aij ]mun .

n u n
n . 11, 22, ... , nn
.
, , +
() :
det A, dA,

A , 'A .

, ,
, +
:

0
0

...
0

0 ... 0

0 ... 0
0 1 ... 0 .

... ... ... ...


0 0 ... 1
0
1

.., ..

,
.
A (aij )mun B

(bij )mun ,

, .
O
O a11 O a12

Oa
O a22
O A 21
...
...

O a m 1 O am 2

... O a1n

... O a2 n
.
...
...

... O amn

, O ,
.
m u n
m u n , :
ij = ij + bij i j.
,
.
, :
= + (1),
+
. , +
.
A
C

(aij )mun B (bij )nuk

(cij )muk , ij +

j+ ,
n

cij

ip

bpj ( i 1, m ; j

1, k ).

p 1

+
:

AB z BA .
( , , ).
6

I.

:
1. + = + ;
2. ( + ) + = + ( + );
3. + = + = ;
4. + = , .
:
1. AB z BA ;
2. () = ();
3. = = ;
4. ( + ) = + ;
( + ) = + .
2
. n+ ,

An

A
A
...

A.

n

(aij )mun +

, AT

(aij )num , 

1.1.2.
1.1. :

2 2 1

3 ,
= 1 0
4 3 2

2 1 0

= 1 1 2 ,
3 2 4

1 2 1

= 2 1 0
1 1 3

+ , , 2, , .
.

4 3 1
2 2 1
2 1 0

3 + 1 1 2 = 2 1 5 ;
+ = 1 0
7 1 6
4 3 2
3 2 4

.., ..
T

2 1 4
2 2 1

3 = 2 0 3 ;
= 1 0
0 3 2
4 3 2

1 2 1 1 2 1

= = 2 1 0 2 1 0 =
1 1 3 1 1 3

1 1  2 2  1(1) 1 2  2 1  1 1 1(1)  2 0  1 3

2 2  1 1  0 1 2(1)  1 0  0 3 =
= 2 1  1 2  0(1)
1 1  1 2  3(1) 1 2  1 1  3 1 1(1)  1 0  3 3

6 3 4

= 4 5 2 ;
2 2 10

2 2 1 2 1 0

3 1 1 2 =
= 1 0
4 3 2 3 2 4

4  2  3 2  2  2 0  4  4 3 2 0

= 2  0  9 1  0  6 0  0  12 = 11 7 12 ;
8  3  6 4  3  4 0  6  8 11 11 2

2 1 0 2 2 1

3 =
= 1 1 2 1 0
3 2 4 4 3 2

I.

4  1  0 4  0  0 2  3  0 5 4 1

2  0  6 1  3  4 = 9 4 0 .
= 2 1 8
8  3  16 6  0  12 3  6  8 24 6 11

, AB z BA .
+
.
1.2. , +
.

5 4

S = (sij) = 3 1 ,
2 3

sij + , +
j+ .
90
120 .
8, 5 10 . .
V, ,
.
.

90
. +
120

S , :

5 4
5 90  4 120
930

90

V = SP = 3 1
= 3 90  1 120 = 390 .
2 3 120 2 90  3 120
540

, 930,
390 540 , +
.
9

.., ..


Q = 8 5 10 . :

930

= QV = 8 5 10 390 = 8 930 5 390 10 540 = (14700).


540

,
, .

1.1.3.
1.3.

1 1 6
=
,
2 3 4

7 4

= 8 1 ,
3 2

1 0 1

= 3 1 2
0 2 3

2 3, +, .
1.4.

2 1
,
1 1

3 2 4
,
0 1 8

1 0 1

2 3 7

2 3, ( + ), + 2.
1.5.

3 4 5

= 1 1 0 ,
2 1 6

2 3 4

2 ,
= 0 1
1 1 1

1 1 3

= 2 4 6
4 2 2

4 3 + , + , , , + 2.
1.6. ,
:

10

I.

4

3
) 1 2 3 4 ;
2

1

1 2
1 0 2

)
1 3 ;
3 5 4 4 2

2 1

1 1 2
) 3 4
.
1 2 0 4 3

1 3 2 5
;

6 2 3 1

1.7.
, . +

10 12 9
,
6 8 4

S = (sij) =

sij + , +
j+ .
200 ,
100 120 +
. +
2 4 . V,
,
.
1.8. +
, +
. 10 ,
15 . +
6 . 5 . , +
1200 ,
480 .
, +

?

11

.., ..

1.9. M,
N, P , .
+
:




M
N
P
M
N
P
150
240
320
280
300
450
100
130
175
120
150
170
25
15
20
30
20
18


?
1.10.
,
):


1
2
3
4
1
3
0,5
2
1,5
2
3
1
2
1
1
0,5

1, 2
3 +
: 1 = 10, 2 = 2, 3 = 8, 4 = 4.

12

I.

1.2.
1.2.1.
' ()
:

'

a11 a12
a21 a22

a11a22  a21a12 .

(1.1)

11, 12, 21, 22 , +


,
, . ,
11 22, ,
, 12 21, . ,
+
.
, ,
:

a11
'

a12

a21 a22
a31 a32

a13
a23 = 112233 + 213213 + 311223 312213
a33
122133 112332.

(1.2)

. +
+
. +
:

R
R
R

R
R
R

R
R
R

R R R
R R R
R R R
13

.., ..

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1. ,
,
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2. (
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.
3. +
, .
4. (),
. (+
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5. ()
,
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() .
6. ()
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:
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).
7. ,
()
(), .
' (1.2)  j+ +
, ij,
, ij ij. 
ij ij ' (1.2)
, +
:
(1.3)
ij = (1)i+j ij .
.
8.
() .
' (1.2)
, :
14

I.

' = 1111 + 1212 + 1313=11

+ 13

a21
a31

a22
a32

a22
a32

a23
a
12 21
a33
a31

a23
+
a33
(1.4)

1.2.2.
1.11.

3 7

' = 1 2 3 .
4 2 11
. :
) +
( 8).

' = 3131 + 3232 + 3333 = 4(1)3+1

+ (11)3+3

7 5
3 5
+ 2(1)3+2
+
1 3
2 3

3 7
= 4 1((7)3 5(2)) + 2(1)(3 3 5 1) +
1 2

+ (11)1((3(2) (7)1) = 44 8 11 = 63.


) (
, ( ),
).
, 2,

, 3.
, 7, .

15

.., ..

3 7 5
3 7  3 2 5  3(3)
3 1 4
0 =
3  1(3) = 1 0
' = 1 2 3 = 1 2  1 2
4 2 11
4 10 23
4 2  4 2 11  4(3)
= 2121 + 2222 + 2323 = 121 + 022 + 023 = 1(1)2+1

1 4
+
10 23

+ 0 + 0 = 1(23 + 40) = 63.


1.12.

1 2
'= 1 4

3
7 .

2 6 13
. ,
.
.
,
2 .

1 2
'= 1 4

3
1 2 3
7 = 0 2 4.
2 6 13
0 2 7

, :

1 2

1 2 3

1 2 3

'= 1 4 7 = 0 2 4 = 0 2 4
2 6 13
0 0 3
0 2 7

1 2 3

6.

1.13.

'=

16

3 0
1 2
2 4

1 2
1
0
1

5
.
3
6

I.

. , +

1 2 1
4 2 0
'=
1 2 0
1 2 0

2
7
.
3
8

1 2
0 2
'=
0 2

1
4
1

2
7
.
3

0 2 1 8

:

1
0
'=
0
0

2
2
0
0

1 2
1
4 7
0
=
5 10 5 3 0
3 15
0

2
2
0
0

1
4
1
1

2
7
.
2
5

, :

' = 5 3

1 2 1 2
0 2 4 7
0 0 1 2
0 0 0 3

(5 3) 1 2 1 3

90 .

17

.., ..

1.2.3.
1.14. 1.28. .

25

1.14. 1 2

2.
13 7 4

1.15. 3

11

2
1.18. 2 10 5 .
4 1 3

1.17. 1

5
4

2
4

0 3 .
7 11 2

1.23. 1

4
1.26. 4

4 1 .
5 2

1 2 3
7
1 . 1.21. 9 5 7 .
8 4 3
3
5

2 3 .

20 3
1.20. 5 6

18

1.24. 14

6
6

1 4
3 0.
2 1
4

2 . 1.27. 12 3 1 .
11 6
6 0 1
0

7
1.16. 3

8 3

1 4.
6 5

1.19. 7 12

1
5 .

2 3 2

2 1
4 8 .
9 2 3
3

1.22. 7

1 2 3
1.25. 2
8 15 .
1 3 6
1

2 3

1.28. 2 9

4 .
1 3

I.

1.3.
1.3.1.
r,
r, , (r + 1)
, .

1 4 2

1.29. = 2 5 4 .
3 1 6

. , ,
. :

'

1 4 2
det A 2 5 4

0,

3 1 6

1 4
z 0 . +
2 5

, r(A) = 2.

4 5 7 2 8

1.30. = 1 4 3 8 1 .
2 3 5 7 1

. 3 u 5 ,

4 5 7
3. 1 4 3

14 z 0 . ,

2 3 5
r(A) = 3.

19

.., ..

+
:
1. ,
.
2. .
3. +
.
4.
, .
, ,
. ,
.

2 3 5 3 2
1.31. = 3 4 3 1 3 .

5 6 1 3 5
. 2,
( ):

1 3 2 5 2 3 2 1

~ 3 4
1 3 .
3

5 6
1
3
5

, +
3 5, :

52
3 2 1
1 3 2

~ 0 1 2  9 2
7 2 0 .

0  3 2  27 2 21 2 0

, 3.

1 3 2 5 2 3 2 1

1 3 2 5 2 3 2  1
~ 0 1 2  9 2 7 2 0 ~
.
0 1 2  9 2 7 2 0

0
0
0
0

r(A) = 2.
20

I.

, ,
. , +
. , , :

,
.
.

1 0 1 2
1.32. = 2 1 1 0 .

1 1 1 1

. ,
,
, +
,
, (2).

1 0 0 0

~ 2 1 1 4 .
1 1 0 1

, +
, +
, 4.

1 0 0 0
~ 0 0 1 0 .

0 1 0 1

, , .
.

1 0 0 0
~ 0 0 1 0 .

0 1 0 0

, r(A) = 3.
21

.., ..

1.3.2.
1.33. 1.42. .

22

2 1 3 1
1.33. 1 2 2 3 .

3 3 1 4

2 3 1
1.34. 1 1 1 .

3 2 1

1 1 1 1
1.35. 2 0 1 3 .

3 1 2 2

1 1 2

5 1 7
1.36.
4 1 1

10 1 10

2
.
1

3
1.37.
4

2 4 3

5 6 4
.
5 2 3

8 24 19

1 2 1 0

1.38. 4 3
7 11 .

5 1 6 11

0
1.39. 1

1
2

2 1
1 2
2 1
3 1
5 0

0 4 10 1

4 8 18 7
1.40.
.
10 18 40 17

1 7 17 3

0
1.41.
2

0
1
1
1

2
0
0
0

3
0 .

1
1
0
1
2
1

0
.
1

1 2 3 4 5

0 0 2 .
0 3 6 8 8

1.42. 2 1

I.

1.43. , +

1 0 2 1

= 3 0 1 2 .
4 0 3 1

1.44. ,

1 1 2

5 1 7
=
4 1 1

10 1 10

3
2
1
6

1
.
1

23

.., ..

1.4.
1.4.1.
1 ,
1 = 1 = .
, +
.

A1

A11
| A|

A12

| A|
...

A1n
| A|

An1
A21
...
| A|
| A|

An 2
A22
...

| A|
| A | .
... ... ...

A2 n
Ann
...
| A|
| A |

,
,
, +
.

: ++
X 1,
, + ,
= 1.

1.4.2.
1.45. 1,

2 5 1

= 3 3 4 .
1 2 3

24

I.

. +
.

1
det A 3 3 4 = 68.
1 2 3
2

'

11 = (1)1+1

3 4
= 17;
2 3

21 = (1)2+1

5 1
= 17;
2 3

31 = (1)3+1

5 1
= 17;
3 4

12 = (1)1+2

3 4
= 5;
1 3

22 = (1)2+2

2 1
= 7;
1 3

32 = (1)3+2

2 1
= 11;
3 4

13 = (1)1+3

3 3
= 9;
1 2

23 = (1)2+3

2 5
= 1;
1 2

33 = (1)3+3

2 5
= 21.
3 3

17 17 17
1

=
5
7
11 .
68
1 21
9
1

1 , :

2 5 1
17 17 17
1

7 11 =
) 5
= 3 3 4 (
1 2 3 68 9
1 21

25

.., ..

1
=
68

2(17)  5(5)  1 9 2(17)  5 7  11 2 17  5(11)  1(21)

3(17)  3(5)  4 9 3(17)  3 7  4 1 3 17  3(11)  4(21) =


1(17)  2(5)  3 9 1(17)  2 7  3 1 117  2(11)  3(21)

1
=
68

34  25  9 34  35  1 34  55  21

51  15  36 51  21  4 51  33  84 =
17  10  27 17  14  3 17  22  63

68

0
1 0 0

68 0 = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1
0 68

1
0
=
68
0

1.46. 1,

2 3 2

= 1 2 3 .
3 4 1

2 3

'

det A

1 2 3 = 4 + 8 27 12 3 + 24 = 6 z 0,
3 4 1

1.
.
11 = (1)1+1

26

2 3
4

= 14;

12 = (1)1+2

1 3
3

= 10;

13 = (1)1+3

1 2
= 2;
3 4

21 = (1)2+1

3 2
= 5;
4 1

22 = (1)2+2

2 2
= 4;
3 1

23 = (1)2+3

2 3
= 1;
3 4

I.

31 = (1)3+1

3 2
= 13;
2 3

33 = (1)3+3

2 3
= 1.
1 2

32 = (1)3+2

2 2
= 8;
1 3

1
1 =
| A|

A11

A12
A
13

A21
A22
A23

A31
5 13
14

A32 =  1 10 4 8 .

A33
2
1
1


, 1 = , :

5 13 1 0 0
14
2 3 2

1

1 2 3 ( 6 ) 10 4 8 = 0 1 0 .
2 1
3 4 1
1 0 0 1

1.47. +
. 2 ,
3 .
4 . 5 . +
, 100 , 190
. +
, ( +
).
. 1 2
. +
:

2 x1  3 x 2 100 .

4 x1  5 x 2 190
. +
:
= ,
27

.., ..

x1
2 3
100
, =
, = x .
2
4 5
190

1. :
det =

2 3
= 10 12 = 2, 11 = 5, 12 = 4, 21 = 3, 22 = 2.
4 5

1 =

1
| A|

A11

A12

A21
1 5 3 5 2 3 2
=
=
.
A22
1
2 4 2 2

5 2 3 2 100 250  275 25


=

= .
1 190 200  190 10
2

1 = 25, 2 = 10.
, 25
10 .
, +
. +
(, ,
, ), +
.

1.4.3.
1.48. :

1 2
1.
.
3 4

28

2 2 3

2 .
2. 1 1
2 1 1

1 2 1

3. 1 3
2 .
5 2 4

I.

1 1 3

2 .
4. 3 2
1 1 5

4 1 3

5. 3 2
5 .

2 2 4

1 2 3
7. 1 3 5 .

1 2 4

1 2 1

8. 2 1 1 .
1 3 1

3 2 1
6. 2 1 2 .

1 3 1

1.49. , ,

1 1 2

= 1 1 2 .
1 1 4

, . 1 = .
1.50. :

3 1
4 0

=
.
1 2
5 2

29

.., ..

1.5.
1.5.1. n n
n n 1, 2, ..., n,
,
b1, b2, ..., bn:

a11 x1  a12 x 2  ...  a1n x n b1


a x  a x  ...  a x
b2
21 1
22 2
2n n

...
...
...
... .
...
an1 x1  an 2 x 2  ...  ann x n bn

(1.5)

(1.5), ,

'

a11

a12

... a1n

a21

a22

... a2 n

...
an1

...
an 2

... ...
... ann

z 0,

(1.6)

(1.5.) .
. .
. . '1 , +
(1.6)
(1.5). ' 2 +
, (1.6)
(1.5), ... , ' n
.
(1.5) :
1 =

30

'1
'
'
, 2 = 2 , ... , n = n .
'
'
'

(1.7)

I.

(1.7) . '

0,

'1 , ' 2 , ... , ' n , (1.5)


. '1 = ' 2 = ... = ' n = 0, (1.5)
.
. .

x1

x2
= ... ,

xn

b1

b2
= ...

bn

+ , (1.5)
:
= .
(1.8)
, :
(1.9)
1 = 1 = 1 = 1.
(1.9) :
(1.5), 1 ( ,
' z 0 ), .
(1.5), (1.9).
. . +
+
. . +
, (1.5) 11 z 0 ( 11 = 0,
, , 1
).
: +
11; 21,
31 , ,
.

31

.., ..

a
a
a
a
b1

x1  12 x 2  13 x 3  14 x 4  ...  1n x n

a11
a11
a11
a11
a11

a
a12
b
a21 ) x 2  ...  (a2 n  1n a21 ) x n b2  1 a21
0  (a22 
a11
a11
a11

.
...................................

a1n
a12
b1

0  (an 2  a an1 ) x 2  ...  (ann  a an1 ) x n bn  a an1

11
11
11
aij , bi :

x1  a12 x 2  ...  a1n x n b1

0  a22 x 2  ...  a2 n x n b2

.
...................................
0  a x  ...  a x b
n2 2
nn n
n

(1.10)

: (n 1) (1.10), +
, , +
(1.10) a22 ( a22 z 0 ),
a32 , a42 , ... , an 2 , , ... , n+
(1.10). :

x1  a12 x 2  ...  a1n x n b1

0  x 2  a23 x 3  ...  a2 n x n b2

0  0  a33 x 3  a34 x 4  ...  a3 n x n

...................................

0  0  an 3 x 3  an 4 x 4  ...  ann x n

aij , bi .
32

b2
bn

(1.11)

I.

, (1.11),
(1.5), :

x1  a12 x 2  ...  a1n x n b1

0  x 2  ...  a2 n x n b2

................................... .

0  0  0  ...  ann x n bn

(1.12)

1, 2, ..., n , +
. n. +
(1.12). n1 ..

1.5.2.
1.50. +
, .

2 x1  3 x 2  x 3 6,

3 x1  4 x 2  2 x 3 20,

5 x1  6 x 2  4 x 3 12.
.
. . ' , +
:

2 3
' = 3

5 6

1
2 = 2
4

3 4
3 2
4 2
(3)
+1
= 2(16
5 6
5 4
6 4

12) + 3(12 + 10) + (18 20) = 8 + 66 38 = 36.


'1 , ' 2 , ' 3 .

6

3

3

4 2 = 2 10 4 2 = 2 10 6 2 =
'1 = 20
12 6 4
6 6 4
6
0 4
33

.., ..

= (2)(6)

3 1
= 12(12 6) = 12 6 = 72.
6 4
6

' 2 = 3 20 2 = 2 3 10 2 = 2 3 10 2 =


5 12 4
5 6
4
11 14 0

2
= 2 7

4

0 = 2 1

11 14 0

7 4
7 2
= (2)(2)
=
11 14
11 7

= 4(49 22) = 4 27 = 108.

2 3

6

2 3

20 = (2) 3 4 10 = (2) 3 6 10 =


'3 = 3 4
5 6 12
5 6 6
5 0
6
= (2)(6)

2 3
= 12(2 6 5 3) = 12(3) = 36.
5 6

:
1 =

'n
'1
'2
72
108
36
=
= 2; 2 =
=
= 3; 3 =
=
= 1.
36
36
36
'
'
'

. .
:

2 3 1

= 3 4 2 .
5 6 4

:
11 =
34

4 2
= 4 4 (6)(2) = 16 12 = 4.
6 4

I.

12 =

13 =

3 4
= 3(6) 5 4 = 18 20 = 38.
5 6

21 =

22 =

2 3
5 6

= (2(6) 5(3)) = (12 + 15) = 3.

3 1
= (3)(2) 4 1 = 6 4 = 2.
4 2

32 =

33 =

3 1
= ((3)4 (6)1) = (12 + 6) = 6.
6 4

2 1
= 2 4 5 1 = 3.
5 4

23 =

31 =

3 2
= (3 4 5(2)) = (12 + 10) = 22.
5 4

2 1
= (2(2) 3 1) = (4 3) = 7.
3 2

2 3
= 2 4 3(3) = 8 + 9 = 17.
3 4

1 +
, +
.

4
36

22
1
= 
36

 38
36

6
36
3
36
3

36

2
36

7
.
36

17
36
35

.., ..

6

= 20 .
12

4
36
x1

22

= x 2 = 1 = 
36
x

3
 38
36

6
36
3
36
3

36

2
36 6

20 =
36
12
17
36

4(6)  6 20  2(12)

12(2  10  2) 6
3


36
36
2


(22)(6)  3 20  7(12) 12(11  5  7) 9
=
=
= 3 = 3 .
36
36


1
(38)(6)  (3)20  7(12) 12(19  5  17) 3


36
36
3


, 1 = 2; 2 = 3; 3 = 1.
. .
11, 2, 11 z 0.

3
1

x1  2 x 2  3 x 3 3,

3 x1  4 x 2  2 x 3 20,
5 x  6 x  4 x 12.
2
3
1

, 3, +
, 5:

36

I.

3
1

x1  x 2  x 3 3,

2
3

9
3

0  (4  ) x 2  (2  ) x 3 20  9,
2
2

15
5

0  (6  2 ) x 2  (4  2 ) x 3 12  15.

3
1

x1  2 x 2  3 x 3

7
17
x2  x3
0 
2
2

3
3

0  2 x2  2 x3

3,
29,
6.

2.

3
1

x1  2 x 2  3 x 3 3,

0  17 x 2  7 x 3 29,
0  3x  3x
6.
2
3

3
. ,
2 .

3
1

x1  2 x 2  3 x 3 3,

0  x 2  x 3 1,
0  17 x  7 x 29.
2
3

17 :
37

.., ..

3
1

x1  2 x 2  3 x 3 3,

0  x 2  x 3 2,
0    24 x 24.
3


3 = 1.

2 = 2 3 = 2 (1) = 2 + 1 = 3.

1 = 3 +
= 3 +

1
9
3
1
3
1
2 3 = 3 + 3 (1) = 3 +
+
=
2
2
2
2
2
2

10
= 3 + 5 = 2.
2

: 1 = 2; 2 = 3; 3 = 1.

, .
1.51. +
: , , .

2 x1  3 x 2  x 3

2 x1  x 2  3 x 3
3 x  2 x  x
2
3
1

0,
4,
2.

2 3 1
' = 2 1 3 =2

3 2 1

1 3
2 3
2 1
3
+1
= 2(1 1 2 3)
2 1
3 1
3 2

(2 1 3 3) + 1(2 2 3 1) = 2(5) 3(7) + 1 = 10 + 21 + 1 = 12.


38

I.

: '1 , ' 2 , ' 3 .

0 3 1

4 3
4 3
4 1
'1 = 4 1 3 = 0
3
+1
= 3(4 12 3) +
2 1
2 1
2 2
2 2 1
+ (4 22 1) = (3)(2) + 6 = 6 + 6 = 12.

2 0 1

4 3
2 3
2 4
'2 = 2 4 3 = 2
0
+1
= 2(4 1 2 3) +
2 1
3 1
3 2
3 2 1
+ (2 2 4 3) = 2(2) + (4 12) = 4 8 = 12.

2 3 0

1 4
2 4
2 1
'3 = 2 1 4 = 2
3
+0
= 2(1 22 4)
2 2
3 2
3 2
3 2 2
3(2 2 3 4) = 2(6) 3(8) = 12 + 24 = 12.
1, 2, 3.
1 =

12
12
12
'
'
'1
=
= 1; 2 = 2 = = 1; 3 = n =
= 1.
12
12
12
'
'
'

, 1 = 1, 2 = 1, 3 = 1.
. .
= 1,

2 3 0

= 2 1 4 , =
3 2 2

x1
0


4 , = x2 .
x
2

3

1 , det A= ' z 0 (
). ' =12 z 0, +
1. ij
.
39

.., ..

11 =

1 3
2 3
2 1
= 5; 12 =
= 7; 13 =
= 1;
2 1
3 1
3 2

21 =

31 =

3 1
2 1
2 3
= 1; 22 =
= 1; 23 =
= 5;
2 1
3 1
3 2

3 1
2 1
2 3
= 8; 32 =
= 4; 33 =
= 4.
1 1
2 3
2 1

x1

= x2
x
3

5
 12

7
1
= =
12

1
12

1
12
1

12
5
12


8
4 16

0 

12
12 12
0

4
4 8

4 = 0  =
12
12 12

4 2
20 8


0

12
12 12

1

1 .
1

, 1 = 1, 2 = 1, 3 = 1.
. . 1
, 2,
2 3 +
. :

3
1

x1  2 x 2  2 x 3 0,

0  2 x 2  2 x 3 4,

5
1
0  x 2  x 3 2.
2
2

2 , ,
2,

40

5
. :
2

I.

3
1

x1  2 x 2  2 x 3 0,

0  x 2  x 3 2,
0  0  3 x 3.
3

, 1 = 1, 2 = 1, 3 = 1.

1.5.3.
1.52. +
: , .

5 x1  x 2  x 3 5,

1. x1  x 2  x 3 3,
2 x  3 x  x 0.
2
3
1

3 x1  4 x 2  x 3 4,

2. 2 x1  3 x 2  x 3 1,

 x1  x 2  2 x 3 3.

3 x1  x 2  2 x 3

3. x1  2 x 2  x 3
2 x  3 x  x
2
3
1

5 x1  x 2  3 x 3 7,

4. x1  2 x 2  x 3 5,
2 x  3 x  2 x 4.
2
3
1

1,
1,
2.

2 x1  x 2  3 x 3 3,

5. x1  x 2  2 x 3 2,
 x  x  x 0.
2
3
1

4 x1  3 x 2  2 x 3 1,

6. 2 x1  x 2  3 x 3 1,
x  2 x  x 3.
2
3
1

2 x1  x 2  3 x 3 5,

7. x1  2 x 2  2 x 3 17,
x  x  3 x 4.
2
3
1

41

.., ..

1.5.4. m n
m n :

a11 x1  a12 x 2  ...  a1n x n b1


a x  a x  ...  a x b
21 1 22 2
2n n
2

.
...................................

am1 x1  am 2 x 2  ...  amn x n bm

(1.13)

. ,
(1.13.) , ,

a11

a21
= ...

am1

a1n

... a2 n
... ...

... amn

a12

...

a22
...
am 2

a11

a21
* = ...

am 1

a12

...

a22

... a2 n

...

...

am 2

a1n
...

... amn

b1

b2
... ,

bm

r(A) = r(A*).
:
1) r(A)
' = || z 0, ;
2) +
, .

42

I.

1.5.5.
1.53.

x1  x 2  3 x 3 1,
2 x  x  2 x 1,
1
2
3



x
x
x
3,
2
3
1
x1  2 x 2  3 x 3 1.
.

1 3

1 2
1 1

2 3

2
= 1

3.
, +
1, 2, 1 , +
:

0 1 0

0 3 4
~
.
0 1 4

1 2 3

0 3

0 1 4 = 8 z 0.
1 2 3
, r() = 3.
:

43

.., ..

2
* =
1

1 3 1 0 1 0 2 0 5 8 0

1 2 1 0 3 4 4 0 3 4 1
~
~
.
1 1 3 0 1 4 2 0 7 12 0

2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 0

, +
,
.

0 5 8 0
5 8 0
0 3 4 1
5 8
0 7 12 0 = 3 4 1 = 7 12 z 0.
7 12 0
1 1 1 0
, r(A*) = 4.
* ,
.
1.54. , .

x1  2 x 2  x 3 3,

x1  3 x 2  x 3 1,

3 x1  4 x 2  x 3 5.
.

1 2 1 1 2 1

= 1 3 1 ~ 2 1 0 .
3 4 1 4 2 0

1 2 1
2

, r() = 2.
44

2 1
= 0,
4 2

1 2
= 5 z 0.
2 1

I.

1 2 1 3

* = 1 3 1 1 .
3 4 1 5

, r(*) = 2.

.
,

1 2
z 0.
1 3

x1  2 x 2

x1  3 x 2

3  x3

1  x3

x2
x1

2
( x 3  1)
5
.
1
(11  x 3 )
5

1
5

: ( (11 3);

2
(3 1); 3).
5

1.55. ?

x1  x 2  3 x 3 1,
2 x  x  2 x 1,
1
2
3

x1  x 2  x 3 3,
x1  2 x 2  3 x 3 1.
.

2
=
1

1 3

1 2
1 1

2 3

3.
45

.., ..

, +
(1), (2), (1) ,
.

0 1 0

0 3 4
,

0 1 4

1 2 3
0 3
0 1
1

4
4 = 8 z 0.
3

, r() = 3.
.

2
* =
1

1
0
0
0
1

1 3 1
0 1 0 2

1 2 1
0 3 4 4
;
1 1 3  0 1 4 2

2 3 1
1 2 3 1

5 8 1
5 8 0
3 4 1
5 8
3 4 1 =
z 0.
7 12 0 =
7 12
7 12 0
1 1 0

, r(*) = 4.
* , .
1.56. ,
:

2 x1  3 x 2  x 3 0,

x1  x 2  x 3 0,

3 x1  2 x 2  2 x 3 0.
46

I.

. +
.

2 3 1
1 1 1

= 1 1 1  2 3 1 .
3 2 2
3 2 2

r() = 2 < n = 3, n .
. :

x1  x 2  x 3 0,

5 x 2  x 3 0,
1, 2 (), 3 .
,

x
x1  x 2  x 3 ,
1


5 x2  x3 ,

 x3 

x2

x3
4
 x3 ,
5
5
x3
 .
5

:
1 =

x3
4
3; 2 =
; 3 R.
5
5

3 = ,
.
1 =

4
C
; 2 = ;  R.
5
5

47

.., ..

1.5.6. .
,
, , .

4 x1  2 x 2  2 x 3  4 x 4 2,

1.57. 2 x1  x 2  x 3  2 x 4 1,
4 x  2 x  2 x  3 x 3.
2
3
4
1

7 x1  3 x 2 2,

1.58. x1  2 x 2 3,
4 x  9 x 11.
2
1

5 x1  x 2  2 x 3  x 4 7,

1.59. 2 x1  x 2  4 x 3  2 x 4 1,
x  3 x  6 x  5 x 0.
2
3
4
1

x1  8 x 2

1.60. 2 x1  x 2
4 x  7 x
2
1

x1  x 2  2 x 3  x 4  x5 1,

1.61. x1  5 x 2  9 x 3  8 x 4  x 5 0,
3 x  x  x  4 x  3 x 4.
2
3
4
5
1

x1  2 x 2 1,

1.62. 3 x1  x 2 4,
2 x  x 1.
2
1

2 x1  3 x 2  x 3  5 x 4
3 x  x  2 x  7 x
1
2
3
4
1.63. 4 x  x  3 x  6 x
2
3
4
1
x1  2 x 2  4 x 3  7 x 4

0,
0,
0,
0.

3,
1,
4.

x1  7 x 2  4 x 3 14,
2 x  x  x 5,

1
2
3
1.64.
x1  2 x 2  x 3 3,
x1  3 x 2  x 3 6.

x1  x 2  x 3 6,
2 x1  x 2  3 x 3  x 4 1,
2 x  x  x 3,

1
2
3
1.65. 4 x1  2 x 2  5 x 3  3 x 4 3,
1.66.
x1  x 2  2 x 3 5,
4 x  2 x  3 x  5 x 5.
1
2
3
4

3 x1  6 x 2  5 x 3 6.

4 x1  x 2  3 x 3 2,

1.67. 3 x1  x 2  2 x 3 3,
2 x  2 x  x 1.
2
3
1
48

4 x1  2 x 2  3 x 3 5,

1.68. 3 x1  4 x 2  2 x 3 1,
x  x  x 1.
1
2
3

I.

2 x1  x 2  2 x 3 3,

1.69. x1  3 x 2  x 3 2,
3 x  x  2 x 3.
2
3
1

2 x1  3 x 2  x 3 5,

1.70. x1  2 x 2  3 x 3 1,
3 x  2 x  2 x 4.
2
3
1

x1  2 x 2  x 3 12,

1.71. 2 x1  x 2  x 3 11,
x  3 x  x 15.
2
3
1
1.72. :

8 x1  3 x 2  4 x 3 0,

)  x1  x 2  x 3 0,

4 x1  x 2 0.

x1  2 x 2  4 x 3  3 x 4 0,
3x  5x  6x  4x
0,

1
2
3
4
)
4 x1  5 x 2  2 x 3  3 x 4 0,
3 x1  8 x 2  24 x 3  19 x 4 0.

49

.., ..

1.6.
1.6.1.
.
. .
,
.
(),
. a
a .
(,),
, .
a b , +
b a .
a + b a b ,
a ,

b (. 1.1).

a+b
b

a+b
b


. 1.1.

:
1) ()

a + b = b + a;
50

I.

2)
( a + b ) + c = a + ( b + c );
3) a ( a ), ,

a + ( a ) = 0 ;
4) a + 0 = a ;
5) + a b :
|a + b | d |a | + |b | ,
|a b | d |a | + |b | .
a M (. 1.2), ,
a
a = = | a | cos M ,

x1

ax x2
. 1.2.

(1.13)

(1.14)
= 2 1.

1( 1, 1, z 1),
2(2, 2, z2). = 2 1,
= 2 1, z = z2 z1
a , , z. +
.

a = {, , z}.
b = {b, b, bz},

a + b = {+b, +b, z+bz}.


a O O a , +
| O a | = | O || a |.
,
O , P a b :
51

.., ..

1) O ( P a ) = P ( O a ) = ( OP ) a ;
2) ( O  P ) a = O a + P a ;

(1.15)

3) O ( a + b ) = O a + O b .
+ a = {, , z}.
:

a = i + j + z k ,

M3

(1.16)

i , j , k , i ,

j , z k
a (. 1.3).

OM1 = OM 3 + M 3 M 2 + M 2 M1 =

M1
M2

= i + j + z k .

. 1.3.

1.73. : = {2; 1; 3} b = {3; 4; 5}.


2 a b .
. 2 a b = {2 2 3; 2(1) 4; 2 3 5} = {1; 6; 1}.
a b
:

a&b

ay az
ax
=
= .
by bz
bx

(1.17)

a b

a b , :
a b = | a | | b | cos ( a, b ).
:

a b = | a | b = | b | npb a .
52

(1.18)

I.

a b , +
:

a b = bx + ayby + azbz.

(1.19)

(1.18) (1.19),
a b :

cos ( a, b ) = cos M =

ab
ab

ax bx  ay by  az bz
ax2  ay2  az2 bx2  by2  bz2

. (1.20)

a A b , a b = 0 :
bx + ayby + azbz = 0 .
(1.21)
+
:
1) a b = b a ;
2) a ( b + c ) = a b + a c ;
3) O a b = O ( a b ) = a O b .
a b
c = a u b , :
1) c
: | c | = | a | | b | sin M ;
2) c a b ; c

3) c
a b ,
(. 1.4).

a
. 1.4.

, [ a u b ] = [ a u b ],
, a b ,
.
53

.., ..

a = {, , z}
b = {b, b, bz} :

c = a u b = ax

ay

bx

by

ay
az =
by
bz

az
bz

ax

az

bx

bz

ax
bx

ay
. (1.22)
by

a , b , c a b ,
c , [ a u b ] c .
a , b , c ,
, +
.
a = {, , z}, b = {b, b, bz},

c = {, , z}, :
ax

ay

az

[ a u b ] c = bx

by

cx

cy

bz .
cz

(1.23)

a , b , c +
(), [ a u b ] c = 0.
, +
:

54

ax

ay

az

bx

by

bz = 0.

cx

cy

cz

I.

1.6.2.
1.74. 1(3; 2; 1), 2(1; 0; 2),
3(2; 1; 0), 4(5; 7; 3). :
1) a , a = 2 M1 M 2 3 M 3 M 4 ;
2) M1 M 2 M 3 M 4 ;
3) b = M1 M 2 u M 3 M 4 ;
4) 1, 2, 3, 4.
.
1) (1.14)

M1 M 2 = {x2 x1; y2 y1; z2 z1} = {13; 02; 2(1)} = {4; 2; 3},


2 M1 M 2 = {8; 4; 6},

M 3 M 4 = {5(2); 7(1); 30} = {7; 8; 3},


3 M 3 M 4 = {21; 24; 9}.
a = 2 M1 M 2 3 M 3 M 4 = {821; 424; 69} = {29; 28; 9}.
2) M1 M 2 M 3 M 4
(1.20):

cos M =

M1 M 2 M 3 M 4
M1 M 2 M 3 M 4

28  16  9
16  4  9 49  64  9

(4) 7  (2) 8  3 3
(4)2  (2)2  32 72  82  32
=

35
29 122

| 0,588.

, M .
3) (1.22):

i
j k
2 3
4 2
4 3
b = 4 2 3 = i
j
+ k
=
8 3
7 8
7 3
7 8 3
55

.., ..

= i (6 24) j (12 21) + k (32 + 14) =


= 30 i + 33 j 18 k = {30; 33; 18}.
4) , +
, :

M1 M 2 = {4; 2; 3}, M1 M 3 = {5; 3; 1}, M1 M 4 = {4; 5; 4}.


4 2 3
1
1
1
19
5 3 1 =
=3 .
V = |[ a u b ] c | =
6
6
6
6
4 5 4
1.6.3.
1.75. a b : 1) 3 a ;
2) 2 a +

1
b.
3

1.76. | a | = 13; | b | = 19; | a + b | = 24. | a b |.


1.77. (3; 1; 2) (1; 2; 1). +
AB BA .
1.78. a = {2; 2; 1}, b = {6; 3; 2}. npa b , npb a .
1.79. a = i + 2 j + 3 k , b = 6 i + 4 j 2 k .
1.80. , +
a = i + 2 j + 2 k .
1.81. a b , | a | = 5
| b | = 12. | a + b | | a b |.
1.82. , p = b ( a c ) c ( a b ) +
a .
56

I.

1.83. a = 3 i 6 j k , b = i + 4 j 5 k , c =
= 3 i 4 j + 2 k . npc ( a + b ).
1.84. x , a = (6; 8; 7,5), +
Oz . , x = 50, +
.
1.85. a = 20 i + 30 j 60 k +
.
1.86. (3; 2; 3), (5; 1; 1) (1; 2; 1).
.
1.87. a b M = 2 3 S ;
| a | = 3, | b | = 4, : 1) (3 a 2 b )( a + 2 b ); 2) ( a b )2.
1.88. (1; 5; 10), (5; 7; 8), (2; 2; 7), D(3; 2; 6).
, AB CD .
, +
.
1.89. V (1; 2; 3), (4; 4; 4),
(2; 6; 4), D(2; 3; 6).

57

.., ..

1.7.
1.6.1.
x1

x2
+ X = ... z 0

xn
n ,

O , X = O X, (
O )X = 0.

n+ , +
+. , X z 0,
O :
(1.24)
det(A O E) = 0.
X, +
Oi , :

(a11  Oi ) x1  a12 x 2  ...  a1n x n 0,


a x  (a  O ) x  ...  a x 0,
21 1
i
22
2
2n n

......................................................
an1 x1  an 2 x 2  ...  (ann  Oi ) x n 0.

(1.25)

1.7.2.
1.90.

1 6
.
1 2

=
58

I.

. (1.24):

1 O
6
= 0, O 2  3O  4
1
2O

0,

, O1 = 4

O2 = 1. X1, O1 = 4,
(1.25)

(1  4) x1  6 x 2 0
,

x1  (2  4) x 2 0

3 x1  6 x 2 0
,

x1  2 x 2 0

1 = 22.
2 = t, 1 = 2t, 2 = t.
,

2
1

X1 = t.
X2, O2 = 1,
(1.25)

(1  1) x1  6 x 2 0
.

x1  (2  1) x 2 0
1 + 32 = 0;
2 = , 1 = 3, 2 = .
,

3
.
1

X2 =

, O1 = 4

2
1

3
(
1

O2 = 1 , X1 = X2 =
).

59

.., ..

1.91.

2 0 1

= 1 1 1 .
1 0 2

0 1

1 1 = 0.
1 0 2
1

:
(1 O )[(2 O )2 1] = 0,
(1 O )(1 O )(3 O ) = 0,
(1 O )2(3 O ) = 0,

O1 = O2 = 1, O3 = 3.
O1 = 1 , r = 2,

O3 = 3 , r = 2.
:

(2  O ) x1  x 3 0,

x1  (1  O ) x 2  x 3 0,
 x  (2  O ) x 0.
1
3

O1 O3 :
1) O1 = 1, r = 2:

x1  x 3 0,

x1  x 3 0, ^ x1  x 3 = 0 ,
 x  x
0.
3
1
60

^ x1

x3 .

I.

,
2, 3 2 = 1, 3 = 0; 2 = 0, 3 = 1:

0

X1 = 1 ;
0

1

X2 = 0 .
1

.
, O1 = 1 :

O1

0
1


= 1 1 + 0 2,
0
1

1, 2 R, |1| + |2| z 0.

2) O2 = 3, r = 1:

(2  O ) x1  x 3 0,
 x1  x 3 0,

x1  (1  O ) x 2  x 3 0, x1  2 x 2  x 3 0,
 x  (2  O ) x 0.
 x  x 0.
1
3
1
3

,
3 = 1:

x1 1,
x1 1,

x1  2 x 2 1, x 2 1,
x 1,
x 1,
3

O3

1

= 1 ,
1

1

X3 = 1 .
1

R, z 0.

61

.., ..

1.7.3.
:

1 1
.
2 4

1 2
.
2 1

1.92.

1.93.

3 2
1.94.
.
4 3

1 1 1
1.95. 0 1 0 .

1 1 1

1 2 2
1.96. 2 2 4 .

2 4 2

2 1 2

1.97. 5 3 3 .

1 0 2

1.98. , +
1.

62

I.

1.8.
1.6.1.
1, 2
(1, 2) = 11 x12 + 21212 + 22 x 22 ,
(1.26)
. +
21 = 12, (1.26) :
(1, 2) = 1(111+ 122) + 2(211 + 222),

(1.27)
= 11 + 22,

y1 a11 x1  a12 x 2
.
(1.28)

y2 a21 x1  a22 x 2
(1.28), (1.26) +

a11 a12
=
, ,
a21 a22
(1.26).
, (1.26)
:
(1, 2) = O1 y12 + O2 y22 ,

(1.29)

1, 2 , 1, 2 (1.28);

O1 , O2 .
(1.29) ,
(1.26).
(X),
a11

a21
= ...

an1

a12
a22
...
an 2

... a1n

... a2 n
... ... ,

... ann

x1

x2
X = ... ,

xn

X =(1, 2, ... , n).


63

.., ..

:
(X) = XX.
(1.30)
(X) ,
X z 0 (X)>0,
, X z 0
(X) t 0.
(X) , (X)
. (X)
,
.

1.8.2.
1.99.
1(X) = (1, 2, 3) = x12 + 2 x 22 + 3 x 32
.

2(X) = (1, 2, 3) = (1 2)2 + (2 3)2
.

3(X) = (1, 2, 3) = x12 + x 22 x 32
.

4(X) = (1, 2) = 3 x12 + 412 2 x 22
.
1.100. ,

42 + 24 + 112 = 20.
. 42+2 12+112=20,
11 = 4, 12 = 21= 12, 22 = 11.

4 12
=
+
12 11
.
64

I.

4O
12
= 0, O 2 15 O 100 = 0.
12 11  O
O1 = 20, O2 = 5 . ,
20( x c )2 5( y c )2 = 20,

( x ')2 ( y ')2

=1. .
1
4
(1.30) +
.
1.101.
172+12+8220=0.
. +

17 6
.
6 8

172+12+82. =

O1 = 5, O2 = 20. , +
172+12+82 5( x c )2 +
+20( y c )2, 5( x c )2 + 20( y c )2 20 = 0,

( x ')2 ( y ')2
+
= 1. .
1
4
1.8.3.
:
1.102. x12  2 x1 x 2  2 x 22  4 x 2 x 3  5 x 32 .
1.103. x12  4 x1 x 2  2 x1 x 3  4 x 22  x 32 .
1.104. x1 x 2  x 2 x 3  x 3 x1 .
1.105. x12  2 x1 x 2  2 x1 x 3  2 x1 x 4  x 22  2 x 2 x 3  4 x 2 x 4  x 32  2 x 42 .
1.106. x12  x1 x 2  x 3 x 4 .
65

.., ..

1.9.

1.9.1.
1.107.
M, N, P , . +
+
:

M
150
100
25




N
P
M
N
240 320 280 300
130 175 120 150
15
20
30
20

P
450
170
18


?
. , ,
,
:

150 240 320

= 100 130 175 ;


25 15 20

280 300 450

= 120 150 170 .


30 20 18

, ,
:

430 540 770

= + = 220 280 345 .


55 35 38

1.108. +
, +
( ):
66

I.



1
2
3
4
1
3
0,5
2
1,5
2
3
1
2
1
1
0,5

1, 2
3, +
: 1 = 10; 2 = 2; 3 = 8; 4 = 4.
. , +
( = 1, ..., 4)
Y = X,

y1

y2
Y = ;
y3

y4

1 3 0,5 2

1 ;
= 1,5 2 3
2 1 1 0,5

1

2
X = ( ).
3

4
10

2
X = Y = X :
8

4
67

.., ..

y1
10
1 3 0,5 2 28
2
y2
1 = 47 ,
Y = y = 1,5 2 3
8
3
2 1 1 0,5 32
4
y4
+
28 , 47 , 32
.
1.109. +
1, 2, 3:

1
2
3

0,5
0,3
0,1

0,5
0
0
0,2
0,1
0,2

D
0
0,1
0,5

1. , 5
1, 10 2 8 3?
2.
10, 20, 25 50 . .
.
3. , . 1.
. : = (5 10 8), 1
+ , = 1,3 ;

0
0,5 0,5 0

= 0,3 0 0,2 0,1 ,


0,1 0,1 0,2 0,5

bij j

+ , j = 1,4 ;

10

20
= , j1 j+ .
25

50
68

I.

d11

d 21
1. D = d ,
31

d 41

dj1 j+ ,

. = D.

2,5  3  0,8 6,3

0

0,5 0,5 0

2,5  0,8 3,3


D = (5 10 8) 0,3 0 0,2 0,1 =
2  1,6 = 3,6 .
0,1 0,1 0,2 0,5

1 4

5
f11

2. F = f21 , fi1 +
f
31
= 1,3 . F = .

10
0
5  10
0,5 0,5 0
15

20

F = 0,3 0 0,2 0,1 = 3  5  5 = 13 .
25
1  2  5  25
0,1 0,1 0,2 0,5
33

50

3. S ,
. 1.
S = AF.

15

S = (5 10 8) 13 = 75 + 130 + 264 = 469.
33

1.110. +
200 , 260 290 .
69

.., ..


1
2
3
3
2
1
1
6
2
4
1
5

.
, +
, . +
. ,
.
. 1, 2, 3 ,
, .
1 31 +
, 22, 3.
31 + 22 + 3 +
200,
31 + 2 2 + 3 = 200.
:
1 + 62 + 23 = 260,
41 + 2 + 53 = 290,
1, 2, 3 ,
.

3 x1  2 x 2  x 3 200,

x1  6 x 2  2 x 3 260,
4 x  x  5 x
290.
2
3
1

, , .
.

x1  6 x 2  2 x 3

3 x1  2 x 2  x 3
4 x  x  5 x
2
3
1
70

260,
200,
290.

I.

1 6 2 260
1 6
2 260

3 2 1 200  0 16 5 580 


0 23 3 750
4 1 5 290

1 6

2
260

5
580
 0 16

23
23
0 0 3  5
750  580
16
16

1 6 2 260

 0 16 5 580 .
0 0 1 20

x1  6 x 2  2 x 3 260,

16 x 2  5 x 3 580,

x 3 20.

x1

x2

x 3

260  6 30  2 20
580 5
 20
16 16
20.

40,

30,

, 1 = 40, 2 = 30, 3 = 20.


1.111. ,
, yt = a + bqt + c qt2 , yt ,
qt t.
, qt, yt :
t
1
2

qt
10
20

yt
100
150

1. +

(a b c)T = yt,
= (1 qt qt2 ),
, b, c .
71

.., ..

2. , +
. 1 .
. :
2
t )

(1 qt q

a

b = yt.
c


(1 10 100) b 100,

(1 20 400) b 150.

a  10b  100c 100,

a  20b  400c 150.


:

1 10 100 100 1 10 100 100


.
1 20 400 150 0 10 300 50

2. . , n = 3, +
:
a  10b  100c 100,
a

10b  300c 50.

a 50  200c,

b 5  30c,

c R.

72

10(5  30c)  100  100c,

b 5  30c.

I.

2.
t = (200c + 50) + (5 30c)qt + c qt2 .

1.9.2.
, ,
.
,
:
n , +
? , +
, ,
, .
, +
, , ,
1936 . ..
.
, n ,
. +
+ ,
(
) .
, , .
: i ()
+ ( = 1, n ); ij  , +
j+ (, j = 1, n );
+ .
+ +
, n , +
n

, i =

ij

 yi , = 1, n .

j 1

. +
, , ,
.
73

.., ..

:
ij =

x ij
xj

, , j = 1, n ,

+
j+ . ,
ij +
, .
, ij = ijj, , j = 1, n .

.

n

i =

ij

x j  yi , = 1, n .

j 1

x1
a11

x2
a21

=
,

=
O ...
...

xn
an1

a12
a22

...
an 2

... a1n
y1


... a2 n
y2
,
Y
=
... ,
... ...


... ann
yn

 ;
O
Y ;
.

 = O
 + Y.
O
+

 ,
O
Y.

.
Y = (E A) O
.
O
74

I.

( ) , det( ) z 0,
,

 = ( )1Y.
O
S =( )1 .
S = (Sij),

Y1 = (1, 0, , 0)T, Y2 = (0, 1, , 0)T, , Yn = (0, 0, , 1)T.

 = (S , S , , S )T,
 = SY, O
O
11
21
n1
1
 = (S , S , , S )T. ,
 = (S , S , , S )T,, O
O
12
22
n2
1n
2n
nn
2
n

Sij S + ,
j+ j.

, j, , j = 1,n .
(j t 0) , ++

 = SO
 + Y.
 (x t 0) O
Y (yi t 0) O
i
.

1.9.3.
1.112. +
(. . ).

A A

7
21
72
12

15

73

100
100

,
,
.
. 1 = 100, 2 = 100, 11 = 7, 12 = 21, 21 = 12,
22 = 15, 1 = 72, 2 = 73.
75

.., ..

x ij

ij =

xj

, i, j= 1,2 .

11 = 0,07, 12 = 0,21, 21 = 0,12, 22 = 0,15.


0,07 0,21
.
0,12 0,15

(max {0,07 + 0,12; 0,21 + 0,15} = {0,19; 1,36} = 0,36 <1).


+ Y

 = ( )1Y.
 O
O
1
S = ( ) .

0,93 0,21
.
0,12 0,85

det( ) = 0,7653 z 0,
S = ( )1 =

1
0,7653

0,85 0,21

.
0,12 0,93
144
.
73

Y =
:

 =
O

1
0,7653

0,85 0,21 144


179,99
1

73 =

.
0,7653 111,28
0,12 0,93

,
179,28 . ., 111,28 . .

76

I.

1.9.4.
1.113.
. :

15 10 20 50

= (ik) = 20 25 10 17 ;
35 50 30 45

97 54 75 200

79 ,
= (bik) = 83 102 49
71 210 150 180

ik, bik, ( = 1,3 , k = 1,4 ) +


+ k+ +
30 1 . ,

.
1.114. , +
X = (10 7 4). +
5 :

5 10 3 9 2

= (ik) = 4 8 5 6 8 ,
6 12 4 3 10

ik k+ +
. = (7 4 5 10 2) +
. : ) +
; )
; )
X.
1.115. , , .
.
:
77

.., ..

,
,
,

24
75
10

5
7
4
10
5
20
5
2
1

,
, .
.
1.116. , , .
: , . +
( + ) +
40, 40 80,

2 2 1

= ij = 1 4 1 ,
1 6 4

ij +, + +
j+ . )
, , +
, . )
,
?
1.117.
,
, . +
,
1 = 12000 0,22, 1 , 2
. :
1 = 300 0,12. 1 2 ?

78

II.

.
2.1. .
+
, , +
. ,
.
, Oy i Oz ,
, .
,
, .
, Oy i Oz xOy,
xOz i yOz, (. 2.1).
xOy, xOz i yOz
, (. 2.1)
Z
III

II

IV

Y
VI

VII
V
X
VIII

. 2.1.
79

.., ..

+
, , (. 2.2)
. +
, + ().
x

AO
.
e

OB
.
e

OC
.
e

, + +
(x; y; z), .
Z
C
M
z

B
Y

. 2.2.

, , +
:
2.1.

80

+
+
+

+
+

V
V
VI
+
+

+
+
+

VII

VIII
+

II.

, +
, .
(x; y; z)
.
, , A
(x; y; z).

2.1.1.
1(x1; y1) 2(x1; y2) +
R2, :

( x 2  x1 )2  ( y2  y1 )2 .

(2.1)

1(x1; y1; z1) 2(x2; y2; z2) +


R3, +
:

( x 2  x1 )2  ( y2  y1 )2  ( z2  z1 )2 .

(2.2)

2.1.2.
(x; y; z) ,
1(x1; y1; z1) 2(x2; y2; z2)

M1 M
MM 2

O , +

x1  O x 2
,
1 O

y1  O y2
,
1 O

z1  O z2
.
1 O

(2.3)

, 12 , l = 1,
:

x1  x 2
,
2

y1  y2
,
2

z1  z2
.
2

(2.4)

81

.., ..

2.1.3.

A(x1; y1), B(x2; y2), C(x3; y3) :

1
(( x1  x 2 )( y2  y3 )  ( x 2  x 3 )( y1  y3 )) .
2

(2.5)

2.1.4.
2.1. (3; 2).
. +
y
3, 2. +

+
2
.
+
, , +

3, y +
x


3
, 2. +
,

. 2.3.
y.
(. 2.3).
2.2. (; b) +
. N,
.
. N +
, +
, = N (. 2.4).
, , OMP i OPN
, , +
. ONE i OMD. +
, , c
MOD i ONE.
82

II.

N
P
M
b
E
a

. 2.4.

+
ONE i OMD ,
OD = NE, MD = OE.
+
OD
, MD = b
+
, N +
OE = MD = b, +
NE = OD = a.
,
N b
a: N(b; a).

2.3. M1(4; 5) M2(7; 1).


. (2.1) d ,
x1 = 4; x2 = 7; y1 = 5; y2 = 1, :

(7  4)2  (  1  (  5))2

32  42

9  16

25 5 .

2.4. (3; 5; 2). ,


:
1) ;
2) xOz;
3) Oy.
.
1) , +
1 VII .
1(3; 5; 2).
2) 2, xOz, +
IV , , 2(3; 5; 2).
3) 3, Oy, +
V , , 3(3; 5; 2).
2.5. ,
(3; 5; 3), ((2; 1; 4), (0; 2; 1) .
. (2.2):

( x 2  x1 )2  ( y2  y1 )2  ( z2  z1 )2 .
83

.., ..

(2  3)2  (  1  5)2  (3  4)2

1  36  1

(0  3)2  (2  5)2  (1  3)2

9  49  4

38 ;
62 ;

(0  2)2  (2  1)2  (1  4)2


4 1 9
14 .
, +
:
38 + 14 = 52, 62 > 52, 62 > 38 + 14,

2 > AB2 + BC2.


, . .
2.6. Oz , +
(2; 1; 4) N(3; 0; 1).
. , Oz (0; 0; z).
NP:
=

MP

(0  2)2  (0  1)2  ( z  4)2


5  z 2  8 z  16

NP

z 2  8 z  21;

(0  3)2  (0  0)2  ( z  1)2


9  z 2  2z  1

4  1  ( z  4)2

9  0  ( z  1)2

z 2  2 z  10.

, MP = PN, :

z 2  8 z  21
z 2  2 z  10 .
, :
z2 8z + 21 = z2 2z + 10;
6z = 11;
z = 11/6.
(0; 0; 11/6).
2.7. ,
(5; 7), (9; 12).
. (2.4)
x
84

x1  x 2
,
2

y1  y2
,
2

II.

x i y. +
x = 9; y = 12.
: x1 = 5;
y1 = 7. ( ) +
, x2 i y2.
(2.4) +
:
9 =

5  x 2
;
2

12 =

7  y2
.
2

:
18 = 5 + x2 i x2 = 13;
24 = 7 + y2 i y2 = 17.
(13; 17).
2.8. 12, 1(2; 5) 2(4; 9),
l = 1/3.
. ,
12 l = 1/3.
(2.3), 1(2; 5)
, 2(4; 9) . x i y +
, , x1 i y1 1, x2 i
y2 2; l = 1/3. , x1 = 2; x2 = 4; y1 = 5;
y2 = 9. :

1
2 4
3 x
1
1
3

2
4
3

4
3x

5
;
2

1
2 9
3 y 5 3 y 6.
y
4
1
1
3
3
(5/2; 6).
2.9. , +
, (1; 2; 4) (2; 0; 2)
.
85

.., ..

.
, l =

AM
MB

1
.
2

(2.3):

xA  O xB
, yM
1 O

xM

z A  O zB
.
1 O

y A  O yB
, zM
1 O

1
xB
2
;
1
1
2

1
yB
2 ;
1
1
2

1 
2

2
0

1
zB
2 ,
1
1
2

4
2

, :

3
2

1 

1
xB ,
2

2
3

2

1
yB ;
2

3
2

4

1
zB ;
2

1
xB
2

4;

xB

8;

1
yB
2

2;

yB

4 ;

1
zB
2

1;

zB

2.

(8; 4; 2).
2.10. : (3; 2; 2),
(4; 1; 2). , ,
Oy, xOz.
. .
Oy, (0; yM; 0).
N, xOz, N(xN; 0; zN). +
, :

86

xM

x A  xC
;
2

3  xC
;
2

zM

z A  zC
;
2

2  zC
;
2

= 3;
zc = 2;

II.

yN

yB  yC
;
2

1  yC
;
2

yc = 1.

(3; 1; 2).

2.1.5.
2.11. ,
(3; 5):
a) ;
b) Oy;
c) ;
d) ;
e) IV .
2.12. :
M(3; 4), N(12; 5); P(7; 24); Q(6; 8)?
2.13. , +
(3; 6); (4; 1); (5; 2).
2.14.
(2; 5); (7; 4); (1; 6).
2.15. , , 4 +
(6; 7) (4; 5). +
2 ?
2.16. ,
1(1; 3; 7) 2(5; 7; 5).
2.17. : (1; 1);
(2; 2); (3; 1). D.
2.18. (2; 3; 5), (1; 3; 2)
ABCD (4; 1; 7). +
.
2.19. (3; 2; 1); (5; 4; 7)
(1; 1; 2). , +
.
2.20. (1; 1; 3), (2; 1; 3),
(4; 7; 5).
.
87

.., ..

