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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS


LABORATORY
LABORATORY INSTRUCTION SHEETS
COURSE CODE

BNQ 20104

EXPERIMENT NO.

EXPERIMENT 4

EXPERIMENT TITLE

SEPARATING AND THROTTLING CALORIMETER

DATE
GROUP NO.
1) DR. NADIRUL HASRAF BIN MAT NAYAN
LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/ TUTOR

2) PUAN AZIAH BT ABU SAMAH

DATE OF REPORT SUBMISSION

DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS FOR


LABORATORY REPORT

EXAMINER COMMENTS:

ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION/DISPLINE

/5%

INTRODUCTION:

/5%

PROCEDURE:

/5%

RESULTS & CALCULATIONS

/15%

ANALYSIS
DISCUSSIONS:
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS:
CONCLUSION:

/15%
/20%
/15%
/10%

SUGGESTION & RECOMENDATIONS

/5%

REFERENCES:

/5%

TOTAL:

/100%

RECEIVED DATE AND STAMP

STUDENT CODE OF ETHICS


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

I hereby declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also admit to
not accept or provide any assistance in preparing this report and anything that is in
it is true.

1) Group Leader
Name
:
Matrix No.
:

__________________________________________(Signature)
_____Yeu Ho Kiet__________________
_____AN140177___________________

2) Group Member 1
Name
:
Matrix No
:

__________________________________________(Signature)
____Kogulan a/l Subramaniam_____
____DN140115_____________________

3) Group Member 2
Name
:
Matrix No.
:

__________________________________________(Signature)
_____Jaayshini a/p Murugiah_____
_____AN140023___________________

1.0

OBJECTIVES
a)

To determine the dryness fraction of steam.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


At the end of this experiment students are able to:

a) Understand the concepts of dryness fraction.


b) Implement and analyse the required data collectively within member of group.
c) Produce good technical report according to the required standard.

3.0 INTRODUCTION
3.1 Dryness Fraction

The dryness fraction is defined as the quantity of dry vapour present in any
wet vapour mixture.

3.2

Separating Calorimeter
This is mechanical process where the incoming steam to the calorimeter is

made through a series of obtuse angle the inertia of the water droplets causes
them to separate from steam flow. If

Wi = quantity of dry steam discharged from calorimeter


Ws = quantity of water separated in the calorimeter in the same time
interval;

then the dryness fraction as measured by the separating calorimeter (X s)

3.3

Throttling calorimeter
Consider a fluid flowing through a throttling orifice from higher pressure P 1 to
a lower pressure P2. From the steady flow energy equation, it can be shown
that adiabatic throttling is a constant enthalpy process. The wet steam before
the throttling will become superheated steam at the lower pressure after
throttling.

Enthalpy of wet steam P1 before throttling;

Where,

= specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (sensible heat)


corresponding to pressure P1

= dryness fraction of steam measured by throttling calorimeter


= specific enthalpy of vaporisation (latent heat) corresponding to
pressure P1

Enthalpy of superheated steam at P2 after throttling

Where,

= specific enthalpy of saturated vapour corresponding to pressure


P2
= specific heat at constant pressure

= steam temperature at throttling calorimeter


= saturated steam temperature corresponding to pressure P 2

Since H1 = H2,

3.4

Combined Separating and Throttling


If w = quantity of water in steam leaving the separating calorimeter and
entering the throttling calorimeter, then by definition of dryness fraction

But the separating calorimeter has already removed WS water, therefore total
quantity of water is (WS + w) in wet steam (WS + Wt)
Applying this to the definition of dryness fraction

But w = Wt (1 Xt)

From equation (1),


Therefore:
True dryness fraction,
X = XS x Xt

(3)

4.0

INSTRUMENTS /APPARATUS

Figure 1: Cusson P7660 Separating and throttling calorimeter

Figure 2: The equipment panel mounted on a freestanding framework

5.0 PROCEDURE
1.
2.

Cooling water flow through condenser is started.


Condensate collecting vessel is placed under the condenser

outlet.

3.

Small valve on throttling calorimeter is closed to isolate the


manometer.

4.

The steam valve is opened and the steam is allowed to flow


through the condenser is sufficient to condense all the steam.

5.

When condition have stabilised, the valve to the manometer is


opened.

6.

The separated condensate level is allowed to build up in the


separating calorimeter until liquid can been in the calorimeter condensate
level tube.

7.

The condensate-collecting vessel is drained.

8.

The main condensate-collecting vessel is refitted under the


condenser outlet.

9.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

Measure and record;


Initial value of fluid level in the separating calorimeter.
Initial value of condense level in the main condensate-collecting vessel.
The steam pressure in the steam main.
The steam pressure after throttling.
Steam main steam temperature.
Temperature in the throttling calorimeter.
Barometric pressure.

The value from (c) to (f) parameter values should be checked about six times
during the course of measurement.
10.

