2.6K views

Uploaded by Dex JH

qwrqwfgswaqsd

- Marcet Boiler Lab Report
- Boiler Experiment Report
- Determination of Dryness Fraction of Steam
- Steam Turbine and Condenser Lab Report Full
- BENDING MOMENT IN A BEAM
- Two-stage Air Compressor Lab Report
- Hw1.Sol.fall.2015
- Lab Report
- Refrigeration System.pdf
- CHAPTER3 Statistic
- Thin Cylinder [Sec 2-Group 6]
- Dryness Fraction of Steam Lab
- Heat Pump
- Heat Pump Lab Report.pdf
- BUCKLING OF STRUTS
- Flow Measuring Apparatus
- Deflection of Curved Bars
- Air Compressor
- Torsion Test
- Energy Losses in Bends

You are on page 1of 76

LABORATORY

LABORATORY INSTRUCTION SHEETS

COURSE CODE

BNQ 20104

EXPERIMENT NO.

EXPERIMENT 4

EXPERIMENT TITLE

DATE

GROUP NO.

1) DR. NADIRUL HASRAF BIN MAT NAYAN

LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/ TUTOR

LABORATORY REPORT

EXAMINER COMMENTS:

ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION/DISPLINE

/5%

INTRODUCTION:

/5%

PROCEDURE:

/5%

/15%

ANALYSIS

DISCUSSIONS:

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS:

CONCLUSION:

/15%

/20%

/15%

/10%

/5%

REFERENCES:

/5%

TOTAL:

/100%

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

I hereby declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also admit to

not accept or provide any assistance in preparing this report and anything that is in

it is true.

1) Group Leader

Name

:

Matrix No.

:

__________________________________________(Signature)

_____Yeu Ho Kiet__________________

_____AN140177___________________

2) Group Member 1

Name

:

Matrix No

:

__________________________________________(Signature)

____Kogulan a/l Subramaniam_____

____DN140115_____________________

3) Group Member 2

Name

:

Matrix No.

:

__________________________________________(Signature)

_____Jaayshini a/p Murugiah_____

_____AN140023___________________

1.0

OBJECTIVES

a)

At the end of this experiment students are able to:

b) Implement and analyse the required data collectively within member of group.

c) Produce good technical report according to the required standard.

3.0 INTRODUCTION

3.1 Dryness Fraction

The dryness fraction is defined as the quantity of dry vapour present in any

wet vapour mixture.

3.2

Separating Calorimeter

This is mechanical process where the incoming steam to the calorimeter is

made through a series of obtuse angle the inertia of the water droplets causes

them to separate from steam flow. If

Ws = quantity of water separated in the calorimeter in the same time

interval;

3.3

Throttling calorimeter

Consider a fluid flowing through a throttling orifice from higher pressure P 1 to

a lower pressure P2. From the steady flow energy equation, it can be shown

that adiabatic throttling is a constant enthalpy process. The wet steam before

the throttling will become superheated steam at the lower pressure after

throttling.

Where,

corresponding to pressure P1

= specific enthalpy of vaporisation (latent heat) corresponding to

pressure P1

Where,

P2

= specific heat at constant pressure

= saturated steam temperature corresponding to pressure P 2

Since H1 = H2,

3.4

If w = quantity of water in steam leaving the separating calorimeter and

entering the throttling calorimeter, then by definition of dryness fraction

But the separating calorimeter has already removed WS water, therefore total

quantity of water is (WS + w) in wet steam (WS + Wt)

Applying this to the definition of dryness fraction

But w = Wt (1 Xt)

Therefore:

True dryness fraction,

X = XS x Xt

(3)

4.0

INSTRUMENTS /APPARATUS

5.0 PROCEDURE

1.

2.

Condensate collecting vessel is placed under the condenser

outlet.

3.

manometer.

4.

through the condenser is sufficient to condense all the steam.

5.

opened.

6.

separating calorimeter until liquid can been in the calorimeter condensate

level tube.

7.

8.

condenser outlet.

9.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

Initial value of fluid level in the separating calorimeter.

Initial value of condense level in the main condensate-collecting vessel.

The steam pressure in the steam main.

The steam pressure after throttling.

Steam main steam temperature.

Temperature in the throttling calorimeter.

Barometric pressure.

The value from (c) to (f) parameter values should be checked about six times

during the course of measurement.

10.

water is turned off.