2.2.

.
1. :
y = kx + b,
(2.6)
k , ,
, , +
; b +
, . b = 0 +
(2.6) y = kx,
.

.
2.
+ + = 0.
(2.7)
:
) = 0, (2.7) :
+ = 0,

A
x,
B

A
, y = kx, , ,
B
, , +
= 0, = 0 .
) (2.7) = 0,
:

A
= .
C
,
, .
) (2.7) = 0,
:

88

+ = 0,

= 

+ = 0,

= 

B
= b.
C

II.

,
, .
, + +
, , +
, .
) = 0 = 0 (2.7) = 0 = 0.
.
) = 0 = 0 (2.7) = 0
= 0. .
3. :

x y
(2.8)

1,
a b
, ;
b , .
.
4. k +
0(0; 0), :
(2.9)
0 = k (x x0).
k ,
,
(0; 0). (2.9) ()
0(0; 0).
5. 1(1; 1)
2(2; 2), :
x  x1
x2  x 1

y  y1
,
y2  y1

(2.10)

,
1(1; 1) 2(2; 2).
_

6. S = {m; n}, ,
0(0; 0) , +
:

x  x0
m

y  y0
.
n
89

.., ..
_

S .
7. = k1x + b1 y = k2x + b2 ,
( k1)
( k2), +
.

kx
2
+b

M
x + b1
= k1

. 2.5.

M :

tg M

k2  k1
.
1  k1 k2

(2.11)

, +
+
.
:
(2.12)
k1 = k2.
:
k1k2 = 1,

k2

1
.
k1

:
1 + 1 + 1 = 0 2 + 2 + 2 = 0,
90

(2.13)

II.

A1
A2

B1
, +
B2

12 + 12 = 0.

:

A1 x  B1 y  C1 0

A2 x  B2 y  C2 0
x

'x
,
'

'y

'

(2.14)

'

A1

B1

A2

B2

, 'x

C1

B1

C2

B2

, 'y

A1

C1

A2

C2

G 0(0; 0)
+ + = 0 ,
, ,
,
, .
G :

Ax0  By0 C
r A2  B 2

d 0(0; 0) + + = 0 +
0(0; 0) + + = 0.

Ax 0  By0  C
A2  B 2

(2.15)

91

.., ..

2.2.1.
2.21. 2 3 + 6 = 0.
. +
, .

. :

2
x  2 :
3
= 0, = 2;
= 3, = 4.
:

0
3

2
4
, , (0; 2)
(3; 4) (. 2.6).
.

Y
, +

,
,

, +

.
+

, +
= 0 (+
. 2.6.
,
, , 0). 3 + 6 = 0, = 2.
= 0, :
2 + 6 = 0, = 3. (0; 2) (3; 0).
(. 2.6).
2.22. 4 = 0.
. , +
.
92

II.

Y

,
, .
= 1, = 4. (0; 0) (1; 4)

, 4 = 0
(. 2.7)
2.23. + 4 =
0 3 = 0.
. 1) + 4 = 0.
= 4.

, +
,
4 +
. 2.7.
. , + 4 = 0 +
, 4.
2) 3 = 0 , +
, = 3
, 3 ( ) (. 2.8).
Y
3=0

x+4=0

. 2.8.

2.24. 3 4 + 12 = 0 +
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
. 1) (2.6)
y = kx + b.
93

.., ..

, : 4 = 3 + 12, =
, k

3
+ 3. +
4

3
, ,
4

b = 3.
, +
(2.6), ,
+
:

A
B

3
4

3
.
4

2) (2.8)

x y

1.
a b

,
, +
:
3 4 + 12 = 0
3 4 = 12

3x
4y

12 12

12
12

x y

1.
4 3
3) : = 4; b = 3
(. 2.9).

b=3

a = 4

. 2.9.

2.25. ,
, 4 ( ) 120.
.
= kx + b.
b = 4, k = tg 120o = tg (180o 60o) = tg 60o = 3, k = 3.
94

II.

:
= 3 + 4 3 + 4 = 0.
2.26. , +
(1; 1), (3; 5), (7; 11).
. (2.10):

x  x1
x2  x 1

y  y1
.
y2  y1

(1; 1) (3; 5).

1 = 1, 1 = 1;
2 = 3, 2 = 5;
(2.10):

x 1
3 1

y 1
x 1 y 1
x 1 y 1

5 1
2
6
1
3
3 ( 1) = + 1 3 3 = + 1 3 4 = 0 ().
(1; 1)
(7; 11).
Y
11

(7; 11)

(3; 5)

(1;+1)

. 2.10.
95

.., ..

1 = 1, 1 = 1;
2 = 7, 2 = 11.
(2.10):

x 1 y 1
x 1 y 1
x 1 y 1

7  1 11  1
8
2
12
3
3( 1) = 2( + 1) 3 3 = 2 2 3 + 2 1 = 0 ().
(3; 5) (7; 11).

1 = 3, 1 = 5;
2 = 7, 2 = 11.
(2.10):

x 3
7  3

y 5
x 3 y 5
x 3 y 5

11  5
6
3
10
5
3( 3) = 5( 5) 3 9 = 5 + 25 3 + 5 34 = 0 ().
2.27. ,
: 5 2 11 = 0; + 2 + 5 = 0; 2 + 1 = 0.
. .
, , . +
2 + 1 = 0.

kAB = 

A
1
1
=
= .
B
2 2

. 2.11.
96

II.

+ 2 + 5 = 0. +

A
1
= .
B
2

k = 

5 2 1 = 0. +

k = 

A
5
=
B
2

5
.
2

(2.11)

k2  k1 ,
1  k1k2

tg M

kAC  kAB
tg A
1  kAC kAB

5 1

2 2
5 1
1
2 2

A arctg

kAB  kBC
tg B
1  kAB kBC

2
9
4

8,
9

1
3
4

4,
3

8
.
9

1 1

2 2
1 1
1
2 2

4
B arctg .
3
tg C

kBC  kAC
1  kCB kAC
C

1 5
 
2 2
1 5
1
2 2

3
1

4

12 ,

arctg12 .
97

.., ..

,
. , ,
, .
:

5 x  2 y  11 0
x  2y  5 0

:
5 2 11 + + 2 + 5 = 0 + 0;
6 6 = 0; 6 = 6; = 1.
+
, :
1 + 2 + 5 = 0;
6 + 2 = 0; 2 = 6; = 3.
(1; 3).

5 x  2 y  11 0
x  2y  1 0

:
5 2 11 (2) 1 = 0 0;
4 2 + 2 12 = 0; 4 = 12; = 3.
+ ,
:
3 2 + 1 = 0;
4 2 = 0; 4 = 2; = 2.
(3; 2).

x  2y  5 0
x  2y  1 0

:
+ 2 + 5 + 2 + 1 = 0 + 0;
2 + 6 = 0; 2 = 6; = 3.
+ ,
:
3 2 + 1 = 0; 2 = 2; = 1.
(3; 1).
98

II.

:
S=

1
(x (y y ) + x2(y3 y1) + x3(y1 y2));
2 1 2 3

1
1
1
(3(1+3) 3(3 2) + 1(2 + 1)) = (6 + 15 + 3) = 24 = 12.
2
2
2
S = 12 . .
2.28. ,
0(2; 5) 3 4 + 15 = 0.
. , ,
+
, k1 = k2 = k.
S=

A
3 3

= k2 = k.
B
4 4
:
0 = k( 0);
k1 = 

3
( 2);
4
4 20 = 3 6;
3 4 + 14 = 0.
3 4 + 14 = 0.
2.29. ,
0(5; 1) 3 7 + 14 = 0.
. , +
1,
k1k2 = 1. ,
+
:
5=

k2

1
k1 .

k1

A
B

3
7

3
.
7
99

.., ..

1
1
7
=
 .
3
k1
3
7
:
0 = k( 0),
k2

7
+ 1 =  ( 5),
3
3( + 1) = 7( 5),
3 + 3 = 7 + 35,
7 + 3 32 = 0.
: 7 + 3 32 = 0.
2.30. (8; 12) ,
(2; 3) D(5; 1).
. D (2.10):
x  x1
x2  x 1

y  y1
,
y2  y1

x 2 y3
,
5  2 1  3
4( 2) = 7( + 3),
4 8 = 7 21,
4 + 7y + 13 = 0.
D ,
D.
MN 0 = k( 0),
, , +
:

k2

1
1
=
4
k1
7

7
;
4

7
12 =  ( + 8);
4
100

II.

7 4 + 104 = 0.
7 4 + 104 = 0 MN.
MN i CD
CD.

7 x  4 y  104 0

4 x  7 y  13 0
'

7 4
= 49 + 16 = 65;
4 7

'x

104 4
= 728 52 = 780;
13 7

'y

7 104
= 91 + 416 = 325.
4 13

(2.14) :

'x
'

780
65

'y
'

12 ;

325
5.
65

N(12; 5).
2.31. +
:
3 + 4 12 = 0
3 + 4 + 13 = 0.
. +
.
, = 4, :
3(4) + 4 12 = 0; 4 = 24; = 6.
, 0(4; 6).
0(0; 0) + + = 0
(2.15):
101

.., ..

Ax 0  By0  C

A2  B 2

3(  4)  4 6  13

12  24  13

32  42

25

25
5

5 (. .).

2.32. (12; 4), (0; 5),


(12; 11). :
1) ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) ;
5) , ;
6) , , +
, ;
7) ;
8) ;
9) ;
10) .
.
1)
:

( x1  x 2 )2  ( y1  y2 )2 ;

d AB

(0  12)2  (5  4)2

144  81

d BC

(12  0)2  (11  5)2

144  256

400

20 ;

d AC

(12  12)2  (11  5)2

576  49

625

25 .

225 15 ;

2) ,
(2.10):

x  x1
x2  x 1
:
102

y  y1
.
y2  y1

II.

()

()

()

x  12 y  4
x  12 y  4
x  12 y  4

0  12 5  4
12
9
4
3
3 36 = 4 16 3 + 4 20 = 0 ();

x 0
y 5
x
y 5
x y 5

12  0 11  5
12 16
3
4
4 = 3 15 4 3 + 15 = 0 ();
x  12
y4
x  12 y  4

12  12 11  4
24
7
7( 12) = 24( + 4) = 0 7 84 = 24 + 96
7 24 180 = 0 ().

2) ,
, .

k1

A
B

7
24

7
.
24

k1 k2
BD:

1

12

L
12

F
D

11

. 2.12.
103

.., ..

k2

1
1
=
7
k1
24

24
.
7

, :
0 = k( 0),
5= 

24
( 0),
7

7 35 = 24,
24 + 7 35 = 0 (BD).
4) BD (2.15):

Ax0  By0  C
A2  B 2

(5; 0)
7 24 180 = 0 ()

d BD

7 0  24 5  180

300

7  (24)

49  576

300
12 .
25

5) +
.

xM

x B  xC
2

0  (12)
2

6 ;

yM

yB  yC
2

5  (11)
2

3 .

(6; 3).
, +
(12; 4) (6; 3).

x  12
y4
x  12 y  4

12 = 18( +4)
1
6  12 3  4
18
12 = 18 72 + 18 + 60 = 0 ().

6) F BD +
AM, :
104

II.

24 x  7 y  35 0

x  18 y  60 0
'

24 7
= 432 7 = 425;
1 18

'x

35 7
= 630 + 420 = 1050;
60 18

'x

24 35
= 1440 35 = 1475;
1 60
'x
'

'y
'

1050
| 2,47 ;
425
1475
| 3,47 .
425

F(2,47; 3,47).
7)
K. +
, +
O

AK
KB

AC
, O
CB

AC
CB

15
20

5
. +
4

K :

xK

xA  O xB
1 O

= yK

4
12  0
5
4
1
5

y A  O yB
1 O

12
9
4

12 4
9

5
4  5
4
5
1
4

9
4
9
4

16
,
3

1.

105

.., ..

K(

16
; 1).
3

x  12
16
 12
3

y  11
x  12

52
1  11
3

3(x  12)
y  11

12
52

y  11
9( + 12) = 13( + 11)
3
9 + 108 = 13 + 143 9 13 35 = 0 ().

y  11

12

3( x  12)
13

8) :

x A  x B  xC
;
3

xE

12  0  12
3

y
0;

yA  yB  yC
;
3
yE

4  5  11
3

10
.
3

1
3

(0; 3 ).
9) :

tg C

kBC  kAC
.
1  kBC kAC

: kBC =

tg C

C
106

4 7

3 24
4 7
1
3 24
3
arctg .
4

3
7
; kAC =
;
4
24

32  7
24
18  7
18

18
24

3
.
4

II.

10) :
S=

1
d d ;
2 AC BD

1
25 12 = 25 6 = 150.
2
S = 150 (. .).
S=

2.2.2.
2.33. (3; 5), N(2; 7), P(1; 3), Q(2; 0), R(3; 5)
= 2 1, ?
2.34. 2 + 3 + 4 = 0. ,
(2; 1):
1) ;
2) .
2.35. (6; 4) 4 5 + 3 = 0.
2.36. Q, (5; 13)
2 3 3 = 0.
2.37. 1, 2(8; 9)
, (3; 4) (1; 2).
2.38. (1; 1), (2; 1) (3; 5).
,
, .
2.39. (2; 2), (3; 5) (5; 1).
,
.
2.40. (2; 5) (5; 3)
ABCD (2; 0) .
.
2.41.
1= 0 2 = 0 (3; 1).
.
2.42. +
(5; 7)
107

.., ..

6 + 4 9 = 0. +
.
2.43. ,
(3; 1) +
3 + 2 = 0.
2.44. (2; 5) ,
2 7 = 0. .
2.45. (10; 13), (2; 3) (2; 1).
,
, .
2.46.
2 + 5 = 0 2 + 4 = 0,
(1; 4). .
2.47. (4; 3) (4; 1)
(3; 3). .
2.48. : : 4 + 12 = 0,
K: 5 4 15 = 0 : 2 + 2 9 = 0.
.
2.49. , +
(3; 4) 7 2 1 = 0 2 7 6 = 0.
2.50. 2 + 6 = 0
= 6 = 2. D
, DAB .

108

II.

2.3.
2.3.1.
+
Y
,
(; )
(. 2.13).

r
(a; b) r :
(; b)
( )2 + ( b)2 = r2. (2.16)
,

+
, :
2 + 2 = r2.
. 2.13.

. :
2 + 2 + 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0
,
= , ,
= 0.

2.3.2.
,
, , +
2 (. 2.14). :

x 2 y2

a 2 b2

1 , (b2 = 2 2) .

(2.17)

F1(c; 0) i F2(c; 0). +


2. 1(; 0),
2(; 0) 1(0; b), B2(0; b) .
12 = 2, 12 = 2b .
e

c
 1.
a
109

.., ..

Y
B1

x = a/H

M(x; y)

r2

r1

A1
F2

x = a/H

A2

F1

B2

. 2.14.

r1 r2 (; )
:
r1 = e, r2 = + e.
,

a
, . :
e

a
, x
e

a
 , x
e

a2
, x
c

a2
.
c

, ,
:

( x  x 0 )2 ( y  y0 )2

a2
b2

1,

(0; 0) .

2.3.3.
,
,
, 2 (. 2.15).
:
110

II.

. 2.15.

x 2 y2

a 2 b2

1 , (b2 = c2 a2).

(2.18)

F1(c; 0) i F2(c; 0).


2.
1(; 0), 2(; 0) +
. 12 = 2
.
1(0; b), B2(0; b) ,
12 = 2b .
e

c
! 1.
a

r1 r2 (; ) +
+
:
r1 = e , r2 = e + ,
, (; ) .
111

.., ..

a
. :
e

a2
, x
c

a2
.
c

, :

b
b
x, y  x,
a
a

.
, :

x 2 y2

a 2 b2

1; 

x 2 y2

a 2 b2

1,

. .
, = b,
, . :
2 2 = 2.
.

, :
= k, k

a2
.
2

2.3.4.
+

(. 2.16).
:
(2.19)
2 = 2,
. +
, .
112

II.

Y
M(x; y)

r
O

F(p/2;0)

= p/2

. 2.16.

F(

p
; 0). DN :
2
x

p
.
2

(; ) : r = +
+
+
, e = 1.

+
(. 2.17), +
+
:
2 = 2q. (2.20)

:

p
.
2

F(0; q )
2

q
 .
2

q
2

. 2.17.
113

.., ..

, +
, :
( 0)2 = 2( 0),

( 0)2 = 2q( 0),


(0; 0) .

2.3.5.
2.51. (2; 3)
, 6.
. (2.16) ( )2 + ( b)2 = r2 = 2;
b = 3; r = 6. :
( 2)2 + ( + 3)2 = 36.
2.52. , :
2 + 2 2 + 4 20 = 0.
. 2 2
, +
. (2.16).
, , , .
:
2 2 = 2 2 1 + 12 12 = ( 1)2 1,
2 + 4 = 2 + 2 2 + 22 22 = ( + 2)2 4.
:

( x  1)2  1  ( y  2)2  4  20 0



x 2  2x
y2  4 y
: ( 1)2 + ( + 2)2 = 25.
(2.16)
, , +
(1; 2), r2 = 25, r = 5.
2.53. ,
1(1; 1) 2(1; 3), 2 +1 = 0.
. :
( )2 + ( b)2 = r2.
114

II.

1(1; 1) 2(1; 3), +


.
:
(1 )2 + (1 b)2 = r2,
(1 )2 + (3 b)2 = r2.
2 + 1 = 0, +
.
:
2 b + 1 = 0.
:

(1  a)2  (1  b)2

2
2
(1  a)  (3  b)
2a  b  1 0,

1  2a  a 2  1  2b  b2 r 2 ,

r 2 , 1  2a  a 2  9  6b  b2 r 2 ,
2a  b  1 0.

r2,

.
:

4a  8b  8 0,

2a  b  1 0.
, 2:

4a  8b  8 0,

4a  2b  2 0.
:

5
 .
3
b 2a b + 1 = 0,
:
3b = 5, b

b 1
2

5
 1
4
3
 .
2
3

4 5
, :  ;  .
3 3
115

.., ..

r2, :
r2 = (1 )2 + (1 b)2;
r2 = (1 +

4 2
5
1 64
) + (1 + )2 = 
3
3
9 9

65
.
9

, :
( +

4 2
5
65
) + ( + )2 =
.
3
3
9

2.54. ,
: 1(1; 5), 2(2; 2) 3(5; 5).
. : ( )2 + ( b)2 = r2.
,
.

, , b i r.

1  2a  a 2  25  10b  b2 r 2 ,
(1  a)2  (5  b)2 r 2 ,

2
2
2
2
2
2
(2  a)  (2  b) r , 4  4a  a  4  4b  b r ,
25  10a  a 2  25  10b  b2 r 2 .
(5  a)2  (5  b)2 r 2 ,

, +
. +
:

2a  14b  18 0, a  7b 9,

24  12a 0.
a 2.
= 2, b = 1.
r2 1(1; 5) :
r2 = ( )2 + ( b)2.
2
r = (1 2)2 + (5 1)2 = 9 + 16 = 25.
:
( 2)2 + ( 1)2 = 25.
2.55. , +
42 + 92 = 144.
116

II.

. (2.17):

x 2 y2

1.
a 2 b2
144, :

x 2 y2

1.
36 16
, 2 = 36, b2 = 16. = 6, 2 = 12; b = 4,
2b = 8. b, 2 2 = b2 :
2 = 2 b2 = 36 16 = 20,

2 5.

20

: F1( 2 5 ; 0) F2( 2 5 ; 0).


H

c
a

2 5
6

5
.
3

2.56. 8, +
16. .
?
.
b. 2 = 8, = 4.
b b2 = 2 2,
,

d1d2 = 2

a2
8

a2
= 16,
c
42
8

2.

, b2 = 42 22 = 16 4 = 12.
:
e

c
a

x 2 y2

1.
16 12

2
4

1
.
2
117

.., ..

2.57. , +
, , +

1(

2
9
; 1) y r x .
3
2

x 2 y2

a 2 b2

1 +

b. :
1(

9
; 1) , ,
2

1 :
2

9
2 (1)2

a2
b2
y

1,

81 1

4a 2 b 2

b
r x , y
a

1.
2
b
r x . ,
3
a

81 1
4a 2  b2

b 2 a.
3

1
81

2
2

1, 4a 2

b 2 a.

1,

9
81
4a 2  4a 2

b 2 a.
3

72
a 3 2,
a 2 18,
4a 2 1,

2
2
a.
a.
b 2 a.
b
b

118

1,

2
.
3

II.

x2
(3 2)2

y2

1.

(2 2)2

, :

x 2 y2

18 8

1.

2.58. ,

120 8 3 .
. :

x 2 y2

a 2 b2
y

1.

b
b
r x ,
a
a

tg M , M

.
120, M
tg 60D

b b
;
a a

3; b

120D
2

60D .

3a .

2c 8 3 , c
2 = 2 + b2 :

4 3 .

( 4 3 )2 = 2 + b2.
:

a 2  b2 48, a 2  ( 3a)2

3a.
b
3a.
b

x2
(2 3)2

y2
62

48,

1.
119

.., ..

x 2 y2

1.
12 36
2.59. , ,
, (1; 4) +
.
. , +
, 2 = 2.
.
(1; 4), +
:
(4)2 = 2 1, 16 = 2, = 8.
2 = 16.
2.60. +
, 2 = 2.
.
. ,
(. 2.18).

+AOB

. AOB

AOD 30D . (; ).

AD
OD

tg 30D , :

y
x

3
,
3

+DOA

3
x.
3

3
x ).
3

+
, +
. :

B
. 2.18.

120

, +
(;

60D ,

II.
2

3
x = 2;

x2
= 2; 2 = 6; = 6.
3

OA

OD
cos 30o

6p
3
2

4p 3 .

4p 3 .

2.3.6.
2.61. , (2; 6)
(1; 2).
2.62. , (3; 2) (1; 6) +
.
2.63. ,
(1; 1) 5 12 + 9 = 0 .
2.64. , (3; 1)
(1; 3), 3 2 = 0.
2.65. , (1; 1),
(1; 1) (2; 0).
2.66. ,
. , :
1) 10, 2 = 8;
2) 24, 2 = 10;

3) 2 = 6 e
4) 20, e
5) 10, e

3
;
5

3
;
5
12
.
13
121

.., ..

2.67. ,
, :

1) 1( 2 5 ; 2) b = 3;
2) 1(2; 2) = 4;
3) 1(4;  3 ) 2( 2 2 ; 3) ;
4) 1( 15 ; 1) 2 = 8;
5) 1(2; 

5
) e
3

2
.
3

2.68. , , :
1) ;
2)
.
2.69. ,
, , :
1) 2 = 10 2b = 8;

2) 2 = 6 e
3) 2 = 16 e
4) y

3
;
2

5
;
4

4
r x 2 = 20;
3

5) 1(6; 1) 2(8; 2 2 ) ;
6) 1(5; 3) e
7) 1(

2;

9
2
; 1) y r x .
3
2

2.70. ,
1) 60;
2) 90.
2.71. , :
1) 2 = 6;
122

II.

2) 2 = 6;
3) 2 = 6;
4) 2 = 6;
. .
2.72. ,
. , :
1)
(9; 6);
2)
(1; 3);
3)
Q(1; 1);
4)
R(4; 8).
2.73. ,
+ = 0 2 + 2 4 = 0
.
2.74. 8 .
,
, ,
20 .
2.75. ,
, 400 .
2 . . 10 ,
3 . . 10 . , +
, +
.

123

.., ..

2.4.

.
1. k +
, b ,
,
= kx + b.
2. +
,
= kx + b, k
, ( k
). b
,
, ( +
, , ,
..).

2.4.1.
2.76. 1
24%. ,
1
, +
. +
.
. , , +
100% = kx + b:

k=

24
= 6,1; 100 = 6,1 1 + b; b = 93,9.
4

= 6,1 + 93,9, .
2.77. 1980 . 108,5 +
8,5 . 1995 . 510
21 .
. x, y; +
, , z ().
124

II.

:
A(1, 1); 1 = 1980, y1 = 108,5;
B(2, 2); 2 = 1995, y2 = 510;
M(1, z1); 1 = 1980, z1= 8,5;
M(2, z2); 2 = 1995, z2 = 21.

19801995
y = kx + b, .
,
, :

x  1980
1995  1980

y  108.5
x  1980

510  108.5
15

y  108,5

401,5

401,5 x  401,5 1980 15 y  15 108,5


15 y 15 108,5  401,5 x  401,5 1980
15 y

401,5 x  793342,5 y

401,5
793342,5
.
x
15
15

,
:

k1

401.5
| 26,77 .
15

M1 M2,
.

x  1980
1995  1980

z  8,5
x  1980

21  8,5
15

z  8,5

12,5

12,5 x  1980 12,5 15 z  8,5 15


15 z 12,5 x  12,5 1980  8,5 15
15 z 12,5 x  24877,5 .
:

k2

12,5
| 0,83 .
15
125

.., ..

, +
1 . +
k1
k2 . +
, +
. , .

. +
, , ,
.
2.78.
(y) (x) +
:

1
 x  10 y
2

x  5,

(x) . +
.
.

(. . 2.19).
N(10; 15).
N
+
:

1
 x  y 10  x  2 y 20
2

 x  y 5
x  y 5
. 2.19.

y 15; x 10 .
:
) x [0, 10], x < 100 , +

;
) x [10, f ], x > 100 ,
.
126

II.

,
.
2.79. , +

. m
V, , V = 40 /
20 ,
60 /.
.
:

v2

km ,
k
2

2 px +
y
, +
. m = 0 V = 0, +
mV.
M0(20; 40), +

402 = k 20, k = 80.
,
:
v2

80 m m

v2
.
80
+
.
2.20.
, +
60 /
( ) +
:

602
80

45 ( ) .

. 2.20.
127

.., ..

2.80.

. , ,
. +
1 :
10 . ., 20 . .
300 .
,

?
. S1 S2
. :
f(A) = m + 10S1;
f(B) = m + 20S2.
, S1 = 2S2,
, f(A) = f(B).

S1 = x 2  y 2 ; S2 = (300  x )2  y 2 .

x 2  y 2 = 2 (300  x )2  y 2 ;
x2 + y2 = 360000 2400x + 4x2 + 4y2;
(x 400)2 + y2 = 2002.
. ,
, , .
2.81. A 2 +
. , +
( )
x ( ) :

yB

1000  1300 x  100 x 2 .


, .
. x A 2
:

2000 x .

:
128

II.

1000  1300 x  100 x 2

( x  2)( x  5) 0 x1

2; x 2

2000 x x 2  7 x  10 0
5.

, . +
2000 (x 2) A 4000 ,
5000 ( = 5) 10000 .
.
,

P Y  Y

2000 x  (1000  1300 x  100 x 2 )

1000  700 x  100 x 2

100( x  2)( x  5).

, x = 2 x = 5 = 0,
.
2 < x < 5, 2 > 0, x 5 < 0 > 0.
. ,
[2, 5] < 0 .

2.4.2.
2.82. 10 +
1000 , 50 2000
. 30 ,
.
2.83. ,
1 17 , 1 9,1
, 21 .
2.84. , +
, t. +
= 25000 ,
10 .
.
8 .
2.85. +
= 50 + 150, = 25 + 250,
, , , . . +
?
129

.., ..

2.86. ,
100 , 200 . ., +
, 400 350 . .
,
( ).
2.87. , 100 ,
.
m.
+
1 . . 1 , 2 . . 1 .

? +
?
2.88. 2.87 ,
1
1 . . 1 , +
200 225 .
. .
2.89. 2.87 ,
1 +
9 . . 1 , 3 . . 1 .
2.90. ,
, 300 . +
.
,
.

130

II.

2.5.
2.5.1.
+
. , + +
, +
.
2.5.1.1.

:
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0,
(2.21)
, , .
(2.21):
) (2.21) D = 0,

Ax + By + Cz = 0
(2.22)
, .
) (2.21) , +
. , +
.
, :
By + Cz + D = 0.
(2.23)
, :
Ax + Cz + D = 0.
(2.24)
, z:
Ax + By + D = 0.
(2.25)
, +
, , +
, .
) (2.23), (2.24), (2.25) D = 0,
, +
.
, :
By + Cz = 0.
131

.., ..

, :
Ax + Cz = 0.
, z:
Ax + By = 0.
) (2.21) , +
: = = 0, = = 0, = = 0.
, :
, yOz:
Ax + D = 0, = .
, Oz:
By + D = 0, = b.
, O:
Cz + D = 0, z = .
) (2.21) B, C i D, A, C i D,
A, B i D . +
.
yOz:
= 0, = 0.
Oz:
= 0, = 0.
O:
z = 0, z = 0.
2.5.1.2.

x y z
 
a b c

1,

(2.26)

, b , .
2.5.1.3. ,

, 0(0; 0; z0)
:
132

II.

( 0) + ( 0) + (z z0) = 0,

(2.27)

, , N = {; ; }.
2.5.1.4. ,

,
1(1; 1; z1), 2(2; 2; z2) 3(3; 3; z3),
:

x  x1

y  y1

z  z1

x 2  x1

y2  y1

z2  z1

x 3  x1

y3  y1

z3  z1

0.

(2.28)

2.5.1.5.

, :
A1x + B1y + C1z + D1 = 0,
A2x + B2y + C2z + D2 = 0
:

cos M

A1 A2  B1 B2  C1C 2

(2.29)

A  B12  C1 * A22  B22  C2 2


2
1

A1
A2

B1
B2

C1 .
C2

(2.30)

:
12 + 12 + 12 = 0.

(2.31)

2.5.1.5.

0(0; 0; z0) Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
:

Ax0  By0  Cz0  D


A2  B 2  C 2

(2.32)
133

.., ..

2.5.2.
2.5.2.1.

+
.
:

A1 x  B1 y  C1 z  D1 0
(2.33)

A2 x  B2 y  C 2 z  D2 0
(2.33), , ,
.
2.5.2.2.

x  x1 y  y1 z  z1
,
l
m
n
1, 1, z1 1, ; ,
, z ; l, m, n
, .
(2.33) +
(2.34). :
) + 1(1; 1; z1). +
, z, +
.
.
, .
) S = {l; m; n} .

S , N 1 = {A1; B1; C1} i


N 2 = {A2; B2; C2},

N1 u N 2 ,

S
134

B1

C1

B2 C2

i

C1

A1

C2

A2

j

A1

B1

A2

B2

k.

II.

B1

C1

B2 C2

C1

A1

C2

A2

A1

B1

A2

B2

2.5.2.3.

r1  St ,

r + ;

r1 + 1;

S = {l; m; n} , ;
t .
2.5.2.4.

x lt  x1 ;

y mt  y1 ;
z nt  z ,
1

1, 1, z1 1, ;
, , z ;
l, m, n ;
t .
2.5.2.5. ,

, 1(1; 1; z1)
2(2; 2; z2) :

x  x1
x 2  x1

y  y1
y2  y1

z  z1
.
z2  z1

(2.36)

135

.., ..

2.5.2.6.

x  x1
l1

y  y1
m1

z  z1
n1

x  x2
l2

y  y2
m2

z  z2
n2

cos M

l1l2  m1m2  n1n2


l12  m12  n1 * l 2 2  m22  n2 2

(2.37)

l1
l2

m1
m2

n1 .
n2

:
l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0.

2.5.3.
2.5.3.1.

x  x1
l

y  y1
m

z  z1
Ax + By +
n

+ Cz + D = 0 :

sin M

Al  Bm  Cn
A  B2  C 2 l 2  m 2  n2
2

(2.38)

:
Al + Bm + Cn = 0.
:

A
l

136

B
m

C
.
n

II.

2.5.3.2.

x  x1 y  y1 z  z1

l
m
n
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 :

Ax  By  Cz  D 0

x  x1 y  y1 z  z1
l
m
n
:
x = lt + x1; y = mt + y1; z = nt + z1.
, , z .
t:

Ax1  By1  Cz1  D


.
Al  Bm  Cn
t x = lt + x1, y = mt + y1,
z = nt + z1, .
t

2.5.3.3.

x  x1 y  y1 z  z1

l
m
n
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 :
,

Al  Bm  Cn 0

Ax1  By1  Cz1  D 0

(2.39)

2.5.3.4.

x  x1
l1

y  y1
m1

z  z1
x  x2

n1
l2

y  y2
m2

z  z2
n2

, :
137

.., ..

x 2  x1

y2  y1

z2  z1

l1

m1

n1

l2

m2

n2

0.

2.5.4.
2.91. 1(3; 1; 2) 2(4; 2; 1). +
, 1 +

M1 M 2 .
. (2.27).
, 1:
( 3) + ( + 1) + (z 2) = 0.

M1 M 2 = (4 3) i + (2 + 1) j + (1 2) k = i j 3 k =
= {1; 1; 3}.
M1 M 2 = {1; 1; 3} ,
, , :
( 3) ( + 1) 3(z 2) = 0 3z + 2 = 0.
.
2.92. , +
1(3; 0; 4) 2(5; 2; 6) 2 + 4 +
+ 6z 7 = 0.
. (; ; z) +
. M1 M = {x 3; y 0; z 4} i M1 M 2 = {2; 2; 2}
.
M1 M M1 M 2

N = {2; 4; 6} 2 + 4 + 6z 7 = 0. +
:
( M 1 M M1 M 2 N ) = 0
138

II.

x 3 y 0 z 4
2

0.

, :
2 + z 7 = 0.
2.93. d (1; 1; 2)
, 1(1; 1; 1), 2(2; 1; 3)
3(4; 5; 2).
. ,
1(1; 1; 1), 2(2; 1; 3) 3(4; 5; 2).
(2.23):

x 1

y 1

z 1

2  1

11

3 1

4 1

5  1 2  1

0;

x 1 y 1 z 1
3

4

3

0.

,
2 3 + 6z 11 = 0.
d (1; 1; 2)
2 3 + 6z 11 = 0. (2.32):

2(1)  3(1)  6(2)  11

28

2  (3)  6

28
7

4.

d = 4 (. .).
2.94. ,
2 z 1 = 0, + 2z 4 = 0,
= 0, (7; 1; 2).
139

.., ..

. .
:

2 x  y  z  1 0,

x  2 z  4 0,
x  y 0.

2 1 1
'

2 = 1 2 + 4 = 3.

1 1

' x :

1 1 1
'x

2 = 4 + 2 = 6.
0

0 1
:

'x
x

6
3

2 ; = 2.

,
= , = 2.
z:

4 x
2

42
1 , z = 1.
2

(2; 2; 1).
+
(2.23).

x 0 y 0 z 0

140

20

2  0 1 0

70

1 0

20

0.

II.

, :

x
2

y z
2 1

1 2

0.

, :
+ 4z = 0.
2.5.95. :

3 x  2 y  4 z 11,

2 x  y  3 z 1.
. 1 = 1, :

3 1  2 y  4 z 11 2 y  4 z 8,

2 1  y  3 z 1
y  3 z 1.
, 2:

2 y  4 z 8,

2 y  6 z 2.
10z = 10, z1 = 1.
= 1 + 3z 2, = 1 + 3 2 = 2, 1 = 2.
1(1; 2; 1).
S :

2 4
4 3
3 2
i
j
k 10i  17 j  k .
1 3
3 2
2 1

l = 10, m = 17, n = 1.
(2.34),
:

x 1
10

y2
17

z 1 .
1

2.96. ,
1(3; 5; 2) 2(1; 1; 4).
141

.., ..

. (2.36) :

x 3
1 3

y5
1  5

z 2
x 3

4  2
2

y5
4

z 2
6

y5
2

z 2
.
3

x 3
1

+
(2.35), :

x 3  t,

y 5  2t , t (f; f)
z 2  3t .

2.97. , +

1(2; 3; 4)

x 4
2

y 0
1

x 2
1

y3
1

z 1

z 4
.
3

. :

x 2
l

y3
m

z 4
.
n

S1 = {1; 1; 1} i S 2 = {2; 1; 3}.


,
S1 u S 2 :

i
S

142

S1 S2

1 1 1
2 1 3

4i  j  2k ,

II.

S = {l; m; n} = {4; 1; 2}.


,
: l = 4, m = 1, n = 2.
:
x 2
4

y3
1

z 4
,
2

x 2
4

y3
1

z 4
.
2

2.98.

x 1
2

y2
1

z 2
3 + 2z + 5 = 0.
1

. .
, ,
t:

x 1
t;
2

y2
1

t;

z2
1

t;

x = 2t + 1; y = t 2; z = t + 2.
, , z :
3(2t + 1) (t 2) + 2(t + 2) + 5 = 0,
6t + 3 t + 2 + 2t + 4 + 5 = 0,
7t + 14 = 0,
t = 2.
t = 2 +
.
:
x = 2t + 1; y = t 2; z = t + 2,
:
= 2(2) + 1 = 3, = 2 2 = 4, z = 2 + 2 = 0
.
, (3; 4; 0).
143

.., ..

2.99. (2; 1; 3)
+ 3 4z 13 = 0.
.
) , (2; 1; 3)
+ 3 4z 13 = 0. +
, (2; 1; 3):

x 2
l

y 1
m

z 3
.
n

A
l

B
m

C
l, m, n , ,
n

. , l, m, n +
1, 3, 4, :

x 2
1

y 1
3

z 3 .
4

) ,
, +
, .

x  2 y 1 z  3
,

3
4
1
x  3 y  4 z  13 0.

x 2
1

y 1
3

z 3
+
4

. : x = t + 2, y = 3t 1, z = 4t + 3.
, , x :
t + 2 + 3(3t 1) 4(4t + 3) 13 = 0,
t + 2 + 9t 3 + 16t 12 13 = 0,
26t 26 = 0, t = 1.
t = 1
x = t + 2, y =3t 1, z = 4t + 3.
:
144

II.

x = 1 + 2 = 3, y = 3 1 1 = 2, z = 4 1 + 3 = 1.
, 1(3; 2; 1).
2.100. ,
1(1; 1; 2)

x 1
2

y3
1

z
.
5

.
1(1; 1; 2)

x 1
2

y3
1

(; ; z).

z
. +
5
x 1
2

y3
1

z
+
5

, (1; 3; 0) +
, S = {2; 1; 5}
. : M1 M = {x 1; y 1; z + 2},

M1P = {1 1; 3 1; 0 + 2} S = {2; 1; 5}. +


, , :

M1 M M1P S = 0,

x 1 y 1 z  2
0

0.

:
10( 1) + 0(z + 2) + 4(y 1) 4(z + 2) 2(x 1) 0(y 1) = 0;
8(x 1) + 4(y 1) 4(z + 2) = 0;
2(x 1) + (y 1) (z + 2) = 0;
2x + y z 5 = 0.
.

145

.., ..

2.5.5. .
2.101. ,
1(2; 5; 1) + 3 4z + 5 = 0.
2.102. 1(0; 1; 3) 2(1; 3; 5).
, 1 +

M1 M 2 .

2.103. ,
(2; 1; 3) .
2.104. ,
1(1; 1; 2), 2(2; 1; 2) 3(1; 1; 4).
2.105. (4; 3; 0) , +
1(1; 3; 0), 2(4; 1; 2) 3(3; 0; 1).
2.106. ,
(1; 2; 3) + z 7 = 0, 3 + 2
12z + 5 = 0.
2.107. :
2 + 3z 9 = 0; + 2 + 2z 3 = 0; 3 + 4z + 6 = 0.
2.108. , +
(2; 3; 4) z.
2.109. , :

x  3y  4z  5 0

.
2 x  y  z 0
2.110.

x 1
2

y2
3

2 x  y  4 z  2 0
z 1

.
6
4 x  y  5 z  4 0

2.111.

2 + 3 + z 1 = 0.

146

x 1
1

y 1
2

z
+
6

II.

2.112. (2; 1; 3)

x
3

y7
5

z 2
.
2

2.113. (5; 2; 1) 2 + 3z +
+23 = 0.
2.114. d (2; 3; 1)

x 5
3

z  25
.
2

y
2

2.115. .

(3; 1; 2)

x 4
5

y3
2

z
.
1

2.116. ,

x 2
5

y3
1

z 1
+ 4 3z + 7 = 0.
2

2.117. , +

x 2
3

y 1
2

z 3

2

x 1
3

y2
2

z3
.
2

2.118. Q, (1; 3; 4)
3 + 2z = 0.
2.119. Q, (2; 5; 7)
, 1(5; 4; 6) 2(2; 17; 8).
2.120. , +

Q(2; 3; 1)

x 1
2

y
1

z 2
.
3

147

.., ..

2.6.

, .
, ,
F(x, y) = 0 , ,
F(x, y) < 0
, . +
F(x, y) > 0.
F(x, y) , F(x, y) = + + , ,
, ,
+ + = 0,
(2.40)

+ + < 0,
(2.41)
+ + > 0.
(2.42)
, +
(2.40) , (2.41) (2.42)
, (2.40) +
. , +
, ,
, .
+ ,
, .
,
, ;
, +
, .
. ,
(4; 5) 3 2 + 5 = 0.
, .
. +
: 3 4 2 5 + 5 = 7. .
, , +
3 2 + 5 > 0.

.
148

II.

F1 ( x , y)  0

F2 ( x , y)  0

... ... ... ...


F ( x , y)  0
m

, +
.
,
, . +
, +
.
,

A1 x  B1 y  C1  0,

A2 x  B2 y  C2  0,

... ... ... ... ...


A x  B y  C  0,
m
m
m
, , +
. , +
, (
).
, +
. , , ,
, +
.
.
, (2; 1), (6; 3),
(4; 5).
. .. , +

,

149

.., ..

, , +
.
, . +
, :

x 2
62

y 1
2 = 0.
3 1


, 4 25 = 6 < 0. , +

2 < 0.
, ,
, :
+ 9 < 0.
, +
:
2 3 < 0.
+

x  2 y  0,

x  y  9  0,
2 x  y  3  0.

(< >)
( d t ),
.
:

x  2 y d 0,

x  y  9 d 0,

2 x  y  3 d 0.
, ,
, , , , .
150

II.


.
, .
, , +
, .

2.6.1. .
2.121.
:

2 x1  5 x 2 t 10;

x1 d 3;

3 x1  3 x 2 d 12;
x  2 x t 12.
1
2
. , +
, , :
(l1): 21 52 = 10, A1(0; 2) l1, A2(5; 0) l1;
(l2): x1 = 3;
(l3): 31 + 32 = 12, B1(0; 6) l3, B2(4; 0) l3;
(l4): 1 + 22 = 12, C1(0; 1) l4, C2(2; 0) l4.
. ,
, +
( (0; 0) ).
,
. D
(. 2.21).
2.122.
:

 x1  x1 d 6;

3 x1  5 x 2 t 15;
x t 1.
2
151

.., ..
2
5

(l2)

(l1)

B
2

A
5

1
(l3)
D

(l4)

. 2.21.

. , +
:
(l1): 1 + 1 = 6, A1(0; 6) l1, A2(6; 0) l1;
(l2): 31 + 52 = 15, B1(0; 3) l2, B2(5; 0) l2;
(l3): x2 = 1.
,

( (0; 0)
). , +
.
(. 2.22).
2.123.
:

3 x1  2 x 2 d 6;

 x1  5 x 2 d 5;

x1 t 0;
x t 0.
2
152

II.

2
(l1)

1
(l3)

5
(l2)

. 2.22.

. :
(l1): 31 22 = 6, A1(0; 6) l1, A2(6; 0) l1;
(l2): 1 + 52 d 5, B1(0; 1) l2, B2(5; 0) l2;
(l3): 1 = 0;
(l4): 2 = 0.
(. 2.23).
, , +
. , .
.
2
3

. 2.23.
153

.., ..

2.6.2.
2.124. , +
:
) < 2 x, x > 2, y > 2.
) y > 2 x, x < 4, y < 0.

x y
 d 1 , y t x + 2, x t 4.
4 2

2.125. +
:

x1  x 2 d 7,

2 x1  3 x 2 d 4,
)
x1 t 1,
x t 0;
2

x1  2 x 2 t 4,

2 x1  x 2 t 4,
)
x1 t 0,
x t 0;
2

x1  4 x 2 d 4,

) x1 t 0,
x t 0;
2

2 x1  3 x 2 d 13,

) x1  x 2 t 6,
4 x  x d 16;
2
1

x1  2 x 2 t 6,

3 x1  x 2 t 8,

) x1  x 2 d 3,
x t 0,
1
x 2 t 0;

x1  2 x 2 d 10,

x1  2 x 2 t 2,

) 2 x1  x 2 d 10,
x t 0,
1
x 2 t 0.

154

II.

2.7.
. +
,
.

2.7.1.
, +
+ .
(a; b; c), R,
:
(2.43)
(x a)2 + (y b)2 + (z c)2 = R2.
(0; 0; 0)
R, :
x2 + y2 + z2 = R2.

2.7.2.
, +
(),
l ( ). +
. 2.24.
z, +
l :

F ( x , y) 0

Z 0

+
:

F ( x , y) 0

Z (f; f)
F(x, z) = 0
,
,

Y
O

X
. 2.24.
155

.., ..

F(y, z) = 0 ,
.

2.7.3.
Z

)
(. 2.25),

x 2 y2

a 2 b2

1.

= b, :
2 + 2 = 2.
)
, (. 2.26):

x 2 y2

a 2 b2

X
. 2.25.

1.
Z

) +
,
(. 2.27):
2 = 2p.

Y
O

. 2.26.

X
Y

2.7.4.

. 2.27.
156

,
() (.
2.28):

II.

x 2 y2 z2


a 2 b2 c 2

, b,
.

. 2.28.

2.7.5.

) .
(. 2.29)
, ()
:

x 2 y2 z2


a 2 b2 c 2

1.

) +
.
,
. 2.29.
(. 2.30)
, :

x 2 y2 z 2


a 2 b2 c 2

. 2.30.

1.

2.7.6.

) (. 2.31) +
, () +
:

x 2 y2

p q

2z .

. 2.30.
157

.., ..

) (. 2.32) +
, () :

x 2 y2

p q

2z .

. 2.32.

2.7.7.

+
, ,
+
.
(. 2.33) +
:

x 2 y2 z2


a 2 b2 c 2

0.

. 2.33.

2.7.7.
xOz l, F(x, z) = 0.
,
158

II.

l, xOz ,
z r y 2  z 2 .
F(x, r y 2  z 2 ) = 0.
+
,
.
: 1) ,

x 2 z2
x 2 z2  y2


1

1 (
a2 c2
a2
c2
).
2) ,

x 2 z2  y2
x 2 z2



1
a2
c2
a2 c2
( ).

1 ,

y2 z 2 x 2
 
c2 c2 a2

1

2.7.8.
2.126.
2 + 2 + z2 6x + 8y + 10z + 25 = 0.
. (2.43), :
1) , ;
2) ( +
). :
2 6 + 2 + 8 + z2 + 10z + 25 = 0;
2 2 3 + 32 32 + 2 + 2 4 + 42 42 + z2 + 25z + 52 52 +25= 0;
( 3)2 9 + ( + 4)2 16 + (z + 5)2 25 + 25 = 0;
( 3)2 + ( + 4)2 + (z + 5)2 = 25.
(2.43), = 3, b = 4, = 5, R2 = 25. ,
(3; 4; 5), R = 5.
2.127. 5 3
, .
, .
. +
, yOz: = 5, b = 3.
159

.., ..

y2 z2

25 9
x 0

, +
, yOz, ,
z r x 2  z 2 . +
, :

y2 x 2  z 2

25
9

1 ,

x 2 y2 z 2


9 25 9

1.

2.128.
:

x 2  y2

z c.

a2 ,

. , +
(0; 0; 0) (; ; z) , :

X
x

Y
y

Z
.
z

, , z . z , +
: x

X
Y
, y c .
z
z

,
:

c 2 X 2 c 2Y 2
 2
z2
z

a 2 ,

x 2  y2 z2
 2
a2
c

0.

2.129. :

1) x2 + z2 = 16; 2)

160

x 2 z2

6 4

1 ; 3) x = 2z2; 4)

x 2 z2

5 7

1.

II.

. z,
z : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) +
.

, ,
.
:
1) x2 + z2 = 16 ;
2)

x 2 z2

6
4

1 ;

3) x = 2z2 ;
4)

x 2 z2

5 7

1 .

2.130. 3 4
, z.
. ,
.
.
, yOz: = 3; b = 4;

y2 z 2
1,

9 16
x 0.

, +
, yOz, Oz, +
2
2
r x  y :

( x 2  y 2 )2 z 2
x 2  y2 z2
1.


1 ,
9
16
9
16
, :

x 2 y2 z2


1.
9
9 16
161

.., ..

.
3.1. . .
.
.
3.1.1.
(, ,
) . , ,
, .
, ,
, , , Y, Z, +
, b, ,, , y, z.
, , +
a A . +
, a A . , +
, b, c, d, = {, b, c, d}.
, +
( ,
).
,
. = . +
,
. 
. : N +
; Z ; Q
; R .

,
. , N
Z .
1, 2, , n. 
( ) ,
162

III.

1, 2, , n.
:
n

= 1 * 2 * 3 * * n = * .
i 1

, ,
.
1, 2, , n , +
,
1, 2,, n. :
n

= 1  2  3   n, =  .
i 1

1 5, 2
4. 1  2 +
, 4 < x < 5.
1 5, 2
4, , 1  2 = . +
, 1 2 .
,
, , = \.
A ,
, .

A { x x C , x A} .

3.1.2.
+
.
. , +
1 2
: 1 > 2 1 < 2.
, .
,
(. 3.1). ,
163

.., ..

2 .

+

= 2 .
.

2 .

+
. 3.1.
.
, d d b,
( ) [a; b]; < x < b
(, b); d < b < d b
[a, b) (a, b].
( f , a), (b, f ), ( f , f ), ( f , a]
i [b; f ). +
.

3.1.3.
()
, t 0, , < 0.
|x|. :

x , x t 0,

 x , x  0.

+ (
), (
). , + +
, d |x|.
:
1. +
:
|x1 + x2| d |x1| + |x2|.
164

III.

2.
:
|x1 x2| t |x1| |x2|.
3.
:
|x1 x2 xn| = |x1| |x2| |xn|.
4.
:

x1
x2

x1
x2

3.1.4.
3.1. : = {1; 3; 5; 6; 9}, B = {2, 4, 5, 6, 9}.
, .
. * = {1, 2, 3, 4,

5, 6, 9},  = {5, 6, 9}, \ = {1, 3}.


3.2. |x |x||.
. t 0, |x| = x |x |x|| = |x x| = |0| = 0.
x < 0, |x| = x i |x |x|| = |x (x)| = |2x| = 2x.
3.3. 250 .
5 180 , 210
. 3 4?
. , ,
, 5.
m(A) .

: m(A) = 250, m(B) = 180, m(A * B) = 250.


, 3 4,
 .
m(  ) = m(A) + m(B) m(A * B) = 210 + 180 250 = 140.

165

.., ..

3.1.5.
3.4. , ,
A * B,  , (A * B)  , A   , :
) 12; +
2 6 + 5 = 0; , 3 d d 12.
) , 3 < x < 10;
21; , 12.
3.5. ,
, .
57 36 .
, 12 ?

3.1.6.

y=b

z = a + ib, , b R,
i2 = 1.

a + ib, b . +
, = Re z, b = Im z.
a + ib c + id ,
= b = d.
a + ib a ib 
.

Y
.
M
+
(. 3.2). a +
ib (, ), +

+
0
=

( = ),

. 3.2.
b (y = b).
3.6. : 3 + 4;
2 + 3; 3 2; 4 + 0; 0 + 2.
166

III.
Y
4
2 + 3

3 + 4

0 + 2

4 + 0

4 3 2 1 0

1 2 3 4 5
2

3 2

. 3.3.

3.1.6.1.
a + ib c + id +
(a + c) + (b + d):
a + ib + c + id = a + c + (b + d).
3.7.
1) (3+ 5) + (4 8) = (3 + 4) + (5 8) = 1 + (3);
2) (2 + 3) + (2 3) = (2 2) + (3 3) = 4 + 0 = 4.
a + ib c + id
(a c) + (b d):
a + ib c id = a c + (b d).
3.8.
1) (5 + 2) (3 5) = (5 3) + (2 (5)) = 8 + 7;
2) (3 4) (3 + 4) = (3 3) + (4 4) = 0 + (8) = 8.
a + ib c + id
(ac bd) + (d + bc):
(a + ib) (c + id) = ac + adi + bidi + bci = ac bd + (d + bc).
. +
.
3.9.
1) (1 2)(3 + 2) = 3 6 + 2 42 = 7 4;
2) ( + b) ( b) = a2 + b2.
167

.., ..

a + ib c + id

ac  bd cb  ad

i;
c2  d 2 c2  d 2
a  bi (a  bi)(c  di) ac  bd  (bc  ad )i ac  bd cb  ad

i.
=
=
= 2
c  di (c  di)(c  di)
c  d 2 c2  d 2
c2  d 2
3.10.

7  4i (7  4i)(3  2i) 21  12i  14i  8i 2 13  26i


=
=
=
= 1 2.
13
94
3  2i (3  2i)(3  2i)
3.1.6.2.
a + ib +

|a + bi|.
3.11.
r = |3 + 5i| =

a  b , r
2

3 2  52 =

r = |1 + i| = 12  12 =
r = |0 + 7i| = 7.

34 = 5,83;

2 = 1,41;

. 3.4.

M , +
a + ib,
a + ib (. 3.4).

, 2S k .
0 .
M a + ib :

b
; cos M =
a

; a z 0.
a b
a  b2
,
.
tg =

168

; sin M =

III.

3.12. +
3 3.

. tgM =

3
= 1,
3

Y
3

M = 45, M = 225 ..
3
45 3 3
M
(. 3.5)
. 3.5.
: 225; 135;
585 .. , , +
, .
, (S , S ) , +
.
3.13. 3 3; 2; 5; +
135; 90; 90.
0; +
180.
, .
, 3 + 3
3 3 135 135.
3.1.6.3.

(. 3.4) +
:

b
a
= cos M ;
= sin M .
r
r

z = a + bi = r cos M + ir sin M ,

:
r = a 2  b2 = |z|;
z = r(cos M + sin M );
sin M =

b
a  b2
2

;
169

.., ..

cos M =

a  b2
2

M = arctg

b
; a z 0.
a

z = r(cos M + i sin M )
.
3.14. 1 + +
(. 3.6).
Y
:
1+

r = 11 = 2 ; M

S
4

z=

2 (cos

+ i sin

).
0
1
4
4
. 3.6.

, .
.
,
z1 = r1 (cos 1 + sin 1) z2 = r2(cos 2 + sin 2)
:
z1z2 = r1r2(cos (1 + 2) + sin (1 + 2)).
3.1.6.4.

z = r(cos M + sin M )
z = r(cos pM + sin pM ), + .
.
3.15. z6, z = 2(cos 10 + sin 10).
.

z6 = 26(cos 6 10 + sin 6 10) = 32(1 +

3i ).

1. = n (n ) r = 1, :
(cos M + sin M )n = cos nM + sin nM .
170

III.

2. , + +
.
3.16. cos 3M sin 3M cos M sin M .
.
cos M + sin M = (cos M + sin M )3 = cos3 M + 3icos2 M sin M
3cos M sin2 M i sin3 M = cos3 M 3cos M sin2 M + i(3cos2 M sin M
sin3 M ).
, :
cos 3M = cos3 M 3cos M sin2 M

sin M = 3cos2 M sin M sin3 M .


3. p
n

1
, :
n

r (cosM  i sinM) =

M 2S k
M 2S k
 i sin 
r cos 

,
n n
n n

k = 0, 1, 2, ..., n1.
3.17. z =

02  12 = 1, M

. r =

z1 = cos

z2 = cos(

S
4

+ i sin

S
4

S
2

2
2
+i
;
2
2

+ p) + i sin(

i.

S
4

+ p) =

2
2
i
.
2
2

z1 z2 . 3.7.

. 3.7.

3.1.6.5.

e iM = cos M + sin M .
+
:
171

.., ..

z = r e iM .
, r z = a + ib , M
. :
z = r (cos M + sin M ).
, :
z = r e iM .
3.18. .
.

ii

i S2
e

i2

S
2

S
2

3.1.7.
3.19.
(2 ) + y(2 1) = 4 5?
3.20. :
) (2 + ) + (3 6) (1 );

) (

1
1
3
2
3
5
) ( + ) + ( );
2
4
5
3
4
6

) (0,8 0,2) + (0,1 1,3) (1,5 + 0,7) (2,3 0,6);


) (0,5 + 0,2)(2 + 3);
) (1 2)(5 );
) ( 2 )( 3 + 2 );

) (5 + 3 )(5 3 );

5  2i
;
1  2i

7  3i
.
1  3i
3.21. . Re z Im z
)

4
;
1  2i

1) z =

3i

2) z =

2 3  i

2i 3
3.22. :

1  2i 3

) (5 2)2;

) (2 + 3 )3;

172

) (1 + )3;

III.

) (3 3 )3;

) (

1
i 3 3

).
2
2

3.23.
:

1) z = 1 i 3 ;

2) z = 1 + i 3 ;

3) z = 3 i;

4) z = 2 + 2i;

5) z = 3 i.
3.24. , :
1) (1 + 3 )5;

2) (2 + 2)6;

4) ( 3 )5.
3) (1 + 3 )60;
3.25. :
)

1 i ;

2  2i .

2  2 3i ;

3.26. :

1) z5 1 + i 3 = 0;

2) z5 +

3 + i = 0;

3) z5 1 i = 0;

4) z5 +

3 i = 0.

173

.., ..

3.2. . .
. ,

3.2.1.
,
. ,
, S .

, .
,
.

3.2.2.
. , +
( ) Y,
= f(x).
( ),
, f .
( )
, Y .

, y = f(x)
.

y = f(x)
, , +
, , , +
.
174

III.

3.2.3.

1. y = f(x)
1, 2 (1<2)

2. y = f(x)

;
;
;
;

f(x1) d f(x2);
f(x1) < f(x2);
f(x1) t f(x2);
f(x1) > f(x2).
;
;
( ,
)

f ( x )

f ( x )

f (x)

 f ( x )

.
1. (. 3.8). .
2. (. 3.9).
(, ).
3. : , +
(. 3.10).
y = f(x) 
, +
, ,
:
f(x + T) = f(x).

.
. 3.11.

. 3.9.
175

.., ..

. 3.10.

. 3.11.

3.2.4. ,
y = f(x). ,
Y +
(. 3.12).
, y = f(x)
f
Y
( , Y),
Y , +
Y .
:
f1: Y o X;
. 3.12.
x = f1(y).
1
x = f (y) , ,
= f1().
. = f() = f1()
.



(. 3.13).
.
,
= 2 + 4 (. 3.14).
, :
2 = 4,

= 0,5 + 2.
176

. 3.13.

III.

3.2.5. ()
. 3.15.
= F(u), u = g(x) ,
, , +
() +
, (+
) .

f Dg

y=F(g(x))

u=g(x)

y=F(x)

f ( g ( x )) .
. 3.15.

.
1) = sin3 x :
y = F(u) = u3 i u = sinx;
2) y = sin x3 :
y = F(u) = sinu i u = x3.

3.2.6.
I. y = ax + b, a, b R.

A A

( f ; f ) ( f ; f ) >0 + +

z 0,
( + ;
, + <0 + =0 +
;
), z 0;
+

+
=0 =0

II. = , + ,
.
, +
:
b
1. x0 = 1, x z 0 .
4. x a = xab.
2. xa xb = xa + b.
5. (xy)a = xay.
3. xa : xb = xa b.

177

178

,
n , + +
( f ; 0) * (f;0) *
(0; f ) , n + ( f ;0)
(0; f )
; , (0; f ) ; +
n ;
n +
n ,
(0; f ) ,

( f ;0) * (0; f )
n

+
,

( f ; f ) ,
n + n + ( f ; f ) , n
; , ;
;
(0; f ) , n + ( f ;0]

n ;
[0; f ) , n +

a = 1/n, (0; f ) ,

+
(0; f ) , ,
n N
n + ( f ; f ) , n
n n ;
; + ;
;
( f ; f ) ,
( f ; f ) , n + (0; f ) , n +
( ,
n

), +

a = n,
n N

a = n,
( f ; f )
n N

n n

.., ..

III.

III. = , >0, z 0,
.

A A

(f;+f) (f;0) + >1 +


+ +
( + ( f ; f ) ;
, + 0<<1
)

a>1
1

0<a<1

( f ; f )

:
1. a0 = 1, a z 0 .
2. axay = ax+y.
3. ax : ay = axy.

4. a x

= axy.

5. (ab)x = axbx.
IV. y = loga x, a > 0, z 1, ,
.
.
A

(0;+f) ( f ; f ) >1 +
(
y
,
(0; f ) ;
)
0<<1 +
0

(0; f )

:
1. loga1 = 0, a > 0, a z 1 .
2. loga(xy) = logax + logay.
3. logaa = 1.

a>1
1
0<a<1

x
4. loga = logax logay.
y
5. log a r bp =

p
logab.
r
179

.., ..

V. y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tg x, y = ctg x


.
A

y=sin x ( f ; f )

Y
[1; 1]

[  2S n;
2
3S
 2S n@
2

[0;

(

S
2

] ;

3S

[  2S n;

y=cos x ( f ; f )

= 2S n ;
Tmin= 2S

=tg x

[1; 1]

 2S n

= 2S n ;
Tmin= 2S


[ S  2S n ; 2S n ];

[ 2S n ; S  2S n ]
( f ; f )

 2S n;

= Sn ;
Tmin= S

 2S n
2
y=ctg x ( S n ; S  S n ) ( f ; f )

= Sn;
Tmin= S

Y
1

S S/2

S/2

S S/2

y = sin x

y = cos x

S S/2 O

S/2

y = tg x
180

3S/2

S/2

S 3S/2

S S/2

O S/2

y = ctg x

S X

III.

:
1. sin2 x + cos2 x = 1.
2. 1 + tg2 =

1
;
cos 2 x

1 + ctg2 x =

1
;
sin 2 x

tg x ctg x = 1.

3. sin 2x = 2sin x cos x;


cos 2x = cos2 x sin2 x = 2cos2 x 1 = 12sin2x;
tg 2x =
4. sin2 x =

2tg x
.
1  tg 2 x
1  cos2 x
;
2

cos2 x =

5. sin 3x = 3sin x 4sin3 x;


tg 3x=

1  cos2 x
.
2

cos 3x = 4cos3 x 3cos x;

3 tg x  tg 3 x
.
1  3 tg 2 x

6. sin(x r y) = sin x cos y r cos y sin x;


cos(x r y) = cos x cos y B sin x sin y.
7. tg(x r y) =

tg x r tg y
.
1 B tg x tg y

8. sin x cos y =

1
[sin(x + y) + sin(x y)];
2

cos x cos y =

1
[cos(x + y) + cos(x y)];
2

sin x sin y =

1
[cos(x y) cos(x + y)].
2

9. sin x + sin y = 2 sin


sin x sin y = 2sin

xy
xy
cos
;
2
2

xy
xy
cos
;
2
2
181

.., ..

cos x + cos y = 2cos

xy
xy
cos
;
2
2

cos x cos y = 2sin


tg x r tg y =

xy
xy
sin
;
2
2

sin( x r y)
.
cos x cos y

x
2 ;
10. sin x =
x
1  tg 2
2

2tg

x
2 ;
tg x =
2 x
1  tg
2

x
2;
cos x =
2 x
1  tg
2

1  tg 2

1  tg 2

2tg

r D = cos D ;
2

11. sin

ctg x =

2tg

x
2

x
2.

r D = B sin D ;
2

cos

sin S r D = B sin D ;

cos S r D = cos D ;

r D = B ctg D ;
2

tg S r D = r tg D ;

r D = B tg D ;
2

ctg S r D = r ctg D .

12. tg

ctg

VI. = arcsin x, y = arccos x, y = arctg x, y = arcctg x


.
y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tg x, y = ctg x.

182

III.

= arcsin x [1; 1]
y = arccos x [1; 1]
y = arctg x

>  S2 ; S2 @

[0; S ]

( f ; f ) >  S ; S @
2 2

y = arcctg x ( f ; f ) [0;

S]

1. arcsin D = arcsin( D ) =

arccos D = arctg

2. arccos D = S arccos( D ) =

3. arctg D = arctg( D ) =

S
2

S
2

S
2

Y
S
2

1 X

1D 2

D
1D 2

S
2

= arcsin x

1D 2

S
O

arctg D = arccos

arcsin D = arcctg

1D 2

arcctg D = arcsin

4. arcctg D = S arcctg( D ) =

= arctg x
Y

= arccos x

= arcctg x

183

.., ..

VII. ch x =

e x  e x
e x  e x
, sh x =
,
2
2

e x  e x
e x  e x
 x , cth x = x
x
e e
e  e x
.
:
1. ch2x sh2x = 1.
2. sh 2x = 2sh x ch x.
3. th x cth x = 1.

, th x =

4. th x =

sh x
.
ch x

:
Y

1
2

y = sh x

1 O

Y
3

O
4 3

y = th x

1
2
3

y = cth x
184

y = h x

Y
1

4 X

III.

3.2.7.

:
1) ;
2) () .
, +
,
, +
.
, y

( x cos x )4 17 x
 6  5 .
x  68 x

()

y = P(x) = a0xn + a1xn1 + + an; a0, a1, , an R +


n, .
, y = ax2 + a1x + 67, a, a1 R.
y

Pn ( x )
Qm ( x )

a0 x n  a1 x n 1  ...  an
,
b0 x m  b1 x m 1  ...  bm

, .
185

.., ..

, +
, .

3.2.8.
1. y = |x| , (. 3.16).
2. y = [x] (. 3.17).
3. y = {x} (. 3.18).

1, x ! 0;

4. y = sign x = 1, x  0; (. 3.19).


0, x 0.

2
1

2 1

. 3.16.

2
. 3.17.

Y
1

2
. 3.18.

1
. 3.19.

186

III.

3.2.9. ,

,
, 
.
, ,
, 
.


, , , +
.
)
+ + . + +
1 ,
+ 0 , +
:
y = a1x + a0 (a1 > 0, a0 > 0, x t 0).
.
.
) +
+
.
Y

y0
, +
, +
, +
a0
.
,
,
.
,
O
x1 X
x0
:
. 3.20.

187

.., ..

y = a0 + a1x a2x2 (a0 > 0; a1 > 0; a2 > 0; x t 0)


+
.
0 .

= 0 . +
.
.
y = a0 + a1x a2x2 +
.
) y = a0 +

1
(a0 > 0; a1 > 0; x > 0)

, ,
,
(. 3.21).
,
Y
, +

0 1 . 1 +

. ,

+
. +
( x o f ) +

y = a0 +
a0
O

. 3.21.

0 ( y o a0 ).
)

= 0 1 (a0 > 0; a1 > 0; x > 0) +


, ,
, +
, (. 3.22).
= 0 +
= 0. +
0 1.

a0

188

= 0 1

. 3.22.

III.

= 0 1 .
0 +
, 1% .
) . +
. q p
.
q = f(p).
p M (q) .
q = ae2p; p

ln

5
.
q

3.2.10.
6x  x 2  5 .
3.6. y
. , +
,
.
:
6 2 5 t 0
+

1
5

2 6 + 5 d 0.

2 6 + 5 = 0 1 = 1; 2 = 5.

( 1)( 5) d 0.
1 d d 5.

5x  x 2
.
4
. :
3.7. y

lg

lg

5x  x 2
t 0.
4
189

.., ..

5x  x 2
t 1 , 2 5 + 4 d 0.
4
, : 1 d d 4.
3.8.
= arcsin

x 3
lg(4 x).
2

.
:

x 3

d1
1 d
2  3 d x d 2  3
2 d x  3 d 2
2

x4
x4
4  x ! 0

1 d x d 5
x 4

, 1 d d 4.

3.2.11.
y = f(x) x +
,
, .
, , = 1, = 2, , = n,
:
y1 = f(x1), y2 = f(x2), , yn = f(xn).
:
x
y

x1
y1

x2
y2

xn
yn

, +
: M1(x1; y1); M2(x2; y2); ; Mn(xn; yn).
. +
.
190

III.

,
:
) ,
. , +
: , +
, +

,
.
, .
) ,
.
, +
, ,
( = 0, 0
). , +
, , .
) = f(x), ,
= f(x + c), = f(x)
, < 0, +
, c > 0.
) = f(x) + b = f(x)
b , b > 0,
, b < 0.
) y = Af(x) = f(x) +
+
.
) = f(kx) (k > 0)
= f(x) k, k > 1, +

1
, 0 < k < 1, +
k

.
, ,
= f(x), :
y = Af(kx + c) + b.

191

.., ..

3.2.12.
3.27. = 3 5.
. +
Y
, :
1
() = 3 5 = (3 + 5).
( f ; f ) .
2 1 1 2
, ,
.

5
.

2
1

0
5

(2; 1)
(0; 5). . 3.23.

. 3.23.

3.28. = 2, +
= 2 + 2 + 2.
. = ( + 1)2 + 1.
= 2,
= ( + 1)2, = 2
1. = ( + 1)2 1 (. 3.24).
Y

= 2 + 2 + 2

= ( + 1)2

= 2

2
1

1 O

1 O

. 3.24.

3.29. +

ax  b
, ad bc z 0; a > 0; b > 0; c > 0; d > 0.
cx  d

. ax + b cx + d:
192

III.

ax + b

cx + d

ad
a + b c
ax + ad
c c
cx  d
b ad
c

ax  b
cx  d

y

ad
b
a
c ;

c cx  d

bc  ad
c2

1
d
x
c

d
a
= 1,
= 1,
c
c

bc  ad 1
c 2 x1

y1

Y1
Y

x1 y1

+
. +
1
:

x0

b
a

bc  ad
c2

d
; y0
c

a
(. 3.25).
c

ab

. 3.25.

3.30. +

2x  3
.
3x  4

. 2 + 3 +
3 + 4 :
193

.., ..

2 + 3
2 + 8
3
1
3

3 + 4
2
3

1
2x  3 2
y
 3 .
3x  4 3 3x  4
3 ,
:

2

3

1
4

9( x  )
3

2
1
=
.
3 9( x  4 )
3

4
2
, = .
3 1
3
,
1 = +

4
2
0 =  , 0 = ,
3
3
4 2
O1  ; ,
3 3
+
:
1
,
9 1

1
,
9


(. 3.26).

y1

194

x1 y1

Y1

3
4

O1
 32

X1
O

. 3.26.

III.

3.31. = ( 1)3.
. = ( 1)3
Y
(f  x  f) . ,
8
.
:
x
y

1
8

0
1

1
0

2
1

3
8

1 O 1 2 3 X

1
+
(. 3.27).
3.32. = 2.
8
+
:
. 3.27.
1) = 2; 2) = 2; 3) = 2.
. = 2 +
. (f; f) .
, .

1
32

1
16

1
8

1
4

1
2

0
1

1
2

,

(. 3.28).
1) = 2
= 2 ,
() = 2, () = 2.
2) = 2 +
= 2 .
3) = 2 +
= 2 .
+
:
, ,
, , +
.

2
4

3
8

4
16

5
32

Y
= 2
= 2
4

2
1
2 1 1 2

1
2
4
=2

=2

. 3.28.

195

.., ..

3.33.

, z 2

5, 2 .

y=x

.
= , (2; 2).
. (2; 5).
(. 3.29).
3.34. ,
:

A
5

. 3.29.

2 x  2,  1;

2
 1  x ,  1 d d 1;

2  2, ! 1.

. = 2 2 < 1
, ,
(f; 1) .
y

 1  2

y =2x 2

y = 2x 2

1 d d 1 + = 1,
.
= 2 2 +
x > 1 , +
1 O
1
X
, +
(1; f) .
y  1 2
+
. 3.30.
. 3.30.
3.35. = 2 4|x 1|+1
[6; 5].
. :
2

x 1
196

(  1), 1 d d 5

(  1),  6 d  1

III.

= 2 4|x 1| + 1, +
, [6; 5].

6
9

5
2

4
3

3
6

2
7

1
6

0
3



,

(. 3.31).

1
2

2
1

3
2

4
5

5
10

Y
= 2 4|x 1| + 1

. 3.31.

3.2.13.
3.36. :
1) y
4) y

1
;
x x
2

1
x 2  4x

7) y = arcsin

x
;
4

2) y

5  2x ;

5) y

x 2  4 x  3 ; 6) y

8) y

x x

3) y

9) y

2x
;
x  3x  2
2

x
x 2  3x  2

1
x x

;
197

.., ..

1
 x 2;
lg(1  x )

10) y

x 1 + 2 1 x +

12) y =

3
 lg( x 3  x ) ;
2
4x

13) y

11) y =

3  x + arcsin

3  2x
;
5

x2 1 ;
14) y = lg(sin(x3)) +

16  2 ;

sin x + 16  x 2 .

15) y =

3.37. : f(1) = 0;
f(a) = 1; f(x y) = f(x) + f(y)?
3.38. : f(0) = 1;
f(1) = ; f(x+y) = f(x) f(y)?
3.39. , = 2.

2
1
1) y = 2x 5; 2) y = 3
; 3) y = (x 2)2 1.
2
2
2

3.40. :
1) y = x2 4x + 3;
2) y = |x2 4x + 3|; 3) y = x2 4|x| + 3;
2
4) y = |x 4|x| + 3|; 5) |y| = x2 4x + 3.
3.41. y = sin x,
:
1) y = 2sin(x+1); 2) y = 1+3sin2x; 3) y = 2sin3(x1).
3.42. :
1) y = log2|x|; 2) y = log3(3 x); 3) y = lg(x2 x); 4) y = |log2x|.
3.43. :
1) y = x|x|; 2) y = 1 |x2 1|;
3) y

1  x , d 0;

1  3 , ! 0.

4) y

1
(  3), z 1;

1

1, 1.

198

III.

3.3. .
.
3.3.1.
, +
1, 2, 3, ... , , ,
.
, +
.
, , +
. +
n {an}, n.

3.3.2.
. {an},
H ! 0 +
N, n > N
:
|an a| < H .
, {an}
:

lim an
n of

a , n o a, n o f .

, |an a| < e :

H < an a < H , H < an < a + H .

, an ( H ; a + H ). +
H + (. 3.32).

,
H

+H
:
. 3.2.
,
{an}, + H + +
, ,
. H + +
.
199

.., ..

, an o a n o f , + H ! 0 +
N, n > N
H + , +
N .
{an} , +
, |an| d M n.
{an} (),
an+1 t an (an+1 d an).
{an} ,
, , n = 1, 2, 3, an d .
an ,
, , n = 1, 2, 3, an .
n , 
.
, , ,
, .

1. .
2. {n} , .
3. , , .
4. lim x n

n of

a  b . N, ,

+ n > N n < b.
5. lim x n
n of

a . xn n +

xn d b, a d b.
6. +
.
n d un d yn . {n}
{n} , lim x n

a , lim yn

lim un

a.

n of

n of

a , un

n of

7. + (+
+).
200

III.

3.3.3.
{n} , lim x n

0.

{n} , lim x n

f.

n of

n of

+
.
+
.
{n} n z 0,

1
. {n} +
n

yn

, x n

1
+
yn

3.3.4.
, {n} , +
, xn = a + Dn , Dn .
{n} {n} , lim x n
n of

lim yn
n of

a,

b , :

1) lim( x n r yn )

lim x n r lim yn

n of

2) lim cx n
n of

c lim x n
n of

3) lim( x n yn )
n of

n of

n of

ca ;

lim x n lim yn
n of

a r b;

n of

ab;

lim x n
xn
a
n of
=
= , b z 0.

lim yn
b
yn
n of

4) lim
nof

201

.., ..

3.3.5.
3.44. n 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... , +
xn = 1 + 0,1n; yn = 0,1n; zn = (0,1)n; un = (1)n+
+ 0,1n n,
n o f .
.
n, :
n
xn
yn
zn
un

0
2
1
1
2

1
2
3
4
5
1,1 1,01 1,0001 1,0001 1,00001
10 100 1000 10000 100000
0,1 0,01 0,001 0,0001 0,00001
0,9 1,01 0,999 0,0001 0,99999

nof
o 1+0
o f

z o0

:
1) n {n} +
, n +
|xn 1| +
H , .
. H ! 0 .
|xn 1| = 0,1n < H , , +
, n > lg
lg

, |xn 1| H , n

. , , +

{n} , 1, lim x n
n of

1 , +

, .
2) {n} n
, n
+ ,
. . > 0.
|yn| = 0,1n > M, , +
, n > lg M, |yn| , n
lg M. ,
, {n} :
202

III.

lim yn
n of

f .

3) n zn +
, n
+ e,
. . H ! 0 .
|zn| = 0,1n < H , , +
, n > lg
lg

, |zn| , n

. , +

, zn : lim zn
n of

0.

, .
4) un n +
. {un}
. ,
n. {un}
.
3.45. , 0, 3 , 2 , 5 , ... ,

(1+

(1)n
), ... lim an
n of
n

1.

. , , H = 0,1. |an 1|<0,1


(1 

(1)n
1
)  1  H .  H n >10. +
n
n

H = 0,01 |an 1|<0,01 n >100.


H >0 |an 1|< H
n >

1
 H
n

.
203

.., ..

, + H ! 0 N =

), n >N ( H = 0,1 n >10,

H = 0,01 n >100 ..) |an 1|< H ,


, lim an 1 .
n of

3.46. ,

4n
, 2.
2n  1

xn

. H ,
N,
n N, :

4n
2 H .
2n  1

4n  4n  2
2n  1

4n
2
2n  1

2
2n  1

2
.
2n  1

2
 H . ,
2n  1
2n  1 1
1 1
> , n> .
H
H 2
2

, n ,

1
,
2

4n
2 H .
2n  1
H = 0,005, n >
204

1
1
1

= 200 . N = 199.
0,005 2
2

III.

, , 199 H = 0,005,

4n
 2  H . 200
2n  1

(2

1
1
;2+
),
200
200

(1,995; 2005).
, lim
nof

4n
2n  1

2.

3.47. ,
, x n

(1)n 1
+
n

.
. :

1 1 1 1
1,  1
2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , ...
N H . +
n >N

1
(1)n 1
 0  H ,  H .
n
n

n, n !

. , N

( + ). ,

+ H ! 0 N = , n > N =
H
H

(1)n 1
 0  H . ,
n

.
205

.., ..

3.3.6.
3.48. :

2n 2  1
) {un} =
;
2  n2
) {un} =

) {un} =

1 n
n2  1

n  (1)n
.
3n  1

3.49. , ,
:

n 1
2n  1

1
;
2

) lim

5n
n of 2n  1

5
;
2

) lim

) lim
n of

) lim

) lim( n 2  1  n)
n of

206

n
n of 2n  1

1
;
2

2n  1
1;
n of 2n

2  (1)n
n of
n

0 ; ) lim

0.

III.

3.4. . .
.
.
3.4.1.
,
+ H ! 0
, +
|x a| < H .
, ,
, o lim x = a.
, lim = . +
,
, .
, .
, .

3.4.2.
y = f(x) , , +
b, + H ! 0 G ! 0 , ,
, 0 < |x a| < G
|f(x) b| < H .
:

lim f ( x ) b .
x oa

f(x) o b , y = f(x) +
(. 3.33): |x a| < G
|f(x) b| < H , , ,
G ,
y = f(x) 2H , +
y = b H i y = b + H .
y = f(x), ,
b2, , + H ! 0 G ! 0 ,
207

.., ..

2G

b+H

f(x)

bH

y = f(x)

2H

f(x)

aG

a+G

. 3.33.

, < x < + G
|f(x) b2| < H .
:

lim f ( x ) b2 .

x oa 0

y = f(x), , +
b1, , + H ! 0 G ! 0 ,
, G < x <
|f(x) b1| < H .
:

lim f ( x ) b1 .

x oa 0

lim f ( x )
x oa

b 

, .
.
y = f(x) = ,
= :

lim f ( x )
x oa

208

lim f ( x )

x oa 0

lim f ( x ) .

x o a 0

III.

3.4.3.
1. lim f ( x )

b , f(x) o .

2. lim f ( x )

b , b z 0 , G + ,

x oa

x oa

, , b.
3. f(x) = , lim f ( x ) C .
x oa

4. M ( x ) d f ( x ) d \ ( x ) lim M ( x )
x oa

lim f ( x )
x oa

lim\ ( x ) b ,
x oa

b.

5. lim M ( x )
x oa

A , lim\ ( x ) B , +
x oa

:
1) lim(M ( x )  \ ( x ))
x oa

2) lim(M ( x ) \ ( x ))
x oa

3) lim
x oa

lim M ( x )  lim\ ( x )
x oa

x oa

lim M ( x ) lim\ ( x )
x oa

x oa

A B;
AB ;

lim M ( x )
A
M(x)
= x oa
=
, B z 0 .
B
\ (x)
lim\ ( x )
x oa

3.4.4.
:

lim
x o0

sin x
= 1.
x

:
1) lim
x o0

a
sin ax
= ;
sin bx
b

2) lim

a
tg ax
= ;
b
bx

x o0

209

.., ..

3) lim
xo0

arctg ax
a
= .
bx
b

1
lim 1  = .
x of
x
:
1

(1  D )D = ;
1) lim
xo0
x

1 1

1 = ;
2) lim
xof
x e

1
(1  D )D = ;
3) lim
xo0
e
x

1  = k.
4) lim
xof
x
1

(1  kD )D = k.
5) lim
x o0
: = 2,7182818...
ln.

3.4.5.
,
, . +
:
)
, +
,
f(x) ,
, ,
= , lim f ( x )
x oa

210

f (a) .

III.

3.50. lim
x o3

2x  3
.
3  7x

. :

lim(2 x  3) 2lim x  3 2 3  3
3
1
lim 2 x  3 = x o3
= x o3
=
=
= .
x o3
3  7x
lim(3  7 x ) 3  7lim x 3  7 3 24 8
x o3

x o3

) ,
,
.
. , x o f x o a
(+

f
).
f

f
: +
f

,
.
3.51. lim
nof

1  3 n  2n 2
.
1  n2

lim
nof

1  3 n  2n
1  n2

1  3 n  2n 2
1 3
 2
2
n
n2 n
lim
= lim
=
=
nof
nof
1
1  n2
1
n2
n2

1 3
1
3
  2)
lim 2  lim  lim 2
002
nof n 2
nof n
nof n
nof
n
=
=
=
= 2.
1
1
0 1
lim( 2  1)
lim 2  lim1
nof n
nof n
nof
lim(

211

.., ..

3.52. lim
nof

9n 2  2n  3
.
5n 2  7 n  4
f
,
f

. ,

n2 ( n). :

9n2  2n  3
2 3
9  2
2
9n  2n  3
n
n n =
lim
= lim
= lim
nof
nof 5n 2  7n  4
nof
7 4
5n 2  7 n  4
5  2
n n
n2
2

2 3
2
3
 2 ) lim 9  lim  lim 2
n
of
n
of
n
of
n n =
n
n = 9  0  0 = 9 = 1,8.
=
7
4
7 4
500 5
lim(5   2 ) lim5  lim  lim 2
nof
n
of
n
of
n
of
n n
n
n
lim(9 
nof

3.53. lim
nof

2  4  6  8  ...  2n
.
1  3  5  7  ...  (2n  1)
f
.
f

n , (n + 1)
.
. :

2  2n
n
2  4  6  8  ...  2n
2
lim
lim
= nof
=
nof 1  3  5  7  ...  (2n  1)
1  2n  1
(n  1)
2
= lim
nof

212

n
1
= lim
= 1.
n
of
n 1
1 1
n

III.

3.54. lim
xo

tg 2 x
.
ctg( x  S4 )

limS
xo

sin 2 x sin( x  S4 )
f
tg 2 x
lim
=
=
=

S
S
ctg( x  S4 )
f
x o cos2 x cos( x  4 )
4

= limS
xo

= limS
xo

sin( x  S4 )
sin( x  S4 )
sin 2 x
1
limS
lim
=
=

cos( x  S4 ) x oS cos2 x
1 x o 4 sin( S2  2 x )
4
 sin( S4  x )
1
1
1
1 1
=  limS
= = .
S
S
S
2sin( 4  x )cos( 4  x )
2
2 x o cos( 4  x )
2 1
4

3.55. lim

n of

n
n 1
2

. n, :

lim

nof

n
n2  1

= lim

nof

1
1

1
n2

1
= 1.
1

. , x o f x o a
(

0
).
0
,
, ,
,
.
3.56. lim
x o2

x 2
.
x2  4

. , +
.
213

.., ..

0
0

( ). +
, .
( 2)( + 2) +
( 2).

lim
x o2

x 2
1
x 2
1
= lim
= lim
= .
2
x o2 ( x  2)( x  2)
x
o
2
x 2 4
x 4

, .

2, . 2 z 0.
3.57. lim
x o5

2 x 2  11x  5
.
3 x 2  14 x  5
0
0

. , , +
,
, ax2 + bx + c = a(x x1)(x x2), 1 2
.
22 11 + 5 = 0,
2
D = 11 4 2 5 = 121 40 = 81,

x1 =

11  9 2
11  9
1
= = , x2 =
= 5.
4
4
4
2
1
)(x 5).
2
3x2 14x 5 = 0,
D = 72 + 3 5 = 64,

22 11 + 5 = 2(x

x1 =

78
78
1
=  , x2 =
= 5.
3
3
3

3x2 14x 5 = 3(x +


214

1
)(x 5).
3

III.

( 5):

lim
x o5

2x  1
2 x 2  11x  5
5
2( x  12 )( x  5)
lim
= lim
=
=
.
2
3 x  14 x  5 xo5 3( x  13 )( x  5) x o5 3 x  1 16

3.58. lim
x oS

sin 2 x
.
1  cos 3 x

lim
x oS

sin 2 x
1  cos2 x
lim
=
=
x oS (1  cos x )(1  cos x  cos 2 x )
1  cos3 x

= lim
x oS

(1  cos x )(1  cos x )


(1  cos x )
= lim
=
2
x
o
S
(1  cos x )(1  cos x  cos x )
(1  cos x  cos 2 x )

11
2
= .
111
3

3.59. lim
x o0

1 x 1
.
x

. , +
+

0
0

( ), ,
, . +
+
(1 +

lim
x o0

x  1 ), :

(1  x  1)(1  x  1)
1 x 1
= lim
=
x
o
0
x
x (1  x  1)

= lim
x o0

1  ( x  1)
x
1
1
= lim
= lim
= .
x
o
0
x
o
0
2
x (1  x  1)
x (1  x  1)
1 x 1
215

.., ..

3.60. lim
xo4

2 x
.
3  2x  1
f
. +
f

.
(2 +
4 :

lim
x o4

x )(3 +

2 x  1 ), +

2 x
(2  x )(2  x )(3  2 x  1)
= lim
=
x o4
3  2x  1
(3  2 x  1)(3  2 x  1)(2  x )

= lim

(4  x )(3  2 x  1)
(4  x )(3  2 x  1)
= lim
=
xo4
(9  2 x  1)(2  x )
(8  2 x )(2  x )

= lim

(3  2 x  1)
(4  x )(3  2 x  1)
33
3
= lim
=
= .
x o4
24
4
2(2  x )
2(4  x )(2  x )

x o4

x o4

3.61. lim
xo7

x  6 1
.
x 7

. ,

0
0

. +
.
( b)(a2 + ab + b2) = a3 b3.
, , , +

( x  6)2  3 x  6  1 .

, :

lim
x o7

216

2
x  6  1 lim ( 3 x  6  1)( 3 ( x  6)  3 x  6  1)
= x o7
=
x 7
( x  7)( 3 ( x  6)2  3 x  6  1)

III.

= lim
x o7

= lim
x o7

= lim

x  6 1
( x  7)( 3 ( x  6)2  3 x  6  1)

x 7
( x  7)( ( x  6)2  3 x  6  1)
3

x o7 3

( x  6)  x  6  1
2

1
1
= .
3
111

. , x o a x o f f(x) +
(
{f; f} ).
+

0
f
.
0
f

4
1
 2
3.62. lim
.
x o2
x 2 x 4
. , ,

( {f; f} }). +
,
. +
{f; f}
0
f
. +
0
f
( 2):

4
1
x 24
x 2
lim
 2
= lim
=
= lim
x o2
xo2 ( x  2)( x  2)
x  2 x  4 xo2 ( x  2)( x  2)
= lim
xo2

1
1
= .
x 2
4
217

.., ..

3.63. lim x  x 2  5 x .
x of

. +
, , +
, , :

2
2
lim x  x 2  5 x = lim ( x  x  5 x )( x  x  5 x ) =
x of
xof
x  x 2  5x

= xlim
of
=

x 2  x 2  5x
x  x 2  5x

5 x

= lim

x of

x  x 2  5x

= lim

x of

5
1  1  5x

5
= 2,5.
11

V.

lim
x o0

sin x
= 1.
x

0
0

( ).
3.64. lim
x o0

sin kx
.
sin lx

sin kx
kx
kx k
sin kx
kx
lim
lim
lim
=
=
= .
x o0 sin lx
x o0 sin lx
xo0 lx
l
lx
lx
lim
xo0

218

sin kx
sin lx
lim
.
x
o
0
kx
lx

III.

3.65. lim
x o0

x2
.
1  cos x

1  cos x

lim
x o0

x
= lim
x o0
1  cos x

= 2lim
xo0

x
2

x
sin
2

lim
x o0

2sin 2

x
2sin
2

= 2lim

x
2

x
sin
2

x o0

x
.
2

x
4

x
sin
2

= 2 11 = 2.

3.66. lim
x o0

cos kx  cos lx
.
x2

.
cos kx cos lx = 2sin

kl
kl
x sin
x.
2
2

kl
kl
x sin
x
2sin
cos kx  cos lx
2
2
lim
lim
=
=
x o0
x o0
x2
xx

= 2lim
xo0

sin

kl kl
kl kl
sin
x
x
2
2 = 2 k  l k  l =
2
2 lim
x
o
0
kl
kl
2
2
x
x
2
2

k 2  l 2
l 2  k2
=
.
2
2
219

.., ..

kl
kl
x
sin
x
2
2
lim
.
kl
x o0
kl
x
x
2
2

sin
lim
x o0

V. , x o f x o a f(x) +
(+
{0 f} ).
+

f
).
f

0
0

3.67. lim (1  x )tg


x o1

Sx
2

. , +
+
( {0 f} ),
,
.

lim (1  x )tg

Sx
2

x o1

= lim sin
x o1

220

Sx
2

S
lim
xo1

lim
x o1

= lim
x o1

cos

Sx
2 =

Sx
2

(1  x )
(1  x )
= 1 lim
=
x o1
S Sx
Sx
sin( 
)
cos
2 2
2

(1  x )

(1  x )sin

sin (1  x )
2

1 =

III.

VI. , x o f x o a f(x) +
, , +
.

x

1
1

lim 1  = lim 1  D D = e .
xof
D o0
x

x 1
.
x 1

3.68. lim
x of

1 x
o 1 , x o f ,
1 x

. f ( x )

x o f .

{1f } .
x

x 1
x 111
2
x 1
lim

= lim
= lim

=
x of
x
of
x
of
x 1
x 1

x 1 x 1
2x

x 1 x 1

2x
2
2
2

x
lim
lim
1

1

=
=
= lim e 1 =
x of
x of
x of
x  1
x  1

=e

2x
x of x 1
lim

= e

2x
lim x
x of x 1
x

lim

= e

x of 1 1
x

2
= e .

4x  1

4x  3

3.69. lim
x of

3 x 2

4x 1
lim
x of 4 x  3

3 x 2

4x  3  3  1
= lim

x of
4x  3

3 x 2

4
4x  3

= lim
x of 4 x  3
4 x  3

3 x 2

221

.., ..
4 x 3

= lim 1 

x of

x
4
3


12 x  8
x
x of 4 x  3
x

 lim

= e

= e

 12
4

4(3 x  2)
4 x 3

12 x  8

= lim (e 1 ) 4 x  3 = e

 lim

x of

12 x  8
4 x 3

x of

3
= e .
5x

3.70. lim 3 x  2

x 2 1

xo1

.
5x

lim 3 x  2

x 2 1

x o1

5x

= lim 1  3 x  1  2

x 2 1

x o1

= lim 1  3( x  1) 3( x 1)
1

x
15
x 1

xo1

= lim 1  3( x  1)

5x
( x 1)( x 1)

xo1

15 x

= lim e x 1 = e x o1 x 1 = e 2 .
x o1
15 x

lim

15

3.4.6.
:
3.71. lim

(n  1)2
.
2n 2

3.73. lim

1000n3  3n2
. 3.74. lim
nof
0,001n4  100n2  1

nof

nof

3.75. lim

nof

222

nof

n 3  2n  1  3 n 4  1

nof 4

3.76. lim

3.72. lim

n 6  6 n5  2  5 n 7  3 n 4  1

n!
.
(n  1)! n !

n3  100n 2  1
.
100n 2  15n
3

n 3  2n  1
.
n2

3.77. lim
nof

(n  2)! (n  1)!
.
(n  3)!

III.

1  2  3  ...  n n
 .
n2
2

3.78. lim

(n  2)! (n  1)!
.
(n  2)! (n  1)!

3.80. lim

x2  5
.
x2  3

3.81. lim

x 2  2x  1 .
x3  x

3.82. lim

x 3  3 x 2  2x
.
x2  x  6

3.83. lim

2x 2  5x  7
.
3x 2  x  2

3.84. lim

x2  x  6
.
2 x 2  x  21

3.85. lim1

8x 3 1
.
6x 2  5x  1

3.86. lim

x3  x  2
.
x3  x2  x 1

3.87. lim
xo1

nof

x o2

xo2

x o3

x o1

x 1  2

3.88. lim

x  2 1

x o3

x o1

3 x

x o9

xo0

xo 2

3
1

.
2
1 x 1 x

2
2
3.94. lim ( x  1 x  1 ).

xof

xo0

1 x  3 1 x
.
x

x orf

3.98. lim

1  sin x  cos x
.
1  sin x  cos x

3.99. lim

xo0

3.95. lim ( x 2  1  x ).
3.97. lim

3.100. lim

6x  1  5
3

1  cos x
.
x2

x o0

2 x

x o4

3.93. lim

x 2  2

3.91. lim

3.96. lim
x o0

2x  1  3

x o4

1  3 x  1  2x
.
x  x2

3.92. lim

xo1

3.89. lim

2x  7  5

3.90. lim

3.79. lim
nof

xo0

D o0

1  cos3 x
.
x sin 2 x
tg D  sin D

D3

cos(a  x )  cos(a  x )
.
x
223

.., ..

3.101. lim

1  cos 8 x
.
1  cos 4 x

3.102. lim

arctg 2 x
.
5x

3.103. lim

cos x  cos 3 x
.
x sin 2 x

3.104. lim

sin( x  1)
.
1 x2

xo0

xo0

x 7
3.105. lim

xof
x 5

xo0

2 x 4

x 3

x 5

3.107. lim
x of

2x  5
3.109. lim

xof
2x  1

3x  4
3.106. lim

xof
3x  5

3x

3x  2

xo1

1  2x .

3.108. lim

3.110. lim 2 x  3 x 2 .

xo0

x 1

3x

x o2

3.111. lim 2  x 1 x .

3.112. lim 3  2 x 1 x .
x o1

3x

x o1

3.113. lim (2x + 3)(ln(x + 2) lnx).


x of

3.114. lim (x 4)(ln(2 3) ln(5 3x)).


x of

3.115. limS
xo 4

S4  x

sin( S  x )
3
4

1  cos 3 x
3.117. lim
.
x o0
x sin 2 x

224

3.116. lim
x o0

1  sin x  1  sin x
.
tg x

3.118. lim 3 x  5
x o2

2x
x 2 4

III.

3.5. .
. .
f(x) = , :
1) ;
2) lim f ( x ) ;
x oa

3) = ,

lim f ( x )
x oa

f (a) .

, +
= , =
.
y = f(x) = 0,
0 = 'x , +
0 = 'y ,

lim 'y = lim ( f ( x  x0 )  f ( x0 )) = 0.

x o x0

x o x0

= f(x) (, b), +
.
= f(x) 0
(),

lim f(x) = f(x0) ( lim f(x) = f(x0)).

x o x 0 0

x o x 0 0

= f(x) [a, b], +


(, b) =
x = b .
.
= f(x), 0,
.
0 = f(x),

lim f(x), lim f(x) ,

x o x0 0

x o x 0 0

225

.., ..

lim f (x ) z f (x 0 )
+
x o x0 0

lim f (x ) z lim f (x )
x o x 0 0
x o x0 0

lim f (x ) z f ( x 0 )

x o x 0 0

4) lim f(x) = lim f(x) z f(x0) + .


x o x 0 0

x o x0 0

0 = f(x),
lim f(x), lim f(x) .
x o x 0 0

x o x0 0

= 0
lim f(x) lim f(x), .
x o x0 0

x o x 0 0

+
:
1) ,
+ ;
2)
, ,
;
3) ,
, , , , +
()
,
, .

3.5.1.
3.119. y

. y

1
.
x 4
2

1
,
x2  4

= r 2. ,
226

III.

: f < < 2, 2 < x < 2, 2 < x < f .


1 = 2 2 = 2,
. 1 2 .

.
)

lim y = lim

x o20

xo20

1
= f ,
x 4
2

x o 2  0 2 4 +
,

1
+
x 4
2

lim y = lim

x o20

x o20

1
= f ,
x 4
2

x o 2  0 2 4
, .
, = 2 .
)

lim y = lim

x o 20

x o 2 0

x o 2  0
2 4

, +

1
= f ,
x 4
2

1

x 4
2

+
;

0
1
4

. 3.34.

227

.., ..

lim y = lim

x o 2 0

x o2  0

1
= f ,
x 4
2

x o 2  0 2 4 +
,

1
+
x 4
2

.
, = 2 . . .
3.34.
3.120. y

| x 1|
x 1
x 1

.
.
= 1. , = 1
.

lim (

| x 1|
( x  1)
x  1) = lim (
x  1 ) = lim ( 1) = 0.
xo10
x o10
x 1
x 1

lim (

| x 1|
lim ( x  1 x  1 ) = lim ( 1) = 2.
x  1) = x o
10
x o10
x 1
x 1

x o10

x o10

, = 1 ,
.
.

lim y lim y = 2 0 = 2.

x o10

x o10

 x  1, x  1
y
.
x  1, x ! 1
.
3.35.

Y
y=x1
y=x1
1

1
2

. 3.35.

228

III.

3.121.

2 x , 0 d d 1,

f ( x ) 4  2 , 1  x  2,5,
2 x  7, 2,5 d x  f.

, +
.
. f(x) +
t 0. = 1 = 2,5,
.
f(x) , ,
, ,
.
= 1 = 2,5:

lim f(x) = lim 2 x = 2;

xo10

xo10

lim f(x) = lim (4 2x) = 2.

xo10

x o10

f(x) = 1
f(1) = 2 1 = 2. , = 1
: = 1

lim f(x) = lim f(x) = 1, = 1 f(x) +

xo10

x o10

lim f(x) = lim (4 2x) = 1;


x o2,50

x o2,50

lim f(x) = lim (2x 7) = 2.


x o2,50

x o2,50

, ,
. = 2,5
+ . :

lim f(x) lim f(x) = 2 (1) = 1.

x o2,50

x o2,50

. . 3.36.
229

.., ..

Y
2
y = 4 2x
y

2 x

y = 2x 7
2 2,5 3

3,5

1
2
. 3.36.

3.5.2.
3.122. . , +
, :
) y

x
;
x 9

) y

x

) y

230

1
x 1

x 2
;
| x 2|

e ;

) y

4
;
x  2x  1

) y

1
;
x  3x 2  4x

) y

 x , d 1,

2
 1 , ! 1.

III.

3.6. ,
( )

,
, .

3.6.1.
() +
. 1% 0,01.
: 7% = 0,07; 7% 0,07.
, (
), 100.
3.123. 5 ( )
500%; 0,675 67,5%.
, +
100.
3.124. 24,5% = 0,245; 3,5% = 0,035.

3.6.2.
1 . .
100 .
3.125.
3000 . 120%.
?

3000 120
100

3600 () .

2 . . +
( ) +
, ,
100.
3.126. 12,5%
. 5000 ?
231

.., ..

5000 100
12,5

40000 () .

3 . ( +
).
( ) 100.
3.127. 160
164 .
?

164
100 102,5% .
160

3.6.3.
(,
) +
.
( )
:

p .
100


, .
, +
, .
. . .
, ,
:

1 = +

Ap
= + = (1+);
100

:
2 = + + = (1+2);
+++++++++++
n = (1 + ni).
232

III.

n = (1 + ni).
3.128. = 5000, = 4,
:
3 = 5000(1 + 3 0,04) = 5000 1,12 = 5600.
,
, ,
.

3.6.4.

n .
:
1+ : 1 = + = (1 + );
2+ : 2 = 1 + 1 = (1 + )2;
++++++++++++
n+ : n = n1 + n1 = (1 + )n.
() n
n n = (1 + )n.

n , +
:

n = (1 + i)n.
1 + = r .
3.129. = 250000 . . +
4 100% . +
.
. k +
k+ . = 250000 . . i

100
= 1
100

: k = (1 + )k :
k = 250 103 (1 + 1)k = 250 103 2k, k = 1,4.
233

.., ..

:
k,
0
k
250 103

1
5 105

2
106

3
2 106

4
4 106

3.6.5. ,
,

i
(
m

),
:

n = (1 +

i mn
) .
m

, m o f ,
:

lim n = lim (1 +

mof

mof

i mn
) = n.
m

n = n.
+ ,
.
3.130. 2000 . .
10% .
n n = 1, 2, 3, 5 I 10.
.

n = n; =

10
= 0,1; n = 20000,1n.
100

:
n,

10

n, . . 2000 2210,34 2442,81 2699,72 3297,44 5436,54

234

III.

3.6.6.
, n, i, n,
=

p
, . ,
100

.
,
n = (1 +

p n
) , , +
100

ln An  ln A
An n

;
p
=
100
;

1

p

ln(1  100
)
A

p n
) =
100

An
.
p n
(1 
)
100
, +
.
n. D n, ,
, :
D = n A.
n
, :
n = (1 + n).
, :
A = An(1 +

An
.
1  ni

: n = (1 + )n,
:

An
.
(1  i)n
235

.., ..

1
1
=
p .
1 i
1  100

3.131. (+
), 3 7 . .
20% +
.
.

An
, n = 3, 3 = 7 106 (. .),
(1  i)mn
= 4, =

p
20
=
= 0,2;
100 100

7 106
7 106
=
=
= 785105.
8,916
(1  0,2)12
3.6.7.
3.132. 2 . . . 6
10% .
.
. Ak

k+ . = 2 . . ., =

10
= 0,1, +
100

k = (1 + ki) k = 2(1 + 0,1i), k = 1,6. +


:
K
Ak

0
2

1
2,2

2
2,4

3
2,6

4
2,8

5
3

6
3,2

, 0 = , 1, 2, ... , k +
0 = 2 . . .
200 . .

236

III.

3.133. 800 . . 3
80% .
.
. n = (1 + )n, n = 3,

80
p
=
= 0,8.
100
100
A3 = 800(1 + 0,8)3 = 800(1,8)3 = 800 5,832 = 4665,5 ( . .).

A = 800 . ., p = 80%, i =

3.134.
2 +
1000 . ., 4 600 . .
,
, .
. n = n. 2 = ()2;
4 = ()4. () () +
. ()= 22; ()=44. ,
() = 2(), :
1000 2 = 1200 4.

2 = 1,2; 2 = ln 1,2; i =

1
ln 1,2 = 0,09116; p = i100% = 9,1%.
2

237

.., ..

V.

, , , +
, , , +
. +
, .

4.1. .
. .

4.1.1.
y = f(x)
'y 'x +
, 'x o 0 :

lim

' x o0

'y
f ( x  'x )  f ( x )
= 'lim
= f c( x ) .
x o0
'x
'x

f c( x ) y c ,

dy
. +
dx

f c( x ) f(x) ,
.
0,
f c( x 0 ) ,

lim

' x o0

f (x0  'x)  f (x0 )


= f c( x 0 ) ,
'x

'x o 0 + . +
.
238

IV.

( )
. , 0,
.
y c = f(x)
:
. 'x ,
x  'x , +

y  'y

f ( x  'x ) .

. +
,

'y

f ( x  'x )  f ( x ) .

, +

'y
'x

f ( x  'x )  f ( x )
.
'x

V. , 'x o 0 .
y c = f(x).
4.1. lim

' x o0

'y

'x

:
1) y

1
;
x

2) = cos 3x.

.
, :
1) y
) y  'y

1
:
x

1
;
x  'x
239

.., ..

1
1
'x

= 
;
x  'x
x
x ( x  'x )

) 'y =
)

'y
'x
= 
;
'x
x ( x  'x )

IV) y c = lim

' x o0

'y
'x
1
) =  2.
= lim (
'
x
o
0
'x
x ( x  'x )
x

2) = cos 3x.
) y  'y
) 'y

cos 3( x  'x ) ;

cos 3( x  'x )  cos 3 x

'y
= 
'x

2sin(3 x 

3
3
2sin(3 x  'x )sin 'x ;
2
2

3
3
'x )sin 'x
2
2
;
'x

3
sin 'x
'y
3
2
IV) y c = lim
= 2 lim sin(3 x  'x ) lim
=
' x o0 'x
' x o0
' x o0
'x
2

3
3
sin 'x
2
2 = 2sin 3 x 3
= 2sin 3 x lim
' x o0
3
2
'x
2

3sin 3 x .

4.1.2.
+
.
:
1. (C )c

0.

2. ( x )cx

1.

3. (u  v  w)c
240

ucx  vcx  wcx .

IV.

4. (Cu)c C ucx .
5. (uv)c

ucx v  uvcx .

u c

ucx v  uvcx
,
v2

6.

( , u, v ,
).
7. y = f( M (x)) , y = f(u), u = M (x).
u

fuc(u) i uxc

M c( x ) , ,
yxc

fuc(u) uxc ( x ) .

, +
:
8. y

a
;
u

9. ) y = un;
) y

u;

a
ucx (a ).
u2

ycx

yxc

nu n1 uxc .

yxc

1
2 u

uxc .

10. y = sinu;

yxc

cos u uxc .

11. y = cosu;

ycx

 sin u ucx .

12. y = tgu;

yxc

1
uxc .
cos 2 u

13. y = ctgu;

yxc

14. y = arcsinu;

yxc

1
uxc .
sin 2 u

1
1  u2

uxc .

241

.., ..

15. y = arccosu;

ycx

16. y = arctgu;

yxc

1
uxc .
1  u2

17. y = arcctgu;

yxc

18. a) y = au;

yxc

a u ln a uxc ;

) y = eu;

yxc

e u uxc .

19. a) y = logau;

yxc

1
uxc ;
u ln a

yxc

1
uxc .
u

) y = lnu;
20. a) y = uv; u

yxc

1  u2

ucx .

1
uxc .
1  u2

M(x) , v \ (x) ,

v u v 1 uxc  u v ln u vxc .

4.2. ; +
:
1) y = x2 5x + 4;

x +

3) y =

2) y

8
;
x2

1
1
5
2 +
;
x
3x 3
x

4) y = (3x2 + 5ax 2a2) a 2  3 x 2 ;


5) y =

7) y =
242

x2
;
x2 1
3

2  x4 ;

6) y = (5x3 + 4x2 + 8)4;

8) y =

3
;
(3 x  5)3
2

IV.

9) f(x) =

3 +

1
+ 6
25 x

, f c(1) ;

12) y = 3sin2x;

1 x
;
x
13) y = sin35x cos53x;

14) y = arcsin2x;

15) y = arctg x ;

16) y = arccos 3x;

17) y = arctg4 3 x ;

10) y = sin 2x2;

11) y = tg

18) y = 4sin

3x

 arcsin
20) y = e

19) y = e

;
3

21) y = lncos3x;

2
23) y = ln( x  1  x ) ;

22) y = ln5ctg4x;
24) y = ln 4

x 2  x 3

1  tg M
;
1  tg M

25) y = xx.

x 2 )c  (5 x )c  4c
1) y c ( x 2  5 x  4)c (

(3)

8
1) yc 2
x

8
8
 4 ( x 2 )c  4 2 x
x
x

2

x  5 1  0

2x  5 .

(9 ; 4; 1)

16
.
x3

(8; 9 )

2) ,
:
1

y = x 2 + 5x

1
3

x 2 +

1 3
x .
3

(9, 4, 2), :

yc =

1
1
1
 1
5 4
1 2 1
1 
1
x + 5x 3 (2)x21 + (3) x 31 = x 2 + x 3 +
3
2
2
3

243

.., ..

+ 2x3 x4 =

1
2 x

5
3

3 x

2
1
.
3
x
x4

3) (5) u = 3x 2 + 5 ax 2 a 2 ,

a2  3 x 2

y c (3 x 2  5ax  2a 2 )c a 2  3 x 2  (3 x 2  5ax  2a 2 )( a 2  3 x 2 )c

(6 x  5a) a 2  3 x 2  (3 x 2  5ax  2a 2 )

1
2 a2  3 x 2


x
6N

yc

5a 2  30ax 2  27 x 3
a2  3 x 2

5) (6), :

dy x 2 c ( x 2 )c( x 2  1)  x 2 ( x 2  1)c 2 x ( x 2  1)  x 2 2 x
=
=
=
=
dx x 2  1
( x 2  1)2
( x 2  1)2
2x 3  2x  2x 3
2x
=
=
.
2
2
2
( x  1)
( x  1)2
6) yc

4(5 x 3  4 x 2  8) (5 x 3  4 x 2  8)c 4(5 x 3  4 x 2  8)3 u





u(15 x  8 x ).
2

7) yc

( 3 2  x 4 )c ((3  x 4 ) 3 )c
2

1
(3  x 4 ) 3 4 x 3
3

244

1
1
1
(3  x 4 ) 3 (2  x 4 )c
3

4x 3
3 3 (2  x 4 )2

IV.

8) (8),
yc

2
2
((3 x 2  5)3 )c 
3(3 x 2  5)2 6 x

2
6
2
(3 x  5)
(3 x  5)6


36 x
.
(3 x 2  5)4

9) , +
(18), :
1
1
1
2
1 c
f c( x ) (3 x  25 x  6 x )c 3 x ln 3  25 x ln 2 (5 x )c 
x

1 c
6 ln6 x 2

1

x2

1
1 1
1 5 x
x2
3 ln 3   2 ln 2 (5)  6 ln6 x 2
x
2

1
x

1 1x
1 x 2  12
5 x
3
ln
3
5
2
ln
2
6 x ln6.



2
x2
1

f c(1) . = 1.

5ln 2
91
+ 3ln6 =
ln2.
32
32
10) ,
22, 22. +
.
f c(1) = 3ln3

y c (sin 2 x 2 )c cos 2 x 2 (2 x 2 )c cos 2 x 2 4 x

4 x cos 2 x 2 .

11) ,
,
:

yc = tg

1
x2

1  x c
=
x

1
.
x 1
cos2
x

1 x  (x 1)1
1
1
1  x c
=
x =

x
1

x
1
x2
2
2

cos
cos
x
x

245

.., ..

12) yc = (3sin 2 x )c = 3(sin 2 x )c = 3 2sin x (sin x )c =


= 6sinx cosx = 3sin2x.
3 . +
, sin x, +
sinx; .
13) y c (sin 3 5 x cos5 3 x )c (sin 3 5 x )c cos5 3 x  sin 3 5 x (cos5 3 x )c

= 3sin25x (sin5 x )c cos53x + sin35xcos43x (cos3 x )c =


= 3sin25xcos5x 5cos53x + sin35xcos43x(sin3x 3) =
= 15sin25xcos5xcos53x 15 sin35xcos43xsin3x =
= 15sin25xcos43x(cos5xcos3x sin5xsin3x) =
= 15sin25xcos43xcos(5x+3x) = 15sin25xcos43xcos8x.
14) (14): y xc

1
1  u2

uxc .

y = arcsinu : +
,
,
. :

yc = (arcsin 2 x )c =
15) yxc

(arctg u)cx

1
1  (2 x )

(2 x )c =

1
1  4x

2 =

2
1  4x 2

1
ucx .
1  u2

, y = arctgu ,
1, 1
, ,
.

y = arctg x ,

yc =

1
1 ( x )

( x )c =

16) y = arccos23x.
246

1
1
1
=
.

1 x 2 x
2 x (1  x )

IV.

.
arccos 3x, arccos3x, 3.

yc (arccos 2 3 x )c = 2arccos3x (arccos3 x )c =

6arccos 3 x
.
3 = 
1  9x 2
1  (3 x )2
1

= 2arccos 3x 

17) y = arctg4 3 x .

c
c
3
yc = arctg 4 3 x = 4arctg3 x arctg 3 x =

1 ( x )
1

= 4arctg3 3 x 

= 

4arctg 3 3 x
3(1  3 x 2 )

x2

1 1 1
1
x3 =
x 
2
3
3

1
(
x
)

x c = 4arctg
3

33

4 arctg 3 3 x
3 3 x 2 (1  3 x 2 )

sin 2 3 x

18) y 4
.
(18) :

y c = (4
= 4sin

sin 2 3 x

3x

)c = 4sin

3x

ln 4 (sin 2 x )c = 4sin

3x

ln 4 2sin 3 x (sin 3 x )c =

ln 4 2sin 3 x cos3 x 3 = 3sin6 x 4sin

3x

ln 4 .

x 2  x 3

.
19) y e
(18) :

yc = e

x 2  x 3

= e

c=e

x 2  x 3

2 x2  x  3
e  arcsin

c
x 2  x  3 =e

x 2  x 3

20) y

x 2  x 3

(2x + 1) =

2 x  x 3
2

(2 x  1)e

( x 2  x  3)c =

x 2  x 3

2 x2  x  3

.
247

.., ..

 arcsin
yc = e

= e  arcsin
= e arcsin

c = e

(3arcsin2

 arcsin 3 x

( arcsin 3 x )c =

x ) (arcsin x )c

1( x)2

(3arcsin2 x )

 arcsin 3 x

= e

(arcsin2

x c =

1
3arcsin 2 xe  arcsin
1
x)
=
1 x 2 x
2 x  x2

21) y = lncos3x.
(19), y = lnu, y c

1
uc .
u

lnu, , +
, ,
.

yc = (lncos3 x )c =

1
1
(sin 3x) 3 = 3tg3x.
(cos3 x )c =
cos 3x
cos3x

22) y = ln5ctg4x.
, +
.

yc = (ln 5 ctg 4 x )c = 5ln4ctg 4x (ln ctg 4 x )c =


= 5ln4ctg4x

1
ctg 4x

1
sin 4 x
1

4
 sin 2 4x 4 = 20 ln ctg 4x cos4 x sin 2 4 x =

20 ln 4 ctg 4 x
40 ln 4 ctg 4 x
=
.
sin 4 x cos 4 x
sin 8 x
23) y

yc
248

ln( x  1  x 2 ) .

ln x 

1 x2

c = x  11 x x  1 x c =
2

IV.

1
1
x
2x =
1 
1 
=
2
2
x  1 x 2 1  x
1 x2
x  1 x

x  1 x2

24) y

ln 4

1 x2  x
1 x2

1
1 x2

1  tg M
.
1  tg M

+
, .

y=

yc =
=

1
((ln(1 + tg M ) ln(1 tg M )).
4

1
1
(ln(1  tg M )  ln(1  tg M ))c = (ln(1  tg M )c  ln(1  tg M )c) =
4
4

1
1
1
1 1 1
(
(1  tg M )c
(1  tg M )c ) =

4 1 tgM
1 tgM
4 1 tgM cos2 M

1  tg M  1  tg M

=
(1  tg M )(1  tg M )

1
1
1 1
2 = cos 2 M
4
1 tgM cos M

cos2 M
1
1
1
2
1
=
=
.

2
2
2
2
2
2 cos M (cos M  sin M ) 2cos 2M
4 cos M 1  tg M

25) y = xx.
+ y = uv,
u M ( x ) , v \ ( x ) , :

y xc

v u v 1 uxc  u v ln u vxc .

yc ( x x )c x x x 1 ( x )c  x x ln x ( x )c = x xx1 1 + xxlnx 1 =
= xx + xxlnx = xx(1 + lnx).
249

.., ..

4.1.3.

, , +
,
.
.
.
,
. ,
:

y (M ( x ))\ ( x ) ,
.
4.3. :
) = ( 1) 3 ( x  1)2 ( x  2) ;
) y = (sinx)cosx.
.
) = ( 1) 3 ( x  1)2 ( x  2) .
,
.
ln = ln(( 1) 3 ( x  1)2 ( x  2) ),
lny = ln(x 1) +

(ln y)cx

1
3
ln(x + 1) + ln(x 2),
2
3

3
1
(ln( x  1)  ln( x  1)  ln( x  2))c ,
2
3

2x 2  3 x  1
1
1
3
1
1
1
yc =
+
+
=
,

y
( x 2  1)( x  2)
2 x 1
x 1
3 x 1

yc = y
250

2x 2  3x  1
2x 2  3x  1
2
=
( 1) 3 ( x  1) ( x  2) =
( x 2  1)( x  2) ( x 2  1)( x  2)

IV.

2x 2  3x  1
3

( x  1)( x  2)2

) y = y = (sinx)cos x;
lny = ln((sinx)cos x) = cosxln(sinx),

(ln y)c (cos x ln(sin x ))c (cos x )c ln sin x  cos x (ln sin x )c
= sinxlnsinx + cosx

1
cosx,
sin x

cos 2 x
1
,
yc = sinxlnsinx +
sin x
y

cos2 x
cos2 x
) = (sinx)cos x(sinxlnsinx +
).
yc = y(sinxlnsinx +
sin x
sin x
4.1.4.
4.4. (, b, c ):
1) y

x2  x 1
;
x2 1

2) y

1 x2
x

1 x3 ;
3) y
5) y = x4 tg2x;
7) y = ecosxsin2x;

4) y = ctg 3 1  x 2 ;
6) y = sin2(cosx);
8) y = log3(x2 1);

9) y = x arccosx;
11) y = (1 + ln sinx)2;

10) y = ln(arccos2x);
12) y = arcsin2(ln(a2 + x2));

13) y = arcctg

15) y =

x
2

x
1 x

1  ln x
;
x

14) y = sin2

x 2  1 + ln( x  x 2  1 );

16) y = (x2 + 4)arctg

x
;
2
251

.., ..