11.

12.

6.1

Results.

Table 5.1 Observed readings

Parameters

Barometric pressure,

bar.abs

Separator: Steam

pressure, bar.abs

Average

1.013

1.013

1.013

1.013

3.513

4.513

5.013

4.346

mm.Hg, bar abs

Trottle: Difference in

mercury level due to

water, mm.Hg

Separator: Steam

temperature, oC

1.0197

1.0197

1.0183

1.019

4.667

144

152

154

150

Throttle: Steam

temperature, oC

Separator: Amount of

collected water, mL

Throttle : Amount of

condensed water, mL

108

114

110

110.67

10

20

20

16.67

225

200

225

216.67

Parameters

Throttle: Specific heat at constant pressure, kJ/kgK

Separator: Steam pressure, bar.abs

Throttle: Steam pressure, bar.abs

Separator: Saturated liquid enthalpy, kJ/kg

Separator: Latent heat, kJ/kg

Throttle: Vapour Enthalpy, kJ/kg

Throttle: Saturated steam temperature, oC

Separator: Dryness fraction of steam, XS

Average

1.907

4.346

1.0192

617.45

2124.33

2675.83

100.12

0.9286

Steam Line: Dryness fraction, X

Sample calculation:

Average barometric pressure = 1.013 x 3/3

= 1.013 bar abs

Separator:

0.9784

0.9085

= 4.346 bar abs

= 434.6 kPa

Average steam temperature = (144+152+154)/3

= 150 C

Average amount of collected water, Ws = (10+ 20+ 20)/3

= 16.67 mL

Saturated liquid enthalpy = (623.14-604.66)(434.6-400)/(450-400) + 604.66

= 617.45 kJ/kg

Latent heat = (2120.3- 2133.4) (434.6-400)/ (450-400) + 2133.4

= 2124.33 kJ/kg

Xs = 216.67/ (216.67+16.67)

= 0.9286

Throttle:

Average difference in mercury level due to water = (5+5+4)/3

= 4.667 mm Hg

= 0.6227 kPa

= 0.006227 bar + 1.013 bar

= 1.019 bar abs

= 101.9 kPa

Average steam temperature = (108+114+110)/3

= 110.67 C +273.15

= 383.82 K

Average amount of condensed water, Wt = (225+200+225)/3

= 216.67 mL

From property table, using interpolation, P= 101.9 kPa, T = 383.82K:

Specific heat at constant pressure

(-3.595 x 10-9 x 383.823)

= 32.24+0.73809+1.5542-0.20327

= 34.33017 kJ/kmolK

= 34.33017 kJ/kmolK

18 kg/kmol

= 1.907 kJ/kgK

Vapour enthalpy = (2684.9-2675.6)(101.9-101.325)/(125-101.325) + 2675.6

= 2675.83 kJ/kg

Saturated steam temperature = (105.97-99.97)(101.9-101.325)/(125-101.325) +

99.97

= 100.12 C

= 0.9784

X = Xs x Xt

= 0.9286 x 0.9784

= 0.9085

7.0 ANALYSIS

pressure; bar.abs is 4.013, the average value of separator: steam pressure, bar.abs is

4.346, the average value of throttle: steam pressure, bar.abs is 1.019, the average

value of throttle: difference in mercury level due to water, mm.Hg is 4.667, the average

value of separator: steam temperature, C is 150, the average value of of throttle:

steam temperature, C is 110.67, the average value of separator: amount of collected

water, mL is 16.67 and the average value of throttle: amount of collected water, mL is

216.67.

Based on the results obtained, the average values of throttle: specific heat at

constant pressure, 1.907 kJ/kgK, separator: steam pressure, 4.346 bar.abs, throttle:

steam pressure 1.019 bar.abs, separator: saturated liquid enthalpy, 617.46 kJ/kgK,

separator: latent heat, 2124.33 kJ/kgK, throttle: vapor enthalpy, 2675.83 kJ/kgK,

throttle: saturated steam temperature, 100.12 C, separator: dryness fraction of steam,

Xs, 0.9286, throttle: dryness fraction of steam, Xf 0.9784 and steam line: dryness

fraction, X 0.9085 were calculated.

From the experiment, we can see that the dryness fraction for separating

calorimeter is lower than throttling calorimeter because in separating calorimeter the

steam is wetter. Temperature of in throttling calorimeter is higher than its saturated

steam temperature because it is already in superheated state.

8.0 DISCUSSIONS

Using the readings that were recorded in the lab the dryness fraction of the steam

could be found, using the theoretical equations. From the results obtained the dryness

fraction is 0.9286 at xs and 0.9784 at xt. The combined separating and throttling

calorimeter was found by using equation 7 where both xs and xt were multiplied to get

0.9085. Based on the results of the readings we obtained when conducting the

experiment in the lab, it can be said that using the readings that were recorded in the

lab, the dryness fraction of the steam could be found in regards with the use of the

theoretical equations from the thermodynamics textbook. From the results obtained,

the dryness fraction is 0.9286 at xs this showed us that at that point in time the

steam is 93% dry and 7% wet. We got 0.9784 at x1 so that showed us that the steam

is near to superheated because its value near to 1 at that point so the combined

separating and throttling calorimeters dryness faction was found by using the

equation where both xs and xt were multiplied to get the value of 0.9085. This shows

that the state of the steam is still wet because the value of the dryness fraction of

steam is less than 1. If the steam whose dryness fraction is to be determined is very

wet then throttling to atmospheric pressure is not sufficient to ensure superheated

steam at exit. In this case it is necessary to dry the steam partially, before throttling.

This is done by passing the part of steam from the steam main through separating

calorimeter as shown in figure. The steam is made to change direction suddenly, and

the water, being denser than the dry steam is separated out is measured at the

separator, the steam remaining, which now has dryness fraction, is passed through

the throttling calorimeter.

With the combined separating and throttling calorimeter it is necessary to condense

the steam after throttling and measure the amount of condensate (Ms).

It was observed that with increasing the boiler steam pressure there is increase in

steam temperature and when the part of the steam enters into the separating

calorimeter steam pressure before throttling is higher than steam pressure after

throttling. It is also observed that steam pressure decreases after throttling.

Corresponds to the steam pressure after throttling, from steam table it was noted that

steam temperature measured is greater than the saturation temperature. Therefore the

steam becomes superheated steam. From the measured values the various parameters

like dryness fraction of steam, enthalpy of superheated steam, equivalent evaporation

and factor of evaporation and boiler efficiency calculated. Steam calorimeters are

commonly used in process industries, power plants and other industries to determine

the quality of steam. Steam quality is a very critical parameter in steam applications

as the performance of steam processes depends on it. Conventionally, separating or

throttling or combined separating and throttling calorimeters are being used for this

purpose. An electrical calorimeter is a concept not well covered in literature, though it

has wide range of application and scope with accuracy and this may offset the

limitations of the conventionally used calorimeters. It is found that the proposed

concept can be applied conveniently to find the dryness fraction and can be validated

experimentally. In the present experimental work, therefore, electrical energy is used

to find dryness fraction of steam. The design of the system is based on fundamental

principles of thermodynamics. Mainly, steady flow energy equation has been applied to

derive the desired results. As per the requirements, specifications of various

components like steam generator, super heater, etc., have been decided. In the process,

electrical energy is used to make dry saturate from the wet steam in a controlled

manner, and steam parameters are recorded along with the heat supplied to the wet

steam. The key feature of the system is easiness of use without compromising the

accuracy. It is also found that this system can be used for a wide range of the dryness

fraction unlike conventional methods, which give results in a narrow range.

1. What is the steam dryness fraction?

suspension. The dryness fraction of steam is defined as the ratio of mass

of dry saturated steam to the total mass of wet steam containing it. It is

represented by x. Dryness fraction, x = mass of dry steam/ total mass of

wet steam.

2202.09 kJ. Determine the dryness fraction of the steam.

From steam table, P=1400 kPa

hf = 829.96 kJ/kg

hfg = 1958.9 kJ/kg

X = dryness fraction

Actual total enthalpy =hf + hfg (X)

2202.09 kJ = 829.96 kJ/kg+1958.9 kJ/kg (X)

X = 0.70046

3. A calorimeter with heat capacity equivalent to having 13.3 moles

of water is used to measure the heat of combustion from 0.303 g

of sugar (C12H22O11). The temperature increase was found to be

5.0 K. Calculate the heat released, the amount of heat released by

1.0 g, and 1.0 mole of sugar.