17) y

2arcsin

19) y

e arctg

2x

18) y = arctg3e5x;

1 ln(2 x  3)

2
20) y = x 4  x + 4arcsin

x
;
2

2
22) y = (x2 + 1)sinx;
21) y = 2ln(2x 3 1  4x ) 6arcsin2x;
x
23) y = ln x;
24) y = (1 4x3)cos4x;
1

25) y = (1 ctg3x) x ;
27) y = arctg2

1
;
x

3x
3
26) y = lnsin arctg e ;

28) y = earcsin2x;

29) y 2 ln x ;

30) y = arccos 1  3 x ;

31) y = x3arctgx3;

2
32) y = ln(xsinx 1  x );

x  2(3  x )4
;
( x  1)5

33) y
35) y

ln( ax 2  bx  c )

34) y = xlnx;
36) y = ln arctg 1  x 2 ;

37) y = arctg(ln(ax + b));

38) y

arcsin 4 x
;
1 4x

39) y = 10xtgx;

40) y

( x  2)2 3 x  1
;
( x  5)3

41) y

(2 x ) x ;

42) y = ln arctg
44) y

43) y = sin2xsinx2;
45) y

252

ctg x2

(tg 2 x )

1
;
1 x

1 x x  3 ;

IV.

4.2. .
. , .

4.2.1.

f(x, y) = 0, ,
.
, f(x, y) = 0
, . +
,
f(x, y) = 0 , x,
yc .
4.5. yc :
) x3 + y3 3axy = 0;
) xy = y.
.
a) ( x 3 )c  ( y 3 )c  (3axy)c 0c ,
3x2 + 3y2 yc 3a( x c y + x yc ) = 0,
3x2 + 3y2 yc 3ay 3ax yc = 0,

y2 yc ax yc = ay x2,

yc (2 ) = 2,

yc

ay  x 2
.
y 2  ax

) xy = yx.
(
), , .
ln xy = ln yx,
yln x = xln y,

( y ln x )cx

( x ln y)cx ,
253

.., ..

yc ln x  y(ln x )c x c ln y  x (ln y)c ,


y c ln x  y

1
x

1ln y  x

1
yc ,
y

ycx ln x  y
y ln y  xyc
=
,
y
x
yc xy ln x + y2 = xy ln y + x2 yc ,
yc xy ln x x2 = xy ln y y2,
yc (xy ln x x2) = xy ln y y2,

yc =

y( x ln y  y)
xy ln y  y 2
.
2 =
xy ln x  x
x ( y ln x  x )

4.2.2.

. +
,

t, . +
:

x M (t ),

y \ (t ).
.

x a cos t ,
0 d t d 2S .

y b sin t .

x M (t ),

y \ (t ).
, :
254

IV.

yxc =

ytc
.
x tc

dyc
d 2 y dyc
=
= dt .
dx
dx 2
dx
dt
4.6. t

S
4

d2y
dy

dx 2
dx

cos t  t sin t

sin t  t cos t .
.
1)

yc
dy
= t .
x tc
dx

x tc

(cos t  t sin t )ct = sin t + sin t + t cos t = t cos t,

ytc (sin t  t cos t )ct = cos t cos t + t sin t = t sin t,


t sin t
dy
=
= tg t,
dx
t cos t
dy
dx t

= tg

S
4

= 1.

d2y
=
2)
dx 2

1
d ( y ')
d
(tg t )
1
cos2 t =
dt = dt
=
.
dx
t cos t
t cos3 t
t cos t
dt
255

.., ..

d2y
dx 2 t

16

S = S
=
=
=
=
3
cos 3 S
2
2
S
2
S

2
S
4
4
4

4 2

8 2

4 8

4.2.3.
yc y .
yc , +
, y = f(x),

ycc f cc( x ) ,

d 2y
.
dx 2

+ :
:

( y cc)c

y ccc

f ccc( x )

d3y
.
dx 3

( y ccc)c = yIV = fIV(x) =

d4y
.
dx 4

n :

( y n1 )c = yn = f n(x) =

dny
.
dx n

+ +

.
+
n+ , :
(uv)(n) = u(n)v + nu(n1) v c +

+
256

n(n  1) (n2)
u
v cc + +
2!

n(n  1)(n  1)...(n  k  1) (nk) (k)


u v + + n uc v(n1) + uv (n).
k!

IV.

4.7. y = 3x4 + 5x3 4x2 + 8. (4).


.
yc = 12x3 + 15x2 8x;

y cc = ( yc)c = 36x2 + 30x 8;


y ccc = ( ycc)c = 72x + 30;
y(4) = ( y (3) )c = 72.
4.8. y = sin2x, (5).
.
yc = 2sinxcosx = sin2x;

y cc = ( yc)c = 2cos2x;
y(3) = ( ycc)c = 4sin2x;
y(4) = ( y (3) )c = 8cos2x;
y(5) = ( y (4) )c = 16sin2x;
4.9. y = xm. y(k).
.
y c = mxm1;

y cc = ( y c)c = m(m1)xm2;
y ccc = m(m1)(m2)xm3;
y(4) = m(m1)(m2)(m3)xm4;

y(k) = m(m1)(m2) (mk+1)xmk.

4.2.4.
4.10. :
1) ylnx xlny = x + y;
2) xsiny ycosx = 0;
4) exy (x + 3y) = 0;
3) ex+y xy = 0;
5) ysinx + cos(x y) = cosy;

6) ln

x
x + 2y = 0;
y

7) exy x2 + y2 = 0.
257

.., ..

4.11.

dy
d 2y

, +
dx 2
dx

x 1  t2

1)

t t

x a(t  sin t )
;
y a(1  cos t )

2)

t 1
t ;
t 1
t

x
3)
y

x M (1  sin M )
;
y M cos M

5)

7)

e t sin t
e t cost

ln(1  t 2 )

t  arctg t

4)

x
6)
y

1 t2
t2 1
t ;
t2 1

4.12.
) y

1
;
1 x2

) y = (1 + x2)arctg x;

) y

ln( x  1  x 2 ) ;

) y

) y =

258

1  x 2 arcsin x.

a2  x 2 ;

IV.

4.3. .

4.3.1. .
, , :
1) ;
2) .
,
. ,
f(x) f c( x ) ,
f(x)
.
:
, S = f(t), t. +
, S t , .
t t  't

S  'S

f (t  't ) .

'S

f (t  't )  f (t ) .

, , +
:

V =

'S f (t  't )  f (t )
=
.
't
't

V ,

'S
't o 0 .
't

'S
f (t  't )  f (t )
= lim
= f c(t ) .
'
t
o
0
't
't
, S = f(t),
S = f(t) t:
V = lim

' t o0

V=

dS
= f c(t ) .
dt
259

.., ..

4.13. 12 = 3.
?
.
t t, :
12

dy
dx
= 32
.
dt
dt

x2
dy dx
:
=
.
4
dx dt
|| < 2 1, || = 2 1
|| > 2 1.
:
1) 2 < x <2 ;
2) x r2 ;
3) x < 2 x > 2 .

= f(), . 4.1.

'y
'x


E , ,

Q,

x  'x ,
.

'x o 0 , Q
,
E D ,

260

Y
f(x+ 'x )

'y

f(x)

P
y = f(x)

D
0

'x

E
x
. 4.1.

x+ 'x

IV.

.
, :

lim

' x o0

'y
= f c( x ) = tg D .
'x

, +

.

4.3.2.
= f(x) (. 4.2).
1(1; 1)
Y

1, ,
+
1(1,1)
. ,
k +
1 :
1 = k( 1).
0
k f c( x1 ) ,
:

y = f(x)

. 4.2.

1 = f c( x1 ) ( 1).
, +
.
, k
k :
k = 

k = 

1
.
f c( x1 )

, = f(x) 1(1; 1):


261

.., ..

1 = 

1
( 1).
f c( x1 )

4.14. :
1) = 2 4 , 1 = 1;
2) = 34 52 + 4 1 = 1, 1 = 2;
3) 43 32 + 62 5 82 + 9 + 14 = 0
1(2; 3).
.
1)
1 = 1 :
1 = 12 4 1 = 3.
+
yc
1 = 1.

yc ( x 2  4 x )c 2 x  4 ,

yc(1) = 21 4 = 2.
1, 1, yc(1) , +
:
(3) = 2( 1)

2 + + 1 = 0,

+3=

1
( 1)
2

2 7 = 0.
2) , 1(1; 2) :
3(1)4 5(1)2 + 4 = 3 5 + 4 = 2
:
y c = 123 10,
k = y c(1) = 12(1)3 10(1) = 12 + 10 = 2.
262

IV.

2 = 2( + 1),
2 + = 0.
:

2=

1
( + 1),
2

2 4 = + 1,
2 + 5 = 0.
3) , 1(2; 3) ,
, .
.
.
122 32 6 y c + 12 5 5 y c 16 y c + 9 = 0,
6 y c + 5 y c + 16 y c = 122 32 + 12 5 + 9,

yc
yc(2;3)

12 x 2  3 y 2  12 x  5 y  9
,
6 xy  5 x  16 y

9
12(2)2  3(3)2  12(2)  5 3  9
= .
2
6(2)3  5(2)  16 3

3 =

9
( +2),
2

2 6 = 9 18,
9 + 2 + 12 = 0.
:

3=

2
( + 2),
9

9 27 = 2 + 4,
2 9 + 31 = 0.

263

.., ..

4.15. :

x 2cos t  3 sin t ;

y cos t  3 sin t .

, t

+
, 1, 1, y c(t ) , t

S
2

. +

1 1:

1 = 2cos
y1 = cos

S
2

S
2

+ 3sin
+ 2sin

S
2

S
2

= 3,
= 2.

y cx t =

y cx =

S
2

(cos t  2sin t )ct


ytc
 sin t  2 cos t
=
=
,
c
x tc (2cos t  3sin t )t
2 sin t  3 cos t

 sin S  2cos S
2
2 = 1 = 1 .
y cx (t = ) =
S
2 2
2sin  3cos S
2
2
2

2=

1
( 3),
2

2 4 = 3,
2 + 1 = 0.
:

2 = 2( 3),
2 = 2 + 6,
2 + 8 = 0.
264

IV.

4.3.3.
4.16.
, :
) = 4 2 , 1 = 1;
) 2 22 = 1 , 1 = 2;

2 3 cos t
S
, t =
.
6
y 2sin t

4.17. 2 + 2 = 25 , +
3 + 4 12 = 0. .
, .

265

.., ..

4.4. .

4.4.1.
f c( x ) = lim

' x o0

'y
= f c( x )  D 'y
'x

'y

'x

f c( x )'x  D'x , D o 0 ,

'x o 0 ,
. f c( x )'x
'x ,
'x .
.
y,
, +
dy:

dy

f c( x )'x .

dy

'x .

dy f c( x )dx ,
, +
. , +
,
.
4.4.2.

+
dx.
:
1. d(Cu) = Cdu, C = const.
266

IV.

2. d(u r v) = du r dv.
3. d(u v) = udv + vdu.

vdu  udv
u
=
.

v2
v

4. d

4.4.3.
= f(u), u ,

dy = f c(u) du.
= f(u), u M ( x ) , = f(u) +
. :

dy

f (M ( x ))cdx

f c(M ( x ))M c( x )dx

f c(u)ucdx

f c(u)du .

, , +
, u .
, .

4.4.4.
, 'y = f(x + 'x ) f(x).
'y | f c( x )'x , f(x + 'x ) | f(x) + f c( x )'x .

x + 'x ,
, +
.

4.4.5. .
,
Y = C + , Y , C
, . Y
dI ?

Y () , C C () . +
267

.., ..

dY Y c()dI . Y C (Y ()) 
:

Y c()

dC
Y c()  1 ,
dY

dY =

1
,
dC
1
dY

dY =
P

1
d = Pd .
1Cc

1
.
1Cc

,

.
1931 . . +

.
: 0 <

dC
= C c(Y ) < 1,
dY

P > 1.
, .

4.4.6.
4.18. = 3 3.
. , +
, .

dy = y c dx = ( x 3  3 x )cdx = (3x2 3xln3)dx.


268

IV.

4.19. arctg 0,98.


. f(x1) +
f(x0) f c( x 0 ) , +
1 0 = 'x +
f ( x1 )  f ( x 0 ) | f c( x 0 )'x .
arctg 0,98 = arctg x 1 = 0,98.
0 = 1,

f(x0) = arctg 1 =

S
4

f c( x0 ) = f c(1) =

; yc

1
.
1 x2

1
1
,
2 =
11
2

'x = 1 0 = 0,98 1 = 0,02.


f ( x1 ) | f ( x 0 )  f c( x 0 )'x , :
arctg 0,98 |

S
4

1
(0,02) | 0,7754.
2

4.4.7.
4.20.
1) y = 5ln tg x;
2) y =
3) y = 3

arcsin x + (arctg x)2;




1
x2

+ 3x2 4 x ;

4) y = ln(1 + e10x) + arctg e5x, dyc

, dx = 0,1.

4.21.
) ln 1,01;
)

31 .

269

.., ..

4.5.


, +
, .
,

:

( ).

f
0
4.5.1.
f
0
:

0
0

1) +
;

f
+
f

2)

.
+
, M1 ( x )

M2 ( x ) x o a
x o f ,

lim

M1 ( x )
M c (x)
= lim 1
.
M2 ( x )
M2c ( x )

,
.
270

IV.

f
, +
f

0
0

, , .
4.22. :

lim

x o1

x 3  5x 2  2x  8
.
x 4  2 x 3  16 x 2  2 x  15

. 1 , +

0
0

.
:

lim

x o1

x 3  5x 2  2x  8
15 5
3 x 2  10 x  2
lim
=
=
= .
4
3
2
3
2
x
o
1
x  2 x  16 x  2 x  15
4 x  6 x  32 x  2 24 8

4.23. lim
x o0

e x  e x  2x
.
x  sin x

. , +

0
0

. : +
,

.

lim
x o0

e x  e x  2x
e x  e x
e x  e x  2
lim
lim
=
=
=
x o0
x o0
x  sin x
sin x
1  cos x

= lim
x o0

e x  e x
11
=
= 2.
cos x
1

4.24. limS
xo 2

tg 3 x
.
tg 5 x
271

.., ..

. x o

S
2

tg 3x i tg 5x +

f
.
f

,
.

3
2
2
3cos2 5 x
tg 3 x
3 lim cos 5 x
limS
= limS cos 3 x = lim
=
=
S
2
x o S2 5cos 2 3 x
x o 2 tg 5 x
xo 2
5
5 x o 2 cos 3 x
cos 2 5 x
2

3
cos5 x
3
= lim
=
S
x
o
5 2 cos 3 x
5

cos5 x
3

lim
=
S
x
o
5
2 cos 3 x

5sin 5 x

lim
=
S
x
o
2 3sin 3 x

3 25
sin 5 x
5 1
5
=
= .
=
lim

S
x
o
5 9 2 sin 3 x
3 1
3
4.5.2. 0 f f  f

3) ^0 f` +
;
4)

^f  f`

.
+

0
0

f
.
f

4.25. :
1) lim x ctg 2 x ;
x o0

272

IV.

x
1

.
ln x x  1

2) lim
x o1

. , 0 f f  f ,
,
, +
:
1) lim x ctg 2 x = lim
x o0
x o0

x
= lim
x o0
tg 2 x
2

1
cos 2 2 x
1
lim
=
= .
xo0
1
2
2
cos2 2 x

1  ln x  1
x
1
x  1  x ln x

= lim
= lim
=

x
o
1
xo
1
ln x  xx1
ln x x  1
( x  1)ln x

2) lim
xo1
=  lim
xo1

x ln x
1  ln x
1
=  lim
=  .
x o1 2  ln x
x ln x  x  1
2

4.5.3. 1f , f 0 00
:
5) 1f , +
, ;
6) f0 , +
, ;
7) 00 , +
.

0
f
0 f : +
0
f
,

.
4.26. :
273

.., ..

1) lim 2 
x oa
a

tg

xS
2a

2) lim (ln x ) x .

x of

1) lim 2 
x oa
a

tg

xS
2a

. , 1f , +

, y 2 
a

tg

xS
2a

ln = ln 2 
a

tg

xS
2a

= tg

xS
x
ln(2 ).
2a
a

lim tg
x oa

x)
ln(2  a
xS
x
ln (2 ) = lim
=
x oa
1
2a
a
tg xS
2a

1
1 ( 2 )
x
x a
2 a
2 a
= lim
=
= lim
x oa
S
1
x oa
 21xS ( 12 xS ) S
2
x
S
sin
2a
tg
cos
2a
2a
2a
2a
sin 2 xS
2a = 2a 1 = 2 .
lim
=

x
o
a
2
a
x

S
S a
S

2a

ln y

,
274

. lim y = e S .
x oa

lim 2 
x oa
a

tg

xS
2a

= eS .

IV.
1

2) lim (ln x ) x . , f0 , +
x of

:
1

= (ln x ) x ; ln y = ln (ln x ) x =

lim (ln y) = lim

x of

x of

1
ln ln x;
x

ln ln x
1
= lim
= 0,
x
of
x
x ln x

lim (ln y) = 0;

x of

lim y = e0 = 1,

x of

lim (ln x ) x = 1.

x of

4.5.4.
4.27. :
1) lim

x o0

ex  1
;
sin x

2) lim

x o0

x  sin x
;
x  tg x
x3 x2

 x 1
6
2
;
x2
cos x 
1
2

ex 

3) lim

e x  e x
;
sin x cos x

4) lim

5) lim

ln x
;
ln sin x

6) lim (xnex);

x o0

x o0

7) lim (( S 2arctg x)ln x);


x of

1
9) lim
x o0
x

xo0

x of

8) lim (x(e1/x 1));


x of

tg x

10) lim ( + )1/.


x of

275

.., ..

4.6.
4.6.1. ( )
= f(x) [a; b] +
(, b),
(a < c < b) , :

f (b)  f (a)
ba

f c(c) .

.
= f(x) +
. b
, f(b) f(a) .

f (b)  f (a)
,
ba

, +
. ,

f (b)  f (a)

ba

[a; b].

.
, f c(c)
.
, +
, = f(x),
[a; b] (, b),
,
.

276

IV.

4.6.2.
f(x), (n + 1) +
, ,
n+ Rn:

f(x) = f(a) +

f c(a)
f cc(a)
f ccc(a)
(x a) +
(x a)2 +
(x a)3 + +
1!
2!
3!

f ( n ) (a)
(x a)n + Rn,
+
n!
Rn =

()

f ( n1) (c)
(x a)n+1,
(n  1)!

.
= + T ( ), 0 < T < 1.
() (+
) f(x) :

f(x) = f(a) +

f c(a)
f ccc(a)
f cc(a)
(x a) +
(x a)2 +
(x a)3 + +
2!
1!
3!

f ( n ) (a)
+
(x a)n,
n!
( ) +
, . Rn +
.
() +
, +
, .
, = 0
:

f c(0)
f cc(0) 2
f ccc(0) 3
f ( n) (0) n
f(x) = f(0) +
x+
x +
x ++
x +
1!
3!
2!
n!
+ Rn()
277

.., ..

f ( n1) (4x )
Rn =
xn+1.
(n  1)!
()
.

4.6.3.

f(x) = T2(x) = f(a) +

f cc(a)
f c(a)
(x a) +
(x a)2
2!
1!

. +
: , +

x1  x 2  x 3  ...  x n
n

( x1  a)2  ( x 2  a)2  ...  ( x n  a)2


.
n

f ( x1 )  f ( x 2 )  f ( x 3 )  ...  f ( x n )
,
n

1, 2, 3, , n , ,
.
y , , .
f(x) .

y =
=
278

1
n

( f(a) +
i 1

f cc(a)
f c(a)
(x a) +
(x a)2) =
2!
1!

1
1
n f(a) + f c(a) (
n
n

x
i 1

n
1
1
2
na) +
f cc(a) ( x i  a) .
n
2n
i 1

IV.

n
1
1
2
f cc(a) ( x i  a) = V 2 ,
2n
2
i 1

1 2
y = f(a) + V .
2

4.6.4.

1. =
0 = = 0. :
y = ex,
y(0) = 1;

yc = ex,

yc(0) = 1;

ycc = ex,

ycc(0) = 1;

y(n) = ex,
y(n)(0) = 1.
:
ex = 1 +

1 2 1 3
1
eT x
1 n
+
+
+ ... +
+
xn+1, 0 < T < 1.
2!
1!
3!
(n  1)!
n!

2. y = sin x
x0 = a = 0.
y = sin x;
y(0) = 0;
yc = cos x;
yc(0) = 1;

ycc = sin x;

ycc(0) = 0;

yccc(0) = 1;
y(iv) = sin x;
y(iv) = 0;

yccc = cos x;

sin x =

1
1
1 3 1 5 1 7 1 9

+

+
+ (1)2n+1
x2n+1 +
(2n  1)!
1!
5!
9!
7!
3!
279

.., ..

n+1

+ (1)

sin(T x  2n3 S )
2
x2n+1,
(2n  3)!

0 < T < 1.

3. = cos x 0 = 0.
:
y = cos x;
y(0) = 1;
yc = sin x;
y c(0) = 0;

ycc = cos x;

ycc(0) = 1;

yccc = sin x;

yccc(0) = 0;

= cos x;
y(iv) = 1;

() :
(iv)

cos x = 1
+ (1)n+1

1 4
1 8
1 2n
1 2
1 6
+

+
+ (1)n
x +
4!
8!
(2n)!
2!
6!

cos(T x  (n  1)S ) 2n+2


x ,
(2n  2)!

4. y

0 < T < 1.

(1  x )P , m . :

(1  x )P ;

yc

P (1  x )P 1 ;

y c(0)

P;

ycc

P ( P  1)(1  x )P 2 ;

ycc(0)

P (P  1) ;

y ccc

P ( P  1)( P  2)(1  x )P 3 ; y ccc(0) P ( P  1)( P  2) ;

y(0) = 1;

............
...........
() :

(1  x )P = 1 +
+

280

P
1!

P (P  1)
2!

P (P  1)(P  2)...(P  k  1)
k!

2 +

k + ...

P (P  1)(P  2)
3!

3 + ... +

IV.

+
. P , +
.
5. = ln(1 + x). :
y = ln(1+x);
y(0) = 0;

yc =

1
;
1 x

y cc = (1)

y c(0) = 1;

1
;
(1  x )2

ycc(0) = 1;

y ccc = (1)(2)(1+)3;
y

(iv)

y ccc(0) = 2!;

= (1)(2)(3)(1+) ;

ln(1+x) =

y(iv) = 3!;

1
1 2 2! 3
n1 (n  1)!

+
+ ... + 1
n
1!
2!
3!
n!

ln(1+x) =

1 2 1 3
+ + ... + n + R.
3
2

281

.., ..

4.7. .
4.7.1.
u = u(t) u
t, t0.
, t0 t0 + 't
u0 = u(t0) u + 'u =

= u(t0 + 't ). z =

'u
.
't

t0
t0 t0 + 't
't o 0 , z = lim z = lim
' t o0

' t o0

'u
= u c(t0 ) .
't

, u c(t0 )
t0. +
.
+
, +
, , ,
, ..

,
.
.
1. = () +
, . ,
'x . + 'x
' = ' ( + 'x ) ().

'
.
'x

.

282

IV.

lim

' t o0

'
= c( x ) .
'x


. c( x ) +
.
2. U(x) .

lim

' t o0

'U ( x )
= U c( x ) .
'x

3. = f(x) +
.

lim

' t o0

'f ( x )
= f c( x ) .
'x

4.7.2.
f(x) 'x . +
'y = f(x + 'x ) f(x).
'x 'y 

'x 'y

.
y
x

'y
+
y

'x
, +
x

'x , 
= f(x)
283

.., ..

'y
y
() = lim
'x
' t o0

() =

x
'y
x
= f c( x ) .
= 'lim
t o0 'x
y
y

x
f c( x ) .
f (x)

(21)

() ,
= f(x)
1% ( + 0,01).
(21) :

() = f c( x ) :

y
.
x

, = f(x) +
+
.
4.28. =2(f(x)), f(x) = 3 + 4.
. :

(f(x)) =

x
x
3x
.
f c( x ) =
3 =
3x  4
f (x)
3x  4

=2(f(x)).

=2(f(x)) =

32
= 0,6.
32 4

, 2 2,02
0,6%.
1. |(f(x))| < 1,
( ).
2. |(f(x))| > 1, (+
).
:
1) (f(x) r g(x)) =
284

f ( x )E x ( f ( x )) r g ( x )E x ( g ( x ))
;
f (x) r g(x)

IV.

2) (f(x) g(x)) = (f(x)) + (g(x));


3) (f(x)/g(x)) = (f(x)) (g(x)).

1. = n +
n: (n) = n.
:
n
(n) = ( x )c

nx n1 x
x
=
= n.
xn
xn

2. = .
() = ln a.
:
x
() = (a )cx

a x ln a x
x
=
= ln a.
ax
ax

3. = + b

( + b) =

ax
.
ax  b

( + b) = (ax  b)c

x
ax
=
.
ax  b ax  b

4.7.3.
.
. .
d .
d = d().

,
.
. :

p(d) =

p
d c( p) .
d ( p)
285

.., ..

,
, 1%.

d c( p) < 0, ,

p
d c( p) .
d ( p)
, .
p(d) = 

4.29. d = 5

p(d) =

= 2, p(d) =
1%

p
5 1 p
2

1
p,
2

p
1
.
 =
2 10  p

1
. ,
4

1
%. = 5, +
4

1. 5 5,05
1%. = 9 9%.
, , 1% +
1%, p(d) > 1, +
, p(d) = 1, , p(d) < 1.
, ,
.
, +
.
.

u = p d(p).

p
du
= d(p) + p d c( p) = d(p)(1 +
) = d(p)(1 p(d)).
d
(
p)
dp
286

IV.

) , p(d) > 1,

du
 0 , +
dp

.
) p(d) = 1,

du
dp

0 , +

.
) (0 < p(d) < 1) +
,

du
! 0.
dp

,

. , +
, ,

.

. S = S(p) +

p(S) =

p
dS
.

S ( p) dp

+
. ,
.
, S = S(p)

dS
! 0.
dp

, p(S) > 1, +
, 0 < p(S) < 1, , p(S) = 1.
, ,
.
,
.
287

.., ..

d(p)
d(S)

d = d(p)
S = S(p)

S(p) = d(p)

M
p

. 4.3.

4.7.4.
x2
+
20
, +
. ,
100 , 20 .
.
1.
4.30. () = 20

c( x ) = 20

x
.
10

c(100) = 20

100
= 10;
10

20
= 18.
10
, , +
.
2.

c(20) = 20

() =
288

x dy
.
y dx

IV.

() = () = 20

() =

x
20 x 

x
20

(20

x2
;
20

2(200  x )
x
)=
;
400  x
10

100() =

2 100 2
=
| 0,67;
300
3

20() =

2 180 18
=
| 0,95.
380
19

, 100 ,
, 1%, 1,
0,67%; 20
1% +
0,95%.
4.31.
, , = 50 0,053
(. ). , +
10 .
. ( ) +

y
= 50 0,052,
x
1(10) = 50 0,05 102 = 45 (. .).
1 =

:
yc = 50 0,05 32; yc(10) = 35 (. .).
,
45 . ., ,
+
( , 10 .),
35 . .
289

.., ..

4.32. (.
. .) = 0,5x + 80.
, 60 . . .
.

() =

x
x
,
(0,5) =
x  160
0,5 x  80

60() =

60
= 0,6.
60  160

, 60 . . .
1% 0,6%.
4.33.

p8
S = p + 0,5, q, S ,
p2

, ; p
. :
) , , +
;
) ;
) 5% +
.
.
) q = S:

p8
= p + 0,5,
p2
= 2, 2 . .
)

() =

x
yc ,
y

qc =
290

6
;
( p  2)2

S c = 1;

IV.

Ep(q) =

6p
;
( p  2)( p  8)

Ep(S) =

2p
.
2 p 1

= 2 :
E2(q) = 0,3;
E2(S) = 0,8.
+
, ,
. ,
.
, 1% 0,3%,
0,8%.
) 5% +
5 0,3 = 1,5%, , 3,5% (5% 1,5% = 3,5%).
4.34. +
, ?
. +
= f(), , .
1 1 =

(1) = (

y
. ,
x

x
) = () () = () 1.
y

() = 1, (1) = 1 1 = 0. ,

, 1 =

x
= , = .
y

y c

c.

, y c y1 , . (+
,
).
4.35. .
q :
q = 100 000 200p,
291

.., ..

q . +
q
= 150 000 + 100 q + 0,003 q2.
, .
. R = p q.
q:
p = 500 0,005q.

R = R(q) = (500 0,005q)q.



P = R c.
,
P = (500 0,005q)q (150 000 + 100q + 0,003q2) =
= 0,008q2 + 400q 150 000.

P c(q) = 0,016q + 400,
0,016q + 400 = 0,
q = 25 000,
P cc(q) = 0,016 <0.
, q = 25 000 ,
(25 000) = 4 850 000 . . .
4.36.
() = 50

1
,
10
() =

1 2
+ 14 + 800.
50

+
.
. U() , z(x)
().
U(x) = x p(x);
z(x) = U(x) (),
p(x), () .
z(x) +
.
, z c( x ) = 0, z cc( x ) < 0.
292

IV.

.
1. z(x), z c( x ) ,

z c( x ) = 0, .
,

U(x) = 50

1 2
,
10

z(x) = U(x) ();


z c( x ) = U c( x ) c( x ) = 0;
50

1
1
=
+ 14;
25
10

() =

1 2
+ 14 + 800;
50

U c( x ) = c( x ) ;

6
= 36;
25

= 150 .
2. z cc( x ) = 150:

z cc( x ) = U cc( x ) cc( x ) = 

6
1
1

=
< 0, x .
25
5 25

, = 150 z(x), +
150 .
3. , zmax = z(150).

1
150 = 35;
10
U = 35 150 = 5250.

= 150 = 50

1
1502 + 14 150 + 800 = 450 + 2100 + 800 = 3350.
50

zmax = 5250 3350 = 1900.
4.37.
,
S(x) = ax + O x3 (a < p, O > 0).
.
. , , .
() = ( + O 3),
() =

293

.., ..

, .
.
1. C c( x ) = ( ) 3O 2.
2. :
C c( x ) = ( ) 3O 2 = 0,

pa
pa
, ( 2 = 
+
3O
3O
).
3. C cc( x ) = 6O
1 =

1 =

C cc x1

pa
;
3O
pa
3O

< 0 ( C cc( x ) < 0 +

pa
() .
3O
4. ( +
)
> 0), , 1 =

p  a 2( p  a) p  a
C max x1
.
=
3O
3 3O

4.38. 1 . . .
50% ,
100%, +
. %.
+
, ?
. (. . .) ,
1 .

(1 )(1 +
294

3
50
3
) = ,
2
100
2

IV.

, ,

(1 +

100
) = 2.
100

2, +
,
= 2 2.
(2 2)
(1

p
, +
100

p
)(2 2).
100

() =
=

p
3
3
+ (1
)(2 2) =
100
2
2

3
p
p
3
+ [2(1
) ]x a(1
)x2.
2
100
2
100

[0, 1].

Ac( x ) = 2(1

p
p
3
) 2 a(1
)x;
100
100
2

p 3

2 1 

100

2;
Ac( x ) = 0 0 =
p

2a 1 

100

Acc( x ) = 2(1

p
) < 0, 0 .
100

0 [0, 1]?
0 < 2(1

p
3
) < 1, < 25.
2
100
295

.., ..

, > 25,
. < 25, +
, = 0
2


p 3
2 1  100  2
3
3

(0) = +
> = (0).
p
2

2
4a 1 

100
, +
.

4.7.5.
4.39.
:
1) y = 1 + 2x x2, x = 1;
2) y = e5x, x = 1, x = 0, x = 2;
3) y = 5lnx, x = 10, x = e, x = e4;
2

4) y = x e  x , x = 1, x = 2.
4.40. (). : ) +
; )
, , :
1) () = 150 2 +

x3
, x = 10, = 50;
100

2) () = 3 32 + 10, x = 1, x = 2.
4.41.

S=

f (x)
, f(x) , +
x

= 3 + 32 + 10. +
: ) , +
; ) ,
.
296

IV.

4.42.
, () =

x2
+ 5 + 300. +
50

,
: () = 40

x
. ,
10

(
U(x) = x p(x), z(x) = U(x) ()).
4.43. (. .)
, (.),
= 10 0,043.
5 .
4.44. q
q(p) = 2p2 + 3p + 8. (q) q
= 1. .
4.45. q S +
: q = 7 S = + 1. : ) +
; ) ; ) +
( ) 5% .
4.46. () .
: ) ,
; ) ,
; )
, , :
1) () =

x2
+ + 100, x = 2, = 50;
4

x2
, x = 5, x = 25.
2) () = 100 +
25
4.47. () = 3 6 + 15
( ). , +
.
297

.., ..

4.8.
4.8.1. .
f(x) (, b),
+ 1 2
2 > 1 f(x2) > f(x1),
2 > 1 f(x2) t f(x1),
.
f(x)
(, b), + 1 2
2 > 1 f(x2) < f(x1),
2 > 1 f(x2) d f(x1),
.
,
.
f c( x ) > 0,
f(x) . +
f c( x ) < 0, f(x)
.
.
= 0 ,
, :
1) f c( x0 ) = 0;
2) f c( x0 ) = f ;
3) f c( x ) = 0, f cc( x0 ) .
f(x),

.

, . +
. , +
, +
, +
298

IV.

. f c( x ) > 0 , ,

f c( x ) < 0 .
4.48.
:
) f(x) = x3 12x + 11; ) y = ln(1 x2).
.
) f(x) = x3 12x + 11
( + ). +

f c( x ) = 3x2 12; 2 = 4; = r 2.
= r 2
( f ; 2), (2; 2), (2; f ).
f c(3) > 0; f c(0) < 0;

f c(3) > 0. , ( f ; 2) (2; f ) ,


(2; 2) .
) y = ln(1 x2) (1; 1).
2 x
2
. :
= 0, = 0.
1 x2
1 x
(1; 0) yc > 0, , (1; 0) +

y c

. (0; 1) y c < 0, , (0; 1)


.
4.49. +
() = 0,053 + 33375 + 250. +
?
. c( x ) = 0,152 + 33375. +
, c( x ) < 0, 0,152 + 33375 < 0.
0,152 33375 > 0, 2 22500 > 0. ,
< 150 > 150. < 0 +
. ,
> 150.
299

.., ..

4.8.2. .

f(x) = 0 ,
, ,
0.
, f(x) = 0, f(x0 + 'x ) < f(x0),
+ 'x , ,
.
f(x) = 0 ,
, ,
0.
, f(x) = 0, f(x0 + 'x ) > f(x0),
+ 'x , ,
.
, +
, .

, +
.
:
1) ()
() , .
0 () ,
.
2) .
3) , , +
.
.
f(x) = 0,
, , .
, +
, f c( x ) = 0, .
, ,
.
300

IV.

.
.
= 0 f(x), +
f(x) +
, .
:
1) x < x0 f c( x ) > 0, > 0

f c( x ) < 0, = 0 , +

, .
2) x < x0, f c( x ) < 0, > 0, f c( x ) > 0, = 0
, ,
,
.
3)
, .
.
= 0 f(x) :

f c( x ) = 0, = 0 , f cc( x0 ) < 0,
, f cc( x0 ) > 0. f cc( x0 ) = 0, +
.

( ).
+
:
1. f c( x ) .
1. f c( x ) = 0,

, f c( x )
f(x)).

f (:
301

.., ..

1, 2, 3, ... , n,
(, b).
3. +
(, b): < 1 < 2 < 3 < ... < n < b.
4. (, 1), (1, 2), ... (n, b)
+
( +
).
5. f c( x ) ,
.
f c( x ) ,
, , +
+ , , +.
,
.
6. ,
( ).

( )
, , +
:
1. f c( x ) .
2. f c( x ) =0.
3. f cc( x ) .
4. f cc( x )
, 2.
f cc( x ) > 0, ,
f cc(0) < 0, .

f cc( x ) = 0,
.
302

IV.

.
f(x) [a, b],
,
. +
, [a, b] ,
, :
1) ;
2)
[a, b];
3) , . 2, ,
[a, b].
4.49.

1 4 2 3 3 2
+ 2,
4
3
2

[2; 4].
. (
). +
(f; f) .
1. :
y c = 3 22 3.
2. y c = 0, :
3 22 3 = 0,
(2 2 3) = 0,
1 = 0, 2 2 3 = 0,
2 = 1, 3 = 3.
3. : 1, 0, 3.
4. : ( f ; 1); (1; 0).
5. +
.
.

( f ; 1)
1
(1; 0)
0
(0; 3)
3
(3; f )
f c( x )

0
+
0

0
+
37
17
min 
f(x)
min
max 2
2
2
/
/
4
12
303

.., ..

1
2
3
17
(1)4 (1)3 (1)2 + 2 =
;
4
3
2
12

fmin(1) =
fmax(0) =

1 4 2 3 3 2
(0) (0) (0) + 2 = 2;
4
3
2

fmin(3) =

37
1 4 2 3 3 2
(3) (3) (3) + 2 = 
.
4
4
3
2

(. 4.4).
.

8 y
+
. +
6
, +
4

= D1

13
12

f c(D1 )

-2
.

-4
2 ,
-6
,
-8
+ /
374
. +
-10

.
. 4.4.

(
).
: 1 = 0, 2 = 1, 3 = 3.
, : y cc = 32 4 3,
+
:
0

-2 -1,5 -1 -0,5

304

0,5

1,5

2,5

3,5

IV.

f cc(1) = 4 > 0; 1 = 0, fmin(1) =

17
;
12

f cc(0) = 3 < 0; 2 = 1, fmax(0) = 2;

f cc(1) = 12 > 0; 3 = 3, fmin(3) = 

37
.
4

: +
[2; 4].
. +
.
, f(2) f(4):

f(2) =

16
2
f(4)=  .
3
3


, , f(2) =
f(3) = 

16
,
3

37
,
4

= 2, +
= 3.
4.50. :
1) y

x 1 x2 ;

2) = 2 3 x 5 5 3 x 2 + 1.
.
1. y

yc = 1 1  x 2 +

1
2 1 x2

x 1  x 2 [1; 1]
(2) =

1  2x 2
1 x2

:
305

.., ..
0,5

y c = 0,

1  2x 2
-1,00

-0,71

0,00

1 x2

1,00x

0,71

= 0,

1 22 = 0,

1,2 = r

-0,5

. 4.5.

1
2

3,4= r 1 +
. 1

| 0,71 2 = 

| 0,71:

, [1; 1],
.
3 = 1 4 = 1 , +
, .
y c
. .

1
)
2

(

1 1
;
)
2 2

1
2

[1; 

yc

1
min 
2

max

1
2

1
; 1]
2

1
2

: +
= 

1
2

, min = ( 

=
. . 4.5.
306

1
2

1
2

)= 

, m = (

1
2
1
2

1  (

)=

1
2

1
)2 = , +
2
2

1 (

1
2

)2 =

1
.
2

IV.

2. = 2 3 x 5 5 3 x 2 + 1
. :

10 x  1
2
5 2/3
5 1/3 =
.
3 3x
3
3
= 1 ( y c = 0) =
0 ( f ).
( f ; f ), = 0 = 1 .
y c = 2 ( x 5 3 )c 5 ( x 2 3 )c + (1)c = 2

. .

2
5

1
0
min 2

(3; f )
+

4
3
2
1

X
3
3,
2

2
2,
2
2,
4
2,
6
2,
8

-1

1
1,
2
1,
4
1,
6
1,
8

0
0,
2
0,
4
0,
6
0,
8

,4
-0
,2

,

: +
= 0,
max = (0) = 1,
= 1,
min = (1) = 2.
,
. 4.6.
4.51. +


f(x) = x3 3x2 +
+ 1 [1; 4].
. +
+
. +
:

,8

(0; 1)

,6

0
f
max 1

-0

( f ; 0)
+

-0

-0

yc

-2
-3
-4
-5
-6

. 4.6.

f c( x ) = 3x2 6x,
3x2 6 = 0,
3( 2) = 0,
1 = 0, 2 = 2.
307

.., ..

1 = 0 .
:

f cc( x ) = 6x 6.
: f cc(0) = 6 0 6 = 6 < 0 ,

1 = 0 . : f cc(2) = 62 6 = 6 > 0
2 = 2 . fmax(0) = 1, fmin(2) = 3.
: f(1) = 3, f(4) = 17.
, [1; 4] i
max f(x) = 17, min f(x) = 3.
, 1 d d 4
= 4.
: ,
= 1.

4.8.3.
4.52. :
1) = 3 + 32 + 3;
3) =

2x
;
1 x2

5) =

ex
.
x

2) =

1 3 1 2
+ 2 1;
2
3

4) = ln|x|;

4.53. :
2) f(x) = x3 6x2 + 9x 3;
1) f(x) = 2x3 3x2 + 1;
3) f(x) = x4

20 3
x + 8x2, ;
3

4) f(x) = (x 1)3(x + 1)2;


6) f(x) =
308

x2
8
+ 2;
2
x

5) f(x) =

x2 ;

7) f(x) = x2ex;

IV.

8) y =

x
;
ln x

9) f(x) = ln 1  x 2 + arctg x;

10) f(x) = ln(1 + x)


3

12) f(x) =

x2
;
2

11) f(x) = x2ln x;

2 x 3  3 x 2  36 x ;

13) f(x) =

x3
;
( x  2)( x  3)

2 23
x 6x  7 ;
3

14) f(x) =

15) f(x) = (x2 2x)ln x

3 2
x + 4x.
2

4.54.

x3
x4

72 + 24 + 1.
3
4

, ,
[5; 2].
4.55.
:
) f(x) = x4 2x2 + 3 [2; 1];
) f(x) =

4  x2
[1; 3];
4  x2

) f(x) = x3 3x2 9x + 35 [4; 4];


) f(x) = x3 9x2 + 24x 10 [0; 3];
) f(x) = x 2ln x [1; ];
) f(x) = x2ln x [1; ];
) f(x) =

2x 2 + 1 [2; 1].

309

.., ..

4.8.4.

, +
. +

,
. ,
,
.
4.56.
V. ,
?
. , +
,
V .
:

2S Rh  2S R 2 , (R > 0).

. ,
S , +

S R 2 h . V

. , V
. h V: h

V
. h
S R2

2S R

V
 2S R 2 S
S R2

2V
 2S R 2 .
R

S R.

S (R)

2V
 2S R 2 .
R

S c(R) 
310

2V
 4S R
R2

4S R

 2V
2

IV.

4V
 4S (R z 0),
R2
+ R , S cc(R) ! 0 . S c(R) 0

S cc(R)

, 4S R 3 2V = 0 i R
R

V
. S cc(R) ! 0 , +
2S

V
, +
2S

. h:

h=

V
=
S R2

V
2S

S 3

= 23

V
, h = 2R.
2S

,
, ,
.
4.57. ,
. , +
, .
.
, R i h,
.
S =

1
S R 2 + 2Rh, 1 S R 2
2
2

, 2Rh .
. +
h R.
= S R + 2R + 2h,

P  S R  2R
h=
.
2

2R
. 4.7.

,
311

.., ..

S=

1
P  S R  2R
S R2
S R 2 + 2R
= PR 2R2
;
2
2
2
S(R) = PR 2R2

S R2
2

S c(R) = P 4R S R;
S c(R) = 0;
P 4R S R = 0;
R=

P
;
4 S

S cc(R) = 4 S < 0.
, R =

P
S(R)
4 S

h.

P S
h=

P
P
2
4 S
4 S = P .
2
4S

, ,
, .
4.58.
. 480
. +
, 10 / +
30 . ,
1 .
. (/) .
kx3, k +
. k = 10, : 30 = 1000k,

k=
312

30
= 0,03.
1000

IV.

1
: 480

1
.
x

1
1
+ 0,033 .
x
x

f(x) = 480

1
+ 0,032
x

(0; f ).
:

f c( x ) = 480
f c( x ) = 0, 3 =

1
+ 0,06.
x2

480
= 8000, = 20.
0,06

, = 20 f(x)
.

f cc( x ) = 960
f cc(20) = 960

1
+ 0,06;
x3

1
+ 0,06 > 0.
8000

, 20 / 1
.

4.8.5.
4.59.
, +
. +
, .
4.60. , +
72 3,
, 1:2. ,
?
313

.., ..

4.61. .
V ,
.
4.62. 384 2.
3 , 2 .
, +
.
4.62. 384 2.
3 , 2 .
, +
.
4.63.
V. ,
.
4.64.
+

,
.
,

l. m

( m t 1).

,
. 4.8.

.

4.8.6.

= f(x). ,
, yc

f c( x ) .

yc
yc
(ln y)c .
. :
y
y

, .
314

IV.

4.66. U,
, :

U(t) =

5 3 15 2
t +
t + 100t + 50 (.)
6
2
1 d t d 8,

t , .
:
1) , ;
2) t
;
3) , +
t = ( = 1,8 ) .
.
.
1. z(t) = U c(t ) ,

z c(t ) z(t) = [ln z(t )]c :


z(t) = U c(t ) =

5 2
t + 15t + 100 (/);
2

z c(t ) = 5t + 15 (/);
z(t) =

5t  15
z c(t )
2t  6
1
=
=
(
).
z(t )  5 t 2  15t  100 t 2  6t  40
2

2. z(t):

z c(t ) = 5t + 15 = 0,
t = 3 z(t);

t = 3;

z c(t ) > 0 t < 3, z c(t ) < 0 t > 3. ,


t = 3 z(t).
z(3):

z(3) =

5 2
3 + 15 3 + 100 = 122,5 (/).
2
315

.., ..

z(t), z c(t ) , z(t) = 1,8 .

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

z()
112,5
120
122,5
120
112,5
100
82,5
60

z c(i)
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25

z()
0,09
0,04
0
0,04
0,09
0,15
0,24
0,42

, +
: z c(t )
z(t) , +

.

4.8.7.
4.66. U, +
U = U(t), 1 d t d 8,
t , .
:
1) , ;
2) t
;
3) ,

t = ( = 1,8 ) .
.
) U(t) = 

3 3 27 2
t +
t + 180t + 80 ();
2
2
7
6

) U(t) =  t3 +
316

49 2
t + 105t + 90 ().
4

IV.

4.8.8.
,
,
, .
, . +
? , ,
?
, ,
.
. ,
.
y = f(x) (a, b),
.
y = f(x) (b, c),
.
, . 4.9, (a, b) ,
(b, ) .
(a, b)
Y
y = f(x) ,

M
N

f cc( x ) < 0 (a, b),



.
(b, )
y = f(x) ,

c X

. 4.9.

f cc( x ) > 0, .
, ,

f cc( x ) < 0, , , f cc( x ) > 0.


y = f(x)

f cc( x ) . (a, b) ,
.
.
.
317

.., ..

, +
. , f cc( x ) = 0 f cc( x )

f,

, f cc( x ) ,
.
. = 0
,

f cc( x ) .
+
f cc( x )
,
. , f cc( x )
, .
f cc( x ) ,
.
.
4.67.
= 6 65 +

15 4
+ 3.
2

.
.

f cc( x ) :
f c( x ) = 65 304 + 303 + 3;
f cc( x ) = 304 1203 + 902;
f ccc( x ) = 0, 304 1203 + 902 = 0;
30 2(2 43 + 3) = 0;
2 = 0; 2 43 + 3 = 0;
1 = 0; 2 = 1; 3 = 3.
.
f cc( x ) .
318

0
0

(0; 1)
+

1
0

(1; 3)

3
0

(3; f )
+

IV.

( f ; 0)
f cc( x )
+

f(x)

= 0 . = 1, = 3
, , +
.
( = 1) = 5,5; ( = 3) = 112,5.
4.68. ,
2

y e  x ( ).
. ( f ; f ).
:
2

yc = e  x (2) = 2 e  x ,
2

x
x
+ 42 e .
ycc = 2 e  x 2 e  x (2) = 2 e
2

:
2

ycc = 0, 2 e  x + 42 e  x = 0;
2

2 e  x (1 22) = 0;
1 22 = 0;

1
2
, = r
.
2
2
ycc .
2 =

f(x)

1
2

1
2

(

1 1
;
)
2 2

1
2

1
2

; f )

f cc( x )

( f ; 

319

.., ..

( =
( = 

1
2

)=

1
2

)=

Y
1

1
e

: ( 

, +

= e x

;
) (
;
).
2 e
2 e
. . 4.10.

1 

1
2

1
2

. 4.10.

4.8.9.
4.69.
:
1) = 3 32 9 + 9;
2) = + 362 23 4;
3) = 1 ln(2 4);
4) = + 2

x5 .

4.8.10.
, +

.
, :
,
.
: , .
:
) = y = f(x) + ,
o 0 o + 0 +
( ), = +
;
320

IV.

) y = f(x) = b
, f(x) o f
o f , b, ,

lim f(x) = b lim f(x) = b.


x of

xof

) y = kx + b y = f(x)
k b :

k = lim

x orf

f (x)
,
x

b = lim (f(x) kx).


xorf

( o f o f ). +
y = f(x) ,
k b ( +
, k = 0, b , +
).
.
4.70. :
1) =

x 2  6x  3
;
x 3

3) = ;
.
1) =

2) =

1
;
x

4) = ln(4 2).

x 2  6x  3
.
x 3

) = 3 , +
= 3 .
) :

x 2  6x  3
x 2  6x  3
f (x)
x 3
k = lim
= lim
= xlim
=
of
x of
x of
x
x 2  3x
x
= xlim
of

2x  6
2
= lim
= 1,
x
of
2x  3
2

k = 1.
321

.., ..

b = lim (f(x) kx) = lim (


x of

x of

= lim

x of

x 2  6x  3
) =
x 3

3  3x
3
x 2  6x  3  x 2  3x
= xlim
= lim
= 3.
of
x of 1
x 3
x 3
y

=3

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+1 +1 0

+2

x
1

+
k b
+
, : = 3.

, o f
k b +
.
. 4.11.

+2
+3
+4

+5

=3

x 2  6x  3

x 3

x  6x  3
x 3
2

= 3 = 3.

+6
+7
+8

1
(
x

2) =
. 4.11.

)
) ;
, f(x) =

1
+
x

.
= 0, (.
4.12).
)

lim f(x) = lim

xof

x of

1
= 0;
x

1
lim f(x) = lim
= 0,
xof
x of x
322

4
2

0
+3

+2

+1

+2
+4
+6

. 4.12.

IV.

= 0, +
.
3) = .
) , .
) :

xe x
f (x)
lim
=
= lim = f ,
x of x
x of
x of
x
o f , +
, o f .
k = lim

k = lim

x of

f (x)
xe x
= lim
= lim = 0;
x of x
x of
x

b = lim (f(x) kx) = lim = lim


x of

x of

x of

x
1
= lim  x = 0.
x
xof
e
e

=2

= 2

o f = 0
( ).
4) = ln(4 2).
2
Y
)
1,5
= 2 = 2,
1
0,5
r
= 2 .
X
0
)
+2,2
+1,6
+0,8
0
0,8
1,6
2,2
+0,5
,
+1
2 < < 2 +
+1,5
+
+2
. (. . 4.13).
. 4.13.

4.8.11.
4.71. :
1) =

3
;
x2  4

2) =

x 2
;
x 4

3) =

x2 1
;
x4

4) =

x2 1
;
2x  3
323

.., ..

5) =

2x 2  x  3
;
x 6

7) = +

6) = ;

ln x
.
x

4.8.12.


:
. .
. .
. , , +
.
V. .
V. : ) ; ) .
V. +
.
V. +
.
V. , +
. ,
, .
4.72. .
1) = ( + 1)3;

3) =

6x2  x3 ;

5) M ( x ) =

1
2S

.
1) = ( + 1)3.
324

x2
2

2) =

x3
;
2( x  1)2

4) =

ex
;
x

6) =

x2
.
ln x

IV.

. = ( + 1)3
, ( f ; f ).
. .
. , , , ,
.
f(x) = ( + 1)3;
f(x) = ( + 1)3;
f(x) z f(x); f(x) z f(x).
, , . +
.
V.

) :

x ( x  1)3
x
y 0

y 0
0, ( x  1)


0
x

0, x

1

) :

x 0
x 0

x 0
.
3
3
x ( x  1)
y 0(0  1)
y 0

V. :
) .
) = kx + b.

k = lim

x orf

f (x)
x ( x  1)3
= lim
= lim ( + 1)3 = rf .
x orf
x orf
x
x

.
V. :
yc = ( + 1)3 + 3( + 1)2 = ( + 1)2( + 1 + 3) = ( + 1)2(4 + 1)

yc = 0; ( + 1)2(4 + 1) = 0,
1 = 1;

2 = 

1
.
4

325

.., ..

(1; 

( f ;1)

yc

ymin( = 

1
)
4

1
4

(

0
min

1
;f)
4
+

27
256

1
1
1
27
) =  (  + 1)3 = 
.
4
4
4
256

V. +
:
y cc = 2( + 1)(4 + 1) + 4( + 1)2 = 2( + 1)(4 + 1 + 2 + 2) =
= 2( + 1)(6 + 3) = 6( + 1)(2 + 1).

1
y cc = 0; ( + 1)(2 + 1) = 0; 1 = 1; 2 =  .
2

1
2

( f ;1)

(1;  )

ycc

( = 1) = 0; ( = 

1
2

1
16

(

1
;f)
2
+

1
1
)=  .
16
2

V. . (. 4.14).
2) =

x3
.
2( x  1)2

. . +
, = 1,
. ( f , 1)
(1, f ).
326

IV.

. +
+
.
= 1.

1,2

1
(  12 ;  16
)
27
(  14 ;  256
)

0,8

x3
lim y = lim
=
x o10
x o10 2( x  1)2
= f ;
x o10

0,6

0,4

x3
=
2( x  1)2

lim y = lim

x o10

0,2

f() =

0
+2

+1,6

+1,3

= f .
. , +
,
:
f() =

+1

+0,7

+0,4

+0,1

0,2

0,5

+0,2

. 4.14.

x3
,
2( x  1)2

( x )3
x3
=
.

2( x  1)2
2( x  1)2

f(x) z f(x); f(x) z f(x).


, , . .
V. :
) :

y 0

x
x3
2( x  1)2
2( x  1)2

y 0
y 0


3
0
0
x
x 0

) :

x3

y
2( x  1)2

x
03

y
2(0  1)2

0
0
327

.., ..

V. :
)
:
2( + 1)2 = 0, = 1.
) :

x3
6x
3x 2
lim
=
= lim
= rf ,
x orf
x orf 4( x  1)
x orf 2( x  1)2
x orf 4
, .
) :

lim y = lim

k = lim

x of

= lim

x of

x2
f (x)
x3
lim
= lim
=
=
x of 2( x  1)2
x of 2( x  1)2 x
x

2x
2
1
= lim
= ;
xof 4
4( x  1)
2

b = lim (f(x) kx) = lim (


x of

= lim

xof

x of

x3
1
) =
2
2( x  1)
2

2 x 2  x
2 x 2  x
x 3  x ( x  1)2
1
lim
lim
=
=
=
xof 2( x  1)2
2 x of ( x  1)2
2( x  1)2

4 x  1
1
4
1
1
lim
lim
=
= (2) = 1.
x
of
xof
2( x  1)
2
2
2
2

1
1.
2
V. +
.
:
: =

yc =
=
328

2 x 2 ( x  1)(3 x  3  2 x )
3 x 2 2( x  1)2  x 3 4( x  1)
=
=
4( x  1)4
4( x  1)4

x 2 ( x  3)
.
2( x  1)3

IV.

yc =

2 x 2 ( x  1)(3 x  3  2 x )
3 x 2 2( x  1)2  x 3 4( x  1)
=
=
4( x  1)4
4( x  1)4

x 2 ( x  3)
.
2( x  1)3

:
1) yc = 0,

x3
= 0, 1 = 0, 2 = 3.
2( x  1)2

2) yc = f , ( + 1)3 = 0, = 1,
= 1 .
+
:

f

f

:
3
0
max

27

8

0
0

(0; f )

+
+

(3;1) 1 (1; 0)

max( = 3) =

( f ;3)
yc
+

27
(3)3
=
.
2
8
2(3  1)

V. +
:

y cc =

(2 x ( x  3)  x 2 )2( x  1)3  ( x 2 ( x  3)6( x  1)2 )


3x
=
.
6
4( x  1)
( x  1)4

:
329

.., ..

3x
= 0, = 0.
( x  1)4

= 0 = 1
.

f

f

x 0

yc

( f ;1)

(1; 0)

(0; f )
+

03
=0
2(0  1)2

(0; 0).

= 1

0
+4,5

+4

+3,5

+3

+2,5

+2

+1,5

+1

+0,5

0,5

+1

1
x 1
2

+2
+3
+4
+5
+6
+7

. 4.15.

330

 278

1,5

2,5

3,5

IV.

V. .

6x2  x 3 .
3) y
. + , ( f , f ).
. .
. :
3

() =

6x 2  x 3 ;

6( x )2  ( x )3 = 3 6x 2  x 3 ,
f(x) z f(x); f(x) z f(x).