Heat released under constant volume, qv

qv = C x dT,

= 13.3 mol x 75.2 J/(K mol) x 5.0 K

= 5000 J

The amount of heat released by 1.0 g

= 5000 J/0.303 g = 16.5 kJ / g

Since the molecular weight of sugar is 342.3 g/mol,

= 16.5 kJ / g x 342.3 g/mol = 5648 kJ/mol.

10.0 CONCLUSION

It can be concluded that the experiment was successful and the dryness fraction

of the steam was found using the readings found to be 0.9085 which then

showed us that the steam state is considered wet and the experiment also

showed that the theory is proven on counting the dryness fraction of the steam.

Performance analysis on separating & throttling calorimeter was carried out. The

following parameters were measured: Steam Temperature, Steam Pressure,

Exhaust Gas Temperature, Fuel Pressure, and Water Temperature after

Economizer at various conditions. Dryness fraction of steam was calculated. The

following conclusions were drawn under various parameters like boiler steam

pressure after throttling; steam temperature after throttling; steam flow rate

measured. Water particles from wet steam can fully seperated , thus resulting in

precise value. The actual Dryness fraction of steam calculated.Boiler efficiency

improved by 10 %.

The equipment in the lab should be either replaced or maintained in order to

get more accurate readings. The students should be given the opportunity to

record more than one value per reading so a mean can be obtained or so that

there can be more certainty for each reading.

Maintenance in the laboratory apparatus for the dryness fraction lab

conduction should be done before students are allowed to go and do the

experiments. This is due to varying data or reading that student get when

conducting the labs as that would make lecturers to mark the laboratory work

easier. That could also constitute to the improvement on the efficiency of the set

of apparatus as seen above calibration.

12.0 REFERENCE

1. Separating and Throttling Calorimeter. Retrieved from sakshat virtual lab:

2. Lab

http://iitg.vlab.co.in/?sub=58&brch=160&sim=1603&cnt=1

(Assessed on 28/11/2014).

manual thermodynamics. Retrieved from: http://jnec.org/Labmanuals/MECh/SE/SE-ET%20Lab%20Manual1.pdf.

(Assessed on 28/11/2014).

edition. Mc Graw Hill Companies Inc. ISBN 0-07-310445-0. (2005).

Thermodynamics SI Edition. Cengage Learning. ISBN

9781305178168. (2014).

5. Onkar Singh. Applied Thermodynamics Third Edition. New Age International

(P) Ltd. Publishers. ISBN 9788122429169. (2009).

Signature/Tandatangan :

Name/Nama : DR. NADIRUL HASRAF BIN

MAT NAYAN

Signature/Tandatangan :

Name/Nama : PROF. MADYA DR. ANGZZAS SARI

BINTI MOHD KASSIM

Date/Tarikh :

Date/ Tarikh :

- Marcet Boiler Lab ReportUploaded byJohnConor
- Boiler Experiment ReportUploaded byMuhammad Khuzairi
- Determination of Dryness Fraction of SteamUploaded byRohit Ketkar
- Steam Turbine and Condenser Lab Report FullUploaded byJoshua Reynolds
- BENDING MOMENT IN A BEAMUploaded byEngr. Ikhwan Z.
- Two-stage Air Compressor Lab ReportUploaded byWill Haynes
- Hw1.Sol.fall.2015Uploaded byOng Kok Meng
- Lab ReportUploaded byJoshua Reynolds
- Refrigeration System.pdfUploaded bySiti Hajar Shamsul Kamar
- CHAPTER3 StatisticUploaded byKhairul Nidzam
- Thin Cylinder [Sec 2-Group 6]Uploaded byDir'z Memoir
- Dryness Fraction of Steam LabUploaded byRoneil Napier
- Heat PumpUploaded byShiyas Basheer
- Heat Pump Lab Report.pdfUploaded byPearl Loi
- BUCKLING OF STRUTSUploaded byEngr. Ikhwan Z.
- Flow Measuring ApparatusUploaded bygeorgekenjiputra
- Deflection of Curved BarsUploaded byfahmie7221
- Air CompressorUploaded byShahir Afif Islam
- Torsion TestUploaded bymohanadymt
- Energy Losses in BendsUploaded byVikramSingh
- 2 Stage Air Compressor 2h pUploaded byNilesh Vijay Sabnis
- lab ManualUploaded byNur Amira Mardiana Zulkifli
- Thick Cylinder Laboratory ExerciseUploaded bymohammed
- Universal Coupling (Lab Static Dynamic)Uploaded byShaktivell Letchumanan
- Two Stage Air CompressorUploaded bykhalijahjamal
- 1. Law of PolygonUploaded byuser101
- Lab Report 2Uploaded bySudarshana Mukhopadhyay
- 115983736 Solid Mechanics Short Questions and AnswersUploaded bysampathsiddam
- throttling calorimeter.docxUploaded byBoby Mainro
- Lab 4 Reciprocating CompressorUploaded byJowesh Goundar