() =

, , . .
V. :
) :

y
3

6x  x
2

y 0

3 2
3
6 x  x

y 0

2

x (6  x ) 0
x1

y 0

2
3
0
0
6 x  x

0,

x2

) :

x
3

6x 2  x 3

x 0

3
2
3
6 x  x

x

0
y

0
0

(0; 0) (6; 0) ; (0; 0)


.
V. :
.
: = kx + b.

k = lim

f (x)
= lim
x orf
x

= lim

6
 1 = 1;
x

x orf

x orf

6x 2  x 3
= lim
x orf
x

6x 2  x 3
=
x3

331

.., ..

b = lim (f(x) kx) = lim ( 3 6 x 2  x 3 + ) =


xorf

= lim

xorf

( 3 6 x 2  x 3  x )( 3 (6 x 2  x 3 )2  x 3 6 x 2  x 3  x 2 )

x orf

(6 x 2  x 3 )2  x 3 6 x 2  x 3  x 2
6x 2  x 3  x 3

= lim

x orf 3

= lim

x orf
3

(6 x 2  x 3 )2  x 3 6 x 2  x 3  x 2

6x 2
x2
=
(6 x 2  x 3 )2 x 3 6 x 2  x 3 x 2

 2
x6
x2
x
6

= lim

x orf

36 x  12 x  x
6x
x
 3 3  3 1
6
x
x
x
4

6
= 2.
3

, = + 2 .
V. yc :
1

yc = (6 x 2  x 3 ) 3 )c =

12 x  3 x 2
3 3 (6 x 2  x 3 )2

4x  x 2
3

(6 x 2  x 3 )2

1) yc = 0:

4x  x 2
3

(6 x 2  x 3 )2

= 0, 4 2 = 0,

(4 ) = 0, 1 = 0, 2 = 4.
2) yc = f , 62 3 = 0, 2(6 ) = 0, 3 = 6.
1 = 0, 2 = 4, 3 = 6 .
+

:
332

IV.

yc

( f ;0)

0
f

(0; 4)
+

mn 0

4
0

(4; 6)

max

23 4

6
f

(6; f )

, min(0) = 0, max(4) = 2 3 4 .
V.
:

c
=

4x  x 2
y cc =
3 (6 x 2  x 3 )2

2
1
(4  2 x ) 3 (6 x 2  x 3 )2  (4 x  x 2 ) (6 x 2  x 3 ) 3 (12 x  3 x 2 )
3
=
=
2
3 4
3
(6 x  x )
=

3(4  2 x )(6 x 2  x 3 )  2(4 x  x 2 )(12 x  3 x 2 )


3 3 (6 x 2  x 3 )5
24 x 2
3x

23

x (6  x )
4

8
3

x (6  x )5
4

ycc z 0, ycc = f ,
(6 ) = 0, 1 = 0; 2 = 6 .
y cc +
.
4

yc

( f ; 0)

(0; 6)

f
0

(6; f )
+

333

.., ..
6

23 4
2

0
+2,5

+2

+1,5

+1

+0,5

0,5

1,5

2,5

3,5

4,5

5,5

6,5

+2

=2

+4
+6

. 4.16.

( = 6) =
V. :
4) y

6(6)2  63 = 0.

ex
.
x

. + , = 0, +
( f , 0) (0; f ).
.
:
= 0.

lim y = lim
x o0  0

x o00

ex
= f ,
x

ex
= f .
x o00 x
x o0  0
( f , 0) (0; f ).

lim y = lim

.
. :

f(x) =
334

ex
e x
, f(x) =
.
x
x

IV.

f(x) z f(x), f(x) z f(x) .


, , .
V. , z 0
z 0.
V. :
) = 0 ( )
.
) :

lim y = lim
x of
x of

ex
= f ,
x

lim y = lim = 0.

x of

x of

( = 0).
) , = kx + b.

ex
x
f (x)
x = lim e = f .
k1 = lim
= lim
x of x
x of
x of x 2
x
, o f .
ex
ex
f (x)
x
lim
lim
lim
k2 =
= x of
=
= 0,
x of
x of x 2
x
x
b = lim (f(x) kx) = lim
x of

x of

ex
= 0.
x

= 0 ( ).
V. +
.

ex
yc =
x

c e x x  e x
e x ( x  1)
=
.
=
x2
x2

:
335

.., ..

1) yc = 0,

e x ( x  1)
= 0, , = 1.
x2

2) yc = f = 0, = 0 .
, = 1.
( f ; 0),(0; 1), (1; f ).
:

yc

( f ; 0)

(0; 1)

1
0

(1; f )
+

mn

, min(1) = ,
V.
:

e x ( x  1) c e x ( x 2  2 x  2)
.
y cc =
=
x2
x3

e x ( x 2  2 x  2)
= 0, , z 0, 2 2
x3

+ 2 = 0, .
, , 0.
, y cc f .
= 0. = 0 ,
= 0 . ,
.

y cc ( f , 0) (0; f ).

y cc < 0 ( f , 0), ;
y cc > 0 (0; f ), .
336

IV.
Y

10
8
6
4

0
+3 +2,5 +2 +1,5 +1 +0,5+2 0

0,5

1,5

2,5

+4
+6
+8
+10

. 4.17.

V. . . 4.17.
5) M ( x ) =

1
2S

 x2

, , +
.
. + .
: ( f , f ); M ( x ) (0; f ).
. .
( f , f ).
. :

M(x) =
M ( x ) =

1
2S

2S
e

(  x )2
2

 x2

1
2S

 x2

M ( x ) = M ( x ) .
.
337

.., ..

V. = 0 M ( x ) =

2S

| 0,4.

, M ( x ) z 0.
V. :

lim M ( x ) = lim

x orf

x orf

2S

 x2

= 0.

, ( = 0) .
V. .
:

M c( x ) =

1
2S

 x2

= M ( x ) .

, M c( x ) >0 <0 M c( x ) <0 >0.


= 0 Mmax = M (0) | 0,4.
V. +
.
:
M cc( x ) = M ( x ) M c( x ) = M ( x ) + 2 M ( x ) = M ( x ) (2 1).
M ( x ) >0, M cc( x ) 2 1. +
. = 1 = 1.
:

( f ; 1)
+

1
(1; 1)
0

M( x)

0,24
V. . . 4.18.

M cc( x )

6) y

1
0

0,24

x2
.
ln x

. (0; 1) (1; f ).
. = 0 = 1.
338

(1; f )
+

IV.

0,5
0,4
0,3

0,24

0,2
0,1

0
+2

+1,5

+1

+0,5

0,5

1,5

. 4.18.

lim y = lim

x2
= 0.
ln x

lim y = lim

x2
= f .
ln x

lim y = lim
x o10

x2
= f .
ln x

x o0  0

x o10

x o00

xo10

xo10

. .
V. +
. , z 0; +
.
V. . lim y = f ,
x o10

lim y = f , = 1 . +

x o10

: = kx + b.

k = lim

xof

x2
x
f (x)
1
lim
=
= lim
= lim
= lim = f .
xof
x
of
x
of
x of
1
x ln x
ln x
x
x

, .
339

.., ..

V.
:

yc =

2 x ln x  x 2
(ln x )2

1
x = 2 x ln x  x = x (2 ln x  1) ;
(ln x )2
(ln x )2

yc = 0, (2ln x 1) = 0.
:

z 0, 2ln x 1 = 0, ln x =

1
1
, x = e2 =
2

e.

(0; 1)

yc

e)

(1;

( e ; f )

mn 2

V.
:

1
1
(2ln x  1  2 x )(ln x )2  (2 x ln x  x )2ln x
x
x =
y cc =
(ln x )4
=

ln x ((2ln x  1)ln x  4 x ln x  2 x )
ln x (2ln 2 x  3ln x  2 x )
=
.
4
(ln x )
ln 4 x

, ycc
.
ycc > 0 (0; 1), ; y cc < 0 (1; f ),
.
V. , o 0
o 0. . 4.19.

340

IV.

4.73. +

10
7

d ( p ) = e 2 p ( p t 0).
,

d c( p) =4p e

2 p2

4
1

d cc( p) = 4 e 2 p (42 1)
1
, < , +
2

+0,5

2
,

+8


(0;

0,5

1,5

2,5

3,5

+2
+5

: <

1
.
2

. 4.19.

1
, .
2

1
1
) , ( ; f ) +
2
2

1  12
; e ) (. 4.20)
2
: d(0) = 1, d(1) | 0,1.

. (

:
2

V(p) = pd(p) = p e 2 p .
:

1
1
, > .
2
2
, (
2

V c( p) = e 2 p (1 42) , <

341

.., ..

1,2
1

d(p) = e 2 p

0,8

0,6
0,4
0,2
0,1

0
+0,1

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

. 4.20.

) =
: Vmax = V(

1
,
2

1
1  12
)=
e | 0,3.
2
2

, .
2

V cc( p) = 4 e 2 p (42 3) , >

3
3
, , <
.
2
2
:

(0;

1
)
2

V c( p)

V cc( p)

V(p)

342

1
2
0

0,3
max

1 3
;
)
2 2

3
2

3
; f )
2

0,47

0,2

IV.

(0;

1
) .
2

. , +
.

<

3
| 0,9,
2

V(p) . > 0,9 +


+
. (

3
; f ) V(p) .
2

3
; 0,2) (. . 4.21).
2
0,35

V (p )

0,3
0,25
0,2
0,15
0,1
0,05

0
+0,1

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

. 4.21.

343

.., ..

4.8.13.
4.74.
:
1) =

x
;
1 x2

x
;
3) = 2
x 1

2) =

1
;
1 x2

x2
4) = 2
;
x 1

5) =

1
+ 42;
x

6) = 2 +

7) =

2x  1
;
( x  1)2

8) =

1
;
x2

x3
;
3  x2

9) ( 1) = 3;

10) (3 1) = 4;

11) = 322(2 1)3;

12) =

13) =

x
;
ex

15) = ln( + 1);


17) = ln(2 + 1);
19) =

344

1
;
e 1
x

( x  1)2
;
( x  1)3

14) = 2;
 x2

16) = 2 e ;
18) = 3;
20) = +

ln x
.
x

V.

V.

5.1.

,
. z = f(x, y), +
, :

' x z = f(x + ' x, y) f(x, y);


' y z = f(x, y + ' y) f(x, y);
' z = f(x + ' x, y + ' y) f(x, y).
lim

' x o0

'x z
,
'x

z = f(x, y)
:

wf
wz
, z xc , fxc( x , y) ,
.
wx
wx

. +
, +
.

5.1.1.
.
5.1. z = x3y 3x2 + 2y 1.
.

wz
= 32 6,
wx
wz
= 3 + 2.
wy
345

.., ..

5.2. z = ln(x2 y2).


.

wz
2x
= 2
,
wx
x  y2

2y
wz
= 2
.
wy
x  y2
5.3. z = xy.
.

wz
= yxy1,
wx
wz
= y ln x.
wy
'
,
dz :

dz =

wz
wz
dx +
dy,
wx
wy

' = dx i ' y = dy

5.4. z = x2 xe y.
.

wz
= 2x e y,
wx

wz
= xe y,
wy
dz = (2x e y)dx xe ydy.

346

V.

5.5. z =

x
.
y

wz
1
= ,
wx
y

wz
x
= 2,
wy
y
dz =
5.6. z =
.

1
x
dx 2 dy.
y
y

x 2 y.
wz
1 y
=
2,
wx
2 x
wz
=
wy

dz =

1
2 x

x 2 y ln2,

2 ydx +

x 2y ln2dy.

z = f(x, y) +
.

w2 z
wx 2

w wz
,
wx wx

w2 z
wy 2

w2 z
wx wy

w wz
,
wy wx

w2 z
wywx

w wz
,
wy wy
w wz
.
wx wy

+
.
347

.., ..

d2z
d2z = d(dz)
+

d2z =

w2 z
w2 z
w2 z
2
(
dx
)
+
2
dx
dy
+
(dy)2.
wx 2
wy 2
wx wy

5.1.2.

wz
wz

.
wy
wx

xy .

5.7. z = x2 y2.

5.8. z =

5.9. z = tg(x y).


5.11. z = ln(x3 2xy).
5.13. z = 2sin(x + y).
5.15. z = 2sin xy.

5.10. z = sin(x2 + y2).


5.12. z = e x y.
5.14. z = sin x cos y.
5.16. z = 3cos(x2y3).

1
ln(x2 + y2).
2

5.17. z = x2y4.

5.18. z =

5.19. z = ex 2y.
5.21. z = x2 ln y.

5.20. z = sin(xy).
5.22. z = x2y y2x.

5.23. z =

xy.

5.24. z = tg

x
.
y

5.25. z =

x 2  y2 .

5.26. z =

x 2  y2 .

, z = f(x, y) .
5.27. z = y ln(x2 y2),
348

1 wz 1 wz

x wx y wy

2
.
y2

V.

5.28. z = x arctg

y
,
x

5.29. z = ln(x2 + y2),

5.30. z = arctg

wz
wz
+y
= 0.
wy
wx

w2 z
w2 z
+
= 0.
wy 2
wx 2
w2 z
w2 z
+
= 0.
wy 2
wx 2

y
,
x

5.31. z = ln(x2 + xy + y2),

wz
wz
+y
= 2.
wy
wx
2

5.32. z =

x y ,
2

wz
wz
+ wy = 1.
wx

5.33. z = ln(e x + e y),

wz
wz
+
= 1.
wx wy

5.34. z = e xcos y,

w2 z
w2 z
+
= 0.
wy 2
wx 2

5.35. z = e xy,

x2

5.36. z = x ln

y
,
x

w2 z
w2 z
2

y
= 0.
wy 2
wx 2

wz
wz
+y
= z.
wy
wx

wz
z = f(x, y) l (cos D , sin D )
wl

wz
wz
wz
=
cos D +
sin D ,
wx
wl
wy
(, )
.
349

.., ..

wz wz
, ,
wx wy

wz wz
,
wx wy

grad z =

wz
wz
i
j.
wx
wy

z = f(x, y) .
z = C ()
f(x, y) = ,
. (0, 0),
+ .
5.37. z = x2 xy + 2y.

wz
(1; 3) +
wl

1
.
2 2

wz
= 2 ,
wx

wz
wx

wz
= x + 2,
wy

wz
wy

wz
wl

= 2 1 3 = 1,

= 1 + 2 = 1.

1
1
wz
wz
cos D +
sin D = 1
+1
= 0.
wy
wx
2
2

5.38. z = 4 x2 y2 (1; 2). grad z


.
.

wz
= 2,
wx
350

wz
= 2,
wy

V.

wz
wx

grad z

wz
wy

= 2,
M

Y
2

= 4,

= (2; 4)

MN = grad z

.
1

5.39. z =

4
,
x  y2

(1; 2). +
grad z

x 1
y 2

8
(1  4)2

8
,
25

wz
4
=  2
2,
wx
( x  y 2 )2

wz
wx

wz
4
=
2,
2
wy
( x  y 2 )2

wz
wy

= 

16
.
25

8 16
; .
25 25

grad z =

4
= . +
(x  y2 )
2

, (1; 2).

4
4
= , = ,
1 4
5

4
4
,
2 =
x y
5
2

2 + 2 = 5.
(0; 0)

5.
351

.., ..

5.1.3.
z = f(x, y) l 0. +
l 0 grad z. | l | z 1,
cos D =

lx
l

, sin D =

ly
l

5.40. z = ln 2 x 2  2 y 2 ,

5.41. z = 2x2 3y2,

3 1
, .
2 2

M0(0; 2), l =

5.42. z = x3 + y3 3xy,
5.43. z = 3x2 2xy,

M0(2; 0), l = (0; 1).

5.47. z = x2y3 3x2y,

1
.
2 2

M0(2; 1), l =

M0(0; 1), l = (2; 1).


M0(1; 1), l = (2; 0).

5.49. z = x2 xy2 + 1,

352

3
.
2 2

M0(1; 1), l = (1; 0).

5.46. z = 2xy + 6x y,

5.48. z = 5x4 4y3,

M0(2; 1), l = ,

M0(0; 1), l = (3; 4).

5.44. z = x3 y3 + x,
5.45. z = 2x3 3y2,

3 1
, , M0(1; 1).
l =
2 2

M0(2; 3), l = (0; 2).

V.

5.2.
z = f(x, y) , +
, ,
:

z
x 0

z 0
y
M0(x0; y0) . A, B, C +
:
2
2 z 2 z z
,
,
M0.
x 2 xy y 2

1) '

AC  B2 ! 0 ,
max z(x0; y0) A < 0,
min z(x0; y0) A > 0;

2) '

AC  B2  0 , ;

3) ' AC  B2 0 , +
.
, +
z = f(x; y) , x y +
M (x, y) = 0.

L ( x , y, O ) .

f ( x , y)  OM ( x , y) ,

O .
O +
, L(x, y).

353

.., ..

5.2.1.
5.50.

x 2  xy  y 2  9 x  6 y  20 .

z
x

2x  y  9 ,

z
y

 x  2y  6 .

2 x  y  9 0

 x  2 y  6 0
x = 4, y = 1.
M0(4; 1) .
M0.

2 z
x 2

2 x
y 2

2, C

M0

'

2, B

M0

A C  B2

4 1

2 z
xy

M0

1 ,

3!0

A > 0, min (4; 1), min z = z(4; 1) = 1


5.51.

y x  y2  x  6 y .

z
x

z
y

y
2 x

 1,

x  2y  6 .

354

V.

y
 1 0,

2 x

x  2y  6 0
x = 4, y = 4.
:

2 z
x 2

y
4 x

2 z
y 2

2 z
xy

2 ,

1
2 x

(4, 4).

2 z
x 2

x 4
y 4

1 2 z
A  ,
8 y 2
'

x 4

2 ,

y 4

1 1

4 16

AC  B 2

2 z
xy

x 4

y 4

1
.
4

3
! 0,
16

A > 0, max Z, max = Z(4; 4) = 12.


5.52.

x 3  8 y 3  6 xy  1 .

z
x

3x 2  6y ,

z
y

z z
,
.
x y

24 y 2  6 x .

3 x 2  6 y 0

2
24 y  6 x 0
,

0
0

1
1
2
355

.., ..

2 z
x 2

2 z
y 2

6x ,

2 z
xy

48 y ,

6 .

(0; 0).
A = 0, C = 0, B = 6,

'

AC  B 2

0  36  0 .
(1; 1/2).
A = 6, C = 24, B = 6,
' 24 6  36 ! 0 , A > 0.
min
zmin= z(1; 1/2) = 1 + 1 3 + 1 = 0.
5.53 ( ).
z x 2  y 2 x  y  1 0 .

L ( x , y, O ) x 2  y 2  O ( x  y  1) .
:

L
x

2x  O

0,

L
y

2y  O

L
O

0,

x  y 1 0 .

x
x  y 0

y
x  y  1 0

1
2
1
2

(1 2;1 2) , O

1 .

L( x ; y) x 2  y 2  ( x  y  1) .

356

Lxc

2 x  1 , Lyc

cc
Lxx

cc
A , Lyy

2y  1 ,
2 C,

V.

cc
Lxy

B,

'

AC  B 2

4 ! 0, A ! 0 ,

min

min z

z(1/ 2;1/ 2) 1/ 4  1/ 4 1/ 2 .

5.2.2. .
.
5.54. z

800  x 2  y 2  40 x  60 y .

5.55. z

250  x 2  y 2  20 x  100 y .

5.56. z

1800  x 2  y 2  80 x  60 y .

5.57. z

2100  x 2  y 2  40 x  100 y .

5.58. z

1700  x 2  y 2  40 x  80 y .

5.59. z

1500  x 2  y 2  20 x  80 y .

5.60. z

2000  x 2  y 2  100 x  40 y .

1
1
 2
2
x
y

5.61. z

xy

5.62. z

1 1

x y

5.63. z

x 2  y 2  xy  x  y  4

x  y  2

1
.
2

0.
x  y  3

0.

357

.., ..

5.3.

, .
, .

...

...

...

...

yn

n
.
y = f(x), +
. +
, y = kx + b,
(k, b),
k i b:

n 2
n

x i k  x i b
i 1

i1
n
n
x k  bn
yi

i

i 1
i1

x y
i

i 1

5.3.1.
5.64. (. .)
(. .):

17,28

17,05

18,30

18,80

19,20

18,50

537

524

550

555

560

552

, ,
y = kx + b,
.

358

V.
n

x , y
i

i 1

x i yi ,
i 1

i 1

, :

i 1

17,28
17,05
18,30
18,80
19,20
18,50
109,13

527
524
550
555
560
552
3288

2
298,598
290,702
334,890
353,440
368,640
342,250
1988,520

9279,36
9104,70
10065,00
10434,00
10752,00
10212,00
59847,06

1988,52k  109,13b 59847,06

109,13k  6b 3288
,
k = 12,078, b = 328,28.

y = 12,078 x + 328,28.
, 1
12, 078 . .

5.3.2.
5.65. , +
y = kx + b :

0,5
0,7

1,0
1,7

1,5
1,6

2,0
3,1

2,5
3,6

3,0
4,6

5.66. , +
y = kx + b :
359

.., ..

0,2
3,2

0,2
2,9

0,4
1,8

0,6
1,6

0,8
1,2

1,0
0,7

5.67.
.
()
(..)

1
6,3

2
9,5

3
13,9

4
16,1

5
20,2

6
24,1

7
26,8

,
y = kx + b, +
.
5.68. +
8 +
.
()
(. .)

1
100

2
156

3
170

4
184

5
194

6
205

7
220

8
229

, (y = kx + b),
k i b.
?

360

V.

5.4. ,

.
z = f(x, y),
,
. ' ,
' y z = f(x + ' x, y) f(x, y).

'x z
+
'x


,
. ' o 0.
:

lim

' x o0

' x z z
=
.
'x
x

, :

lim

' y o0

'y z
'y

z
.
y

z = f(x, y)
:

(z) =

x z

z x

() 1% +
, ;

(z) =

y z

z y

1% ,
.
n
1, 2, ... , n = f(1, 2, ... , n),
:
361

.., ..

y
;
x i

E xi () =

x y
.
y x i

5.4.1.
5.69. z z =

x2
,
y

, .
.

2x
z
=
,
y
x

+
.

z
x2
=  2 ,
y
y


.
5.70.
f(x, y) = 20 + 10 22 + 42 + 3,
. : ) ; ) +
; )
= 1, = 1.
.
) ,

f
f

.
y
x

f
= 20 + 8 + 3;
x
362

f
= 10 4 + 3.
y

V.

) ,
:

Ex(z) =

x
x z
= (20 + 8x + 3y);
z
z x

Ey(z) =

y z
y
= (10 4y + 3x);
z y
z

z = 20 + 10 22 + 42 + 3.
) = 1, = 1.
= 1, = 1.
Ex(z) =

31
20  8  3
=
| 0,89;
35
35

Ey(z) =

10  4  3
9
=
| 0,26.
35
35

, 1% +
0,89% (
). 1%
0,26%.
, z = f(x,y) .
, +

. , Ex(z) = 0,08 z = f(x,y) +
, 1%
0,08%.
5.71. z = 2x2y + 3xy2 + x3,
, . Ex(z)
Ey(z) (1; 1).
. z, +
1%, +
:

Ex(z) =

x z
z x

Ey(z) =

y z
.
z y

z :
363

.., ..

z
= 4 + 32 + 32;
x

z
= 22 + 6.
y

Ex(z) =

x (4 xy  3 y 2  3 x 2 )
;
2 x 2 y  3 xy 2  x 3

Ey(z) =

y(2 x 2  6 xy)
.
2 x 2 y  3 xy 2  x 3

Ex(z) Ey(z) (1; 1):

Ex(z) =

8
10
| 1,33.
| 1,67; Ey(z) =
6
6

1%
1,67%,
1% 1,33%.
5.72. G1 i G2
1000 . . 800 . . +
Q1 i Q2. :
= 2Q12 + 2Q1Q2 + Q22.
Q1 i Q2, ,
, . .
. G1 i G2 :
R = 1000Q1 + 800Q2.
, , .
R , :
= R C = (1000Q1 + 800Q2) (2Q12 + 2Q1Q2 + Q22);

(Q1,Q2) = 1000Q1 + 800Q2 2Q12 2Q1Q2 Q22.


. +

(Q1,Q2) :
364

V.

= 1000 4Q1 2Q2,


Q1

= 800 2Q1 2Q2.


Q2
1000  4Q1  2Q2 0

800  2Q1  2Q2 0


, Q1 = 100, Q2 = 300.
, 0(100; 300).

2
=
Q12

M0

2
= 4; =
Q1Q2

M0

2
= 2; =
Q22

M0

= 2.

< 0, ' = AC B2 = 4(2) 4 = 4 > 0.


0(100; 300) .
Q1 = 100, Q2 = 300.
:
(100; 300) = 1000 100 + 800 300 2 1002 2100300 3002 =
= 170000 . .

, .

1, 2, ... ,
D

z = A x1D1 x 2D 2 x iD i x p p ,
D i z . +
,
1, 2, 3, 4
z = 2,98(1)0,39 (2)0,48 (3)0,18 (4)0,09.
D1 = 0,39, D 2 = 0,48, D 3 = 0,18, D 4 = 0,09
,
2. 2 1%
0,48%. 4 1% +
0,09%.
365

.., ..

5.4.2.
5.73. ,
. 1
Q1, ,
1 + Q1 = 500. 2
Q2 (
) 21 + 3 Q2 = 720.
= 50000 + 20(Q1 + Q2).
, ?
5.74. G1 i G2 Q1 Q2
. = 10 Q1 + Q1Q2 + 10 Q2,
1 = 50 Q1 + Q2, 2 = 30 + 2Q1 Q2,
1, 2 G1 i G2 . ,

G1 i G2, 15 , Q1 + Q2 = 15. +
, .
5.75. z = z(x, y),
z
. : ) +
; ) ; ) +

= 1, = 1. .
:
1) z(x, y) = xy3 3x2y3 + 2y4 120y;
2) z = ln(x3 + 2y3);
3) z = exy;
4) z(x, y) = x3 + 2xy 4x 8y.
5.76.
1 2 .
1 2 . . 10000 . .
,
, ,
z
:
z = 2x1 + 10x2 x22.
366

V.

5.77. ,
: z = 0,84(x1)0,624(2)0,38(3)0,706.
1, 2, 3
.
5.78. 100 . . .
.
2000 .., +
1000 . . , R
+
Q, , +
+
5.

367

.., ..

VI.
6.1. . .

F(x) dF(x) = f(x)dx
( F c( x ) = f(x)), , +
, , F(x)
f(x).
+ f(x),
,
: F(x) f(x), F c( x ) = f(x),
F(x) + , , f(x),
(F ( x )  C )c = F c( x ) = f(x). F(x) +
f(x) ,

f ( x )dx = F(x) + ,

d(F(x) + ) = f(x)dx.

(6.1)

:
1.

f ( x )dx c

f ( x ) d f ( x )dx

f ( x )dx .

F c( x )dx = F(x) + F ( x )dx = F(x) + .


3. kf ( x )dx = k f ( x )dx ,
2.

(6.2)
(6.3)
(6.4)

.
4. ( f1 ( x )  f2 ( x )  f3 ( x ))dx = f1 ( x )dx + f2 ( x )dx f3 ( x )dx , (6.5)

+
.

368

VI.

6.1.1.
v n1
1. v dv =
+ C, n z 1 .
n 1
n

dv

1c .

= v + C.

dv
= ln|v| + C.
v

2.

3.

sin vdv = cos v + C.


cos vdv = sin v + C.

4.

dv

5.

cos

6.

sin

7.

tg vdv = ln|cos v| + C.
c tg vdv = ln|sin v| + C.

8.
9.

dv
2

= tg v + C.

v
v

= ctg v + C.

v
a dv =

9c.

e dv

10.

11.

11c .

av
+ C.
ln a

= e v + C.

1
dv
v
= arctg + C.
2
a
a
a
dv
va
1
=
ln
+ C.
2
2a v  a
a

1
dv
av
=
ln
+ C.
2
2a a  v
v
369

.., ..

dv

12.

a v

13.

v ra

14.

sin v

15.

cos v

16.

17.

dv
2

dv

dv

= arcsin

v
+ C.
a

= ln| v  v 2 r a 2 | + C.

= ln tg

v
+ C.
2
v S
 + C.
2 4

= ln tg

a 2  v 2 dv =

a2
v
v 2
arcsin + C.
a  v2 +
2
a
2

v 2 r a 2 dv =

v
2

v ra
2

a2
ln| v  v 2 r a 2 | + C.
r
2

, v +
() .

370

VI.

6.2.
6.2.1. .

.

6.1.

v = x, n =

xdx =

x 2 dx (1)

1
.
2
1

1
2

1

x2
x dx = 1  C
1
2

x2
2
x 3 + .
+=
3
3
2

6.2. ( x  5)7 dx (1) v = x + 5;

dv = dx; n = 7, :
7
( x  5) dx =

6.3.

( x  5)71
( x  5)8
+=
+ .
7 1
8

(3 x  4)2 dx (1)

v = (3x 4); dv = 3dx; n =

2
, :
5
2

2
1
1 (3 x  4) 5
5
(3
x

4)
3
dx
(3
x

4)
dx
=
=

2
3
3
1
5
2
5

1

+C=

7
1 (3 x  4)5
5
5 5
(3 x  4)7 + C.
(3 x  4)5 + C =
=
+C=
7
3
21
21
5

371

.., ..

xdx

36  5 x

6.4.

(2) v = 36

52; dv = (36  5 x 2 )cx dx = 10x dx,

xdx

36  5 x
6.5.

dv =

dx

(10) v = x 5 ;

dx
2

 ( x 5)

5dx

5 6

 ( x 5)2

5x

dx
(11) v = x 5 ;
 36

dx
5dx
x 5 6
1
1 1
=
=
ln
+C=

2
2
 36
5 (x 5)  6
5 26 x 5  6
1

12 5

ln

x 5 6
x 5 6

dv = 6dx, a =

372

6.7.

dx

36  5x

5 dx, a = 6. :

5x
=

1 10 xdx
1
=
ln|36 5x2| + C.
10 36  5 x 2
10

x 5
x 5
1 1
1
arctg
+C=
arctg
+ C.
6
6
6 5
5 6

6.6.

dv =

=

5 dx, a = 6. :

36  5 x
=

dx
5  36 x 2

(12) v = 6x;

5 , :

dx
5  36 x

+ C.

dx
( 5)2  (6 x )2

1
6

6dx
( 5)2  (6 x )2

VI.

1
6x
arcsin
+ C.
6
5

6.8.

dv = 6dx, a =

36 x 2  5

(12) v = 6x;

5 , :

dx

dx

36x  5
2

1
ln|6x +
6

dx

(6x)2  ( 5)2

1
6

dx

(6x)2  ( 5)2

36 x 2  5 | + C.

6.2.2.

,
.
6.2.2.1.
.
6.9.

(2

x  3 2 x  7)dx = 2 5 xdx ( 3 2xdx + 7dx =


1

1

1

x5
x3
13
32
+ 7x + C =
= 2 x 1 5 dx 3 2 x dx + 7 dx = 2
1
1
1
1
5
3
=

2x 6 / 5

6/5

5
3

x6

x4/3
5
3 3 2 4/3
+ 7x + C = x6/5
x + 7x + C =
2
4/3
3
4
33 2
4

x 4 + 7x + C.
373

.., ..

6.10.

(2 x  1)3 dx
x x

(2 x )3  3(2 x )2  3 2 x  1
x x

dx =

8 x 3 / 2 12 x 6 x 1/ 2
8 x 3 / 2  12 x  6 x 1/ 2  1
1
dx
=
3 / 2  3 / 2  3 / 2  3 / 2 dx =
3/2

x
x
x
x
x

1
 1

x 2
1 2
3 2
= 8 dx + 12 x dx + 6 x 1dx + x dx = 8x + 12
+
1
 1
2
3
 1

x 2
2
+ C = 8x + 24 x + 6 ln|x|
+ C.
+ 6 ln|x| +
3
x
 1
2
6.11.

(e

 e  x )2 dx = (e 2 x  2e x e  x  e 2 x )dx =
2 x

dx =

2x

dx 2 dx +

1 2x
1
1
e (2dx ) 2x e 2 x (2dx ) = e2x 2x

2
2
2

1 2x
e + C.
2

6.12.

x3
3
x
dx = 2
 2
dx =
2
5
x 5 x 5

xdx
dx
+ 3 2
=
2
5
x 5

dx
x 5
1
1 2 xdx
3
+ 3
= ln|x2 5| +
ln
+ C.
2

2
2
2
2 x 5
( x )  ( 5)
2 5 x 5

6.13.
2
tg xdx =

374

1
cos 2 x
sin 2 x
1  cos2 x

dx
dx
=
=

cos2 x cos2 x dx =
cos2 x
cos2 x

VI.

dx

cos

dx

= tg2x x + C.

6.2.2.2.
.

dx

6.14.

6.16.

7  3x .

6.18.

6.20.

5x

6.22.

4x

6.24.

6.26.

6.28.

6.30.

(7  3 x )

6.17.

5  3x

6.19.

5  7x

dx
.
2
3

6.21.

dx
.
2
7

6.23.

(5  3 x

6.25.

x 2 dx .

6.27.

3  7x
dx

dx

6.15.

dx
3  7x

dx
7x  4
2

 x3

2  33 x2  5 x
x3
(1  x )3
3

dx .

dx .

xdx

dx

.
.

dx
9x 2  5

xdx

5 x

dx .

sin xdx
x
3

2 3

x2  4 x

6.29.

6.31.

e x
x
1

e
x 2

dx .

dx .

375

.., ..

6.32.

ax
x

a
1

x 3 dx .

6.34.

6.36.

6.38.

sin

6.40.

1  x

1
3

x 1
1 x

cos

1
dx.
x x

6.35.

dx.

6.37.

cos

6.39.

cos

6.41.

3  5  x2
5  x 2 dx .

x
dx .
2

dx .
1 x2
3

x3 1
dx .
x 1

6.42.

6.44.

x 2  5x  6
x  3 dx .

6.46.

6.48.

x 4 dx
x2  3 .

6.50.

376

x 1
x2  1

cos 2 xdx
.
2
x sin 2 x

6.33.

dx .

arctg x  2
dx .
1 x2

6.43.

3x  4
dx .
2
4
2

dx
.
x sin 2 x
x
dx .
3

x sin 2 x  3 x cos x
dx .

x cos x
5x  2
dx .
2
4

6.45.

6.47.

x 2 dx
x2 1 .

6.49.

x(3  2ln x )

dx

VI.

6.2.3.
d(u v) = udv + vdu +
+

udv

uv  vdu .

(6.6)

udv

vdu .

udv

. +

f ( x )dx

f(x)dx +
u dv. dv ,
dx, v. u
,
.

6.2.3.1.
.
6.51.

ln xdx .

u ln x ,
du

dv dx

1
dx , v
x

dx

ln xdx = x ln x x x dx

= x ln x dx = x ln x x + C.

377

.., ..

6.52.

x sin 5 xdx .

u
dv

x,

du dx
1
sin 5 x 5dx
5

sin 5 xdx

sin 5 xdx , v

1
 cos5 x
5

x sin5 xdx

= x( 

1
cos 5x)
5

 5 cos5 xdx

= 

x
cos 5x +
5

1
1
x
x
cos5xdx =  cos 5x +
cos5 x 5dx =  cos 5x +

25
5
5
5

1
sin 5x + C.
25

6.53.

(x

 3 x  5)e 2 x dx .

x 2  3 x  5,

dv

du (3 x  3)dx , v

e 2 x dx

2x

dx

1 2x
e 2dx
2

1 2x
e
2

(x
=

 3 x  5)e 2 x dx =

1 2x 2
e (x + 3x 5)
2

2e

2x

(2 x  3)dx =

1 2x 2
1
e (x + 3x 5)
(2 x  3)e 2 x dx .
2
2

u 2 x  3, dv e 2 x dx
du 2dx , v
378

1 2x
e
2

VI.

(2 x  3 x )e

2x

dx =

1 2x
e (2x + 3)
2

2e

2x

2dx =

1 2x
e (2x + 3)
2

1 2x
e + C.
2

, :

(x

 3 x  5)e 2 x dx =

1 2x 2
1 1
e (x + 3x 5) ( e2x(2x + 3)
2
2 2

1
1
1 2x
1
e + C) = e2x(x2 + 3x 5) e 2x(2x + 3) + e2x + C =
4
2
2
4

1 2x 2
e (x + 2x 6) + C.
2

x arctg xdx .

6.54.

u arctg x ,
du

dv

1
dx , v
1 x2

xdx

xdx

x2
2

x2
x arctg xdx = 2 arctg x

x2 1
x2
dx
=
arctg x
2
2 1 x
2

x
1
dx.
2

2 1 x

1 x2 1
1  x 2 dx =

x2
1  x 2 dx =
=

1  1  x

dx =

dx

1  x2
1
1  x 2  1  x 2
1

1 x

dx =

dx = x arctg x + C.
379

.., ..

x arctg xdx =

1
x2
x2
arctg x (x arctg x + C) =
arctg x
2
2
2

1
x
1
x2 1
x + arctg x + C =
arctg x
+ C.
2
2
2
2

6.55.

ax

cos bxdx .

. +
, .

e
=

u e ax ,
ax

cos bxdx =

1 ax
e sin bx
b

du e ax adx
=
1
sin bx
b

dv cos bxdx , v

cos bxdx

1 ax
a ax
e sin bx
e sin bxdx .
b
b

b sin bxe

ax

adx =

e ax ,

dv

e
+

ax

du

sin bxdx , v

1
sin bxdx = cos bx
b

e ax adx

sin bxdx
1

1
 cos bx
b

 b cos bxe

ax

1
adx = cos bx +
b

a ax
e cos bxdx .
b

. +

ax

cos bxdx .

= e ax cos bxdx =
=
380

a
1 ax
a
1
e sin bx (  eaxcos bx + e ax cos bxdx ) =
b
b
b
b

1 ax
a
a2
e sin bx + 2 eaxcos bx 2 e ax cos bxdx .
b
b
b

VI.

, . ,

a
a2
1 ax
e sin bx + 2 eaxcos bx 2 .
b
b
b

.
, :

a2
a
1
= eaxsin bx + 2 eaxcos bx.
2
b
b
b
:
+

a 2  b2
1
a
= eax(sin bx + eaxcos bx).
2
b
b
b
.
ax
= e cos bxdx =

b2 1 ax
a
e (sin bx + eaxcos bx) + =
2
2
b
b a b

eax
(bsin bx + acos bx) + .
a2  b2

6.2.3.2.
.

ln x
dx .
x2

6.56.

6.58.

6.60.

sin

6.62.

ln 2 x
x 2 dx .

x ln xdx .

x
2

dx .

6.57.

xe

6.59.

x cos3 xdx .

2 x

6.61. x sin
6.63.

dx .

x
xdx .
2

sin 4 xdx .
381

.., ..


6.64.

2
x e 2 dx .

6.65.

x e

6.66.

x cos

6.67.

6.68.

x 2 arctg x
1  x 2 dx .

6.69.

2
x 5 2 dx .

6.71.

6.70.
6.72.
6.74.

xdx .

dx .

ln(1  x )dx .
x

cos ln xdx .
arctg 4 x  1dx .
ln(16 x

2 3x

3x

sin 2 xdx .

6.73. ( x  3)2 ln 2 ( x  3)dx .

 9)dx .

6.75.

x sin 3 x
dx .
3
3x

cos

6.2.4. ( )

f ( x )dx

, +
+
f(x)dx.
, . +
, +
. x M (t ) , M (t )
t.

f ( x )dx (M (t )M c(t )dt .


(6.7)
f ( x )dx = (M (t )M c(t )dt = F (t )dt .

dx = M c(t ) dt,

t
, ,
x

382

M (t ) , .

VI.

6.2.4.1.
.
6.76.

dx

2

. t , +

x = t2, dx = 2tdt,

dx

2

= 2 dt 4

2tdt

2t
dt

t 2

6.77.

x.

t=
=2

2
2t 2
t 2

dt = 2
dt =
t 2
t 2 t 2

= 2t 4ln|t + 2| + C = 2 x 4ln| x +2| + C.

dx
x3x

. x = t6 , +
. dx = 6t5dt, t =

dx
x3x

6t 5 dt

= 6

x . :

t 5 dt
t 5 dt
t 3 dt
=
6
=
6
t 2 (4t  1) 4t  1 .
4t 3  t 2

4 t6  3 t6
,
. t3 4t + 1.
t3
1
t + t2
4
3

4t + 1
1
1/ 64
1 2
1
t
t+
+
4
16
64
4t  1

1
 t2
4
1
1
 t2 t
16
4
1
t
16
1
1
t+
64
16

1
64

383

.., ..

t 3 dt
1 1 64
6
1 2 1
6
4t  1 = 6 4 t  16 t  64  4t  1 dt = 4 t 2dt 16 tdt +

6
dt
3 t2
6
3 1
3 t3
3
dt
= +
t
ln|4t + 1| + C.

64
4
t

1
8
2
64
32 4
2 3
32
x = t6, t =

dx

x x
3

x.

1 6 3
3 6
3 6 2
3
x
( x)
ln|4 6 x +1| + C =
( x) +
32
2
128
16

3 6
1
3 3
3
x
x
x +
ln|4 6 x +1| + C.
32
2
16
128

6.78.

ln tg x

sin x cos x dx .

. t = ln tg x,

1
1
dx

dx =
.
2
tg x cos x
sin x cos x

dt =
:

ln tg x

sin x cos x dx
=

dx

ln tg x sin x cos x

tdt

t2
+C=
2

(ln tg x )2
+ C.
2

6.2.4.2.

384

6.79.

6.81.

x 1
x 2

6.80.

1

6.82.

xdx
x x
3

dx

dx .

x
3

x 4x
2

dx .

VI.

dx

6.83.

1

6.85.

6.87.

32

6.89.

6.91.

6.93.

1

6.84.

dx.

6.86.

2

6.88.

6.90.

6.92.

x ln x .

x 1

1  4x
3 x

dx
3

1  3x

(4  x )dx
2  5x
dx
x 4 x
3

xdx
x

1  ln x
dx .
x ln x

.
.

dx
3

5x  1

dx
x  4  33 x  4
2 x
5x  1

dx .

dx

6.2.5. ,

,
,
, +
.
2

ax2 + bx + c = a(x2 +

c
c
b
b
b b
x + ) = a(x2 + 2x
+

+ )=

a
a
2a 2a 2a a

= a((x +

b 2 4ac  b2
c
b 2
b2
) +

)
=
a
((
x
+
) +
)=
4a 2
2a
a
2a
4a 2

= a((x +

b 2
) r k2).
2a


.
385

.., ..

6.2.5.1.
.
dx
.
 4x  8
.
x2 + 4x + 8 = x2 + 2 2x + 22 22 + 8 = (x + 2)2 + 4 = (x + 2)2 + 22.

6.94.

dx
dx
=
.
( x  2)2  22
 4x  8
x + 2 = v, a = 2, dx = dv.
(10) :

dx

( x  2)

2

x 2
1
arctg
+ C.
2
2

x 3
dx .
 2x  5
. t = x2 2x 5, dt = (2x 2)dx.
(2x 2)dx, ( + 3) +

6.95.

1
(2 + 6),
2
2, :

2, 2.

x 3
1 2( x  3)
1 2x  6  2  2
dx = 2
dx = 2
dx .
 2x  5
2 x  2x  5
2 x  2x  5
, +

dt
= ln|t| + C.
t

1 2x  2
62
1 2x  6  2  2
 2
dx =
dx = 2

2
2 x  2 x  5 x  2 x  5
2 x  2x  5

1
1
2x  2
1
8
dx = ln|x2 2x 5| +
dx + 2
2
2 x 2  2x  5
2 x  2x  5

8
1
1
dx
dx = ln|x2 2x 5| + 4 2
8 2
.
2
2
x  2x  5
x  2x  5
:

386

VI.

x2 2x 5 = x2 2x + 1 1 5 = (x 1)2

6 .
2

(11).

x 3
dx
1
dx = ln|x2 2x 5| + 4
=
 2x  5
2
( x  1)2  ( 6)2

x 1 6
1
1
ln|x2 2x 5| + 4
ln
+C=
2
x 1 6
2 6

x 1 6
2
1
ln|x2 2x 5| +
ln
+ C.
2
6
x 1 6
dx

6.96.

.
2  6 x  9x 2
. 2 6 92,
:
2 6 92 = (9x2 + 6x 2) = ((3x)2 + 2 3x + 1 1 2) =
= ((3x + 1)2 3) = 3 (3x + 1)2 = ( 3 )2 (3x + 1)2.

dx

2  6 x  9x

dx
( 3)  (3 x  1)2

u = 3x + 1, a =

dx
( 3)  (3 x  1)
2

1/ 3du
3)2  u 2

3 , 3dx = du, dx =

1
du
3

3x  1
u
1
1
arcsin
+ C = arcsin
+
3
3
3
3

+ C.

5x  3

dx .
x 2  4 x  10
. x2 + 4x + 10 = t, dt = (2x + 4)dx.
, dt = (2x + 4)dx.
6.97.

387

.., ..

5 2
5
6
5
6
( (5x + 3) = (2x + ) = (2x + 4 +
4) =
2 5
2
5
2
5

(5x + 3) =

5
5
14
((2x + 4)
) = (2x + 4) 7.
2
2
5

5x  3
x  4 x  10
2

dx

5
2

dx =

x  4 x  10
2

dt
t

5 / 2(2 x  4)  7
x  4 x  10
2

5
2

dx =

2x  4

x  4 x  10
2

5
2

2x  4

x  4 x  10
2

dx 7

x 2  4 x  10 | + C =

7ln|x + 2 +

dx

dx
( x  2)2  6

5 t

2 1/ 2

7ln|x + 2+ x 2  4 x  10 | + C = 5 x 2  4 x  10

x 2  4 x  10 | + C.

7ln|x + 2 +

6.2.5.2.
.
6.98.

dx
.
 7 x  10

6.99.

dx
.
 6x  4

6.100.

9x

6.102.

x 2
dx .
 7 x  12

6.104.

6.106.
388

dx
2  6x  9x 2
( x  3)dx
3  2x  x 2

4x

6.101.

4x

6.103.

6.105.

dx
.
 4x  5
4x  1
dx .
 4x  5

dx
4x  3  x 2
(3 x  1)dx
x 2  2x  2

VI.

6.3. .

Pn ( x )
,
Qm ( x )

Pn(x) Qm(x) . +
, n
m. +
.
. ,
, +

, +
.
.

4x 4  4x  5
.
x 2  2x  1
:

4x4 4x + 5
x2 2x + 1
4
3
2
4x 8x + 4x 4x2 + 8x + 12
8x3 4x2 4x + 5

8x3 16x2 + 8x
12x2 12x + 5

12x2 24x + 12
12x 7

4x 4  4x  5
12 x  7
= 4x2 + 8x + 12 + 2
.
x 2  2x  1
x  2x  1
, , V
:
I.

A
.
x 2
389

.., ..

A
, (k t 2, ).
( x  a )k

II.

III.

p2
Ax  B
 q  0) .
(
,
4
x 2  px  q

VI.

Ax  B
p2
t
,
(
k
2,

 q  0 ).
( x 2  px  q)k
4

p2
 q  0 , x2 + px + q
4
.
.
+ +
.

x  a dx

( x  a)

dx

dx
x a

A ln x  a  C .

A ( x  a) k dx

( x  a) k 1
C
k  1

(6.8)
A
. (6.9)
(k  1)( x  a)k 1

+ +
.

Ax  B
dx
. 2
x  px  q
=

A
Ap
(2x  p)  (B 
)
2
2 dx =
x 2  px  q

Ap
A (2 x  p)
dx
dx + (
) 2
=
2

2
2 x  px  q
x  px  q

2B  Ap
dx
A
|ln x2 + px + q| +
=

p
p2
2
2
(x  )2  (q  )
4
2

2B  Ap
A
= |ln x2 + px + q| +
2
2
390

p
2
+C=
arctg
4q  p 2
4q  p2
2
2
1

x

VI.

2B  Ap
A
2x  p
ln|x2 + px + q| +
arctg
+ C.
2
4q  p 2
4q  p2

(6.10)

IV+
+
III.
+

Pn ( x )
dx ,
m (x)

Pn ( x )
, (
Qm ( x )
) ,
. +

Pn ( x )

Qm ( x )

, +
.

Qm ( x ) . :
1. ,
Qm(x) = (x a1)(x a2) (x an).

Pn ( x )

Qm ( x )

1+ :

Pn ( x )
Qm ( x )

Am
A1
A2

 ...... 
x  a1 x  a2
x  am ,

A1, A2,, An , +
, .
2. ,
,
Qm(x) = (x a) ... (x b)i .
391

.., ..

Pn ( x )
+
Qm ( x )

1+ 2+ :

Pn ( x )
Qm ( x )

Bi 1
Bi
B
B2
A
 .....  1 
 ...... 

.
2
i 1
x a
x  b ( x  b)
( x  b)
( x  b)i

A, , B1, B2, , Bi1, Bi


, .
3. , ,
, +
,
Qm(x) = (x a)(x b)i(x2 + px + q).

Pn ( x )
+
Qm ( x )

+, + +
Pn ( x )
Qm ( x )

Bi 1
Bi
B
B2
A
Mx  N
 1 
 ... 

 2
,
2
i 1
i
x  a x  b ( x  b)
( x  b)
( x  b) x  px  q

A, B1, B2, , Bi1, Bi, M, N ,


.

6.3.1.
.
6.107.

x 2  2x  2
x 3  2 x 2  8 x dx .

x 2  2x  2
+
x 3  2x 2  8x

, x3 + 2x2 8x
x(x 2)(x + 4),
:
392

VI.

x 2 2 x  2
x 3  2x 2  8 x

x 2  2x  2
x ( x  2)( x  4)

A
B
C
.


x x 2 x 4

A, B, C +
.
.

A( x 2)( x 4) B x ( x 4) C x ( x 2)




=
x
x 2
x 4

x 2  2x  2
x 3  2x 2  8 x
=

A( x  2)( x  4)  Bx ( x  4)  Cx ( x  2)
=
x ( x  2)( x  4)

Ax 2  2 Ax  8 A  Bx 2  4 Bx  Cx 2  2Cx
.
x ( x  2)( x  4)

,
,
x2 2x + 2 = Ax2 + 2Ax 8A + Bx2 + 4Bx + Cx2 2Cx,
x2 2x + 2 = (A + B + C)x2 + (2A + 4B 2C)x 8A.
, +
,

x2
x
x

A  B C 1
2 A  4 B  2C

8 A 2

2

, +

B  C 5

2 B  C  3

1
=  , B
4

1
,C
6

13
.
12
393

.., ..

A, B, C +
:

1
1
13
4  6  12 .
x
x 2 x 4

x  2x  2
x 3  2x 2  8 x
2

x 2  2x  2
x 3  2x 2  8 x dx
1
6

dx

13

1
1
4 dx  6 dx +
x
x 2

dx

13
1
x12 4 dx =  4

dx
+
x

13

x  2 + 12 x  4 =  4 ln|x| + 6 ln|x 2| + 12 ln|x + 4| + C.

2x 2  5x  8
dx .
6.108.
( x  1)3 ( x  2)2
.
, ,
+ + .

2x 2  5x  8
( x  1)3 ( x  2)2

A
B
C
D
E




.
3
2
2
( x  1) ( x  1) ( x  1) ( x  2) x  2

A, B, C, D E +
,
.
, :
2x 2  5x  8
( x  1)3 ( x  2)2
A( x  2)2  B( x  2)2 ( x  1)  C ( x  2)2 ( x  1)2  D( x  1)3  E ( x  1)3 ( x  2)
.
( x  1)3 ( x  2)2

,
:
2x2 + 5x 8 = A(x + 2)2 + B(x + 2)2(x 1) + C(x + 2)2(x 1)2 +
+ D(x 1)3 + E(x 1)3(x + 2).
394

VI.

, ,
+ . x = 2 +
:

2(2)2  5(2)  8 D(2  1)3 10 27 D D


2
x = 1. 2 1  5 1  8

10
.
27

1
A(1  2)2 1 9 A A  .
9

B, C, E.

. x4
(x4 ), C + E. C + E = 0.
8,
4A 4B + 4C D 2E.
:
4A 4B + 4C D 2E = 8,
A D ( A

1
 ; D
9

2B  2C  E

10
) ,
27
97
.
27

, ,

.
B, C E,
.
x = 2, :
2 22 + 5 2 8 = 16A + 16B + 16C + D + 4E.
, A

1
 , D
9

10
,
27

4 B  4C  E

77
.
27

, B, C E :
395

.., ..

CE 0

2B  2C  E

4 B  4C  E

97
27
77
27

, :

29
, C
27

13
, E
27

13
.
27

1
A  , B
9

29
, C
27

13
, D
27

10
, E
27

, :

13
.
27

2x 2  5x  8
( x  1)3 ( x  2)2

29
13
10
13
1

9  27  27  27  27 .
( x  1)3 ( x  1)2 ( x  1) ( x  2)2 ( x  2)


, :

2x 2  5x  8
29
dx
1
dx
( x  1)3 ( x  2)2 dx = 9 ( x  1)3 + 27 ( x  1)2

13 dx
10
dx
13 dx
1
+
+
= ( x  1)3 dx +
2

27 ( x  2)
27 x  1
27 x  2
9

13
10
29
13
ln|x 1| +
ln|x + 2| =
( x  2)2 dx +
( x  1)2 dx

27
27
27
27

=
+
396

1
10 ( x  2)
1 ( x  1)2
29 ( x  1)1
13
+

ln|x 1| +
+
1
27
9 2
27 1
27

13
1
13
29 1
ln|x + 2| + C =

ln|x 1|
2
27
18( x  1)
27
27 ( x  1)

VI.

13
10
+
ln|x + 2| + C.
27
27( x  2)

6.109.

x 3  4 x 2  2x  1
dx .

x4  x

.
, : x4 + x = x(x3 + 1) = x(x + 1)(x2 x + 1). ,
,
, x = 0 x = 1,
+ +

x 3  4x 2  2x  1
x4  x

x 3  4x 2  2x  1
x ( x  1)( x 2  x  1)

A
B
Mx  N

 2
.
x x 1 x  x 1

A, B, M N +
.
, :

x 3  4x 2  2x  1
x4  x

A( x 3  1)  Bx ( x 2  x  1)  (Mx  N )( x 2  x )
.
x ( x  1)( x 2  x  1)

,
, :
x3 + 4x2 2x + 1 = A(x3 + 1) + Bx(x2 x + 1) + (Mx + N)(x2 + x) =
= (A + B + M)x3 + (B + M + N)x2 + (B + N)x + A.
,
A, B, M, N

x3
x2
x
x0

A  B  M 1,
M 2,
B  M 0,
N 0,

 B  M  N 4,

 B  M  N 4,

2,


B
N
B  N 2,
B 2,

A 1.

A 1,
A 1.

x 3  4 x 2  2x  1
x4  x

1
2
2x  0
.

 2
x x 1 x  x 1
397

.., ..

, :

x 3  4x 2  2x  1
dx

x4  x
dx
dx
2
+
x 1
x

2x  1
dx +
 x 1

1
3
( x  )2  ( )2
2
2

2 xdx
=
 x 1

2x  1  1
dx = ln|x| 2ln|x + 1| +
2
 x 1

dx

2

x dx  x  1 dx  x

dx
= ln|x| 2ln|x+1| + ln|x2 x + 1| +
 x 1

= ln|x| 2ln|x + 1| + ln|x2 x + 1| +

x1
1
2 + C = ln|x| 2ln|x + 1| + ln|x2 x + 1| +
arctg
3
3
2
2
2
3

arctg

2x  1
3

+ C.

6.3.2.
.
6.110.

xdx

( x  1)(2 x  1) .

x5  x4  8
6.112.
dx .
x 3  4x
6.114.

398

2x 4  2x 2  3 x
( x  1)( x  2)( x  3)dx .

6.111.

6x

dx
.
 7x 2  3x

3x 2  8
dx .
6.113. 3
x  4x 2  4x
6.115.

x 2
dx .
 2x 2

VI.

6.116.

2x 2  5x  1
x 3  2 x 2  x dx .

6.117.

(x

6.118.

2 x 3  5 x 2  x  4
( x  1)2 ( x  2)2 dx .

6.119.

( x  1)( x

6.120.

x 2  7 x  11
( x  1)( x 2  6 x  10) dx .

6.121.

2 x 2  6 x  19
( x 2  1)( x  2)2 dx .

6.122.

(2 x 2  8 x  27)
( x  3)2 ( x 2  2) dx .

6.123.

(2 x 2  4 x  3)
( x 2  x  1)( x 2  2) dx .

6.224.

4x 2  7x  2
( x 2  x  1)( x 2  4) dx .

6.125.

( x 2  1)dx
x3  3x2  3x  1 .

6.226.

2x 2  5
x 4  5 x 2  6 dx .

6.127.

dx
.
 3)( x 2  2)

3 x 2  15
dx .
2
 4 x  13)

5x  1
dx .
 3x  2
399

.., ..

6.4.
6.4.1. sinkxcoslxdx ; coskxcoslxdx ;

sinkxsinlxdx
sin kx cos lxdx ; cos kx cos lxdx ; sin kx sin lxdx ,

l k , l z k, :
sinkx coslx =

1
(sin(k l)x + sin(k + l)x);
2

(6.11)

coskx coslx =

1
(cos(k l)x + cos(k + l)x);
2

(6.12)

sinkx sinlx =

1
(cos(k l)x cos(k + l)x).
2

(6.12)

6.4.1.1.
.
6.128.

sin 3 x cos7 xdx

1
(sin(3  7) x  sin(3  7) x )dx =
2

1
1
1
(sin(4 x )  sin10 x )dx =  sin 4 xdx + sin10 xdx =

2
2
2

= 

1 1
1
1 1
sin 4 x 4dx +
sin10 x10dx = cos 4x

2 10
8
2 4

1
cos 10x + C.
20

6.129.

sin 2 x sin
400

1
2x
2x
2x
))dx =
dx = (cos(2 x  )  cos(2 x 
3
3
3
2

VI.

8x
1 3
4x
1
1
4x 4
dx =
cos
dx cos
cos
dx

3
2 4
3
2
2
3 3

8x 8
3
1 3
8
3
4
cos
dx = sin x
sin x + C.

3
3
8
3
2 8
3
16

6.4.2. R(sinx, cosx)dx


R(sin x ,

cos x )dx .

R(sin x, cos x) ,
: ,
, ,
, . , R(sin x, cos x)
.

t , :
tg

x
= t, ( S < x < S ),
2

sin x =

1 t2
2t
2
dt.
2 , cos x =
2 , dx =
1 t
1 t
1 t2

(6.14)

+
. :
) u = cos x, R(sin x; cos x) = R(sin x; cos x);
) u = sin x, R(sin x; cos x) = R(sin x; cos x);
) u = tg x, R(sin x; cos x) = R(sin x; cos x).
6.4.2.1.

.
6.130.

dx

2sin x  cos x .
401

.., ..

. +
t = tg

x
.
2
sin x =

1 t2
2
2t
,
cos
x
=
dt.
2 , dx =
2
1 t
1 t2
1 t

dx
2sin x  cos x =

=2

2dt
1 t2
2t 1  t 2 =

2
1 t2 1 t2

2dt
1 t2
4t  1  t 2 =
1 t2

dt
1
dt
t 2 5
= 2
=2
ln
+C=
2
 4t  1
(t  2)  5
2 5 t 2 5

tg x  2  5
2
ln
+ C.
x
5 tg  2  5
2

6.4.3. sin m xcosn xdx


I. . +
n = 2k + 1. +
:
sinmxcosnxdx = sinmxcos2k+1xdx = sinmxcos2kxcosxdx =
= sinmx(cos2x)kcosxdx = sinmx(1 sin2x)kcosxdx.
sinx = u, cosxdx = du.
um(1 u2)kdu. +
.

402

VI.

6.4.3.1.

.
6.131.

sin

x cos 4 xdx .

sin x cos xdx = sin x sin x cos


= (1  cos x ) cos x sin xdx .
5

xdx = (sin 2 x )2 sin x cos 4 xdx =

: cos x = u; sin xdx = du; sin xdx = du.

(1  cos

2 2 4
x )2 cos 4 x sin xdx = (1  u ) u (du) =

4
8
= (1  2u 2  u 4 )u 4 du = u du + 2 u 6 du u du =

=

u5
u9
2sin 7 x
sin 9 x
u7
sin 5 x
+2

+C=
+

+ C.
7
9
5
9
7
5

II. m i n .
,

sin2x =

1
(1 cos 2x),
2

(6.15)

cos2x =

1
(1 + cos 2x).
2

(6.16)

+
.
.
6.132.

sin

xdx .
2

sin xdx = (sin x ) dx = 2 (1  cos 2 x ) dx =


4

4 (1  2cos 2 x  cos

2 x )dx =

1
1
dx cos 2xdx +
4
2
403

.., ..

1
1
1
1
cos 2 2 xdx = x sin2x +

4
4
4
4

1
1
1
1
1
1
dx + cos 4 xdx = x sin2x +
x sin2x +

8
8
4
4
4
4

1
3
1
1
1
x+
sin4x + C = x sin2x +
sin4x + C.
8
8
32
32
4

2 (1  cos 4 x )dx

6.4.4. R(sin 2 x, cos2 x)dx


R(sin 2 x ,cos 2 x )dx , R +

sin2x cos2x. +

tg x = z; sin2x =

1
z2
dz
; cos2x =
; dx =
.
2
2
1 z
1 z
1 z2

(6.17)

6.4.4.1.

.
6.133.

4  3cos

dx
.
x  5sin 2 x

dx
4  3cos2 x  5sin 2 x =

dz
1  z2
4  4 z2  3  5z2 =
1  z2

1
dz
1
= arctg 3z + C = arctg (3tg x) + C.
2
3
1
3

9z

404

dz
1 z2
=

z2
1
43
5
1 z2
1 z2

VI.

6.4.5. R(tgx, ctgx )dx


R(tg,ctg x )dx , R

tg x ctg x. :
tg x = z; ctg x =

1
dz
; dx =
,
z
1 z2

(6.18)

+ .

6.4.5.1.

.
6.134.

tg

xdx .

5
5
tg xdx = z

dz
z 5 dz
=
;
1 z2 1 z2

z5
|z2 + 1
5
3
z + z |z3 z + z/(z2 + 1)
z3
z3 z
z
z
z 5 dz
3
1  z 2 = ( z  z  z 2  1)dz =

z dz
3

zdz

z
dz =
1

tg 2 x
1
1
z4
tg 4 x
z2

+ ln|z2 + 1| + C =

+ ln|tg2x + 1| + C =
2
2
2
4
2
4

tg 4 x
tg 2 x

ln|cos x| + C.
2
4
405

.., ..

6.4.6.
.

6.135.

sin 6 x cos 2 xdx .

6.136.

cos 2 cos 3 dx .

6.137.

sin 3 x sin 5 xdx .

6.138.

sin

6.139.

cos

xdx .

6.140.

sin

6.141.

cos

3 xdx .

6.142.

sin

6.143.

tg

xdx .

6.144.

2  3cos x .

6.145.

5  4sin x .

6.146.

3sin x  2cos x  1 .

6.147.

4  tg x  4 ctg x .

6.148.

7 sin

6.149.

(9  10 tg x )sin 2 x .

6.150.

(2sin x  5cos x )

6.151.

7  4 tg x .

6.152.

2sin

406

dx

dx

dx

dx

xdx .

x
dx .
4
3 xdx .

dx

dx

9  tg x
dx .
2
x  cos 2 x

(2  tg x )dx

(1  7 tg x )dx
.
2
x  cos 2 x  3

VI.

6.5. ,
m

6.5.1. R(x, x n ,..., x 5 )dx


m

R( x , x n ,..., x 5 )dx , R

. +
:
x = tk; dx = ktk 1dt,
(6.19)
k

r
m
, ..., .
s
n

6.5.1.1.
6.153.

x
3

x 4x
2

dx .

1 2 1
, ,
2 3 4

12. x = t12, dx = 12t11dt,


t=

12

x . :
x
3

x2  4 x

= 12

dx =

t 12
3

(t 12 )2  4 t

12t 11dt =
12

t 6 12t 11dt
t8  t3 =

t 17 dt
t 14 dt
=
12
t 3 (t 5  1)
t5 1 .

. .

407

.., ..

t14
|t5 1
14
9
t t |t9 + t4 + t4/(t5 1)
t9
t9 t4
t4
12

t4
t 14 dt
9
4
(


)dt = 12 t 9 dt + 12 t 4 dt +
t
t
=
12

t5 1
t5 1

+ 12

t5
12 5
t 10
t4
6
dt
=
12
+
12
+
ln|t 1| + C = ( 12 x )10 +
t 51
5
5
10
5

6
12 12 5 12
( x) +
ln|( 12 x )5 1| + C =
5
5
5

12 12 5
ln| x 1| + C.
5

x5 +

12
5

12

x5 +

m
r

ax  b n
ax  b s

6.5.2. R x ,
,...,

cx  d
cx  d

m
r

ax  b n
ax  b s

R x ,
,...,

cx  d
cx  d

dx

dx ,

a b
+
z
c d
ax  b
r
m

= tk, k
, ..., .
cx  d
s
n

408

VI.

6.5.2.1.
6.154.

. t2 =
x=

1 x
dx.
x
1 x
,
x

1
2tdt
, dx = 2
.
t 1
(t  1)2
2

t3
1 1 x
2
2 2tdt
2

t
dt
(
1)
t
dx
=
=
2
=
2
+C=

x2 x
(t 2  1)2
3
3

=C

2 1 x
.
3 x

6.5.3. ,
, +
, :

R( x ,

a 2  x 2 )dx x = a sin t;

(6.20)

R( x ,

a 2  x 2 )dx x = a tg t;

(6.21)

R( x ,

x 2  a 2 )dx x = a/cos t.

(6.22)

6.5.3.1.

.
6.155.

4  x 2 dx .

. x = a sin t,
dx = 2cos tdt, sin t =

x
x
, t = arcsin .
2
2
409

.., ..

4  x 2 dx = (2sin t)2 4  4sin2 t 2cos tdt = 4sin2 t 4cos2 tdt =

2
= 4 sin 2tdt = 4

= 2t

1  cos 4t
dt = 2 dt 2 cos4tdt =
2

1
x
x
1
sin4t + C = 2arcsin sin4(arcsin ) + C =
2
2
2
2

= 2arcsin

x
x
+ (x2 2) 4  x 2 + C.
4
2

6.156.

dx
(36  x 2 )3

. x = 6tg t,

6
x
dt, x = 6tg t, t = arctg .
2
cos t
6

dx =

dx

(36  x 2 )3

6
dx
6
cos2 t
= 3
2
3
6
(36  36tg t)

1
x
1
1
sin t + C =
sin(arctg ) + C =
36
6
36
36

6.157.

dx

36  x 2

+ C.

x 2  25dx
.
x4

. x

410

dt
1
cos 2 t
1 = 36 cos tdt =
cos 3 t

5sin tdt
, x
cos2 t

5
,
cos t

5
5
5
, cos t = , t = arccos .
x
x
cos t

VI.
2

x 2  25dx
=
x4

5
cos t  25
5sin t

dt =
4
cos2 t
5
cos t

sin t
sin tdt
cos t
=
4 1
2
5
cos
t
cos 4 t
52

1
1 sin 3 t
1
5
2
sin
t
cos
tdt
=
+C=
sin3(arccos ) + C =
25
25 3
75
x

1
75

( x 2  25)3
+ C.
x3

6.5.4.
:
3

6.158.

6.160.

6.162.

6.164.

6.166.

x  x
2

dx .

6.159.

dx .
x3  1

dx
4

x  3  1) x  3

1 x2
dx .
x4

x 2 dx
25  x

x 2 dx

6.168.

(4  x

6.170.

) 4x

16  x 2 dx .

x(

dx .
x  3 x)

1 4 x

6.161.

x

6.163.

6.165.

6.167.

6.169.

(9  x

6.171.

dx .

x 1
2x  1

dx .

dx
2

x2  9

dx
3

x 8

dx
2

) 9  x2

x 2  36
dx .
x4
411

.., ..

6.6. .
. A
f(x) [a; b] ( < b), :
1) n
'x1 , 'x 2 , ..., 'x n ;
2)
H 1 , H 2 , ..., H n ;
3) f(x) ;
4)
f( H 1 ) 'x1 + f( H 2 ) 'x 2 + ... + f( H n ) 'x n =

f (H )'x
i

i 1

f(x) [a; b].


[a; b] n
+ H i , +
f(x) +
[a; b] .
, +
n +
, . +
f(x) [a; b]
b

f(x) b

f ( x )dx .
a

6.6.1.
1.
:
b

f ( x )dx = f ( x )dx .
412

(6.23)

VI.

2. :
a

f ( x )dx = 0.
a

3. :
b

f ( x )dx =
a

f ( x )dx +
a

f ( x )dx .

(6.24)

4. +
:
b

( f1 ( x )  f2 ( x )  f3 ( x ))dx =
a

f1 ( x )dx +
a

f ( x )dx
2

f ( x )dx . (6.25)
3

5. k :
b

kf ( x )dx = k f ( x )dx .

(6.26)

6. y = f(x) [a; b] ( a < b),


[ [a; b], :
b

f ( x )dx = f( [ )(b a)

( ).

(6.27)

,
, +
:
b

f ( x )dx = F(x) a = F(b) F(a),

(6.28)

+
.

413

.., ..

6.6.2.
.
6.172.
7

1

dx
3x  4

(3 x  4)

1/ 2

1

1
dx = (3 x  4)1/ 2 3dx =
3 1

1 (3x  4)1/ 21 7


2
2
7
3x  4
37  4
=
=
1
1
3
1
3
3
 1
2
2
2
2
8
2
=2 .
3 (1)  4 = 5 1 =
3
3
3
3
3

6.173.
S

2
x
x
x1
sin
dx
=
2
0 2
0 sin 2 2 dx = 2cos 2

= 2

2
+ 2 1 = 2
2

S
2

= 2cos

+ 2cos

2.

6.174.
5

dx
5  4x  x

= arcsin

dx
9  ( x  2)

= arcsin

x 2 5
=
3 2

52
S
22
arcsin
= arcsin 1 arcsin 0 = .
3
2
3

6.175.
0

dx
1 x 2  2 x  2 =

1

= arctg 1 arctg 0 =
414

dx

( x  1)
S
4

1

= arctg(x + 1)

0
=
1

0
=
2

VI.

6.176.
16

16

dx

x 9 x

( x  9  x )dx

x  9  x )( x  9  x )

16

16

( x  9  x )dx
1
1
0 x  9  x = 9 0 ( x  9  x )dx = 9

1
+
9

16

1/ 2
x dx =
0

2
27

2
2
2
(125 27) +
64 =
162 = 12.
27
27
27

16
0

16

( x  9)

1/ 2

dx +

16
1 ( x  9)3 / 2 16 1 x 3 / 2 16
2
( x  9)3
+
=
+
0
3/2 0
9
9 3/2 0
27

x3

2
2
( (16  9)3 (0  9)3 ) +
( 163
27
27

03 ) =

6.177.
2

dx
1 x  x 3 =

dx

x (1  x
1

A  Ax 2  Mx 2  Nx
A Mx  N
1
=
+
=
;
1 x2
x (1  x 2 )
x (1  x 2 ) x
A + Ax2 + Mx2 + Nx = 1;

A M

x2
x
x

A 1

1,

N 0,
A 1.

1
1
x
=

;
2
x (1  x ) x 1  x 2
2

2
2
2
xdx
1
dx
dx
=
1 x (1  x 2 ) 1 x 1 1  x 2 = ln|x| 1 2 ln|1+ x2| 1 = ln2 ln1
2

415

.., ..

1
1 8
1
1
1
3
ln5 + ln2 = ln2 ln5 = (ln8 ln5) = ln .
2
2 5
2
2
2
2

6.6.3.
.
3

6.178.

3
2
(2 x  x  5)dx .

6.179.

2

13

dx
2 (11  5x )3 .
9

6.182.

6.181.

y 1

6.183.

6.190.

0,5

8  2x  x 2

S
2

dx
6.192.
.
S 1  cos x


416

6.189.

dx
.
 5x  4
x

cos 2 cos
0

3 1

6.191.

3x
dx .
2

dx

3  2x  x 2

1
sin dx
x
6.193.
.
x2
1
2

dx
.
 4x  5

cos
S

6.187.

(3  x )4

dx

6.185.

x
x
cos dx .
2
2
dx

x
S

x 3
0 x 2  4dx .

sin

dx

dy .
y 1

xdx
6.184. 2
.
x 1
2

6.188.

6.186.

 4 x )dx .

2

1

6.180.

(x

VI.
S

6.194.

sin x
0 cos2 x dx .

6.195.

sin

2 xdx .

S
2

6.196.

cos x  cos xdx .


3

6.197.

2x
2

dx
.
 3x  2

417

.., ..

6.7.

+
. ,
b

f ( x )dx

x = M (t )

, t, x1 = a i x2 = b
t1 = D i t2 = E ,
, a = M (D ) , b = M ( E ) .

M c(t ) f (M (t )) [ D ; E ],
E

f ( x )dx = D f (M (t ))M c(t )dt .

(6.29)

+
u dv, +
+
:
b

udv = uv a vdu .
a

(6.30)

6.7.1.
29

6.198.

3
3

( x  2)2
3

( x  2)2

dx .

. x 2 = t3, x = t3 + 2, dx = 3t2dt.
, t =
x
t
418

3
1

29
3

x 2:

VI.

29

( x  2)2

3 3  3 ( x  2)2 dx =

3
t4  9  9
t 2 3t 2 dt
t 4 dt
=
3
=
3
1 3  t 2 dt =
1 3  t 2
1 3  t 2

3
3
t4  9
9
9
2
dt

(
3
)
t


dt
t 2 dt
=
3
=
3
1 3  t 2 t 2  3
2
1

t 3
1
3

=3

9 dt + 27
1

3
t3 3
t 3
27
dt
=
3
9t +
arctg
=
1 t 2  ( 3)2
3 1
1
31
3

= 27 1 27 + 9 + 9 3 (rctg

arctg

1
3

)=

S
16  3 3S
S S
=
.
 =8+9 3
6
2
3 6

=8+9 3

6.199.

xdx

1
1

. x = t2, dx = 2tdt,

x = t.
x.

t =

t = x = 1,
= 4, : = 1 t = 1; x = 4
t = 2. 1 d t d 2. :
4

xdx

1
1

2 2
2 2
t 2tdt
t dt
t 11
=
2
=
2
1 1  t
1 1  t 1  t dt =
1

2
2
2
2
t2 1
1
1

dt



t
1
dt
=
2
=
2

2
= 2
tdt

1 dt +
1
1
t 1 t 1
t  1
1

2
2
2
t2 2
1
dt
=
2
2t + 2ln|t+1| = 4 1 4 + 2 +
+ 2

1
t 1
1
21
1

419

.., ..

+ 2ln 3 2ln 2 = 1 + 2(ln 3 ln 2) = 1 + 2ln

3
9
= 1 + ln .
2
4

S
2

6.200.

dx

2  cos x .
0

. tg

cos x =

x
= t,
2

1 t2
2dt
, dx =
, t1 = 0
2
1 t
1 t2

x1 = 0, t2 = 1 2 =

S
2

2dt
1
dx
1  t 2 = 2 dt = 2 arctg t 1 =
=
0 2  cos x 0 1  t 2 0 t 2  3
30
3
2
1 t2

2
3

(arctg

1
3

arctg

0
3

6.201.

)=

3 6

0) =

( x 3  1)dx

x
1

S
3 3

4  x2

. x = 2sin t. dx = 2cos tdt,


:
x
t = arcsin

420

x
2

VI.
S
3

( x 3  1)dx

x
1

4  x2

((2sin t )3  1)2cos tdt

(2sin t )

4  (2sin t )2

= 2(cos

dt
S sin 2 t = 2cos t

cos

3
1
(

4 3

S
6

3) =

S
3

1
= 2 sin tdt +
4
S

(8sin 3 t  1)dt
4sin 2 t =
S
3

1
ctg t
4

1
S
S
3
1
(ctg ctg ) = 2(
)
4
3
6
2
2

7
2 3

1.
S
10

( x  3)sin 5 xdx .

6.202.

. +
b

udv

= uv

b
a

vdu .
a

u ( x  3), dv sin5 xdx


du dx ,

S
10

1
 cos5 x
5

sin5 xdx

1
0 ( x  3)sin 5 xdx = 5 (x + 3)cos5x

S
2
0

1
+
5

10

( x  3)sin 5 xdx =
0

S
1
1
1 S
+ 3)cos 5
+ (0 + 3)cos 5 0 +
sin 5x
= (
5
10
25
5 10

S
2

421

.., ..

= 

3
1 S  30
S
S
1
1
(
)cos + cos 0 +
sin 5

sin 5 0 =
5
5
2
10
25
25
10

=

3
3
1
1
1 S  30
1
16
(
)0 + 1 +
=
= 0,64.
1
0 = +
5
5
25
25 25
5
25
10
1

arcsin xdx .

6.203.

u arcsin x ,

du

1 x2

1
arcsin xdx = xarcsin x
0

0 arcsin 0 +

1 x2

1
0

dx , v

dv

S
2

xdx
1 x2

dx
x

= 1 arcsin 1

1.

6.204.

x arctg xdx .
0

u arcctg x , dv
du

dx
, v
1 x2

xdx

xdx

x2
2

+
, :
1

x arctg xdx =
0

422

x2
1
arctg x
0
2

1 S
x 2 dx
1
0 2 1  x 2 = 2 4 2

x2  11
dx =
1 x2

VI.

S
8

1
S 1 1
1
1
S 1
dx
( dx
) = (x arctg x ) = (1 0
2
0
0
8 2
2 0
8 2
1 x
0
1

arctg 1 + arctg 0) =

1
S
S 1 S S 1 S 2
(1 ) = + = =
.
2
4
4
8 2 8 4 2
e

6.205.

ln

xdx .

u ln 2 x ,

dv dx

1
dx , v
x

du 2ln x
e

2
ln xdx = xln2x
1

e
1

x
e

1
xdx = eln2e 1ln21 2 ln xdx =
x
1

2ln x
1

= e 2 ln xdx =
1

u ln x ,
du

1
dx , v
x

= e 2 ln xdx = e 2(xln x
1

dv dx

e
1

x
1

x xdx ) = e 2(eln e 1ln 1


1

e
1

x ) = e 2e + 2e 2 = e 2.
, ln 1 = 0, ln e = 1.

423

.., ..

6.7.2.
5

6.206.

xdx
1  3x

6.208.

1

6.210.

1

2x  1

1

6.209.

xdx
x 1

4x  5

x 1

dx

6.211.

xdx

1  sin x  cos x .
0

dx
3

ex ex  1
dx .
ex  3

6.212.

6.207.

dx

ln 5

6.213.

x cos a dx .

a

S
2

6.214.

ln x
1 x 5 dx .

6.215.

xdx .

6.216.

x tg

x ln( x  1)dx .

6.217.

ln 2 x
1 x 2 dx .
S

6.218.

2
x e 2xdx.

6.219.

6.220.

x
1

1 x2

6.222.

x ln(1  x
0

424

 1)sin 2 xdx .

dx
2

(x

)dx .

6.221.

4  x2
dx .
x2

VI.

6.8.
6.8.1.
(. 6.1),
, +

y = f(x), Ox
x = a, x = b, (a < b), +
:
b

f ( x )dx .

(6.31)

. 6.1.

f(x)
[a; b], [a; b], +
,
. , +
, : ,
Ox, , ,
Ox,
.

+
, +
+
y = f1(x)
y = f 2(x),
[a; b],
f2(x) t f1(x),
x = a x = b
. 6.2.
(. 6.2), +
:
b

f ( x )  f ( x ) dx .
2

(6.32)

425

.., ..

6.8.1.1.
6.223. ,
y = ln x, x = l Ox.
. +
. +
. 6.3: 1 d x d l.

6.31,
l

ln xdx .

. 6.3.

ln x , du

dv

dx , V

1
dx
x

dx

:
l

ln xdx
1

l
1
x ln x  x dx
1 1 x

l ln l  1ln1  x

l  l  1 1 (..)

6.224.
,

y = x y = x2.
. +
, +
(. 6.4).
+
.

.

,

426

. 6.4.

VI.

x
x

x2 x

x3 x3  x

0 x1 = 0, x2 = 1.

, 0 d x d 1, :
1

2
( x  x )dx

2 3 x3 1
x  )
3
3 0

2 1

3 3

1
(..).
3

6.225. ,
y = 4 x2 y = x2 2x.
. ,
:
) y = 4 x2 , +

O1(0; 4).
Ox (2; 0) (2; 0),
Oy (0; 4).
) y = x2 2x , +

O2(1; 1).
. 6.5.
Ox (0; 0) (2; 0), Oy
O(0; 0).
) .
:
2
y 4  x
4 x2 = x2 2x 2x2 2x 4 = 0, x2 x 2 = 0.

2
y x  2 x

: 1 d x d 2.
) , 6.32.
2

1
2

2 x dx  2 xdx
2

1

(4  x 2 )  ( x 2  2 x ) dx

1

4x

2
1

2
(4  2 x  2 x )dx

1

2

4 dx 
1

x3 2
x2 2
2
4 2  4(1)
3 1
2 1
427

.., ..

2
2
 23  (1)3  22  (1)2
3
3

84

16 2
  4  1 9 (. ).
3 3

6.8.1.2.

, . .
6.226. 4y = 8x x2 4y = x + 6.
6.227. y = x2 2 y = x.
6.228. y = 2x2 x = 1 x = 2 .
6.229. y = 2x2 + 3x 9 Ox.
6.230. x = 4, y = 3x2 6x Ox
[0; 4].
6.231. y = (x + 2)2, y = 4 x Ox.
6.232. xy = 3 x + y = 4.
6.233. x2 3y = 4 x2 + y = 8.
6.234. y = 5x 2x2 y = 2x 2.
6.235. x = 4 y2 x = y2 2y.
6.236. x = 8 y2 x = y2.
6.237. y

8
y
4  x2

x2
.
4

6.238. x = 2y2 + 6y x y + 2 = 0.
6.239. y2 2x = 2 y2 + 2x = 6.
6.240. y = (x 1)2 y2 = x 1.

6.8.2.
1) ,
y = f(x), :
b

1  ( f c( x ))2 dx ,

b .
428

(6.33)

VI.

2) :

x M (t )
,
y W (t )
D d t d E , M (t ) W (t ) ,
:
E

( x tc )2  ( ytc )2 dt .

(6.34)

6.8.2.1.
3

( x  1) 2

6.241. y

A(2; 1) B(5; 8).


1

. yc
(6.33) :
XB

l AB

XA

1  ( y c)2 dx

3 / 2( x  1) 2 .
1

3
1  ( ( x  1) 2 )2 dx
2

9
1  ( x  1)dx =
4
3

5
5
1
2
1
1 1 (9 x  5) 2 5
=
= 9 x  5dx = (9 x  5) dx =
22
2 9
3/2 2
22
1

1
5
1
(9 x  5)3 =
( 403  133 ) | 7,63 (.).
2
27
27
2

6.242. x 3  y 3 2 3,

0 d x d 2.
. yc :

2 x
3

2 y
3

1

yc 0 ,

429

.., ..

yc

x
y

1
1

y
x

1
1

(6.33) :
2

1 (

2
x

y
x

dx

)2 dx

1

2
2

1

dx

dx

x
2

y

2
2

dx

2
x

2
2

dx

3 (. ).

6.243. x = a(t sin t),


y = a(1 cos t), 0 d t d 2S .
. (6.34). :

x tc

(t  sin t ) , ytc (1  cos t ) .

:
2S

a(1  cos t )

 (a sin t )2 dt

2S

a 2  2cos tdt
0

2S

t
2

= 2a sin dt
0

4a(1  1)

2S

a 2 (1  2cos t  cos2 t  sin 2 t )dt

2S

a 2(1  cos t )dt


0

2a 2 cos

t 2S
20

2S

t
a 2 2sin 2 dt
2
0

4a(cos S  cos 0)

8a (. .).

6.8.2.2.
6.244. y

1d x d 2.
430

x 2 ln x
,

4
2

VI.

6.245. y

ln( x 2  1) ,

2d x d3.
6.246.

ln x ,

3 d x d 15 .

1  x 2  arcsin x ,

6.247. y

0 d x d

7
.
9

6.248. y

S
3

dxd

S
2

ln sin x ,

6.249. , +
:

4(cos t  t sin t )
, 0 d t d 2 .
4(sin t  t cos t )

6.250. , +
:

10 cos 3 t
10 sin 3 t

0 d t d

S
2

6.251. , +
:

(t 2  2)sin t  2t cos t
(2  t 2 )cos t  2t sin t

, 0 d t d S .

6.252. , +
:

3(2cos t  cos 2t )
, 0 d t d 2S .
3(2sin t  sin 2t )
431

.., ..

6.253. , +
:

t2
t

t3
3

, 0 d t d

3.

6.8.3.
, Ox +
, ,
y = f(x), Ox x = a x = b, +
:
b

S ( f ( x ))2 dx .

Vox

(6.35)

, ,
y = f(x), Ox x = a x = b, +
Oy, ,
:
b

Voy

2S xydx .

(6.36)

, Oy +
, ,
x M ( y) , Oy y = c y = d, +
:
d

Voy

S x 2 dy .
c

432

(6.37)

VI.

6.8.3.1.
6.254.
, +
Ox +
,
xy = 4, x = 1, x = 4 y = 0.
. +
+
,

4
(),
x

OX: y

x = 0, x = 4 y = 0 ()
(. 6.6).
:
x1 = 1, x2 = 4.
(6.35)
:
2

Vox

4
S dx
1 x

16S x 2dx
1

. 6.6.

x 1 4
14
16S
16S 

x1
1 1

1
3
16S (  1) 16S
12S (. ).
4
4
6.255. +
, +

Oy ,
:

x 2 y2

a 2 b2

1.

. +
b < a, +
+

(. 6.7).

. 6.7.

433

.., ..

Oy
(6.37)
y2

y1

b

S x 2 dy S a 2 1 

Voy

S a2 y

y b
b
 2

 b 3b b
3

4
3

S a2 b

y2
b2

dy

S a2 b  b 

S a2 1 
b

b3
b3


3b 2 3b 2

y2
b2

dy

S a 2 2b 

2b
3

4 2
S a b (. ).
3

6.256. ,
Ox , 2y = x2, 2x + 2y 3 = 0.
.

Y
, (. 6.8),
Ox +
,
, ,

Ox A 1 ABB 1

A1AOBB1. V1 ,
A1ABB1,
(6.35).
x2

S y dx S (1,5  x ) dx
2

V1

3

x1

1
3

91
S.
3

. 6.8.

S ( x  1,5)3

S ( x  1,5)2dx

3

V2, A1AOBB1,
(6.35).

V2

x2
S dx
2
3
1

V
434

V1  V2

4
x dx

S x5

4 3

4 5

1
3

S
20

(1  243)

61
S.
5

V = V1 V2 ,

91
61
S S
3
5

272
S
15

18

2
S (. .).
15

VI.

6.257.
, +
Oy , +
y = x2 y = x3.
.
y = x2 y = x3 , (.
6.9), Oy
,
, +

Oy, OmAB OnAB. +
(6.36).

VOmAB  VOnAB

Voy

2S

2S xx 2 dx  2S x x 3 dx

x4 1
x5 1
1
1
 2S
2S  2S
4 0
5 0
4
5

. 6.9.
1

2S x 3 dx  2S x 4 dx

1 1
1
2S (  ) 2S
4 5
20

0,1S (.).

6.8.3.2.
6.258. ,
Ox , y = sin x ( ), y = 0.
6.259. ,
Oy , y = x3, x = 0, y = 8.
6.260. ,
Ox , y2 = 1 x, x = 0.
6.261. ,
Oy , x2 y2 = 1, y = 0, y = 2.
6.262. ,
Oy , y2 = 1 x, x = 0.
6.263. ,
Ox , x2 y2 = 1, x = r 2.
6.264. ,
Ox , y = 2x x2, y = 2 x.
435

.., ..

6.265. ,

Oy , y =

1 2
1
x , y = x.
4
2

6.266. ,
Ox , y = ex, x = 2, = .
6.267. ,
Oy , y = x, x + y = 2, x = 0.

436

VI.

6.9. ,

6.9.1.
f(t) t,
T

f (t )dt

[0; T];
t2

f (t )dt

t1

[t1; t2].

(6.38)

6.267. , ,
f(t) = (1 + t)e3t.
. (6.38). u +
:
4

(1  t )e

3t

dt .

u 1  t,

U=

(1  t )e

3t

dt =

= (t + 1)

1 3t 4
e

3 0

dv e 3 t dt , v

3e
0

du dt

3t

dt =

3t

dt

1 3t =
e
3

5 12 1
1 4
e
e3t =
3
3
9 0

1 12
1
1
(5e 1) (e12 1) = (14e12 2) | 2,53 105 (. .).
3
9
9

437

.., ..

6.9.2.
( )
. (+
) ,
,
(), . , +
.
K(t), ,
, f(t), :

d
K(t).
dt

f(t) =


t1 t2, 'K = K(t2) K(t1). ,
K(t) f(t), :
t2

'K = K(t2) K(t1) =

f (t )dt .

(6.39)

t1

6.268. f(t) = 7000 t .


:
) ;
) ( ),
50000.
. ) 'K , +
t1 = 0; t2 = 3.
3
3
2
2
'K = K(3) K(0) = 7000 tdt = 7000 t3/2 0 = 7000
3
3
0

33 = 24248,71.

) ,
T

'K

f (t )dt .
0

'K = 50000 f(t) = 7000 t .


438

VI.
T

50000 = 7000 tdt ;


0

7000
0

T
2
2
tdt = 7000 t3/2 = 7000 T3/2;
0
3
3

50000 = 7000
T3/2 =

2 3/2
T ;
3

50000 3
= 10,71; T = (10,71)2/3 = 4,86 ().
7000 2

6.9.3. ,

t = t(x), t
+
, . t,
1
2 :
t =

1
x 2  x1

x2

t( x )dx .

(6.40)

x1

+
t = t(x), t = axb,
, b .
6.269. , +
1 = 100 2 = 121 ,
t = axb,
= 600 (), b = 0,5.
.

1
t =
x 2  x1

x2

t( x )dx =

x1

121

1
1/ 2
600 x dx =
121  100 100
439

.., ..

121
600
400
2 200
2 x
=
(11 10) =
| 57,2 ().
100
21
7
7

6.270. K(x) = 3x2 + 4x +


1, , +
0 3 . ,
.
.

f ([ )

1
f ( x )dx .
b  a a

f ([ ) =
=

1 3
1
x3
x2
3
2
=
(3
x

4
x

1)
dx
(3

4
 x) =
0
3 0
3
3
2

1
3
1 3
(x + 2x2 + x) = (27 + 18 + 3) = 16 (. .),
0
3
3

16. ,
,

3x2 + 4x + 1 = 16, 3x2 + 4x 15 = 0.


, , +
:

[ =x=
[

2  7 5
2  4  45
=
= ,
3
3
3

5
.
3

6.9.4.

+
, t() (+
) . , , .
440

VI.

K1 , t , K
() , +
. , K1 = K(1 + t), i

100

K1
.
1  it

. K

K1
. +
(1  it )t

K1 = K(1 + t)t K

K1 = Kt, K = K1t.
, ,
f(t), , +
, . +
K :
T

f (t )e

 it

dt .

(6.41)

6.271.
8%, 10
. .. +
1 . ..
. ,
f(t) = 10 + 1 t = 10 + t.
:

K=

u 10  t ,

dv e 0,08 t , v

0,08 t
(10  t )e dt =

= (10 + t)(

0,08

du dt

0,08 t

dt

=
1
e 0,08 t
0,08

1 3 0,08 t
1
1 0,08t 3
e
+
(13e0,24 10)
e
dt ) =

0
0,08
0,08 0
0,08

e0,08t 3 =
0

1
1
(13e0,24 10)
(e0,24 1) |
2
0,08
0,08

| 30,5 (. . ).
441

.., ..

, +
, 10
13 . . ., , +
30,5 . . . (
).

6.9.5.

+


. +
, =

1
1
, = ,
2
4

Y
1

[1; 1]

0,8

y=x
, 50% + 0,6
25% 0,4
15
1
y
x  x
16
16
.
= 0,7, = 0,9, + 0,2
, 90%
70%
0
0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 X
. +

. 6.10.
(0 d d 1; 0 d d 1)
, = f(x).
, ,
, f(0) = 0 100%
, f(1) = 1. y = f(x),
, .
,
2

15 2 1
x +
x, (. . 6.10).
16
16

= 0,2, :
=
442

1
15
(0,2)2 +
0,2 = 0,05.
16
16

VI.

, 20% 5% .
= 0,5, :
=

1
15
(0,5)2 +
0,5 = 0,2656.
16
16

, 50% 26,56% .
+
,
= ( . 6.10 ) ,
= ( . 6.10 +
: (0 d d 1; 0 d d 1; y = x).
, +
, L.

S1 =

1
1
1 1 = .
2
2

+
:
1

S2

( x  f ( x ))dx .
0

, ,
:
L=

1
S2
= 2 ( x  f ( x ))dx .
S1
0

(6.42)

1
15 2
x +
x
16
16

:
1

L = 2 (x 
0

15 2 1
15
15
x  x )dx = 2 ( x  x 2 )dx =
16
16
16
16
0

15
15 x 2 x 3
2
(
x

x
)
dx
=2
=

16 0
3
8 2

1
15 1
5
1
( )=
.
0 =
16
8 2
3

443

.., ..

,
0 d L d 1. L = 0,
, L = 1,
.

6.9.6.
V(t), D(t) P(t)
,
,
,
t. :
P(t) = D(t) V(t)
V c(t )

Dc(t )
P c(t ) = Dc(t ) V c(t ) .

,
0
t1
T
P c(t ) = 0 Dc(t ) = V c(t ) .
,
. 6.11.
t1, Dc(t ) = V c(t ) ,
(, ,
. 6.11). t1 :
t1

t1

P(t) = P c(t )dt = ( Dc(t )  V c(t ))dt .

(6.11) ,
D c(t ) V c(t ) t [0; t1] (
).
6.272.
: V c(t ) = 5 + 2t2/3 D c(t ) = 17 t2/3, V
D , t .
, +
, .
444

VI.

. t1 +
D c(t ) = V c(t ) :
5 + 2t2/3 = 17 t2/3;
3t2/3 = 12;
t2/3 = 4;
t = 8 = t1.
, 8 .
:
8

3/2
3/2
3/2
P = (Dc(t )  V c(t ))dt = (17  t  5  2t )dt = (12  3t )dt =

5/3

= (12t 3

t
8
9
) = 96 32 = 38,9 (. ).
5/3 0
5

6.273. .
: 1) 10 .
3 . +
10 ; 2) 15 . +
, 5 .
7 . , +
10%.

R

100
,
. f(t) t r

t = 0 t = T

f (t )e

 rt

dt .

R = 10 r = 0,1. +
10 :
10

P1 = 3e 0,1t dt 10 = 30e0,1t
0

10
10 = 30(1 e1) 10 = 8,964 (. ).
0

:
7

P2 = 5e 0,1t dt 15 = 50(1 0,7) 15 = 10,17 (. ).


0

445

.., ..

,
.

6.9.7.
6.274. K() = 3x2 + 4x + 2, +
,
0 3 . , +
.
6.275. K() = 6x2 + 4x + 1, +
,
0 5 . , +
.
6.276. ,
, +

f(t) =

3
+ 5.
3t  2

6.277. ,
, +

f(t) =

3
+ 4.
4t  5

6.278. . +
f(t) = 100 + 10t (./.).
? ( t
).
6.279.
. ,
,
f(x) = 100 + 10t.
+
,
f(x) = f(6) 15t, f(6) +
.
.
446

VI.

6.280. K,
100 .. ,
7%. .
6.281. () ,
10 , 100 +
..., 5%. +
.
6.282. +
y = f(x), ,
, .
20% +

? : ) y =

19 2
1
x +
x;
20
20

) y = 0,94x2 + 0,06x.
6.283. , +
f(x) = 3x + 2

1
, ( ),
x

1 4,5. ,
.
6.284. : 1) +
1 . . +
1 . . 1 ; 2) 2
. . 2 . .
2 . 10%.
?
) 1 = 25; B1 = 10; C1 = 20; 2 = 60; B2 = 20; C2 = 10.
) 1 = 8; B1 = 2; C1 = 12; 2 = 20; B2 = 5; C2 = 8.

447

.., ..

6.10.
f(x) +
. +
+ .
+
.
, , (+
).

6.10.1.
[a; b] y = f(x). +
b

f ( x )dx . [a; b]
a

= 0, 1, 2, ... , n = b Y
n +

ba
. +
n
0, 1, 2, ... , n1, yn
f(x)
0, 1, 2, ..., n,
0 = f(x0), 1 = f(x1), 2 = f(x2),
... , n = f(xn) (. .
6.12).

y = f(x)

'x =

0 1 2
0

3 4

yn1

a = x0 x1 x2 x3 x4

yn

xn1 xn = b

. 6.12.

0 'x 0 + 1 'x1 + ... + n1 'x n 1 ;


1 'x1 + 2 'x 2 + ... + n 'x n .

f(x) [a; b]
.
b

f ( x )dx |
a

448

ba
(0 + 1 + ... + n1),
n

(6.43)

VI.
b

f ( x )dx |
a

ba
(1 + 2 + ... + n).
n

(6.43')

. . 6.12 , f(x)
, (6.43)
, ,
y = f(x), ( 6.43c ) ,
, y = f(x).
, +
, , n (
'x =

ba
).
n

6.10.2.
Y

+
y = f(x) n1 B
, +
3
2

1
,

,

0 1 2
3
yn1
yn
(. . 6.13).
+
aABb
xn1 xn = b

0 a = x0 x1 x2 x3

. 6.13.
,
1, 12, ... , n1B. +

y0  y1
y  y2
'x
'x , 1
2
2

,
b

f ( x )dx | (
a

y0  y1
y  y2
y  yn
'x + 1
'x + ... + n1
'x ),
2
2
2
449

.., ..

f ( x )dx |
a

b  a y0  yn
(
+ 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n1).
n
2

(6.44)

. n .
'x =

ba
,
n

,
(6.44), .

6.10.3. ( )
+
,
, , .
[; b] +
( n = 2m) yk = f(xk), xk = a + 'x k
, k = 0, 1, 2, ... , 2m,
:
b

f ( x )dx |
a

ba
(0 + 2m + 2(2 + 4 + ... + y2m2) +
6m

+ 4(y1 + y3 + ... + y2m1)),

(6.45)

. 2m +
, ,
(6.41) .

6.10.4.
2

6.285. ln 2 =

dx
.
x
1

. [1; 2] 10 .

'x =
450

2 1
, :
10

VI.

x0 = 1,0
x1 = 1,1
x2 = 1,2
x3 = 1,3
x4 = 1,4
x5 = 1,5

1
x

y0 = 1,0000
y1 = 0,90909
y2 = 0,83333
y3 = 0,76923
y4 = 0,71429
y5 = 0,66667

x6 = 1,6
x7 = 1,7
x8 = 1,8
x9 = 1,9
x10 = 2,0

1
x

y6 = 0,62500
y7 = 0,58824
y8 = 0,55556
y9 = 0,52632
y10 = 0,5000

(4.43) :
2

dx
| 0,1(0 + 1 + ... + 9) = 0,1 7,1877 = 0,71877.
x
1

(6.43) :
2

dx
| 0,1(1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 10) = 0,1 6,68773 = 0,66877.
x
1

(6.44) :
2

dx
1  0,5
| 0,1(
+ 6,18773) = 0,69377.
x
2
1

(6.45) :
2

dx 0,1
|
( + + 2(2 + 4 + 6 + y8) + 4(y1 + y3 + 5 + y7 + 9) =
x
3 0 10
1

0,1
(1 0,5 + 2 2,72818 + 43,45955) = 0,6931.
3

ln 2 =

dx
= 0,6931472 ( ).
x
1

, [0; 1] 10 +
; +
;
.
451

.., ..

6.10.5.

.
1,7

6.286.

0,1

dx
x

6.287.

arctg x
dx .
x
0

.
1

6.288.

e
0

452

 x2

dx .

VI.

6.11. . A
6.11.1.

, :
1) [a; b] ;
2) f(x)
.
,
. ,
b = f ; = f ; = f b = f , +
. +
, f(x)
b

[a; b].

f ( x )dx

,
.

6.11.2.
+
.
:
f

f ( x )dx = lim f ( x )dx ;


b of

f

f

f

f ( x )dx = lim f ( x )dx ;


a of

f ( x )dx =

f ( x )dx +

f ( x )dx = lim f ( x )dx + lim f ( x )dx .


c

a of

bof

( ),
, +
. ,
.
453

.., ..
f

6.289.

x
1

dx

2
1

.
. :
f

dx
dx
b
= lim arctg x = lim (arctg b arctg 1) =
2
1 x 2  1 = lim

b of
bof
bof
1
1 x 1

S
2

S
4

S
4

, ,

S
4

.
f

6.290.

dx

. :
f

b
x  p1 b
dx
dx
1
1
lim
lim
=
=
1) =
1 x p bof x p bof p  1 1 = p  1 ( lim
bof b p 1
1

1
, p !1

.
= p 1
f, p  1

, > 1 , p < 1 .
= 1.
f

b
b
dx
dx
= lim ln|x| = lim ln b + ln 1 = f .
1 x = lim
1
b of x
bof
bof
1
f

, = 1
f

454

dx

dx
.
x
1

p>1, p d 1.

VI.
f

6.291.

dx +

f

.
0

x
e dx

f

e x dx = lim
e dx = alim
of
x

f

aof

0
=
a

dx .

lim (0 ) = 1,

aof

, 1.

x
x
e dx = lim e dx = lim (b 1) = f ,
bof

bof

dx . ,

dx .

f

x2
2

dx , . ,

f
f

x2
2

2S , S

dx =

f

x2
2

e
( f ; f ) 1 (. . 6.14).
2S
[a; b] f(x)
,
[a; b].
:
b

f ( x )dx = lim
o0
a

b

f ( x )dx ;

f ( x )dx = lim

o0

f ( x )dx ;

a

455

.., ..

Y
1
2S

2S

x2
2

S=1

0
.6.14.

f ( x )dx = lim

'o 0

c  '

f ( x )dx + lim

''o0

f ( x )dx .

c  ''

, +
. 
.
1

6.292. ,

dx

. x = 0.
:
1

1
dx
x  p1 1
1
dx
1
1
lim
lim
=
=
)=
0 x p o0 x p o0 p  1 0  =  p  1 ( lim
o0 p 1 0 
0

1
, p 1

.
= p 1
f, p t 1

456

VI.

6.11.3.
6.294. ( +
):
f

dx
1 x 3 ;

1/ 2

2 x
e dx ;

ln xdx ;
xe

f

f

dx ;

dx
;
 2x  2

xdx
3

dx

dx
;
)
( x  1)2
0

dx
;
x ln 2 x

x2  4

dx
3

(5  x )2

457

.., ..

6.12.
f(x, y) V +
n

f ( x , y )'V
i

i 1

'V i
, .

6.12.1.
1. V , +
, ,
(. 6.15), V +
:
b

M2 ( x )

M1 ( x )

f ( x, y)dxdy = dx
V


+
. (6.46)

(6.46)

Y
y

M2 ( x )

f ( x , y)dy .

f ( x , y)dy +

M2 ( x )

M1 ( x )

.

y M1 ( x )
. +


0

b
X
,
. 6.15.
.
() .
M2 ( x )

, ( x )

M1 ( x )

458

f ( x , y)dy , +

VI.
b

() ( x )dx .
a

, .
2. V , +
, ,
(. 6.16), V +
:
d

M2 ( y )

M1 ( y )

f ( x , y)dxdy = dy
V



. (6.47)

f ( x , y)dx .

(6.47)

Y
d

M2 ( y )

f ( x , y)dx +

x M1( y)

M1 ( y )

x M2 ( y)

y
.

. +
c

0

X
,
. 6.16.
.
() .
M2 ( y )

, ( y)

f ( x , y)dx , +

M1 ( y )
d

()

( y)dy .
c

+
, .
,
V , .
459

.., ..

6.12.2.
6.295.

V y =

V ( x

 y 3 )dxdy ,

1
x; y = x; x = 4.
2

, .
. V .
Y

y=x

y=x

C
N
y=
B

1
x
2

V2
B

V1

y=

1
x
2

M
0

. 6.17.

+ , +
, . (6.46).
4

3
3
( x  y )dxdy = dx

(x

 y 3 )dy .

1
x
2


, .
: V .
[0; 4]. 0
4 .
[0; 4] , ,
, MN, +
V . V y = x, +
460

VI.

= . V x

( , V ,
, ).

x

(x

 y 3 )dy , .

1
x
2

3
3
( x  y )dy = (x3y +

1
x
2

y4 x
1
47 4
1
1
) 1 = x3(x x) + x4(1
)=
x.
4 2x
4
16
64
2

, ,
. :
4

47

64 x
0

5
5
dx = 47 x 4 = 47 4 = 752 .
64 5 0 64 5
5

,
4

3
3
( x  y )dxdy = dx

(x

 y 3 )dy =

1
x
2

752
.
5

,

, .
, V
, = ,

1
x; () = 4.
2
,
, ,
, . +
, () y =

V 1 V 2 . V +
V 1 V 2 . :
461

.., ..

V ( x

 y 3 )dxdy =

V ( x

 y 3 )dxdy +

(x

 y 3 )dxdy .

,
, V 1 V 2 +
.
, V 1 V 2 , +
, V 1 : 1) = ; 2) = 2; 3) = 2.
(4; 2). : 1) = 2;
2) = ; 3) = 4. V 1 V 2
, :
0 2, 2 4. [0; 2] +
, ,
, V 1 ,
( ) 2
( ). , +

V 1 2. :

3
3
( x  y )dxdy = dy

V1

2y

(x

 y 3 )dx .

+
( , +
, ).
:
2y

3
3
( x  y )dx = (
y

x4
2
1
19 4
+ 3) = ((2)4 4) + 3(2 ) =
.
0
4
4
4

, ,
, .
:
2

1
462

19 4
19 y 5 2 152
y
dy
=
=
.
0 4
4 5 0
5

VI.

V 2
: [2; 4],
2 4. , +
[2; 4] ,
, , ,
V 2 , ,
= 4. V 2
4,

(x

 y 3 )dxdy = dy ( x 3  y 3 )dx .

( ).
4

(x

 y 3 )dx = (

x4
4
1
5
+ 3) = (44 4) + 3(4 ) = 64 + 43 4.
y
4
4
4

! , ,
. +
:
4

(64  4 y
2

5 4
1
4
y )dy = (64 + 4 5) = 120.
2
4
4

= 1 + 2 =

152
752
+ 120 =
.
5
5

(3 + 3) , +
: .
, +
. +
.
6.296.

V ( x

 y 3 )dV ,

V , , +
= 0; = 2; = /2.
463

.., ..

. V .

0 d x d 2;

x
0 d y d 2 .

V ( x

Y
1
y = x/2

 y 3 )dV =

x=2

x/2

(x

= dx
0

 y 2 )dy .

( x 2  y 2 )dy = (x2y +

. 6.18.


, .
x /2

x
y3 2
x ( x / 2)3
13 3
) = x2 +
=
x.
3
3 0
2
24

,
3
3
( x  y )dV =

V ( x

13 3
13 x 4 2 13
x
dx
=
=
.
0 24
6
24 4 0

 y 3 )dV (6.47), :
0 d y d 1;

2 y d x d 2.
1

3
3
( x  y )dV = dy

(x

 y 2 )dx .

2y

2
2
( x  y )dx = (

2y

464

x3
8
8y3
2
+ 2)
= ( + 22) (
+ 23) =
2y
3
3
3

VI.

8
14 3
+ 22
,
3
3

14 3
8
8
2y3
3
3
2
(
x

y
)
d
V
y
y
dy


2
=
=
(

V
0 3
3
3
3

13
7 y4 1
) =
.
6
6 0

6.297. ,
= 4 2, 3 2 6 = 0, .
. , +
Y
,

C
4
,
y = (3x6)/2

V dxdy . +

. = 4 2 ,
3 2 6 = 0 (.
6.19).

y 4  x2,

3 x  2 y  6 0,
+

4  x2,

B X

y =y4=x/2
x2

A
. 6.19.

3x  6
,
2
3x  6
= 4 2; 2x2 + 3x 14 = 0;
2
465

.., ..

7
33
x1 =  ; x2 = 2; y1 =  ; y2 = 0.
2
4
7
33
(  ;  ) (2; 0).
2
4
.
3x  6

2
= 4 2 . ( +

7
= 2. (
2
). ,
). = 

S=

dxdy

ABC

S=

dxdy =

ABC

(4  x 2 

7 / 2

= (7

7 / 2

4 x2

dx

dy =

3 x 6
2

3x  6
)dx =
2

dx

7 / 2

(7  x 2 

7 / 2

4 x
3 x 6
2

3x
)dx =
2

3 49
3x 2 2
7
8
343
x3

) 7 = (7 2+ 7

3+
)=
4 4
4 2
2
3
3
24

35
1331
= 27
(. ).
48
48

6.12.3.
6.298. , +
D .

xydxdy ;
D

466

(0 d x d 1; 0 d y d 2);

VI.

xy

dxdy ; (0 d x d 1; 0 d y d 1);

x2
D 1  y2 dxdy ; (0 d x d 1; 0 d y d 1).

6.299.

V =

1
; =
3

x ; = 1.

6.300.

V : = 0; =

y2
V x 2 dxdy , +

V ( x  y)dxdy ,

3
( t 0); = 4 ( 1)2.
2

, .
6.301.

s : =

V ( x

 y)dxdy ,

1
; = 2; = 2 ( > 0).
2

6.302. ,
:
) xy = 4; y = x; x = 4;
) y2 = 4 + x; x + 3y = 0;
) y = ln x; x y = 1; y = 1;
) y = x + 2; y2 = x; 2 d y d 2;
) y = sin x; y = cos x; x = 0;
) 3x2 = 25y; 5y2 = 9x.

467

.., ..

VI.
:

dy
dx

f ( x , y)

(7.1)

1, , +
, f(, )
.
f ( x , y) { f1 ( x ) , (7.1)
:

dy
dx

f1 ( x ) ,

(7.2)

f ( x )dx  C ,

(7.3)

(7.2) +
(7.3).
(7.1)

y M ( x ,C ) ,

(7.4)

(7.1) , :

d M ( x ,C )
dx

f ( x ,M ( x ,C )) .

= 0 y M ( x ,C0 ) +
.
F(, , ) = 0, 
(7.1), = 0 .
(7.1), ,

(7.5)
y | x x y0 .
0

468

VII.

(7.5) , (7.1),
(0, 0).
. , (7.1),
(7.4), +
. (7.1) d
(7.1), :

f ( x , y)dx  C ,

(7.6)

, (7.6) +
(7.1), , (7.6)
, .
+
(7.1).

7.1.
:

yc

f ( x ) g ( y) .

(7.7)

g ( y ) z 0 , :

dy
g ( y)

f ( x )dx ,

(7.8)

, .
(7.1)
f1(x, y)dx + f2(x, y)dy = 0.
(7.9)
(7.9)
.
(7.9) , +
, .

7.1.1.
7.1. xdx + ydy = 0.
. .
, :
469

.., ..

x 2 y2

2
2

C
,
2

2 + 2 = ,

.
7.2.

dy
dx

y
.
x

. , y { 0 .

y z 0 .

dy
y

dx
.
x

, :
ln |y| = ln |x| + ln C, = .
. = 0
:
= 0.
, = 0 .
7.3. y c = ( )2 + 1.
. ,
,
. = z.
, , z .
1 yc = z c , y c = 1 z c .
:
1 z c = z + 1,
z c = z, z z 0 ,

dz
z

dx ,

ln |z| = x + ln C,
470

VII.

z = Cex.
:
= ,
= .
.

7.1.2.
.
7.4. (1 + 2)dx + xydy = 0.
2
7.5. xyy c 1  x .

7.6. y c tgx = .
7.7. xy c + = 2.
7.8. x 1  y 2 dx  y 1  x 2 dy

0.

7.9. (1 + ) y c = .
7.10. (2 + )dx + (y x2 y c )dy = 0.
7.11. y c = 10+.
7.12. 2dx + x3dy = 0.

.
7.13.

xdx ydy

1 y 1 x

0,

|=1 = 1.

7.14. (1 + ) y c = ,
|=1 = 1.
2
2
7.15. x(y +1)dx + y(1 x )dy = 0,
7.16. y c = 10+,

|=0 = 1.

7.17. 2yc x

y,

|=4 = 1.

7.18. xy c  y

0,

|=2 = 4.

7.19. x 2 y c + 2 = 0,

y|x=0 = 1.

|=1 = 1.
471

.., ..

7.2.
:

yc

y
f .
x

(7.10)

y
x

z ,

z. ,
= xz.
(7.11)
(7.11) , z ,
(7.12)
y c = z + xz c .
(7.11) (7.12) (7.10) :
(7.13)
xz c + z = f(z),
, .

7.2.1.
7.20. y c =

y
.
x

.
. +
:
y = xz, y c = z + xz c , z + xz c = z,

xz c = 0, x z 0, z c = 0, z = C,

y
= .
x
: = .
7.21.

. , = z.
472

dy
dx

y
y
 tg .
x
x

VII.

z + xz c = tg z + z, ctg z dz =

ctg zdz

dx
,
x

dx
 ln C ,
x

ln |sin z| = ln |x| + ln C,
sin z = Cx,
z = arcsin (Cx),
y = x arcsin (Cx).
. ,
.
7.22.
2dx + (x2 xy)dy = 0.
. :
2

dy
dx

y2
,
xy  x 2

dy
dx

y

x ,
y
1
x

, , +
.

y
x

z , :
z  xz c =
xz c =

xz c =

z2
;
z 1

z2
z;
z 1

z2  z2  z
,
z 1

xz c =

z
,
z 1
473

.., ..

z 1
dz
z

dx
,
x

z ln |z| = ln |x| + ln C,
z = ln |xzC|,

y
= ln |yC|,
x
y = x ln |Cy|.

7.2.2.
7.23. ( + )dx (x y)dy = 0.
7.24. xdy ydx = ydy.
7.25. (x2 + xy + y2)dx = x2dy.
7.26. xy c = y +
7.27. xy c = y ln

y2  x 2 .
y
.
x

7.28. y c =

y2
2.
x2

7.29. y c =

2 xy
.
x  y2

7.30. y c =

x y
 .
y x

7.31. xy c =

x 2  y2 .

2
7.32. 2 + x y c = xyy c .

7.33. y c =
474

y
y
+ os .
x
x

VII.

7.3.
,
:

dy
+ p(x)y = q(x),
dx

(7.14)

p(x) q(x) .
:

dy
+ 1() = 2(),
dx

0()

0() 0, +
(7.14).
q(x) z 0, (7.14) 
,

dy
+ p(x)y = 0
dx

(7.15)

(7.14). +
(7.14) ,

.
(7.15). +
. z 0, (7.15) :

dy
y

 p( x )dx ,

ln y

p( x )dx  ln C ,
y Ce

p ( x ) dx

(7.16)

(7.16) (7.15).
(7.14) : +
(7.15) +
.
475

.., ..

7.3.1.
7.34.

dy y
 = 2.
dx x

. , +

(7.14), p(x) = 
dx

y C1e

= C1x + x

e

x dx

x dx

1
, q(x) = x2.
x

x 2 dx C1e ln| x |  e ln| x | e  ln| x | x 2 dx

x3
x2
1 2
x
dx
=
C
x
+
x
=
C
x
+
.
1
1
x
2
2

7.35. y c + 2 = 4.
. .
y c + 2 = 0. z 0,
:

dy
= 2dx,
y
ln |y| = 2x + ln C,
y = Ce2x,
y = C(x)e2x.
.
C c( x ) e2x + (2)()e2x + 2() e2x = 4,

(*)

C c( x ) = 4e2x.
() :

u x
du dx

2x
() = 4 xe dx = dv

v
476

1
e 2 x dx = 4( xe2x
2
1 2x
e
2

2e

2x

dx ) =

VII.

= 2xe2x 2

e2 x
+ C1.
2

() (*),
= e2x[e2x(2x 1) + C1] = C1e2x + 2x 1.
7.36. y c =

1
.
2x  y 2

.
, , +
, . +
:

dx
= 2x y2,
dy
dx
2x = y2.
dy
.

7.3.2.
.

1 2
= 1.
x2

7.37. y c + 2 = e  x .

7.38. y c +

7.39. xy c 2 = 24.

7.40. (2 + 1) y c = 4 + 2.

7.41. y c + ytgx = sec x.

7.42. (xy +ex)dx xdy = 0.

7.43. x2 y c + xy + 1 = 0.

7.44. y = x( y c x cos x).

7.45. ( xy c 1)ln x = 2y.


. , ,

y c + p(x)y = q(x) y D ,
. D = 0 , D =
1 . D
y1D

z z.
477

.., ..

7.46. y cx + = 2.
. .
2. :

yc
1
x
2
y
y

1
y

x .

z . :
zc = 

1
yc .
y2

 xz c + z = x.

 xz c + z = 0.
:

dz
z

dx
.
x

ln |z| = ln |x| + ln C, z = Cx.


. +
z = C(x)x.
. z c = C c( x ) x + C(x).
:
x( C c( x ) x + C(x)) + C(x)x = x,

C c( x ) x2 = x,
C c( x ) =

C(x) = ln |x| + ln C1 = ln |C1x|.


z = x ln |C1x|,

478

1
,
x

1
.
x ln | C1 x |

VII.

7.4.

+
( ) :
(7.17)
y cc + py c + qy = f(x).
f ( x ) { 0 ,

y cc + py c + qy = 0.

(7.18)
, , p i q
, f() . +
(7.17) :
= + ,
(7.19)
(7.18),
.

= 11() + 22(),
1 2 + (7.18), +
,

y1 ( x ) y2 ( x )
z 0.
y1c( x ) y2c ( x )
+ (7.18) (
) . +
:
= eO x ,

yc = O eOx ,
y cc = O 2 e O x ,
, y c y cc (7.18).

e O x ( O 2 + pO + q) = 0.

O 2 + pO + q = 0

(7.20)

.
479

.., ..

, +
(7.20). :
1) O1 z O2 , 1 = e O1x , 2 = e O2 x .
2) O1 = O2 , 1 = e O1x , 2 = e O1x .
3) O1,2 = D r i E +,
1 =

eDx s E x ;
Dx

2 = e sin E x .
, f()
Dx

f(x) = e (a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + anxn),



, D
.
= eD x (b0 + b1x + b2x2 + ... + bnxn), D +
.
= eD x (b0 + b1x + b2x2 + ... + bnxn), D
.
= eD x (b0 + b1x + b2x2 + ... + bnxn)x, D
.

7.4.1.
7.47. y cc = 2.
.