- BNQ 30503 Chapter 2 (S-1)Uploaded byDex JH
- WR Sections 1 2 and 3Uploaded byDex JH
- Explanatory Notes on Clean Air RegulationUploaded byLean Seey Tan
- plant design ethylbenzeneUploaded byDex JH
- chap1pdf2Uploaded byDex JH
- Chapter 5 Balances on Reactive ProcessUploaded byDex JH
- Drug Ga 68Uploaded byDex JH
- bxmasaUploaded byDex JH
- CH102 Lab 4 Idasfadent Alcohol and PhenolUploaded byDex JH
- 205851532 Basic Wave MotionUploaded byDex JH
- APP_MicrowaveDigestionMultiwave.pdfUploaded byDex JH
- Refer Journal MalgorzataUploaded byDex JH
- German Dialogue ExampleUploaded byDex JH
- Notes 14C Nmr02Uploaded byDex JH
- e. Bachelor Degree Project i Supervisor Evaluation FormUploaded byDex JH
- BNQ 30503 Chapter 1 (S).pdfUploaded byDex JH
- Chapter2_FluidPropertiesUploaded byDex JH
- Useful Expressions in SpeakingUploaded byDex JH
- Additional Notes Unit OperationsUploaded byDex JH
- 2016 Rpp-04 Cell & Tissue EngUploaded byDex JH
- Tenses PracticeUploaded byDex JH
- Lathan 10wUploaded byDex JH
- OutlineasadvUploaded byDex JH
- ForumUploaded byDex JH
- 39 Acid Base WebUploaded byDex JH

- Simulation of Ocntinous Deodorizer-effects on Prodict StreamUploaded byleongweidong
- t2_18_4Uploaded bybino
- 4801-0151 Farm Hand Stage Master Rev 4-06Uploaded byCristobal Deigo
- Chapter 1 Physical Quantities and UnitsUploaded byHu Xiao
- ASHRAE-Chart.pdfUploaded byvitaliskc
- Estimación de la radiación solar global mensual media como una función de la temperaturaUploaded by7juliocerna
- HVAC+System+Selection+Report+Appendices+Appendix+a+ExtractUploaded byArman Ul Nasar
- practaUploaded byHartono Prayitno
- Ivarsson_AF3_2011Uploaded bycameonivarsson
- Thermal ExpansionUploaded bykangchin
- As 60068.2.50-2003 Environmental Testing Tests - Test Z Afc- Combined Cold Vibration (Sinusoidal) Tests for bUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- Abbreviations & Gas LawsUploaded byStarlet Rhonadez Bito-onon Oriel
- 12th_Class_Physics.docUploaded bysuneel kumar
- short time over load of transformer.pdfUploaded byIrfan Ali
- Water Tank Temp Effect PDFUploaded byYELLAMANDA SANKATI
- Experimental Investigation of Flow Condensation Heat Transfer in Rectangular MinichannUploaded byIAEME Publication
- Matter in Our SurroundingUploaded bythinkiit
- The Britannica Guide to MatterUploaded bypparedes
- Aseptic FinalUploaded byJuan Alejandro Segura
- Analysis of Solar Absorption Cooling and Heating SystemUploaded byPinnamaneni Venkata Suresh
- Combining DOAS and VRF, Part 2 of 2Uploaded byminiongsky
- Thermal EnggUploaded bymadhume01
- BIS standard.1391.2.1992.pdfUploaded byprado01
- ANSYS Thermal Analysis GuideUploaded byptprabakaran
- 10083A-9-V1J-EZS0-00020Uploaded byMena Kamel
- Prod.5th SemUploaded byRimmon Singh
- Entropy VvbUploaded bykumar
- Chemistry Notes Ideal Gas LawsjUploaded byZia Rathore
- MAH ComfortstarUploaded byByron
- HMP( hot moist pack w. fluido therapy)Uploaded byyamhtur_17