O 2 1 = 0, O1 = 1, O2 = 1.
1 = , 2 = ,

y1
y1c

y2
ex
= x
y2c
e

e x
= 1 1 = 2 z 0.
e x

,
= 1 + 2.
480

VII.


= b0 + b1x + b2x2,
c = b1 + 2b2x,
y
cc = 2b2.
y
.
2b2 b0 b1x b2x2 { x2.
.
2: b2 = 1; b2 = 1;
x1: b1 = 0; b1 = 0;
x0: 2b2 b0 = 0; b0 = 2.
= 2 2. +
.
= 1 + 2 2 2.
7.48. y cc + = 4.

. O 2 + 1 = 0, +

O1,2

ri .

1 = os x, y2 = sin x

cos x

sin x

 sin x cos x

1z 0.

.
= 1cos x + C2 sin x.

= ( + b).
= ( + b);
c = ( + b + );
y

cc = ( + + b + ).
y
( + b + x + 2a + b) = 4,
2 = 4, = 2,
2 + 2b = 0, b = 2.

= 1cos x + C2 sin x + 2( 1).
481

.., ..

7.49. y cc y c = .
.
O 2 O = 0.

O1 = 0, O2 = 1.
1 = 1; 2 = .

= 1 + 2.
, , +
1 , :
= ( + b)x.

= ( + b)x = (2 + b);

c = (2 + bx + 2 + b);
y
cc = (2 + (2 + b)x + b + 2ax + 2a + b) =
y
= (2 + (4a + b)x + 2a + 2b);
(2 + (4a + b)x + 2a + 2b ax2 bx 2ax b) = xex.
. +

2a 1;

2a  b 0;

;
a
2

b 1.

= (

1 2
).
2


= + = 1 + 2 + (

482

1 2
).
2

VII.

7.4.2.
.
7.50. y cc 4 y c + 5 = 0.

7.51. y cc + 4 = 0.

7.52. y cc 2 y c 3 = .

7.53. y cc = 2.

7.54. y cc = 2.

7.55. y cc 5 y c + 2 = 0.

7.56. y cc 2 y c + = 0.

7.57. y cc 5 y c = 32.

7.58. y cc + 3 y c 4 = 4.

7.59. y cc + 3 y c 4 = .

. +
.
,

y x x y0

yc
y
x x 0 1

(**)

:
, +
, (**).

483

.., ..

7.5.


dx
dt

dy
dt

a11 x  a12 y
.

(7.21)

a21 x  a22 y


:
1) (7.21) ;
2) .
.

7.5.1.
7.60. :

dx
dt

dy
dt

x  2 y,
4 x  3 y.

. t, +
y c
.
x cc = x c + 2 y c = x c + 2(4 + 3) = x c + 8 + 6 =
= x c + 8 + 3( x c ) = 4 x c + 5,

x cc 4 x c 5 = 0.
484

1
( x c ).
2

VII.

+
. :

O 2 4 O 5 = 0.
O1 = 1, O2 = 5.
:
= 1t + 25t.
2 = x c ,
=

1
[(1t + 525t) (1t + 25t)] = 1t + 225t.
2

, :

x C1e  t  C 2 e5 t ,

t
5t
y C1e  2C2 e .
+
(7.21).
(7.21)

x a1e O t ,

Ot
y a2 e ,

(7.22)

1, 2, l .
(7.22) (7.21)

(a11  O )a1  a12 a2 0

a21a1  (a22  O )a2 0

(7.23)

(7.23) +
1 2. , ,
,

a11  O

a12

a21

a22  O

0.

(7.24)

(7.24) O , +
.
485

.., ..

(7.23) 1
2. .

dx
dt

dy
dt

x  2 y,
4 x  3 y.

(7.23) (7.24)

(1  O )a1  2a2 0

4a1  (3  O )a2 0
1 O

3O

0 O 2 4 5 = 0,

O1 = 1; O2 = 5.
O = 1 21 + 22 = 0. 1 = 1, 2 = 1.

x (1) C1e  t ,
(1)
C1e  t .
y
O2 = 5
41 + 22 = 0,
1 = 2,
2 = 22.

x (2) C 2 e5 t ,
(2)
2C 2 e5 t .
y

y
486

x (1)  x (2)

C1e  t  C2 e5t ,

y(1)  y (2)

C1e  t  2C 2 e5t .

VII.

7.61.

dx
dt

dy
dt

x  5 y,
2 x  y.

1 O

5

1  O

0 , O 2 + 9 = 0.

O1,2

r 3i .

x a1e 3 it ,

3 it
y a2 e .
(7.23).
(1 3)1 52 = 0.
, , 1 = 5,
2 = 1 3.

x 5(cos t  i sin 3t )

y (1  3i)(cos3t  i sin 3t ) .
+
, +
.
x 5(C1 cos t  C2 sin 3t )

y C1 (cos3t  sin 3t )  C2 (cos3t  sin 3t ) .


7.62.

dx
dt

dy
dt

x  y,
x  3 y.
487

.., ..

1 O
1
= 2 4O + 4 = 0
1
3O O
O1 = O2 = 2.

x (a1  b1t )e 2t ,

2t
y (a2  b2 t )e .
,
21 + b1 + 2b1t { a1 + b1t a2 b2t,

b2 = b1,
a2 = a1 + b1.
1 b1 1 C2, +
:
= (1 + 2t)e2t,
y = (1 + 2 + 2t)e2t.

7.5.2.
.

dx
dt
7.63.
dy
dt
dx
dt
7.65.
dy
dt

488

2x  y
3x  4y

x  8y
xy

dx
dt
7.64.
dy
dt
dx
dt
7.66.
dy
dt

xy
y  4x

xy
2 x  3 y

VII.

dx
dt
7.67.
dy
dt
dx
dt
7.69.
dy
dt
dx
dt
7.71.
dy
dt

x  3y
3x  y

2x  y
4y  x

2y  3x
y  2x

dx
dt  x  5 y 0
7.68.
dy  x  y 0
dt
dx
dt
7.70.
dy
dt
dx
dt
7.72.
dy
dt

3x  y
4x  y
5x  3y
3 x  y

489

.., ..

7.6. ,

7.73.

. 0.
t ?
. t t. +
() 0 t. +

d
( t)
dt 0

t. :

d ( A0  At )
dt

kAt

At |t 0 A0 .
, :

dAt
= kAt;
dt
ln

dAt
At

At
= kt;
C

 kdt ; ln |A | = kt + ln |C|;
t
At
= ekt; At = Cekt.
C


t = 0 t = 0: 0 = k0, = 0, At = 0ekt.
.
7.74. y(t) , +
t; . (, +
) (t)
(t) m (m = cos t; 0 < m < 1). +
+
K .
, t,
t = t0 = 0.
.
490

VII.

I(t) = mpy(t),
y c = K I(t),

y c = K mpy(t).
K
k = mp.
y c = k.

dy
= ky,
dt

dy
= kdt,
y
ln |y| = kt + ln |C|,
y = Cekt.
, y |t

t0

= y0,

y0
C

Ce kt0 ,
y0 e  kt0 .

y0 e k ( t t0 ) .

7.75.
q = 4 pc 2p + 39, S = 44 p c + 2p 1,
; (
).
1 . .
, .
. , +

4 p c 2p + 39 = 44 + 2p 1.

10 p c + 10 = 0.
:
491

.., ..

10

dp
= 10,
dt

dp
p  10
ln |p 10| = 
ln

dt
,
10

t
+ ln |C|,
10

p  10
t
= ,
C
10
p  10
= e0,1t,
C

p = Ce0,1t + 10.
, |t=0 = 1,
1 = + 10, = 9,
p = 9e0,1t + 10.
, , +
, .
7.76.

q = 2 p cc p c p + 15, S = 3 p cc + p c + p + 5,

, p c , p cc
. (0) = 6,
q(0) = S(0) = 10. +
, .
. ,

q = S,
,
2 p cc p c p + 15 = 3 p cc + p c + p + 5,
+
:
p cc + 2 p c + 2 = 10.
492

VII.

p cc + 2 p c + 2 = 0.
:
k2 + 2k + 2 = 0.
k1,2 = 1 r .
:
*(t) = C1et cos t + C2etsin t.

pq = A.

pqc = 0;

pqcc = 0.

,
2 = 10, = 5, q = 5.
:
p(t) = et(C1 cos t + C2 sin t) + 5.

(0) = 6, 6 = 1 + 5, 1 = 1.

p(t) = et(cos t + C2 sin t) + 5;


p c(t ) = et(cos t + C2 sin t) + et(sin t + C2 cos t) =
= et[(C2 1)cos t (C2 + 1)sin t];
p cc(t ) = et[(C2 1)cos t (C2 + 1)sin t] + et[(C2 1 sin t
(C2 + 1)cos t] = et(2C2 cos t + 2sin t).
,
p c(0) = 2 1,

p cc(0) = 22.
, q = 2 p cc p c p + 15 q(0) = 10,
10 = 2(22) (2 1) 6 + 15,
, 2 = 0.
p(t) = 5 + et cos t.
493

.., ..

7.6.1.
7.87. ,
t N .

, , +
, , ,
. , t = 0

( +

), J .
, .
7.88. k +
.
y c 4 + = 0. , +
(0) = 0.
7.89. (),
.
() = 50000 . ,
.
7.90.
V() = + 100. , +
100 40000 . .
7.91. = f()
() = , = const.
, (1; 1).

494

VIII.

V.
8.1. . . .
. .
.
Un.
U1 + U2 + U3 + ... + Un + ...,
, ,
f

(8.1)

= U1 + U2 + U3 + ... + Un + ...

n 1

( ). U1, U2, U3, ...,


Un, ... , U1 , U2
, ... , Un n+ . ,
(8.1), . ,

1
, Un = (1)n+1, Un = n (n = 1, 2, 3, ...),
n(n  1)
:
Un =

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...,
(8.2)
1 2 2 3 3 4
n(n  1)
1 1 + 1 1 + ... + (1)n+1 + ...,
(8.3)
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n + ...
(8.4)
(8.1) (
)
S1 = U1,
S2 = U1 + U2,
S3 = U1 + U2 + U3,
.............................,
(8.5)
Sn = U1 + U2 + U3 + ... + Un,
..................................,
.
Sn.
495

.., ..

(8.1) , +
Sn, lim S n
n of

S .

S (8.1) S = U1 + U2 + U3

+ ... + Un, ... , S

. ,

n 1

(8.1) S. (8.5)
(8.1) , (8.1) .
.
(8.2) (8.4).

1
1
1
=
(n = 1, 2, ...),
n(n  1) n n  1
n+ (8.2)
Sn =

+(

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
= (1 ) + ( ) +
n(n  1)
1 2
23
34
3
2
2

1
1
1
1
1
)+(
)=1
.
n 1
4
3
n
n 1

, (8.2) ,
S = lim S n = lim(1 
n of

nof

1
) = 1.
n 1

Sn (8.3)

1, n 
Sn = 1 1 + 1 1 + ... + (1)n+1 =
.
0, n 
Sn , , (8.3).
Sn (8.4),
Sn = 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n =

n(n  1)
,
2

f n o f . , (8.4) .
, .
:
496

VIII.
f

a + aq + aq2 + ... + aqn1 + ... =

aq

n 1

(8.6)

n 1

q . , +
( ) ,
. +
Sn n (8.6), :
Sn = a + aq + aq2 + ... + aqn1.
Snq = aq + aq2 + ... + aqn.

Sn Snq = a aqn,
Sn =

a  aq n
a
aq n
=

.
1 q
1 q 1 q

|q| < 1, S = lim S n =


n of

a
. , |q| < 1,
1 q

(8.6) S

a
.
1 q

|q| > 1,

a
aq n
lim(

) o f.
S = lim S n =
nof 1  q
n of
1 q
q = 1,
Sn = a + a + a + ... + a = n o f ( n o f ).
q = 1,

a, n 
,
0, n 

Sn = a a + a ... + (1)n1a =

, Sn .
, +
.

1+

1 1
1
+ + ... + + ...
2 3
n

(8.7)
497

.., ..

. ,
.

f

n
n 1

=1+

1
1
1
+ p + ... + p + ...
p
n
2
3

(8.8)

. ,
d 1 , > 1
. = 1 (8.7).
.

n 1

n+ Un n o f ;

lim U n
n of

0.

(8.9)

n+ n o f , +
.
,

1 2 3
n
+ + + ... +
+ ...
2n  1
3 5 7
,

n
1
=
z 0.
n of 2n  1
2

lim U n = lim
n of

, ,
, , n+ ,
, , .
,
1+

1
1 1
+ + ... + + ...
n
2 3

, ,

lim U n = lim
n of

498

n of

1
= 0.
n

VIII.

8.1.1.
8.1. Un =

1
+
n(n  1)

.
. n 1, 2, 3, ..., :

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
+ ... =
n
(
n
 1)
2

3
1 2
34

n(n  1) .
n 1


n o f n+ :
Sn =

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
.
1 2 2 3 3 4
n(n  1)

, Sn ,
:

1
1
1
=
.
k(k  1) k k  1
k = 1, 2, 3, 4,..., n, :

1
1
1
1 1 1
1 1
1
1 1
= 1 ;
= ;
= ; ...
=
.
1
n
1 2
n(n  1) n
2 23 2 3 34 3 4
,
Sn = (1

1
1 1
1 1
1
1
) + ( ) + ( ) + ... + (
).
2
2 3
3 4
n n 1

, ,
, :
Sn = 1

1
.
n 1

lim S n = lim(1 
nof
n of

1
) = 1.
n 1

, , 1.
499

.., ..

8.2.
f

32
n 1

n 1

1
1 1
1
+ +
+ ...+
+ ...
3 6 12
3 2n1

1

3

1
1
1
1
1
(1 + + 2 + 3 + ... + n 1 + ...).
3
2
2 2
2
, +
, q =

1
. +
2


S=

a
1
=
= 2.
1 q 1  1
2

,
S=

2
1
2= .
3
3

. 8.3. ,
f

n
n 1

2n
.
1

. Un =

2n
.
n2  1

Un +
n:

2n
2n
n2 = 0.
= lim
lim U n = lim
2
n of n  1
nof
1
n of
1 2
n
500

VIII.

, +
, .
.
. 8.4. ,
f

2n  1

3n  2 .
n 1

. Un =

2n  1
. +
3n  2

,
n:

1
2
2n  1
n = 2
= lim
z 0.
lim U n = lim
n
of
n
of
2
n of
3n  2
3
3
n
.
.

8.1.2.
8.5. :

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
+ ... =
35
n(n  2)
1 3
24

n(n  2) ;
n 1

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
+ ... =
35
1 3
57
(2n  1)(2n  1)
f

(2n  1)(2n  1) .
n 1

8.6. :

2n
6
2
4
+
+
+ ... +
+ ... =
2n  1
7
3
5

2n

2n  1 ;
n 1

501

.., ..

) 1 +

502

3
5
2n  1
+
+ ... +
+ ... =
4
9
n2

2n  1
;
n2
1

n
2
3
1
+ ... =
2 +
2 + ... +
2 +
1  n2
1 2
1 3
11

n 1

n
3
2
1
+
+
+ ... +
+ ... =
1000 n  1
1001 2001 3001

2 +

3
+
2

4
+ ... +
3

n 1
+ ... =
n

n 1

2n

2n  1 ;
f

1000 n  1 ;
n 1

n 1
.
n

VIII.

8.2.

U1 + U2 + U3 + U4 + ... + Un + ... =

n 1

, , Un t 0
(n = 1, 2, 3, ...).

8.2.1.
:
U1 + U2 + U3 + U4 + ... + Un + ...

(8.10)

V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 + ... + Vn + ...
(8.11)
:
1. (8.10)
(8.11), Un d Vn (n = 1, 2, 3, ...), (8.11) , +
(8.10).
f

8.8.

2
n 1

1
.
n

1
1
1
1
+ 2
+ 3
+ ... + n
+ ...
2 n
2 1 2  2 2  3
1

, q =

1
;
2

1
1
1
1
+ ...
1 +
2 +
3 + ... +
2
2
2
2n
+
, , , |q| < 1.

1
1
< n
2 n 2
n

(n = 1, 2, 3, ...).

, .
503

.., ..

2. (8.10)
(8.11), Un t Vn, (8.11) , (8.10) +
.
f

8.8.

n 1

1
n

1+

1
4

+ ... +

1
n

+ ...

, , , +

1+

1 1 1
1
+ + + ... + + ...
2 3 4
n

, .

3. Vn > 0 Un t 0 (n = 1, 2, 3, ...)

Un
= b (0 < b < f ).
Vn

lim
n of

(8.12)

Vn 0 < b < f ,
n 1

n 1

8.9.

(1  cos
n 1

.
504

n 1

0 < b < f ,

n 1

1
n

).

VIII.

Un = (1 cos

Vn =

1
,
n

:
1

2sin 2 n
1  cos n
U
lim
lim n = lim
=
=
1
1
nof
n of V
nof
n
n
n
= 2 lim

sin 2 1 n

nof

1 2
2 n
f

lim

sin 2 1 n

nof

1 2 = 2 2 = 2 .
2 n

n , , ,
n 1

(1  cos

n 1

).

8.2.2. ()

U1 + U2 + U3 + U4 +...+ Un + Un+1 + ...,
(n + 1)+ n+ l
n o f ,

lim
nof

U n1
= l,
Un

(8.13)

: 1) , l < 1,
2) , l > 1.
( l = 1
. ).
f

8.10.

n 1

4n  3
n 3n

505

.., ..

.
f

4n  3

n 1

n3

1
3

23

4n  3

Un =

n3 n

33
;

+ ... +

Un+1 =

4n  3
n3

4n  1
(n  1)3 n1

4n  1
(n  1)3n1

+ ...

4n  1
(n  1)3n1
n 3n
4n  1
U n1
lim
lim
= lim
=
=

nof
nof
nof 4n  3
4n  3
nof U
(n  1) 3n1
n
n *3n

lim

= 1 lim
nof

n 3n

(n  1) 3n1

, l =

1
3

1
3

lim
n of

1
n
=
.
n 1
3

< 1, , .

nn
.

n 1 n!
f

8.11.

nn
33
n n 11 22
(n  1)n 1
=
+
+
+
...
+
+
+ ...

1! 2!
3!
n!
(n  1)!
n 1 n!
f

lim
nof

506

U n1
Un

nn
Un =
,
n!

Un+1

(n  1)n 1
=
.
(n  1)!

(n  1)n1
(n  1)n1 n !
(n  1)n (n  1)n !
(n  1)!
lim
lim
=
=
= lim
=
n
n
nof
nof (n  1)! n
nof
n
n !(n  1)n n
n!

VIII.
n

1
n 1
= lim
= lim 1  = .

of
n
nof
n
n
, l = > 1 , , .

8.2.3. ().

U1 + U2 + U3 + U4 + ... + Un + ...
n U n l n o f , lim n U n = l,
nof
:
1) l < 1 ,
2) l >1 .
8.12.
3

3
1 2
n
+ + + ... +
+ ...
3 5
7
2n  1
. :
n

n
1
n
lim U n = lim
= lim
= < 1.

n
of
nof
nof
2n  1 2
2n  1
n

8.2.4.

U1 + U2 + U3 + U4 + ... + Un + ...
,

(8.15)

U1 t U2 t U3 t U4 t ...,
f(x) ,
f(1) = U1; f(2) = U2; f(3) = U3; ... f(n) = Un.
:
507

.., ..
f

1)

f ( x )dx

(8.15);
2) ,
(8.15).
f

8.13.

(n  1)

n 1

. , f(x) =

x
. +
( x  1)3

b
x
x  11
x
dx = lim
dx =
3
1 f ( x )dx = 1 ( x  1)3 dx = lim

3
bof
bof
1 ( x  1)
1 ( x  1)

bof

b
dx
dx
3
lim
= lim ( x  1)2 dx lim ( x  1) dx =
2
3
bof
bof
bof
1
1 ( x  1)
1 ( x  1)
1

= lim

= lim
bof

1
3
1 b
1
1
b
+ lim
=0+
+0
= .
2
bof
2
2( x  1) 1
x 1 1
8
8

3
(), ,
8

8.2.5.
8.14.
:
f

n 1

508

1
n(n  1)

1
;

n1
n 1 n3

sin n .
n 1

VIII.

.
f

n(n  1)

n 1

, Un =

1
n(n  1)

, , +

1
. U > Vn,
n n

Vn =

n(n  1)

>

1
n

1
.
n

, .
f

n3
n 1

n1

, Un =
f

n 1

Vn =

n1

1
.
n3 n1

, .

1
. Un < Vn,
3n1

1
1
< n1 . , .
n1
3
n3
f

sin n , U

n 1

= sin

1
. +
n

sin

lim
nof

Un
= lim
n of
1
Vn
n
f

1
n = 1 > 0,

, +

n 1

509

.., ..

8.15. ,
:

3n n !
.

n
n 1 n
f

n3
;

n
n 1 2

(n  1)3
n3
n3
.

U
=
,
U
=
.

n
n+1
n
2 n 1
2n
n 1 2
f

U n1
.
nof U
n

lim

lim
nof

U n1
Un

(n  1)3
3
n 1
2n (n  1)3
1
n 1
lim
= lim 2 3
= lim
=

=
n of
nof
n
2n1 n 3
2 nof n
2n
3

1
1
1
1
lim 1  = 1 =
< 1.
=
n
of
2
2
2
n
, .

3n n !
3n1(n  1)!
3n n !
.

U
=
,
U
=
. +
n
n+1
n
nn
(n  1)n1
n 1 n
f

lim
nof

U n1
Un

3n1(n  1)!
(n  1)n1
3n1 (n  1)! n n
= lim
=
=
lim
nof
nof 3 n (n  1)n1 n !
3n n !
nn

3n !(n  1)n n
3(n)n
1
3
lim
=
= 3 lim
=
> 1,
n
n
n of
nof (n  1) (n  1)n !
nof (n  1)
1
e
(1  )n
n
= 2,718..., .
= lim

510

VIII.

8.16. ,
:
f

1
;

n
n 2 (ln n)

n 2

1
3

(2n  3)2

.
f

(ln n)
n 2

lim n U n = lim n
nof

nof

1
1
= lim
= 0 < 1,
n
nof ln n
(ln n)

, .
f

n 2

. f(x) =

1
3

(2n  3)2

1
. +
(2 x  3)2 / 3

b
1
1
(2 x  3)2 / 3 dx = lim 3(2x 3)1/3 =
2 (2 x  3)2 / 3 dx = lim
bof
bof 2
2
2

= lim
bof

3
2

2x  3

3
( lim
2 bof

2b  3 1) =

3
f = f.
2

. , .

511

.., ..

8.2.6.
8.18. ,
:

2n  1
;
2n
n 1
f

3n

2 (2n  1) ;
n

n 1

n2

3
n 1

n tg
n 1

n2 sin
n 1

(n  1)!
;
n
n 1 2 n!
f

;
n1

n!

10
n 1

2n

n3
.

n 1 (2n)!

8.18. ,
:
n2

1 n
) n
;
n 1 3 n 1
f

sin

n 1

n
)
;
n 1 2n  1
f

arctg

n 1

1
.
n

8.19. +
:
f

n 1
f

n 1
f

n(ln n)

n 2
f

1
3n  1

(2n  1)(2n  3) ;
n 1

512

3n

1 n
n 1

n ln n .
n 2

VIII.

8.3. .
, .
, ,
. .
:

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
... +
2
2
2
2 +
2 +
2
2 +
2 +
2
3
4
5
7
8
92
1
6
+ (1)

n ( n 1)
2

1
+ ...
n2


, , +
, +
. +
, ,
:
U1 U2 + U3 U4 + ... + (1)n1Un + ...
(8.16)

.
. (8.16) +
,
U1 > U2 > U3 > U4 > ... > Un > ...
(8.17)
, lim Un = 0, ,
nof

.
.

1
1
1
1

+
... + (1)n1
.
2
2
2
n(n  1)2
23
34
1 2
. :

1)

1
1
1
1
n1
> ...
2 >
2 >
2 > ... > (1)
1 2
23
n(n  1)2
34
513

.., ..

2) lim Un = lim
nof

nof

1
= 0.
n(n  1)2

, .

. ,
U1 + U2 + U3 + U4 + ... + Un + ...
(8.18)
U1, U2, U3, U4, ..., Un, ... , .
. +
, ,
, . +

.
.

sin a sin 2a sin 3a


sin na
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...,
2
2
2
1
2
3
n2

(8.19)

+ .
. ,

sin a
sin 3a
sin 2a
sin na
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...,
2
2
2
1
3
2
n2

(8.20)

1
1
1
1
+ 2 + ... + 2 + ...
2 +
2
1
2
3
n

(8.21)

(8.21) . (8.20)
(8.21), (8.20) . ,
, .
, , , +
,
; , ,
, , .

514

VIII.


.

U1 + U2 + U3 + U4 + ... + Un + ...
(8.18)
, ,
:
|U1| + |U2| + |U3| + |U4| + ... + |Un| + ...
(8.22)
(8.18) , (8.22) +
, ,
(8.18)
.
. , +
, , .

1
1
1
1

+
... + (1)n+1
+ ...
2
3
n 2n
2
22
32
1
Un = (1)n+1
.
n 2n

lim |Un| = lim


nof

nof

(8.23)

1
= 0.
n 2n

1
1
1
1
n+1
>
> ...
3 > ... > (1)
2 >
2
32
22
n 2n
. ? ,

1
1
1
1
1
+
+ ...
n +
2 +
3 + ... +
n2
32
(n  1) 2n1
2 22
. .

lim
nof

U n1
= lim
nof
Un

1
( n1)2n 1
1
n*2n

= lim
nof

n 2n
n
1
lim
=
n1 =
(n  1)2
2 nof n  1
515

.., ..

1
1
< 1.
1 =
2
2

, (8.23) .
) 1 +

1
2

Un = (1)n

+ ... + (1)n

+ ...

lim |Un| = lim


nof

nof

1>

1
2

>

1
3

= 0.

> ... > (1)n

1
n

> ...

. ? ,

1+

1
2

1
3

+ ... +

1
n

+ ...

. , .

8.3.1.
8.20. , +
, , .

) 1

) 1

) 2
516

1
1
1
1
+

+ ... + (1)n+1
+ ... =
2n  1
5
3
7

(1)

1
1
1
1
+ 2 2 + ... + (1)n+1
+ ... =
2
(2n  1)2
3
5
7

(1)

3
4
5
n 1
+

+ ... + (1)n+1
+ ... =
2
3
4
n

n1

n 1
f

n1

n 1

(1)
n 1

n1

1
;
2n  1
1
;
(2n  1)2

n 1
.
n

VIII.

.
f

(1)

n1

n 1

1
+
2n  1

, :
1>

1 1 1
1
> > > ... > (1)n+1
> ...
3 5 7
2n  1

lim |Un| = lim


nof

nof

1
= 0.
2n  1

, , . +
, ,
f

2n  1 ,
n 1

.
f

b
dx
dx
1
=
lim ln(2x 1) 1 =

1 2 x  1 = lim
bof
2 bof
1 2x  1

1
lim (ln(2b 1) ln 1) = f .
2 bof

, . , +
.
)

1
1
1
1
n+1
1 2 + 2 2 + ... + (1) (2n  1)2 + ...
7
3
5
,

1>

1
1
1
1
n+1
>
>
>
...
>
(1)
(2n1)2 >...
32
52 7 2

517

.., ..

lim |Un| = lim


nof

nof

1
= 0.
(2n1)2

. , .
f

(2n  1)
n 1

.
f

b
dx
1 b
1
=
=
lim
1 (2 x  1)2 bof (2 x  1)2 dx =  2 lim
bof 2 x  1 1
1

1
2

=  ( lim
bof

1
1
1) = .
2
2b  1

. , +
.
)
2

n 1
3 4 5
+ + ... + (1)n+1
+ ...
n
2 3 4


2>

n 1
3 4 5
> > > ...> (1)n+1
> ...,
n
2 3 4

n 1
lim |Un| = lim
= lim
nof
nof
nof
n

1
1

1
n =1 z 0

. , .

518

VIII.

8.3.2.
8.21. , ,
, :

) sin

+ sin

3S
4S
2S
nS
+ sin
+ sin
+ ... + sin
+ ... =
3
3
3
3

1
1
1
1

+
... + (1)n+1
+ ... =
ln(n  1)
ln 2 ln 3 ln 4

) 1 +

1
2

1
3

1
4

... + (1)n

1
n

n 1

n 1

n 1

+ ... =

1
1
1
1
+

+ ... + (1)n
+ ... =
n(n  1)
2
6
12

) 1

(1)

sin

(1)

1
;
ln(n  1)

n 1

1
1
1
1
+ 3 3 + ... + (1)n+1
+ ... =
3
(2n)3
2
6
4

1
;
n(n  1)

(1)
n 1

1
n

n 1

(1)

nS
;
3

n 1

1
.
(2n)3

519

.., ..

8.4. . . .


f

0 + 1 + 22 + 33 + ... + anxn + ... =

a x

(8.24)

n 0

a (x  x )

n 0

= 0 + 1(x x0) + 2(x x0)2 + ... + an(x x0)n + ..., (8.25)

n (n = 1, 2, 3, ...) ,
, 0 .
. (8.24) = 1,
, |x| <
|x1|. (8.24) = 2,
, |x| > |x2|.
. ,
(8.24) 1 z 0, +
+ (|x1|; |x1|).
2, ,
(|x2|; |x2|).
(8.24)
R, , |x| < R , |x| > R .
(R; R).
(8.24)
.
.
f

a x
n

n 0

,
L = lim
nof

520

an1
, (L = lim
nof
an

| an | ).

VIII.

lim
nof

an1 x n1
a
= |x| lim n1 = |x| L.
n
nof
an x
an

(8.24) |x| L < 1


|x| L > 1. , |x| <
, |x| >

1
, (8.24) +
L

1
, .
L


R=

an
1
= lim
.
L nof an1

(8.26)

, , +
,
R=

1
1
=
.
L lim n | an |

(8.27)

nof

(8.26) (8.27)
(8.25). (0 R; x0 + R).
, + R
(R; R). = r R ,
.
. , (8.34)

, +
, = r R.

8.4.1.
8.22.
f

(1)n1
n 1

x
xn
x2
x3
=
+
... + (1)n1 n + ...
n
2
3

. (8.26)
521

.., ..

1
n
1
n1

a
R = lim n = lim
nof
nof a
n 1

= lim
n of

n 1
1
= lim (1 + ) = 1.
nof
n
n

, (1; 1).
. = 1
f

(1)

n 1

n 1

1
.
n

. = 1
1

1 1
1
... ...
2 3
n

. , (1;1].
8.23.

2n1 x n1

n 1

=1+

(2n  1)2 3 n1

2n x n
(2n  1)2 3n

2x

32 3

4x
52 3 2

+ ... +

2n1 x n1
(2n  1)2 3 n1

+ ...

.
Un(x) =

2n1 x n1
(2n  1)2 3 n1

Un+1(x) =

2n x n
(2n  1)2 3n

lim

U n1 ( x )

n of

= lim
nof

522

U n (x)

= lim
nof

2n | x |n

2n1 | x |n1

(2n  1)2 3 n (2n  1)2 3 n1

2n | x | (2n  1)2 3 n1


(2n  1)2 3 n 2n1 | x |n1

2
3

|x| lim
n of

(2n  1)2
2
=
|x| 1 < 1,
2
(2n  1)
3

VIII.

|x| <
(

3
3
. , R =
,
2
2

3 3
;
).
2 2
.

, = 

3
, +
2

1
1
1
+ 2 2 + ...,
2
3
5
7

. , =

3
,
2


1+

1
1
1
+ 2 + 2 + ...,
2
3
5
7

.
,
[

3 3
;
].
2 2
8.24.

(x  8)3n
.
n2
n 1
f

.
Un =

( x  8)3 n
;
n2

Un+1 =

( x  8)3 n3
.
(n  1)2

523

.., ..

lim
nof

U n1 ( x )
U n (x)

= lim
nof

( x  8)3 n3
(n  1)2
( x  8)3 n
n2

= lim
nof

n2 ( x  8)3
n
= |x + 8|3 lim
2
=
nof
(n  1)
n 1

= |x + 8|3 1 < 1.

|x + 8|3 < 1, |x + 8| < 1, 1 < x + 8 <1, 9 < x < 7.


. = 9 +

(1)3 n
(1)n
=
,
n2
n2
. = 7 +
an =

an =

1
.
n2

f
dx
dx
1
1 b
lim
=
(  ) = lim (  + 1) = 1,
2
1 x nof x 2 = lim
bof
1
bof
b
x
1

, . ,
[9; 7].

8.4.2.
8.25. :
) 10x + 100x2 + ... + 10nxn + ...;

xn
x2
x3
+
+ ... +
+ ...;
300
n 10n1
20
) 1 + x + 2!x2 + ... + n!xn + ...;
) 1 + 2x2 + 4x4 + ... + 2n1x2(n1) + ...;

) x +

) 1 +

1
2 2
n n
x+
x + ... +
x + ...;
2!
1!
n!

) x

x 2 n1
x3
x5
+
... + (1)n1
+ ... .
(2n  1) (2n  1)!
3 3!
5 5!

524

VIII.

8.5.
8.5.1.
f(x) ,
, + +
, :

f(a) +

f c(a)
f ( n1) (a)
f cc(a)
(x a) +
(x a)2 + ... +
(x a)n1 +... . (T)
1!
2!
(n  1)!

f(x) ,
Rn(x) =

f ( n) (a  4( x  a))
(x a)n,
n!

0 < Q < 1,
f(x) = f(a) +

f (n1)(a)
f c(a)
f c(a)
(x a) +
(x a)2 + ... +
(x a)n1 +
(n 1)!
1!
2!

f (n) (a 4(x  a)
(x a)n,
n!

, n o f , lim Rn(x) = 0.
nof

:
f(x) = f(a) +

f c(a)
f ( n1) (a)
f cc(a)
(x a) +
(x a)2 + ... +
(x a)n1 + ... ()
1!
(n  1)!
2!

lim Rn(x) = 0
nof

. (), ,
f(x) . , f(x)
, :
) + ,
) n o f ,

lim Rn(x) = 0.
n of

:
525

.., ..

1) ,
= +
() .
2) Rn
,
( lim Rn(x) = 0).
nof

, +
,
, +
Rn o 0, n o f ,
,
.

Rn(x), , +
, .

8.5.2.
() = 0, +
:
f(x) = f(0) +

f ( n1) (0)
f c(0)
f cc(0) 2
x+
x + ... +
xn1 + ...
(n  1)!
1!
2!

()

( )
.
1) f(x) = ex.
:

f(x) = ex;

f(0) = 1;

f c( x ) = e ;

f c(0) = 1;

f cc( x ) = ex;

f cc(0) = 1;
..........................
f(n)(0) = 1.

...............................
f(n)(x) = ex;

()
526

VIII.

xn
x2
x3
+
+ ... +
+ ...
n!
2!
3!

1++

R = lim
nof

an
(n  1)!
= lim
= lim (n + 1) = f .
nof
nof
an1
n!

,
. + ( f; f ),
+
, 0.
, +

xn
x2
x3
+
+ ... +
+ ...
n!
2!
3!

= 1 + +
2) f(x) = sin x.
:
f(x) = sin x;

f(0) = 0;

f c( x ) = cos x = sin(x +

S
2

f c(0) = 1;

);

S
f cc( x ) = sin x = sin(x + 2 );
2

f cc(0) = 0;

S
f ccc( x ) = cos x = sin(x + 3 );

f ccc(0) = 1;

fV(x) = sin x = sin(x + 4

...............................
f(n)(x) = sin(x + n

(8.28)

S
2

);

fV(0) = 0;

..........................

S
2

);

n 2m
0,
f(n)(0) =
.
n 1
(1) , n 2m  1

() sin x :

x 2 n1
x3
x5
x7
+
+
+ ... + (1)n1
+ ...
3!
5!
7!
(2n  1)!
527

.., ..

,
, R = f . |f(n)(x)| = |sin(x + n

S
2

)| d 1, +

sin x. , +
:
sin x =

x 2 n1
x7
x5
x3
+
+
+ ... + (1)n1
+ ...
7!
(2n  1)!
5!
3!

(8.29)

3) f(x) = cos x.
cos x
, + .

x 2 n 2
x4
x2
x6
n1
+

+ ... + (1)
+ ... (8.30)
cos x = 1
(2n  2)!
4!
2!
6!
, +
.
4) f(x) = (1 + x)m.

(1 + x)m = 1 + mx +
+

m(m  1) 2
m(m  1)(m  2) 3
x +
x + ... +
3!
2!

m(m  1)(m  2)...(m  n  1) n


x + ...,
n!

5) f(x) =

(1; 1).

1
.
1 x

1
= 1 x + x2 x3 + ... + (1)nxn + ..., (1; 1).
1 x
6) f(x) = ln(1 + x).

ln(1 + x) = x

x3
xn
x2
+
... + (1)n+1
+ ..., (1; 1).
3
n
2

7) f(x) = arctg x.
528

VIII.

arctg x = x

x 2 n1
x3
x5
+
... + (1)n+1
+ ..., (1; 1).
3
5
2n  1

(
).
,
.
,
.

529

.., ..

8.5.3.
8.26. f(x) =

= 2.
.
= = 2.

1
;
2

f(x) = x1;

f(2) = 

f c( x ) = 1x2;

f c(2) = 

1!
;
22

f cc( x ) = 1 2x3;

f cc(2) = 

2!
;
23

f ccc( x ) = 1 23x4;

f ccc(2) = 

fV(x) = 1 2 3 4x5;

fV(2) = 

...........................

.................................

f(n)(x) = (1)nn!xn1;

f(n)(2) = 

3!
;
24

4!
;
25
n!
.
2n1

() ,
:

1
2!
1
1!
3!
=  2 ( + 2) 3 ( + 2)2 4 ( + 2)3 ...
x
2
2 2!
2 1!
2 3!

( x  2)2
( x  2)3
x 2
1
n!
n
(

+
2)

...
=

(1
+
+
+
+
22
23
2
2
2n1 n !

+ ... +
530

( x  2)n
+ ...).
2n

VIII.

:
Un =
l = lim
nof

( x  2)n
;
2n

Un+1 =

( x  2)n1
.
2n1

U n1
| x 2|
| x 2|
=
; l < 1,
< 1.
Un
2
2

|x + 2| < 2, 4 < x < 0.


. = 4,
= 0, 1 1 + 1 1 + ... 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + ...,
,
. ,
(4; 0). Rn
, , +
.
2

1  e x
8.27. f(x) =
.
x2
. (8.28)

xn
x2
x3
=1++
+
+ ... +
+ ...,
2!
3!
n!

2 :

 x2

= 1 2 +

x 2n
x4
x6

+ ... + (1)n
+ ...
n!
2!
3!
x4

x6

x 2n

1 e  x 2 = 2
+
+ ... + (1)n+1
+ ...
2!
3!
n!
,
2

x2
x4
x 2 n 2
1  e x
+1
=
1

...
+
(1)
+ ...
n!
2!
3!
x2
( f; f ).
8.28. f(x) = ln

1 x
.
1 x
531

.., ..

ln(1 + x) = x

x3
x2
xn
+
... + (1)n+1
+ ...,
2
3
n

.
ln(1 x) =

x2
x3
xn

...
...
2
3
n

ln

x2
x3
xn
1 x
= ln(1 + x) ln(1 x) = (x
+
... + (1)n+1
+ ...)
2
3
n
1 x
x 2 n1
x3
x5
xn
x2
x3

...
...) = 2(x +
+
+ ... +
+ ...)
3
5
2n  1
n
2
3
(1; 2).

8.29. f(x) = cos2 x.

. , cos2 x =

1
(1 + cos 2x).
2

cos 2x , +
(8.30) 2:
cos 2x = 1

(2 x )2
(2 x )4
(2 x )6
(2 x )2 n
+

+ ... + (1)n
+ ...
2!
4!
6!
(2n)!

,
cos2 x =

(2 x )4
(2 x )2 n
(2 x )2
1
(2 x )6
(1 + (1
+

+ ... + (1)n
+ ...)),
4!
(2n)!
2!
2
6!

2x 2
25 x 6
22 n1 x 2 n
23 x 4
+

+ (1)n
+ ...
2!
6!
(2n)!
4!
( f; f ).
cos2 x = 1

532

VIII.

8.5.4.
8.30 8.36
,
sin x, cos x, ln(1 + x), (1 + x)m.
7.30. f(x) =

ex  1
.
x

7.32. f(x) = sin2 x.


7.34. f(x) = ln 3
7.36. f(x) =

1  2x
.
1 x

7.31. f(x) = sin

x
.
2

7.33. f(x) = x ln(1 + x2).


7.35. f(x) =

1 x2 .

8  x3 .

533

.., ..

8.6.
.
,
, +
, +
. +
,
.

( +
). +
().

8.6.1.
8.37.

1
4

0,001.

.
= 1 + +

1

1
x2
x3
xn
+
+ ... +
+ ... 4 = e 4 .
2!
3!
n!
e

, = 

1
. +
4

1
4

1
1 1
1
 + ... + (1)n1
=1
+

2! 4
(n  1)!
4

=1

1
1
1
1
+

+ ... + (1)n1
384
(n  1)!
4
32

1
4

1
4

n1

+ ... =

n1

+ ...

n , , ,
, +
,
534

VIII.

1 1 n
Rn <
.
n ! 4
0,001, +
0,0005. +
,
4

1 1
R4 <
< 0,00016, :
4! 4
3

1 1
1
1 1
| 1 +   | 0,799.
4
3! 4
4 2! 4
e
1

.
,
0,00005. 0,00021. ,

1
4

| 0,799.

8.38. s 10
0,0001.

. 10=

S
18

| 0,1745.

cos

x 2 n 2
x2
x4
x6
n1
cos x = 1
+

+ ... + (1)
+ ...
(2n  2)!
2!
4!
6!

S
18
S
=1 +
cos 10 = cos
18
2!

S
18
...
4!

, , +
cos 10 , +
R3
535

.., ..
4

S

(0, 2)4
18
|R3| <
<
< 0,0001.
24
4!
,
2

S
18
(0,1745)2
| 0,9948.
cos 10 | 1 | 1
2!
24
0,0001, ,
. 10+4
( ,
), , ,
0,0001, (
10+4 ). , cos 10 | 0,9948.
8.39. 4 17 0,001.
.
1

1 4

17 = 16  1 = 16 1  = 2 1  .
16
16
4

1 4

1 

16
(1 + x)m = 1 + mx +
+

m(m  1)(m  2)...(m  n  1) n


x + ...,
n!

536

m(m  1) 2 m(m  1)(m  2) 3


x +
x + ... +
3!
2!

1
1
,m= :
16
4

VIII.
1

1 3
1
1 3 7
1 4

2 1  = 2(1 +

...).
2 +
4 16 4 8 16
4 8 12 163
16
,
4 17 0,0001,
: 1 = 1; 2 |
0,01562; 3 | 0,00037; 4 | 0,00001. +
,
, +
24 | 20,00001 < 0,0001. ,
4

17 | 2(1 + 0,1562 0,00037) | 2,0305.


1/ 4

8.40.

sin x
dx
x

0,00001.
.

sin x
dx +
x

, +
+ .
.
sin x =

x3
x5
x7
+

+ ...
3!
5!
7!

, :

x6
x2
x4
sin x
=1
+

+ ...
3!
5!
7!
x
:
1/ 4

sin x
dx =
x

1/ 4

x2 x4 x6

1 1
1


 ... dx =

1 
+
3! 5! 7!
3 3! 4
4

1 1
...
5 5! 4
537

.., ..

1 1
1
=
< 0,00001,

5 5! 4
614400
, ,
:
1/ 4

1 1
1
sin x

|
= 0,25 0,00087 = 0,24913.
4 3 3! 4
x

8.6.2.
7.41. 0,001.
1/ 2

arctg x
dx ;
x

1/10

1/ 4

sin
0

538

xdx ;

ln(1  x )
dx ;
x

e
0

 x2

dx .

VIII.

8.7.
8.7.1. 2S
f(x) 2S , [S ;S ] .
:
a0
 (a1 cos x  b1 sin x )  (a2 cos 2 x  b2 sin 2 x )  (a3 cos 3 x  b3 sin 3 x ) 
2

+ (an cos nx  bn sin nx ) + ...


(8.34)
f(x). 1, 2, ... ,
n, ..., b1, b2, b3, , bn, ,
. :

a0 f
 (an cos nx  bn sin nx ) .
2 n1

(8.34)

, +
:
0 =

S
S

bn =

f ( x )cos nxdx

(n = 1, 2, 3, ...);

(8.35)

S

f ( x )dx ;

S

n =

f ( x )sin nxdx

S

(n = 1, 2, 3, ...).

:
f(x) |

a0 f
 (an cos nx  bn sin nx ) .
2 n1

(8.36)

f(x) f(x),
.
:
539

.., ..

1. f(x) 2S [S ;S ]

,
, .
2. 2S
[S ;S ] (
,
),
, ,
:

f ( x  0)  f ( x  0)
.
2
, f(x) = f(x),
; :
f(x) |

0 =

n =

a0 f
 an cos nx ,
2 n1

(8.37)

2S

f ( x )dx ;

2S

f ( x )cos nxdx ,

(n = 1, 2, 3, ...).

, f(x)= f(x),
; :
f(x) |

sin nx ,

n 1

540

bn =

f ( x )sin nxdx ,
0

(n = 1, 2, 3, ...).

(8.38)

VIII.

8.7.2.
8.42.

1
 , (S  x  0)
f (x) 2
.
1,
(0  x d S )
. f(x):
0 =

n =

bn =

f(x)dx =

S S
(

1
1
S + S)= ;
2
2

S S
(

0
S
S

1 1
1
1 0
+ )=
 dx  1dx = ( 
S S 2
S
2 S
0
0

f ( x )cos nxdx =

0
S

1 1
 cos nxdx  1cos nxdx =
S S 2
0

0
S
1
1
sin nx
+ sin nx ) = 0;
0
2n
n
S
S

f ( x )sin nxdx =

S

0
S

1 1
 sin nxdx  1sin nxdx =
S S 2
0

0
S
1
1
3(1  (1)n )
cos nx

cos nx ) =
;
S
0
S 2n
n
2S n

cos S n = (1)n,
b2k = 0, (k = 1, 2, 3, ),
b2k+1 =

3
, (k = 1, 2, 3, ).
S (2k  1)

f(x) , +
. , :
541

.., ..

f(x) =

3 f sin(2k  1) x
1
+
.
2k  1
4 S k0

8.43. f(x) = x (S < x < S ).


. +
Y

. +
( S < x < S ) f(x) = x
(. . 8.1). ,

0
S
S X
.
bn.

bn =

2S

f ( x )sin nxdx

. 8.1.

dv sin nxdx , v

x sin nxdx =

x,

du dx

sin nxdx

=
1
 cos nx
n

S
S
1S
2
1
1
cos
nxdx
= (  cos nx +
)
=
(
cos
nx
+

0
0
n 0
S
S
n
n

S
2 1
1
2
sin
nx
)= 
S (1)n = (1)n+1 ;
2
0
S n
n
n

bn = (1)n+1

2
.
n

,
f

x=

(1)n1
n 1

f
sin nx
2
sin nx = 2 (1)n1
.
n
n
n 1

, n 1, 2, 3, ... , :
x = 2(
542

sin 2 x
sin 3 x
sin 4 x
sin x

+ ).
3
2
1
4

VIII.

( S ; S )
f(x), +
( S ; S ). +
.
, rS , r3S , ...,
+
.
. , = S .

lim f(x) = lim x = S ;

x oS 0

x oS 0

lim f(x) = lim x = S .

x oS 0

x oS 0

f (S  0)  f (S  0) S  S
0.
2
2
.
, . ,
:

sin x
sin 4 x
sin 3 x
sin 2 x

+ ) =
1
4
3
2
k + .
2(

x ,  S  x  S

0, x (2k  1)S

8.44. f(x) = |x| ( S < x d S ).


. 2S ,
, . :

2 x2
xdx
f
(
x
)
dx
a0 =
=
=
= S;
S 2 0
S 0
S 0
an =

u
= dv

f ( x )cos nxdx =
0

x,

du

cos nxdx , v

x cos nxdx

dx

cos nxdx

1
n

sin nx =
543

.., ..

1
2
2
1
sin nxdx ) = (0 + 2 cos nx ) =
= (x sin nx

S n
S 0
S
n
0
0
2

0, n 

2
(cos np 1) = 4
.
=
2
Sn
 S n 2 , n 
,
|x| =

S
2

(cos x +

1
1
1
cos 3x +
cos 5x + +
cos(2n + 1)x + ).
(2n  1)2
9
25

8.45. f(x)=x,

(0; 2S ).
. . 8.2 +
. +
8.43. +
. 8.43
f(x) = x
Y
( S ; S ),
(0; 2S ).

.

2S 0
2S
4S
f(x)= x (0; 2S ) 4S

. 8.2.
, +
.
f(x) ( S ; S ),
(0; 2S ), 2S ,
, (8.36), +
:
0 =
544

2S

f ( x )dx ;
0

VIII.

n =

2S

f ( x )cos nxdx ;

bn =

2S

f ( x )sin nxdx .
0

:
0 =

2S

n =

bn =

2S

1 x2
xdx =
= 2S ;
S 2 0
1

2S

x cos nxdx = 0;
0

2S

x sin nxdx =  n .
0

(8.36), :

sin x
sin 2 x
sin 4 x
sin 3 x
+
+
+
+ ).
3
1
2
4
(0; 2S ) f(x) = x , +
x = S 2(

.
= 2S n (n = 0, 1, 2, ),
+ +
,

f (2S  0)  f (2S  0)
2

2S  0
=S.
2

, S .

545

.., ..

8.7.3. ,
, (0; S ) (
) , +
( S ; 0) .
) ,
(0; S ) ( S ; 0)
, ( S ; S ) +
2S .

f(x) =

a0
+
2

cos nx ,

n 1

:
an =

f ( x )cos nxdx .
0

) f(x), (0; S )
, ( S ; 0)
,
2S .
:
f

f(x) =

sin nx ;

n 1

bn :
bn =

f ( x )sin nxdx .
0

8.7.4.
8.46. f(x) =

(0; S ).
546

S
4

x
+
2

VIII.

. ,
. 8.3 , :

S
4

S

4
. 8.3.

0 =

S x
2 S
2 S2
S2
x2
(

)
dx
=
(

)
=
(

) = 0.
S 0 4 2
S 4
S 4
4
2 0
2

x
(  )cos nxdx =
n =

S 0 4 2
S

x sin nx

= (( )
2
n
S 4
0

S S

 ,
2

1
du  dx
2

dv cos nxdx , v


0

cos nxdx

1
sin nx
n

1 S
1 sin nx
sin nxdx =
dx ) =
S n 0
2 n

1
cos S n
1
cos nx
1
1
=
+
(1)n 2 =
(1 ( 1)n);
2
2 =
2
2
Sn
Sn
Sn
Sn 0
Sn
S n2
a2k = 0;

a2k+1 =

2
.
S (2k  1)2

,
547

.., ..

S
4

2 f cos(2k  1) x
x
=
.
2 S k 0 (2k  1)2

8.47. f(x) =

(0; S ).
.
,
. 8.4. +
, :
bn =

S
4

S

x
 ,
2 2

dv

du

sin nxdx , v

1
 dx
2

sin nxdx
S

x cos nx
= (( )

S
2
2
n
0

4
. 8.4.

S X

( 2  2 )sin nxdx =

u
=

1
1
S x +
2
2

 2 (
0

cos nx =
n
cos nx
)dx ) =
n

sin nx
1
1

= .
=
2
n
n
Sn 0
,
f
sin nx
sin 2 x
sin 3 x
1 1
x = sin x +
+
+=
.
n
3
2 2
2
n 1

548

VIII.

8.7.5. 2l
f(x) 2S , 2l,
:

a
f(x) = 0 +
2

cos

S nx

n 1

sin

n 1

S nx
l

(8.39)

0, n, bn :
n =

1
l

f ( x )cos

S nx

bn =

1
l

dx , (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, );

l

f ( x )sin

S nx
l

l

dx .

(8.40)

f(x) (l; l) ,
bn = 0,
:
f(x) =

a0
+
2

cos

S nx
l

n 1

n :
n =

2
l

f ( x )cos

l

S nx
l

dx , (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ).

(l; l) f(x) , 0 = n = 0,
:
f

f(x) =

b sin
n

n 1

S nx
l

2
bn =
l

f ( x )sin

l

S nx
l

dx .

549

.., ..

8.7.6.
8.48.

6, 0  x  2,
f (x)
3 x , 2  x  4.
. (8.40), l = 2 +
(0; 4) = 2 ,
, +
:
an =

1
2

f ( x )cos
0

S nx
2

dx =

4
1 2
S nx
S nx
dx + 3 x cos
dx ) =
( 6cos
2 0
2
2
2

1 12
4
S nx
S nx
S nx
2x
(
sin
+ 3(
sin
+ 2 2 cos
) )=
2 Sn
2 2
2 0
2
S n
Sn

6
(1 cos pn), n z 0.
S n2
2

n : cos pn = 1 an = 0;
n : cos pn = 1 an =

12
;
S 2n2

n = 0 (8.40) :
4

1
a0 =
2

4
1
1 2
3x 2
f
(
x
)
dx
6
dx
3
xdx
=
(
+
)
=
(6
x
+
) = 15.
0
2
2
2 0
2 2
0

1
bn =
2

f ( x )sin
0

S nx

S nx
S nx
dx = 1 ( 6sin
dx + 3 x sin
dx ) =
2
2
2
2 0
2
2

S nx
S nx
1
S nx
4
12
2x
= (
cos
+ 3( 2 2 sin

cos
) )=
2
2
2 2
2 Sn
Sn
S n
0
550

VIII.

1
2S n

(12(1 cos np) + 3(4cos np 8)) = 

6
.
nS

:
f(x) =

1
15
12
3S x
Sx
5S x
1
+ 2 (cos
+ cos
+
cos
+ )
9
2
S
2
2
2
25

(sin

Sx
2

1
3S x
2S x
1
sin
+ sin
+ ).
2
3
2
2


: (0; 2) S(x) = 6, (2; 4) S(x)
= 3. = 2,
S(2) =

1
( lim f(x) + lim f(x)) = 6.
x o2  0
2 x o 2 0

8.49. f(x) = x 1
1< x d 1.
. . 8.5.
Y
3

1
2
. 8.5.

, , l = 1.
1

a0 =

( x  1)dx =

1

an =

( x  1)cos nS xdx =

1

( x  1)2
= 2;
2
1
1

x cos nS xdx

1

cos nS xdx

1

551

.., ..

x sin S nx
=

Sn
1
1

bn =

1
sin nS x
sin S nx
= 2 2 cos npx
= 0;
1 nS dx S n
n
S

1
1
1

( x  1)sin nS xdx =

1

x cos S nx
+
= 
Sn
1

x sin nS xdx

1

sin nS xdx

1

cos S nx
cos nS x
1 nS dx + S n 1 =
1

sin nS x
1
1
= 
(cos nS + cos(  nS )) +
+
(cos nS
2 2
S
n
nS
nS
1
cos(  nS )) = 

2(1)n
.
nS

,
b1 =

, b2 = 

2
2
, b3 =
,
3S
2S

f(x) :
x 1 = 1 +

2 sin x
sin nx
sin 2 x
sin 3 x
(

+
... + (1)n+1
+ ).
S
n
2
1
3

8.7.7.
8.50. f(x) = 2 +
[S ;S ] .
8.51. f(x) =

(S ; S ) .
552

S x
2

VIII.

8.52.

2,  S  x  0,
f (x)
1, 0 d  S .
8.53. f(x) =

x
+
2

(0; 2S ).
8.54. f(x) = 2 3
(3; 3).
8.55.

1,  3  x  0,
f (x)
2, 0 d  3.
8.56. f(x) =|| 1
(2; 2).
8.57.

0,  2 d x d 0,
f (x)
x , 0 d d 2.

553

.., ..


.
14 21 24
19 8
18 9
3 4 5

1.3. 26 9 ,
, 10 16 39 . 1.4.
,
14
6 7 37
21 2 2
1 1 23

7 24 11
6 8 9 12 31

, 5 51 . 1.5. 2 3 0 ,

2 6 4
9 5 25

5 1 3

1 2 0 ,
9 2 5

11 0 15 17 1 34 27 29 25

2 4 2 , 3 1 12 , 6 3 3 . 1.6. 340; 20; 55; 0.


10 1 0 0 6 1 18 6 57



490 540 770

28

4280


1.7.
, 18480. 1.8. 30, 60. 1.9. 220 280 345 . 1.10. 47 .
2480
55 35 38
32


1.14. 91. 1.15. 86. 1.16. 9. 1.17. 27. 1.18. 203. 1.19. 144. 1.20. 185.
1.21. 41. 1.22. 68. 1.23. 38. 1.24. 162. 1.25. 15. 1.26. 120. 1.27. 126.
1.28. 144. 1.33. 2. 1.34. 2. 1.35. 2. 1.36. 3. 1.37. 2. 1.38. 2. 1.39. 3. 1.40. 3.

1 1 1
1
2

1.41. 3. 1.42. 2. 1.43. 2. 1.44. 3. 1.45.


, 5 4 7 ,
3
2

1
2

3 2 4
16 21 10 21 1 21

1 7 ,
37
27
17 21 8 21 5 21

554

1 7
47
67

13 14 4 7 11 14 ,
5 14 1 7
1 14

7 34 5 34 3 34

,
4 34 2 34 8 34 ,
5 34 11 34 7 34

2 2 1

,
1 1 2
1 0 1

2 1 1

.
1 0 1
5 1 3

12
0
12
12 7 2 7

1.46.  1 2 1 6 1 3 . 1.47.
. 1.52. (1;1;1), (1;0;1),

9 7 6 7
0

1 6 1 6

(0;1;1), (1;2;0), (1;1;0), (1;1;0), (3;5;2). 1.57. (0;x2; 9 7 + x2; 1 7 ).


1.58. ( 5 17 ; 23 17 ). 1.59. . 1.60.

. 1.61. ( 5 4 + 1 4 3 3 4 4 5; 1 4 + 7 4 3 + 7 4 4;0;0;0).
1.62. (1;1). 1.63. . 1.64. (1;1;2). 1.65. (x1;4 +
+2x1 4x4;1 x4;x4). 1.66. . 1.67. ( 30 41 ; 53 41;
5 41 ). 1.68. (1;1;1). 1.69. (0;1;1). 1.70. (2;0;1). 1.71. (2;3;4).
1.72. ( 1 5 C; 4 5 C;C), (8C1 7C2 ;6C1 + 5C2;C 1;C 2). 1.76. 22 .
1.77. AB =(4;3;1), BA =(4;3;1). 1.78. npa b =
1.79. arccos 2 7 . 1.80. a 0 =

20
20
, npb a =
.
7
3

1
2
2
i + 3 j + k . 1.81. | a + b | = | a b |= 13.
3
3

1.83. 4. 1.84. (24;32;30). 1.85. | a | = 70, cos D = 2 7 , cos E = 3 7 ,

cos J =  6 7 . 1.86. arccos 4 9 . 1.87. 61, 37. 1.88. AB 2


CD ; . 1.89.

26
.
6

1
1
1.92. O1 = 2, O2 = 3, X1 = , X2 = , z 0. 1.93. O1 = 3, O2 = 1,
1
2

1
1
1
X1 = , X2 = , z 0. 1.94. O1 = 1, O2 = 1, X1 = ,
1
1
1
555

.., ..

1
1
2


X2= , z 0. 1.95. O1 = 0, O2 = 1, O3 = 2, X1 = 0 , X2 = 1 ,
1
1
1


2C1  2C 2
1


C2
X 3 = 0 , z 0 . 1.96. O1 = O2 = 2, O3 =7, X1 =
,

1
C1

C
C


|1|+|2| z 0, X2 = 2C , z 0. 1.97. O1 = O2 = O3 = 1, X1 = C , z 0.
2C
C


1.102. y12 + y22 + y32 , 1 = 1 + 2, 2 = 2 + 23, 3 = 3. 1.103.  y12 + y22 + y32 ,

1 = 1, 2 = 2 23, 3 = 1 + 3. 1.104. y12 y22 y32 , 1 =


2 =

1
1
1+ 2+3,
2
2

1
1
1 3, 3 = 3. 1.105. y12 + y22 y32 , 1 = 1 2 + 3 4,
2
2

2 = 2 + 3 + 4, 3 = 2 3 + 24, 4 = 4. 1.106. y12 y22 + y32 y42 ,


1 = 1 +

1
1
1
1
1 1
2, 2 =
2, 3 =
3 +
4, 4 = 3 4. 1.113.
2
2
2
2
2 2

82 44 55 150

. 1.114. ) (102 204 81 144 116); ) (184 161 160);


63 77 39 62
36 160 120 135

) 3607. 1.115. (1 1 3). 1.116. ) X = , X = (1 2 3), = (40 40 80);


) (10 5 10). 1.117. (4200; 39000).

556

.
2.11. ) (3;5); b) (3;5); c) (3;5); d) (5;3); e) (5;3). 2.12. 5; 13;

25; 10. 2.13. AB | 8,6; AC | 8,9; BC | 1,4; P+ ABC | 18,9. 2.14.


, : AB= 82 ;
AC= 130 ; BC= 136 . 2.15. (1;1). 2.16. (0;2;0). 2.17. D(2;2).
2.18. C(6;1;19); D(9;5;12). 2.19.

30 . 2.20.

2
3

74 . 2.33.

, N Q , R +
. 2.34. 1) 2 + 3y 7 = 0; 2) 3x 2y 4 = 0. 2.35. (2;1).
2.36. (11;11). 2.37. (10;5). 2.38. 4x + y 3 = 0. 2.39. y 1 = 0.
2.40. 2x + 3y 19 = 0; 2x + 3y + 27 = 0; 8x 11y 7 = 0; 8x11y+39=0.
2.41. x y 7 = 0; x 2y 10 = 0. 2.42. 2x 3y + 11 = 0; 5xy18=0.

6
3 19 9 17
2.43. ; ; ;  . 2.44. 5. 2.45. 4. 2.46. h1=h2=
. 2.47. (4;5).
5
5 5 5
5
2.48. BC: x y 3 = 0; AC: 4x + 5y 20 = 0; CH: 3x 12y 1 = 0.
2.49. 2x + 7y + 22 = 0; 7x + 2y 13 = 0; x y + 2 = 0. 2.50. 2xy+6=0;
12

; DAB | 53D . 2.61. (x+1)2 + (y2)2 = 25. 2.62. (x1)2 + (y4)2 =8.
5
2.63. (x1)2 + (y+1)2 = 4. 2.64. (x2)2 + (y4)2 = 10. 2.65. (x1)2 + y2 =1.

x2
y2
x 2 y2
x 2 y2
x 2 y2
2.66. 1)
+
= 1; 2)
+
= 1; 3)
+
= 1; 4)
+
=1;
169 144
25 16
100 64
25 9
5)

x 2 y2
x 2 y2
x 2 y2
x 2 y2
+
= 1. 2.67. 1)
+
= 1; 2)
+
= 1; 3)
+ = 1;
20 15
169 25
36 9
16 16 3

4)

x 2 y2
x 2 y2
2
+ = 1; 5)
+ = 1. 2.68. 1)
; 2)
9
20 4
5
2

2)

y
x 2 y2
x2 y
x2
y2
x2

= 1; 3)

= 1; 4)

= 1; 5)

= 1;
4
5
64 36
8
36
64
32

x 2 y2
10
. 2.69. 1)
=1;
9 16
5
2

557

.., ..

6) x2 y2 = 16; 7)
2) x =

2
x2
y2

= 1. 2.70. 1)
; 2)
18
8
3

3
2 . 2.71. 1) x =  ;
2

3
3
3
; 3) y = ; 4) y = . 2.72. 1) y2 = 4x; 2) y2 = 9x; 3) x2 = y;
2
2
2

x 2 y2
4) x = 2y. 2.73. x = 2y; 2y 1 = 0. 2.74.
+
= 1. 2.75. x2 +
100 84
2

+ y2 1440x + 288000 = 0. 2.82. 1500. 2.83. y = 0,7x + 8,4. 2.84. 5.


2.85. x > 400 +
. 2.86. y = 0,5x + 150. 2.87. , +
(x 83,3)2 + y2 d 66,72, ,
. 2.88. (x + 62,5)2 + y2 d 37,52
, . 2.89.
(x + 12,5)2 + y237,52 ,
. 2.90. (x + 100)2 + y2 = 2002. 2.101. x + 3y 4z 21 = 0. 2.102. x+
+ 4y 2z 2 = 0. 2.103. x + y + z 4 = 0. 2.104. 2x y + z 5 = 0.
2.105.

6 . 2.106. 2x + 3y + z 11 = 0. 2.107. (1;1;2). 2.108.

3 x  2 y

z 4.

0,

2.109.

x 1 y  2 z  0
=
=
. 2.110. 90. 2.111. (2;3;6).
1
7
9

2.112. (3;2;4). 2.113. (1;4;7). 2.114. 21. 2.115. 8x 9y 22z 59 = 0.


2.116. 11x 17y 19z + 10 = 0. 2.117. 6x 20y 10z + 1 = 0.
2.118. (5;1;0). 2.119. (4;1;3). 2.120.

x  2 y  3 z 1
=
=
.
1
3
3

.
3.4. a) A B = {1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 12}; B C = {5}; (A B) C = {3; 5};
A B C= ; ) A B = {1; 3; 4; 6; 7; 8; 21}; B C= {3;7}; (A B) C=

={3;7}; A B C= . 3.5. 81. 3.19. x = 1; y = 2. 3.20. )


) 28. 3.21. 1) z =
558

13 7
;
20 4

5
3
3
5
+ i ; Re z =
; Im z = ; 2) z = i; Re z = 0,
7
7
7
7

Im z = 1. 3.24. 1) 16 16 3 i; 2) 512i; 3) 260; 4) 16 3 16i.


3.25. ) 4 2 (cos
4

2 (cos

S
16

isin

S
16

), k = 0;

15S
15S
+ isin
), k = 2;
16
16

) r ( 3 i); )

10

8 (cos

2 (cos

2 (cos

7S
7S
+ isin
), k = 1;
16
16

23S
23S
+ isin
), k = 3;
16
16

8k  3
8k  3
S + isin
S ), k = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.
20
20

5
];
2
3) x ( f ;1) (1;2) (2; f ); 4) x ( f ;0) (4; f ); 5) x ( f ;1]
[3; f ); 6) x ( f ;1) (2; f ); 7) 4 d x d 4; 8) x ( f ;0); 9) x ;
10) x [2;0) (0;1); 11) x [1;3]; 12) x = 1; 13) x (1;0)
(1;2)(2; f );14) x (3 2S ;3 S ) (3;4]; 15) x [4;] [0; S ] .
3.37. f(x) = loga x; 3.38. f(x) = ax. 3.71. 0,5. 3.72. f . 3.73. 0. 3.74. 1.
3.75. 1. 3.76. 0. 3.77. 0. 3.78. 1. 3.79. 0,5. 3.80. 9. 3.81. 0. 3.82. 0,8.
3.36. 1) x = 0, x = 1, x = 1; 2) x ( f ;

3.83. 1,8. 3.84.

5
2 2
. 3.85. 6. 3.86. f . 3.87. 1. 3.88. 0,5. 3.89.
.
13
3

2
5
. 3.92. 2,5. 3.93. . 3.94. 0. 3.95. 0, x o f ;
3
12
f , x o f . 3.96. 0,5. 3.97. 0,75. 3.98. 1. 3.99. 0,5. 3.100. 2sin D .

3.90. 1,2. 3.91.

3.101. 4. 3.102. 0,4. 3.103. 0,5. 3.104. 0,5. 3.105. e4. 3.106. e 3 . 3.107. e 3 .
3.108. e2. 3.109. e3. 3.110. e12. 3.111. e3. 3.112. e2. 3.113. 4. 3.114. 1.
3.115. 1. 3.116. 1. 3.117. 2,25. 3.118. e3. 3.122. a) x = r 3

, lim y = f , lim y = f , lim y = f ,


x o3 0

x o3  0

x o3 0

lim y = f ; ) = 1 ( +

x o3 0

) , lim = f ; ) = 2,
x o1r0

2; )
559

.., ..

= 1, = 0 = 4; ) = 1
,
1

lim e x 1 = 0;
x o10

lim e x 1 = f ;

x o10

) =
1, 2,
= 1 .

V.
4.4. 1)

1 x2
3x 2
1  3x 2
2x


;
2)
;
3)
; 4) 
;
3
3
2 3
( x 2  1)2
2 1 x
2 x
3 sin 1  x 2 3 (1  x 2 )2

5) 4x3 tg2x +

8)

2 x 4 sin x
; 6) sin xsin(2cos x); 7) ecos x(sin2x sin3x);
cos 3 x

2x
; 9)
2
(x 1)ln3

1  x 2 arccos x  2 x
2 xx

11) 2(1 + ln sin x)ctg x; 12)

14)

17)

19)

560

; 10) 

2
arccos 2 x 1  4 x 2

4 x arcsin(ln(a 2  x 2 ))
(a  x ) 1  ln (a  x )
2

; 13) 

1
1 x2

1  ln x
2x 2  3
ln x  2
x
sin(2(
));
15)
; 16) 2(x arctg
+ 1);
2
2
x
2
x
2 x 1
2arcsin

2x

ln 2 6 arcsin 2 2 x
1  4x 2

earctg

; 1 8)

9e 3 x arcctg 2 e 3 x
;
1  e 6 x

1 ln(2 x  3)

(2 x  3)(2  ln(2 x  3)) 1  ln(2 x  3)

; 20) 2 4  x 2 ;

21)

40
2x  3 1  4x 2

23) (ln x )x (

; 22) (x2 + 1)sin x (

2 x sin x
cos x ln(x2 + 1));
x2 1

1
3 x 2 cos 4 x
+ lnln x ); 24) 4(1 4 x3)cos 4x (
+
ln x
1  4x 3
1

3
sin 4x ln(1 4x )); 25) (1  ctg 3 x ) x

x
sin 3 x (sin 3 x  cos3 x )
3

1
2arctg
ln(1  ctg 3 x )
ctg 3 arctg e 3 x e 3 x
x ;

; 27 ) 
; 2 6)
2
x
x
6
3
2
3
x
1

x

(1  e ) (arctg e )
28)

31) 3x2arctg x3+

34) 2x

ln x1

36)

38)

x
1
3x5
( x 2  32 x  73)(3  x )3
;
32)

+
ctg
x
;
33)
;
x 1 x2
1 x6
2( x  1)6 x  2

ln x; 35)

(2ax  b)e

ln( ax 2  bx c )

2(ax  bx  c) ln(ax 2  bx  c)

x
arctg 1  x (2  x ) 1  x
2

; 37)

a
;
(ax  b)(1  ln 2 (ax  b)

1  4x
4
x
+
arcsin
4
x
);
; 39) 10xtg xln10(tgx +

2
(1  4 x ) 1  4 x

cos 2 x

40) 

42)

(ln x  1)ln2 ln x
3
2 ; 30)
; 29)
;
2
2
ln x
1 4x
2 3x  9x3

2e arcsin 2 x

2( x  2)( x 2  11x  1)
3( x  5)

43

( x  1)

1
1
(2  2 x  x )arctg
1 x

; 41) (2x)

x
ln 2 x
+

;
2 x
x

; 43) 2sin x(xsinxcosx2 + cosxsinx2);

561

.., ..

x 2

44)

2 x  3 3 (1  x x  3)2

4.10. 1)

4)

; 45) (tg 2 x )

4ctg 2 ln tg 2 x


.
sin 4 x 2sin 2 x

y sin x  sin y
y(1  x )
y( x  x ln y  y)
; 2)
; 3)
;
cos x  x cos y
x ( y ln x  x  y)
x ( y  1)

1  ye xy 1  y( x  3 y)
sin( x  y)  y cos x
=
; 5)
;
xe xy  3 x ( x  3 y)  3
sin x  sin( x  y)  sin y
2 x  ye xy 2 x  y( x 2  y 2 )
y(1  x )
3t 2  1
; 7)
=
.
4.11.
1)
;
xe xy  2 y x ( x 2  y 2 )  2 y
x (2 y  1)
2t

6)

2) ctg

7)

ctg x2

t
cos M  M sin M
1 t2
t
; 3) 1; 4)
; 5)
; 6)
;
2
1  sin M  M cos M
t (2  3t  t 2 )
2

2x
1  tg t
6 x (2 x 2  1)
x
. 4.12. a)
; )
;
2 + 2arctg x; ) 
2
3
1 x
1  tg t
( x  1)
(1  x 2 )3

) 

a2

(a 2  x 2 )3

; ) 

arcsin x  x 1  x 2
(1  x 2 )3

. 4.16. a) 2x y + 5 = 0,

x + 2y 5 = 0; ) 4x 3y + 1 = 0, 3x + 4y 18 = 0, 4x + 3y + 1 = 0,
3x 4y 18 = 0; ) x + y 4 = 0, x y 2 = 0. 4.17. (3;4), (3;4).
4.20. 1) 5 ln

3) 3

1
x2

tg x

2ln 3

1
2arctg x

dx ;
sin 2 x dx ; 2)
2
1 x2
2 arcsin x 1  x

2
2
5e5 x (2e5 x  1)
2
dx
;
4)
dy=
dx; = 0
ln
3
9
x



x2
1  e10 x
x
1
2

dx = 0,1, dy = 0,25. 4.21. a) 0,0100; ) 1,9895. 4.27. 1) 1; 2)  ;


562

3) 2; 4) 1; 5) 1; 6) 0; 7) 0; 8) 1; 9) 1; 10) e2. 4.39. 1) Ex(y)=

2x(1  x)
,
1  2x  x 2

E1(y) = 0; 2) Ex(y) = 5x, E1(y) = 5, E0(y) = 0, E2(y) = 10; 3) Ex(y)=

1
,
ln x

1
| 0,4343; Ee(y) = 1, E e4 ( y) = 0,25; 4) Ex(y) = 1 2x2,
ln10
E 1( y ) = 1, E 2( y ) = 7 . 4.40. 1) E 10 ( K ) | 0,91; E 50 ( K ) | 0,33;
2) E1(K) | 0,87; E2(K) | 1,25. 4.41. 1,5. 4.42. 146 . 4.43. 9 . .,
E10(y)=

p(3  4 p)
1
, E1(q)=  . 4.45. a) 3 . .;
2
2 p  3 p  8
9
) Ep(q) = 0,75, Ep(s) = 1; ) 1,25%. 4.46. 1. a) x = 20; b) E2(K) | 0,039;
E50(K) | 1,788; 2. a) x = 50; b) E5(K) = 0,0198; E25(K) = 0,4. 4.47. 3. 4.53.
1) (f; f) ; 2) +
( f ;2) (1; f ), (2;1); 3) +
(1; 1), ( f ;1) (1; f );
4) ( f ;0), (0; f ); 5)
( f ;0) (0;1), (1; f ). 4.54. 1)

7 . . 4.44. Ep(q)=

1 = 0 , f(0) = 1, 2 = 1 ,
f(1) = 0; 2) 1 = 1 , f(1) = 1, 2 = 3
, f(3) = 3; 3) 1 = 0 , f(0) = 0,

2 = 1 , f(1) = 7 9 , 3 = 4
, f(4) = 
2= 

128
; 4) 1 = 1 , f(1) = 0,
3

1
331
, f(1/5)= 1
, 3 = 1
5
3125

; 5) = 0 , f(0) = 0;
6) = r2 , f( r2 ) = 4; 7) 1= 0
, f(0) = 0, 2 = 2 , f(2) =

4
;
e2

8) = e , f(e) = e; 9) =1
563

.., ..

, f(1) = ln 2
, f(

1
e

S
4

; 10) ; 11) =

) =

1
e

1
; 12) 1= 3 , +
2e

, f(3)=3 3 3 , 2 = 2 , f(2)=  3 44 ; 13)

19 , f(1 19 ) | 14, 2= 1+ 19
, f(1+ 19 ) | 5,5; 14) 1 = 0 +
1 = 1

2
3

, f(0) = 0, 2 = 1 , f(1)=  ; 15) 1=1


, f(1) = 2,5, 2 = e ,
f(e)=

e(4  e)
365
| 1,76. 4.55. 1 = 4 , f(4) = 
,
2
3

2 = 2 , f(2)=

67
85
, 3 = 3 , f(3) =
,
3
4

[5;2] = (2) =

365
67
, = (4) =
. 4.56.
3
3

a) min f(x)=f( r1 )=2, max f(x)=f(2)=11; ) min f(x)=f(3)= 


[ 2;1]

[ 1;3]

[ 2;1]

5
,
13

max f ( x ) =f (0)=1; ) min f ( x )=f (4)=41, max f ( x ) =f (1)=40;


[ 1;3]

[ 4;4]

[ 4;4]

) min f(x)=f(0)=10, max f(x)=f(2)=10; ) min f(x)=f(2)=2(1ln2),


[1;e ]

[0;3]

[0;3]

max f(x)=f(1)=1; e) min f(x)=f(1)=0, max f(x)=f(e)=e2; ) min f(x)=


[1;e ]

[1;e ]

=f(0)=1, max f(x)=f(2)=3. 4.60. x=


[ 2;1]

[1;e ]

2 3
2
a, V=
a . 4.61. 3,6 i 4 c.
27
3

4.62. R= 3
564

[ 2;1]

. 4.63.

a
1
=2. 4.65. AP=la ctg D , cos D = .
h
m
4.70. 1) (1;2), f < x < 1 ,
1 < x < f ; 2) (3;294) (2;114),
f < x < 3 2 < x < f , 3 < x < 2
; 3) : f < x < 2
2 < x < f ; 4) (0;2), < 0 ,
30 , 20 . 4.64.

x > 0 . 4.72. 1) =0, +


=2 =2; 2) =1, +
=4; 3) =0, +

=0; 4) = 

2
,
3

1
3
; 5) =6, +
2 4
= 2 11; 6) =0 x o f ;

7) =0, =. 4.74. 1) +
: (f; f) ; +

; max=
( 3;

1
1
= 1, min=  =1;
2
2

3
); =0; 2) : ( f ;1) (1;1) (1; f );
4

; min=1 =0;
; ; = r1 , =0; 3) :
( f ;1) (1;1) (1; f ); +
; ; (0;0);
= r1 , =0; 4) = r1 ;
; max=0 =0, ; < 1 ;
> 1 ; ; = r1 , =1; 5) +
: ( f ,0) (0; f ); min=3 =

1
; ;
2
565

.., ..
3

2
;0); = 0; 6) : ( f ;0) (0; f );
2
; min= 2 = r1 ; +

( 

; ; =0; 7) :
( f ,1) (1; f ); min=1 =0; ; +

1
2

(  ; 

8
); =1, =0; 8) : ( f ,  3 )
9

(  3 ; 3 ) ( 3 ; f );
; max= 4,5 = 3, min= 4,5 = 3; (0;0);
=  3 , = 3 , = ; 9) : ( f ;1) (1; f );

3
; ; (0;0);
2
a = 1; 10) : ( f ;1) (1; f ); max=0 =0,
min=

27
4

43
2
4 = 3 4 ; (  3 2 ;  3 2 ); =1,
3
3
=x; 11) : (f; f) ;
min=

1
27
= r ; ( r1 ;0),
2
8
| 0,7 | r0,26 ; ; 12) : ( f ;1)
; max=0 =0, min= 

(1; f ); max=

2
=5, min=0 =1; +
27

5 r 2 3 ; =1, =0; 13) : (f; f) ; max=


=1, ; (2;
14) : (f; f) ; max=
566

1
e

2
); =0;
e2

4
=2; min=0 =0;
e2

2 r 2 ; =0; 15) : (1, f );


min=0 =0; ; ; +
=1; 16) : (f; f) ; +
; max=
r

1
= r1 ; min=0 =0;
e

5 r 17
; =0; 17) : (f; f) ;
2

; min=0 =0;
; ( r1 ; ln 2); ; 18) :
(f; f) ; max=

27
=3; ; +
e3

0 3 r 3 ; =0; 19) : ( f ;0) (0; f );


; ; =0, =0,
=1; 20) : (0; f ); ;
3

(e 2 ;e 2 +

3 32
e ); =0, =.
2

V.
5.7.

wz
wz
wz
1
wz
1
1
=2x,
=3y2. 5.8.
=
y,
=
x. 5.9. z cx = 2
,
cos (x  y)
wx
wy
wx 2 xy wy 2 xy

z cy =

1
. 5.10. z cx =2x cos( x 2 + y 2) , z cy = 2 y cos( x 2+ y 2 ) .
cos ( x  y)
2

5.11. z cx =

2 x
3x 2  2y
, z cy = 3
. 5.12. z cx =e xy , z cy = e x y .
3
x  2 xy
x  2 xy

5.13. z cx = 2sin(x+y)ln2cos(x+y), z cy = 2sin(x+y)ln2cos(x+y). 5.14. z cx = cos x,

z cy = sin y. 5.15. z cx = 2ycos xy, z cy = 2xcos xy. 5.16. z cx = 3 2xy3sin(x2y3),


567

.., ..

z cy = 3 3x2y2sin(x2y3). 5.17. dz=2xy4dy + 4x2y3dy. 5.18. dz =


+

y
dy. 5.19. dz= ex2ydx 2ex2ydy. 5.20. dz = cos(xy)(ydx+xdy).
x  y2
2

x2
dy. 5.22. dz = (2xy y2)dx + (x2 2xy)dy.
y

5.21. dz = 2xlnydx +

5.23. dz=

1
2 xy

5.25. dz=

5.40.

x
x 2  y2

dx

1
2 xy

dx+

wl

dy. 5.24. dz=

y
x 2  y2

dy. 5.26. dz=

5.47.
5.49.

6
5

wz
wl
wz
wl

(M0) = 0, gradz| M0 = (0;0). 5.48.

wz
wl

wz
wl

(M0) = 0, gradz| M0 = (24;0). 5.46.

x2  y2

wz
wl

(M0) =

wz
wl

(M0) =

dx

y
x 2  y2

dy.

, gradz| M0 = (2;3).

7
2

, gradz| M0 = (4;3).

(M0)= 20, gradz| M0 = (20;12).

(M0) = 12, gradz| M0 = (13;12). 5.54. zmax

5.55. zmax
568

wz
3
(M0) = (3 3 ), gradz| M0 = (9;3). 5.43.
wl
2

(M0)=  , gradz| M0 = (2;0). 5.44.

5.45.

1
1
x
dx
2 dy.
x
x
cos 2 y
cos 2 y
y
y
1

wz
3 1
wz
1 1
( M0) =
, gradz| M0 = ;  . 5.41.
(M0) = 6,
wl
4
wl
2 2

gradz| M0 = (0;12). 5.42.

wz

x
dx+
x 2  y2

z(10;50) 2850 . 5.56. zmax

z(20;30) 500 .

z(40;30) 700 .

5.57. zmax

z(20;50) 800 . 5.58. zmax

z(20;40) 300 .

5.59. zmax

z(10;40) 200 . 5.60. zmax

z(50;20) 900 .

5.61. zmin

z(2;2) 4 ; zmax

z(2;2) 4 . 5.62. zmin

z(1;1)

2.

5.63. zmin z(3 / 2; 3 / 2) 19 / 4 . 5.65. y = 1,525x 0,12.


5.67. y = 2,186x + 2,92. 5.67. = 3,46 + 2,86. 5.68. = 15,93 + 110,57.
5.73. (240;340/3) = 26866,67. 5.74. (10;5) = 475. 5.75. 1) Ex(z) | 0,042;
Ey(z) | 0,958; 2) Ex(z) | 0,911; Ey(z) | 1,821; 3) Ex(z) = 1; Ey( z) = 1;
4) Ex(z) | 0,363; Ey(z) | 0,545. 5.76. x1 = 9994, x2 = 3. 5.78. 25; 50.

VI.
6.14. 

1
2
1
+ C. 6.16. C ln|7 3x|.
3  7x + C. 6.15.
3(7  3 x )
7
3
1
6

6.17. C ln|53x2|. 6.18.

+ C. 6.20.

6.22.

1
7

arcsin

x 7
3

+C. 6.19.

1
2 35

ln

5x 7
5x 7

1
1
x 5
arctg
+ C. 6.21. ln| 3 x  9 x 2  5 | + C.
3
15
3

2x  7
1
1
1
ln
+ C. 6.23.
ln|x 7 +
2 2 + C. 6.24.
12(5  3 x )
4 7 2x  7
7
3

1
1 7 x
. 6.27. C 2cos x .
+ 7 x  4 | + C. 6.25. C e5x. 6.26. C
5
3 ln7
2

4
6
+ 18 6 x + 5ln|x| + C. 6.29.
x
7

6.28. 

6.30.

3
2

x2 +

18
7

x7 +

9
5

x5 +

6
13

x7

4
3

x 3 + C.

x 7 + C. 6.31. ex +

1
+ C.
x
569

.., ..

6.32.

2
ax
2
+
+ C. 6.33. ctg2x tg2x + C. 6.34. 3 3 x +
+ C.
ln a
x
x

6.35.

x 2
3
ln|x24| ln
+ C. 6.36. 1  x 2 + arcsinx + C.
x 2
2

6.37. tg2x ctg2x + C. 6.38.

1
1
1
3 2x
x sin x + C. 6.39. x + sin
+ C.
2
2
3
2
4

6.40. 2arctg x 3arcsin x + C. 6.41.

6.42.
6.45.

3
5

arctg

x
5

ln| x  5  x 2 | + C.

( x  2)2
x2 2 3

+ C.
x + x + C. 6.43. 2cos x + 3 3 x + C. 6.44.
2
2 3
5
x
ln|x2+4| arctg
+ C. 6.46.
2
2

2
x2 1 + ln| x  x 1| + C.

x3
3 3
x 3
6.47. x arctg x + C. 6.48.
+ 3x +
ln
3
2
x 3
6.49.

arctg 2 x
1
+ C. 6.50.
+ 2arctg x + C. 6.56. C
2
2(3  2ln x )

ln | x | 1
1 2x
3
. 6.57. C
e (2x + 1). 6.58.
x
4
4

6.59.

570

x 4 (ln|x|1) + .

1
1
xsin 3x +
cos 3x + C. 6.60. x ctg x + ln |sin x| + C.
3
9

6.61. 4sin
6.63.

+ C.

x
ln2 x
2ln x
2
x
2 x cos
+ C. 6.62. C

.
x
2
x
x
2

x

x
x2
1
cos 4x + sin 4x
cos 4x + C. 6.64. 2 e 2 (x2 + 4x + 8) + C.
8
4
32

6.65.

e3 x
x2
1
1
(9x2 6x + 2) + C. 6.66.
+ x sin2x + cos2x + C.
27
4
4
8

6.67.

x3 1
x3
x2
1
x
ln |1+x|
+

+ C. 6.68. x arctgx ln|1+x2|


3
6
9
2
3

x
1
5x 2 2 2 x
4
arctg2x + C. 6.69. 2
(x
+ 2 ) + C. 6.70. (coslnx+
ln5
2
2
ln 5
ln 5

e3 x
(3sin2x 2cos2x) + C. 6.72. x arctg 4 x  1
+ sinlnx) + C. 6.71.
13

1
16

4 x  1 + C. 6.73.

6.74. x ln|16x2+9| 2x +

+ C. 6.79. 2 x  2 +

+ C. 6.81. x +
+ C. 6.82.

(x 3)3 2
2
2
(ln (x+3)
ln|x+3| +
) + C.
3
3
9

4x
x
1
3
arctg
+ C. 6.75.

tg3x+
2
6cos 3 x
3
18
2

2 arctg

x 2
+ C. 6.80. 2( x ln( 1 x ))+
2

33 x2
66 x5
+
+ 2 x + 3 3 x + 6 6 x + 6ln | 6 x  1 |+
2
5

6 6 5
3
( x + 2 12 x 5 + 2ln | 12 x 5 1) + C. 6.83. (x+1)2/3
5
2

3( x+ 1)1/3 + 3ln|1+ 3 x  1 | + C. 6.84. 2 1  ln x + ln |ln x| +


+2ln| 1  ln x 1| + C. 6.85. 8 3  x +

6.86.
6.87.

6
3 3
(5 x  1)2
5
10
1
4

(1  3 x )2 + +

3
4

5x  1 +
3

1
3

ln

3 x  3
+ C.
3 x  3

1
ln| 3 5 x  1  2 | + C.
12

1  3x +

9
ln | 2 3 1  3 x  3 | + C.
8
571

.., ..

x 4 +

6.88.

6.89.

2ln

2
5

9
4

x 4 +

2  5x + 2 2 ln

27
4

x 4 +

81
ln| 2 6 x  4  3 | + C.
8

2  5x  2
2
+ C. 6.90.
2  5x  2
5

5x  1  1
+ C. 6.91. 2 x 12 3 x + 96 6 x 384ln| 6 x +4| + C.
5x  1  1

6.92. ln |ln x| + C. 6.93. x 2 x + 2ln| x +1| + C. 6.98.


6.99.

5x  1 +

1 x 5
ln
+ C.
3 x 2

1
2x  1
1
1
3x 1
arctg
+ C. 6.100.
arctg
+ C. 6.101. ln|4x2
4
2
2
3 3
3

4x+5| +

1
( x  4)2
2x 1
arctg
+ C. 6.102. ln
+ C. 6.103. arcsin(x 2)+
4
| x 3 |
2

+C. 6.104.

3x 1
1
arcsin
+ C. 6.105. 3 x 2  2 x  2 4ln|x+1+
3
3

+ x 2  2 x  2 | + . 6.106. C
6.110. ln

| x 1 |
2x  1

+ C. 6.111.

3  2x  x 2 4arcsin

x 1
.
2

2
3
1
ln|3x+1| +
ln|2x3| ln|x| + C.
33
11
3

x3
x2
x 2 ( x  2)5
6.112.
+
+ 4x + ln
+ C. 6.113. 2ln|x| + ln|x+2| +
3
2
( x  2)3
+

1
27
10
+ C. 6.114. x2 4x + ln|x+1| + 2ln|x2| +
ln|x+3| + C.
2
2
x 2

6.115.
572

x 3
1
x 2
1
2
+ ln
+ C. 6.116. lnCx(x1) +
. 6.117.
ln

10 3 x  3
x
x 1
x

1
5 2

arctg

x
2

+ C. 6.118. C

2
2
ln|x+1|
ln|x+2|.
x 1
x 2

x 2  6 x  10
x 2
6.119. ln|x1|(x +4x+13) 2arctg
+ C. 6.120. ln
+
| x 1|
3
2

+5arctg(x3) + C. 6.121. ln
6.122. 

6.123.

6.124.

1
x
3
2ln |x3| + ln |x2+2| +
arctg
+ C.
x 3
2
2

11
1
x
1
x2  2
2x 1
ln 2
+
arctg

arctg
+ C.
6 x  x 1
3 2
2
3
3
2
3 x  x 1
1
2x 1
ln
+
arctg
+ arctg x + C.
x2  4
2
3
3

6.125. ln| x 1 |

1
2 3
1
8

x2 1
3
+ 3arctg x
+ C.
2
( x  2)
x 2

ln

x 3
x 3

(cos 4x +

1
2x  1
x 2
+ C. 6.126.
ln
2
( x  1)
2 2
x 2

+ C. 6.127. ln

2
x 2

+ C. 6.135. C
x 1
x 1

1 1
x
1 5
1
cos 8x). 6.136. 3(sin + sin x) + C. 6.137. ( sin 2x
2 2
6 5 6
2

cos 3 x
2sin 3 x
1
sin 8x) + C. 6.138. cos x +
+ C. 6.139. sin x
+
3
3
8
+

sin 5 x
x
1
1
1
+ C. 6.140. x sin
+ C. 6.141. x +
sin 6x + C.
5
2
12
2
2

6.142.

1
tg 3 x
1
x
sin 6x + C. 6.143.
tg x + x + C.
3
2
12
573

.., ..

6.144.

x
x
5 tg  4
2
2 + C. 6.145. arctg
2
+ C.
x
3
3
5  tg
2

5  tg

ln

x
32 3
4
3
2
6.146. 
ln
+ C. 6.147.
x
ln|tg x + 2| +
25
25
2 3 tg x  3  2 3
2
tg

7 tg x  1

2
9
3

ln|cos x| + C. 6.148.
ln
5(tg x  2)
25
2 7

1
tg x
1
ln | 7tg 2x 1 | + C. 6.149.
ln
+ C. 6.150. C
14
18 10 tg x  9

4
1
7
9

ln|2tg x+5|. 6.151.


x +
ln|7+4tg x| +
65
4
65
4(2 tg x  5)

4
ln|cos x| + C. 6.152.
65

6.158.

3
2

10

arctg

7
5 tg x
+
ln|5tg2x+2| + C.
10
2

x 2 + 2 x + 3 3 x + 6 6 x + 6ln| 6 x 1| + C.
6

6.159. 6ln

7 tg x  1

x 1

+ C. 6.160.

4
3

x3

4 4 3
ln| x +1| + C.
3

6.161. 4 4 x + 2ln|1+ x | 4arctg 4 x + C. 6.162. 4 4 x  3 +

+4ln| 4 x  3  1 | + C. 6.163.

574

( 2 x  1)3
1

6
2

2 x  1 + C.

(1  x 2 )3
. 6.165.
3x 3

6.164. C

x
2

x
x2  9
25
+ C. 6.166.
arcsin

9x
2
5

25  x 2 + C. 6.167. ln| 3 x  8 +2| +


3

1
2 3

arctg

x  8 1
3

1 3
2
ln| ( x  8) 2 3 x  8 +4|+
4

. 6.168.

4x

arcsin

x
+ C.
2

x
x
2 + 8arcsin
+ C.
2 16  x
4

6.169.

1
9

6.171.

7
1 ( x 2  36)3
1
+ C. 6.178. 19 . 6.179. 0. 6.180.
.
3
72
x
108
6

9  x2

+ C. 6.170.

6.181. 5( 5 16  1 ). 6.182 . 7
6.185.
6.190.

1
2
1
. 6.183. arctg . 6.184.
ln 2 .
2
3
7

1 5
3S
ln 2
3 3
. 6.186.
+
. 6.187. ln . 6.188. 1. 6.189. 0.
3 4
8
2
3

S
6

. 6.191.

S
6

. 6.192. 2. 6.193. 1. 6.194.

2  1 . 6.195.

6.196.

4
1 4
. 6.197. ln . 6.206. 4. 6.207. 7 + ln4. 6.208. 2 ln2.
3
5 3

6.209.

7
. 6.210. 4 S . 6.211. ln2. 6.212. 1,5(ln41). 6.213. 0.
16

6.214.

S 1
15 ln 2
S2
3
5
1

. 6.215. ln2
. 6.216. ln3 . 6.217. 2 .
256 64
4 2
32
2
e
4

6.218.

3
S2
1
3

.
6.219.
. 6.220.
2
2
8
4
4e

2 3
. 6.221.
3

S
3

575

.., ..

6.222. ln2 1. 6.226. 5

3
2
(..). 6.230. 24 (..). 6.231. 10 (..). 6.232. (4
8
3

6.229. 30

ln27) (..). 6.233.


6.236. 21
6.239. 10

+ ln

2
5
(..). 6.227. 4,5 (..). 6.228. 4 (..).
3
24

112
5
(..). 6.235. 9 (..).
7 (..). 6.234. 5
24
9

2
1
1
(..). 6.237. 2( S  ) (..). 6.238.
(..).
3
8
3

3 1
1
2
(..). 6.240.
(..). 6.244. + ln2 (.). 6.245. 1+
4 2
3
3

3
1 9
2
(.). 6.246. 3 + ln (.). 6.247.
2
2 5
3

6.249. 8 (.). 6.250. 15 (.). 6.251.

2 (.). 6.248.

S3
3

1
ln3 (.).
2

(.). 6.252. 48 (.).

6.253. 2 3 (.). 6.258. S 2 (.). 6.259. 19,2S (.).


6.260.
6.263.
6.266.

(.). 6.261.

14
16
S (.). 6.262.
S (.).
3
15

S
2S
8
S (.). 6.264.
(.). 6.265.
(.).
5
3
3
S
2

(e4 + e4 2) (.). 6.267.

6.275. 61;

2S
5
(.). 6.274. 17;
.
3
3

91  1
3 17
17
. 6.276. ln
+ 5. 6.277. ln
+ 4. 6.287. 220.
3
4 13
14

6.279. 910. 6.280. 348,88. 6.281. 800. 6.282. a) 4,8%;

19
; ) 4,96%; 0,313.
60

6.283. 1,5. 6.284. a) P1 = 61,47; P2 = 66,42; ;


576

) P1 = 5,976; P2 = 7,535; . 6.286. +


1,97512; 2,02018; 1,98558.
6.287. M 0,915728; 0,915985. 6.288. 0,746825.
6.294. a)

2
1
3
1
1
; )
; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) S ; ) 1; ) 4 125 ;
3
2
2
ln 2
2

) 1; ) 6 3 2 . 6.298. a) 1; ) (e 1)2; )
6.301. 4

S
12

. 6.299.

121
13
. 6.300. 13 .
486
15

1
1
5
1
1
. 6.302. a) 6 4ln2 | 3,28; ) 20 ; )
; ) 13 ;
3
2
6
3
e

2  1 ; ) 5.

VI.
7.4. x2(1 + y) = C. 7.5. x2 + y2 = lnCx2. 7.6. y = Csin x a. 7.7. Cx =
7.8. 1  x 2  1  y 2

C . 7.9. y2 1 = 2ln

7.11. 10x + 10y = C. 7.12. y =

ex 1
. 7.10. 1 + y2 = C(1 x2).
e 1

C
ex 1
. 7.13. y = x. 7.14. y2 1 = 2ln
.
e 1
x

7.15. 1 + y2 = 2(1x2). 7.16. 10x + 10y = 11. 7.17. y = e


7.19. y = x. 7.23. arctg

y 1
.
y

x 2

. 7.18. y = 2x.

y
2
2
= ln(C x  y ). 7.24. ylny + x = Cy.
x

7.25. y = xtgCx. 7.26. 2Cy = C2x2 + 1. 7.27. y = xe1+Cx. 7.28. y 2x = Cx2(y+x).


y

7.29. x2 + y2 = Cy. 7.30. y2 = x2(2ln|Cx|). 7.31. x2 = C2 + 2Cy. 7.32. e x = Cy.

x2
) . 7.38. y = Cx2 e x +
2
2
+ x2. 7.39. y = (x + C)(1 + x2). 7.40. y = Cx2 + x4. 7.41. y = (2x + 1)(C+
7.33. y = x(2arctgCx +

 kS ), kZ. 7.37. y = e  x (c 
2

577

.., ..

+ ln|2x+1|) + 1. 7.42. y = sin x + Ccos x. 7.43. y = ex(ln|x| + C).


7.44. xy = C ln|x|. 7.45. y = x(C + sin x). 7.46. y = Cln2x lnx.
7.52. y = e2x(C1cos x + C2sin x). 7.53. e = C1cos2x + C2sin2x. 7.54. y =
=C1ex + C2e3x +

1 4x
e . 7.54. y = C1ex + C2ex + xex. 7.55. y = C1ex + C2ex+
5
x

+ x2 + 2. 7.56. y = C1e2x + C2 e 2 . 7.57. y = ex(C1 + C2x). 7.58. = C1 +


+C2e5x 0,2x3 0,12x2 0,048x. 7.59. = C1ex + C2e4x

x 4x
e . 7.60. y=
5

x 1 x
t
5t
t
5t
= C1ex + C2e4x 
e . 7.64. = 1 + C2e , y = 1 + 3C2e .
6 36
7.65. x = C1et + C2e3t, y = 2C1et 2C2e3t. 7.66. = 213t 4C2e3t, y =
=13t + C2 e3t. 7.67. x = e2t(C1cos t + C2sin t), y = e2t((C1 + C2)cos t +
+(C1 C2)sin t). 7.68. x = et(C1cos 3t + C2sin 3t), y = et(C1cos 3t C2sin 3t).
7.69. x = (2C2 C1)cos 2t (2C1 + 2)sin 2t, y = C1cos 2t + C2sin 2t.
7.70. x = (C1 + C2t)e3t, y = (C1 + C2 + C2t)e3t. 7.71. x = (C1 + C2t)et, y =
=(2C1 C2 + 2C2t)et. 7.72. x = (C1 + 2C2t)et, y = (C1 + C2 + 2C2t)et.
7.73. x = (C1 + 3C2t)e2t, y = (C2 C1 3C2t)e2t. 7.88. x =

N
.
1  (J  1)e  Nkt

x2
1
1 4x
x2
1
7.89. y = x +

e . 7.90. y = 50000x
. 7.91. V(x)=
+
2
4
16 16
2
+ 100x + 25000. 7.92. y = xa.

V.
8.5. a) S=

3
1
1 3
1
1
1
; Sn= (
); ) Sn= ( 1 
); S= . 8.6. a)
4
2
2n  1
2 2 n2
2

; ) ; ) ; ) ;
) . 8.17. ) ; ) ; ) ;
) ; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) . 8.18.
) ; ) ; ) ; ) . 8.19. ) ;
578

) ; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) .
8.21. ) ; ) ; ) +
; ) ; ) . 8.25.
) ( 

1 1
; ); ) [10;10); ) . +
10 10

= 0; ) ( 
8.30. 1 +

x
x n1
+ ... +
+ ...; (f; f) . 8.31.
2!
n!
f

(f; f) 8.32.

+ (1)n+1

+ x3

1 1
2 2
;
); ) [ ; ]; ) (f; f) .
e e
2 2

(1)
n 1

n1

(1)
n 0

x 2 n1
;
22 n1(2n  1)!

x7
x5
22 n1 x 2 n
; (f; f) . 8.33. 3
+
++
2
3
(2n)!

1
x 2 n1
; (1;1). 8.34.
3
n

((1)

n1

2n  1)

n 1

xn
1
= x x2 +
n
2

x2
1
5 4
1
1 x4
x +
< x <
. 8.35. 1 + (

+ +
2
2
4
2
2 4

1
1 3 ... (2n  3) x 2 n
+ (1)n+1
+). 8.36. 2 2(
2 4 ... (2n  2)2n
3
+ + (1)

n+1

2 5 ... (3n  4) x
2
3n n !

) 0,098; ) 0,310; )0,245. 8.50. 2=

2
x
2
36

x
2 +

3n

S2
3

+ ), (1<x<1). 8.41. a) 40,87;

4(

cos 3 x
cos 2 x
cos x

2
2
32
2
1

cos 4 x
S x S
+ ...). 8.51.
= (sin x sin2x + sin3x sin4x + )
2
4
2
2
sin 3 x
sin 5 x
sin(2n  1) x
3 2 sin x
(
+
+
++
+ )
5
2n  1
3
1
2 S

8.52. f(x)= +

579

.., ..

x
S
sin 3 x
sin x
sin 2 x
S
=

1
2
2
2
3
2

8.53.

8.54. 2x 3 = 3 +

6 sin 3 x

S 1

12

sin S x
+
3

sin nx
.
n
n 1

1
(1)n1
S nx
sin
. 8.55. f ( x ) =
2
n
3
1

sin
+

5S
x
3
5

+ . 8.56. |x| 1=

S
S

S
sin x
sin 3 x
sin 5 x

1
8
2
2
3
= 2
+
+
+ . 8.57. f(x) =
+
2
2
2
2
3
5
S 1

(1)n  1
S nx 2
+ 2
cos

2
S n1 n
2
S
f

Sx

cos
S nx 1 4
(1)n
2 +
sin
= 2

2
n
S
2
2
1
n 1

5S x
3S x
Sx

2S x
3S x
cos
sin
cos
2 sin
...
2
2 +
2
2 +
2
+ +
S 1
52
32
2
3

cos
+

cos

4S x

2 + ... .
4

580


1. : : 2+ . / ..,
..: .: , 2001, 2003.
2. . / .., ..,
.., .., .: , , 1997.
3. . . / .., ..,
.. . : , 1993.
4. : . / ..+
, ..: .: , 1997.
5. . : . /
.., ... .: , 1999.
6. . / ... : +
, 1998.
7. . / ..+
.: 4+ . .: , 1962.
8. . / ..,
.., .: , 1988.
9. . . .
. / .., .. +
. .: , 1985.
10. ., ..+
, .: , 1985.
11. . / .., .., .: +
, 1993.
12. . / +
../, .: , 1978.
13. . /
... .: , 1966.
14. , IV. /
... .: , 1972.
15. . , .
... .: , 1998.
16. . / ...
.: , 1975.
581

.., ..

17. . / .
.: , 1975.
18. . . 1. +
. / . ..,
... : , 1986.
19. . / .., ...
.: +, 1998.
20. . /
.., ... .: , 1972.

582

........................................................................................ 3
. ................................................... 5
1.1. , ....................................................................... 5
1.1.1. ........................................................................... 5
1.1.2. ........................................................ 7
1.1.3. ............................................ 10
1.2. ................................................................................................. 13
1.2.1. ......................................................................... 13
1.2.2. ...................................................................... 15
1.2.3. .......................................... 18
1.3. ............................................ 19
1.3.1. ......................................................................... 19
1.3.2. .......................................... 22
1.4. .................................................................................... 24
1.4.1. ......................................................................... 24
1.4.2. ...................................................................... 24
1.4.3. .......................................... 28
1.5. ....................................................................... 30
1.5.1. n n ................................. 30
1.5.2. ...................................................................... 33
1.5.3. .......................................... 41
1.5.4. m n ................................ 42
1.5.5. ...................................................................... 43
1.5.6. . .................................................. 48
1.6. ........................................................................................................ 50
1.6.1. ......................................................................... 50
1.6.2. ...................................................................... 55
1.6.3. ................................................... 56
1.7. ............................................................... 58
1.6.1. ......................................................................... 58
1.7.2. ...................................................................... 58
1.7.3. ................................................... 62
1.8. ................................................................................... 63
1.6.1. ......................................................................... 63
1.8.2. ...................................................................... 64
1.8.3. ............................................ 65

583

.., ..

1.9.
.............................................................................................................. 66
1.9.1. ...................................................................... 66
1.9.2. .............................................................. 73
1.9.3. ...................... 75
1.9.4. ................................................... 77
. ......................................................... 79
2.1. . .......................... 79
2.1.1. ........................................................... 81
2.1.2. ........................................... 81
2.1.3. ............................................................................ 82
2.1.4. ........................................................... 82
2.1.5. ................................................. 87
2.2. ........................................................................... 88
2.2.1. ........................................................... 92
2.2.2. ............................................... 107
2.3. .................................................................. 109
2.3.1. .................................................................................................... 109
2.3.2. ................................................................................................... 109
2.3.3. ........................................................................................... 110
2.3.4. ............................................................................................ 112
2.3.5. ......................................................... 114
2.3.6. ............................................... 121
2.4. ................................................................... 124
2.4.1. ......................................................... 124
2.4.2. ............................................... 129
2.5. .............................................................. 131
2.5.1. ............................................................................................ 131
2.5.1.1. .................................................. 131
2.5.1.2. .............................................. 132
2.5.1.3. , .... 132
2.5.1.4. , ... 133
2.5.1.5. .................................................... 133
2.5.1.5. ...................................... 133
2.5.2. ................................................................... 134
2.5.2.1. ...................................................... 134
2.5.2.2. ................................ 134
2.5.2.3. ..................................................... 135
2.5.2.4. ............................................. 135
2.5.2.5. , ... 135

584

2.5.2.6. ......................................................... 136


2.5.3. .............................................................................. 136
2.5.3.1. .............................................. 136
2.5.3.2. ....................................... 137
2.5.3.3. ...................................... 137
2.5.3.4. ................. 137
2.5.4. .......................................................... 138
2.5.5. . .............................................. 146
2.6. ................................................... 148
2.6.1. . ......................................................... 151
2.6.2. ............................................... 154
2.7. .................................................................... 155
2.7.1. ........................................................................ 155
2.7.2. ..................................................................... 155
2.7.3. ............................................................ 156
2.7.4. .............................................................................................. 156
2.7.5. ..................................................................................... 157
2.7.6. ...................................................................................... 157
2.7.7. .............................................................................. 158
2.7.7. ........................................................................ 158
2.7.8. .......................................................... 159
. ....................................... 162
3.1. . . .
. ................. 162
3.1.1. ........................................................................... 162
3.1.2. ................................................................. 163
3.1.3. ..................................................... 164
3.1.4. .................................................................... 165
3.1.5. ............................................... 166
3.1.6. ............................................................................ 166
3.1.6.1. ................................................. 167
3.1.6.2. ........................... 168
3.1.6.3. .................. 169
3.1.6.4. ...................... 170
3.1.6.5. ........................... 171
3.1.7. ........................................ 172
3.2. . .
. ,
................................................................... 174
3.2.1. ............................................................... 174

585

.., ..

3.2.2. .............................................................................. 174


3.2.3. ........................................................................ 175
3.2.4. , ........................................................... 176
3.2.5. () ........................................ 177
3.2.6. ........................................................ 177
3.2.7. ....................................................................... 185
3.2.8. ......................................................... 186
3.2.9. ,
............................................................ 187
3.2.10. .................................................................. 189
3.2.11. ......................................................... 190
3.2.12. .................................................................. 192
3.2.13. .................................. 197
3.3. . .
.................................................................. 199
3.3.1. ................................................................... 199
3.3.2. .................................................................... 199
3.3.3. .......... 201
3.3.4. .............................. 201
3.3.5. .................................................................... 202
3.3.6. ........................................ 206
3.4. . . .
. ......................................................... 207
3.4.1. ........................................................... 207
3.4.2. ............................................................... 207
3.4.3. ........................................................ 209
3.4.4. .................................................... 209
3.4.5. .................................................................... 210
3.4.6. ........................................ 222
3.5. . .
. .................................................................................... 225
3.5.1. .................................................................... 226
3.5.2. ........................................ 230
3.6. ,
( ) ......................................................... 231
3.6.1. ............................................................................. 231
3.6.2. ...................................................... 231
3.6.3. ........................................................... 232
3.6.4. ......................................................... 233
3.6.5. , ............... 234
3.6.6. ................................................................................. 235
3.6.7. ......................................................... 236
586

V. .................. 238
4.1. .
. .
.......................................... 238
4.1.1. ......................................................................... 238
4.1.2. ...................... 240
4.1.3. ................................................. 250
4.1.4. ........................................... 251
4.2. . .
, .
......................................................................... 253
4.2.1. ................................................................ 253
4.2.2. ................................................... 254
4.2.3. ................................................................. 256
4.2.4. ........................................ 257
4.3. . .................................... 259
............................................... 259
4.3.1. .
......................................................... 260
4.3.2. ....................................................... 261
4.3.3. ............................................... 265
4.4. .
................................................................................................... 266
4.4.1. ...................................................................... 266
4.4.2. ......................................... 266
4.4.3. ............ 267
4.4.4. ............ 267
4.4.5. . .... 267
4.4.6. .................................................................... 268
4.4.7. ........................................ 269
4.5.
..................................................................................................... 270

0
0

f
.................................................................... 270
f

4.5.1.

4.5.2. 0 f f  f ................................................................. 272


4.5.3. 1f , f0 00 ........................................................................................................................................... 273
4.5.4. ........................................ 275
4.6. ............................ 276
4.6.1. ( ) ............... 276
587

.., ..

4.6.2. ............................................................................ 277


4.6.3. ......... 278
4.6.4.
.............................................................................................. 279
4.7. . ........................................ 282
4.7.1. ................................................... 282
4.7.2. ..................................................................................... 283
4.7.3. ................ 285
4.7.4. ............................................................................ 288
4.7.5. ............................................... 296
4.8. .................................. 298
4.8.1. . ................................................... 298
4.8.2. .
..................................... 300
4.8.3. ............................................... 308
4.8.4. ............. 310
4.8.5. ............................................... 313
4.8.6. .. 314
4.8.7. ............................................... 316
4.8.8. ..................................................... 317
4.8.9. ............................................... 320
4.8.10. ....................................................................................... 320
4.8.11. ............................................. 323
4.8.12. ... 324
4.8.13. ............................................. 344
V. ........... 345
5.1. ...................................................................................... 345
5.1.1. .................................................................... 345
5.1.2. .................................... 348
5.1.3. ........................................... 352
5.2. ......................................................... 353
5.2.1. .................................................................... 354
5.2.2. . ............................................... 357
5.3. ................................................................. 358
5.3.1. .................................................................... 358
5.3.2. ........................................... 359
5.4. ,
..................................................................................... 361
5.4.1. .................................................................... 362
5.4.2. ............................................... 366

588

VI. ...................................................... 368


6.1. . .
.................................................................................................. 368
6.1.1. .................................................... 369
6.2. ............................................................................. 371
6.2.1. . .... 371
6.2.2. ................................................... 373
6.2.2.1. ............................................................ 373
6.2.2.2. ............................ 375
6.2.3. .................................................... 377
6.2.3.1. ............................................................ 377
6.2.3.2. ................................. 381
6.2.4. ( ) ................................ 382
6.2.4.1. ............................................................ 383
6.2.4.2. ................................. 384
6.2.5. ,
......................................................................... 385
6.2.5.1. ............................................................ 386
6.2.5.2. ................................. 388
6.3. . ... 389
6.3.1. .................................................................... 392
6.3.2. ........................................ 398
6.4. .......................................... 400

6.4.1. sin kx cos lxdx ; cos kx cos lxdx ;

sin kx sin lxdx

......................................................................... 400

6.4.1.1. ............................................................ 400


6.4.2. R(sin x , cos x )dx ...................................... 401

6.4.2.1. ............................................................ 401

6.4.3. sin m xcos n xdx ............................................. 402


6.4.3.1. ............................................................ 403
6.4.4. R(sin 2 x ,cos 2 x )dx .................................... 404

6.4.4.1. ............................................................ 404

6.4.5. R(tg,ctg x )dx ............................................ 405

6.4.5.1. ............................................................ 405


6.4.6. ........................................ 406
589

.., ..

6.5. , ........................ 407


m

6.5.1. R( x , x n ,..., x 5 )dx ...................................... 407

6.5.1.1. ............................................................ 407


m
r

n
s
ax
b
ax
b



,...,
6.5.2. R x ,

cx  d
cx  d

dx ...... 408

6.5.2.1. ............................................................ 409


6.5.3. , ..... 409
6.5.3.1. ............................................................ 409
6.5.4. ........................................ 411
6.6. . .
+ ................................................................ 412
6.6.1. ...................... 412
6.6.2. .................................................................... 414
6.6.3. .................................... 416
6.7.
.................................................................................................... 418
6.7.1. .................................................................... 418
6.7.2. ........................................ 424
6.8. .......................... 425
6.8.1. .................................................. 425
6.8.1.1. .................................................. 426
6.8.1.2. ....................................... 428
6.8.2. ............................................... 428
6.8.2.1. .................................................. 429
6.8.2.2. ....................................... 430
6.8.3. ................................................ 432
6.8.3.1. .............................................. 433
6.8.3.2. ....................................... 435
6.9. ,
.................................................................................................. 437
6.9.1. ................................. 437
6.9.2. .................... 438
6.9.3. ,
................................................................................................ 439
6.9.4. ........ 440
6.9.5. .... 442
6.9.6. .................................................. 444
590

6.9.7. ............................................... 446


6.10. .............................. 448
6.10.1. ............................................................. 448
6.10.2. ......................................................................... 449
6.10.3. ( ) .................................... 450
6.10.4. .................................................................. 450
6.10.5. .................................. 452
6.11. . + ............................. 453
6.11.1. ................................... 453
6.11.2. ............................................ 453
6.11.3. ...................................... 457
6.12. ....................................................... 458
6.12.1. ............................................. 458
6.12.2. ....................................................... 460
6.12.3. ............................................. 466
VI. .................................................. 468
7.1. ............................................... 469
7.1.1. .................................................................... 469
7.1.2. ........................................ 471
7.2. ...................................................... 472
7.2.1. .................................................................... 472
7.2.2. ............................................... 474
7.3. ...................... 475
7.3.1. .......................................................... 476
7.3.2. ........................................... 477
7.4.
.......................................................................................... 479
7.4.1. .................................................................... 480
7.4.2. ........................................ 483
7.5.
.......................................................................................... 484
7.5.1. .................................................................... 484
7.5.2. ........................................ 488
7.6. , ......... 490
7.6.1. ........................................... 494
V. ........................................................................... 495
8.1. . . .
. . .
..................................................................................... 495

591

.., ..

8.1.1. ................................................................ 499


8.1.2. .................................... 501
8.2. .................................. 503
8.2.1. ......................................................................... 503
8.2.2. ()......................................................... 505
8.2.3. (). ............................................. 507
8.2.4. .................................... 507
8.2.5. .................................................................... 508
8.2.6. ........................................ 512
8.3. . ......................... 513
8.3.1. .................................................................... 516
8.3.2. ........................................ 519
8.4. . . .
................................................................... 520
8.4.1. .................................................................... 521
8.4.2. ........................................ 524
8.5. ................................. 525
8.5.1. ................................................. 525
8.5.2. ............................................... 526
8.5.3. .................................................................... 530
8.5.4. ........................................ 533
8.6. ................................. 534
8.6.1. .................................................................... 534
8.6.2. ........................................ 538
8.7. ................................................................................................ 539
8.7.1. 2S ........................... 539
8.7.2. .................................................................... 541
8.7.3. , ............ 546
8.7.4. .................................................................... 546
8.7.5. 2l ................................. 549
8.7.6. .................................................................... 550
8.7.7. ........................................ 552
........................................................ 554
...................................................... 581

592

.., ..




2


..
..
..
. .
07.05.2009. 60x84 1/16.
. PetersburgC.
. . . 37,5.
1000 .
" "
. , 23
. , 04176
./ 425+01+34, . 451+65+95, 425+04+47, 425+20+63
8+800+501+68+00 ( )
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594