The apparatus is allowed to cool and the condenser cooling


water is turned off.

11.

The separating calorimeter is drained.

12.

The condensate-collecting vessel is emptied.

6.0 RESULTS & CALCULATIONS

6.1

Results.
Table 5.1 Observed readings

Parameters
Barometric pressure,
bar.abs
Separator: Steam
pressure, bar.abs

Average

1.013

1.013

1.013

1.013

3.513

4.513

5.013

4.346

Throttle: Steam pressure,


mm.Hg, bar abs
Trottle: Difference in
mercury level due to
water, mm.Hg
Separator: Steam
temperature, oC

1.0197

1.0197

1.0183

1.019

4.667

144

152

154

150

Throttle: Steam
temperature, oC
Separator: Amount of
collected water, mL
Throttle : Amount of
condensed water, mL

108

114

110

110.67

10

20

20

16.67

225

200

225

216.67

Table 5.2: Derived results

Parameters
Throttle: Specific heat at constant pressure, kJ/kgK
Separator: Steam pressure, bar.abs
Throttle: Steam pressure, bar.abs
Separator: Saturated liquid enthalpy, kJ/kg
Separator: Latent heat, kJ/kg
Throttle: Vapour Enthalpy, kJ/kg
Throttle: Saturated steam temperature, oC
Separator: Dryness fraction of steam, XS

Average
1.907
4.346
1.0192
617.45
2124.33
2675.83
100.12
0.9286

Throttle: Dryness fraction of steam, Xt


Steam Line: Dryness fraction, X
Sample calculation:
Average barometric pressure = 1.013 x 3/3
= 1.013 bar abs
Separator:

0.9784
0.9085

Average steam pressure = (3.513+ 4.513+ 5.013) / 3


= 4.346 bar abs
= 434.6 kPa
Average steam temperature = (144+152+154)/3
= 150 C
Average amount of collected water, Ws = (10+ 20+ 20)/3
= 16.67 mL

From property table, using interpolation, P= 434.6 kPa:


Saturated liquid enthalpy = (623.14-604.66)(434.6-400)/(450-400) + 604.66
= 617.45 kJ/kg
Latent heat = (2120.3- 2133.4) (434.6-400)/ (450-400) + 2133.4
= 2124.33 kJ/kg

Xs = 216.67/ (216.67+16.67)
= 0.9286
Throttle:
Average difference in mercury level due to water = (5+5+4)/3
= 4.667 mm Hg

Average steam pressure = (4.667x 10-3) x 13.6 x 9.81


= 0.6227 kPa
= 0.006227 bar + 1.013 bar
= 1.019 bar abs
= 101.9 kPa
Average steam temperature = (108+114+110)/3
= 110.67 C +273.15

= 383.82 K
Average amount of condensed water, Wt = (225+200+225)/3
= 216.67 mL
From property table, using interpolation, P= 101.9 kPa, T = 383.82K:
Specific heat at constant pressure

= 32.24+ (0.1923 x 10-2 x 383.82)+(1.055 x 10-5 x 383.822)+


(-3.595 x 10-9 x 383.823)
= 32.24+0.73809+1.5542-0.20327
= 34.33017 kJ/kmolK
= 34.33017 kJ/kmolK
18 kg/kmol
= 1.907 kJ/kgK
Vapour enthalpy = (2684.9-2675.6)(101.9-101.325)/(125-101.325) + 2675.6

= 2675.83 kJ/kg
Saturated steam temperature = (105.97-99.97)(101.9-101.325)/(125-101.325) +
99.97
= 100.12 C

= [2675.83+ 1.907(110.67-100.12) 617.45]/2124.33


= 0.9784
X = Xs x Xt

= 0.9286 x 0.9784
= 0.9085

7.0 ANALYSIS

Based on the experiment conducted, we obtained the average value of Barometric


pressure; bar.abs is 4.013, the average value of separator: steam pressure, bar.abs is
4.346, the average value of throttle: steam pressure, bar.abs is 1.019, the average
value of throttle: difference in mercury level due to water, mm.Hg is 4.667, the average
value of separator: steam temperature, C is 150, the average value of of throttle:
steam temperature, C is 110.67, the average value of separator: amount of collected

water, mL is 16.67 and the average value of throttle: amount of collected water, mL is
216.67.

Based on the results obtained, the average values of throttle: specific heat at
constant pressure, 1.907 kJ/kgK, separator: steam pressure, 4.346 bar.abs, throttle:
steam pressure 1.019 bar.abs, separator: saturated liquid enthalpy, 617.46 kJ/kgK,

separator: latent heat, 2124.33 kJ/kgK, throttle: vapor enthalpy, 2675.83 kJ/kgK,
throttle: saturated steam temperature, 100.12 C, separator: dryness fraction of steam,
Xs, 0.9286, throttle: dryness fraction of steam, Xf 0.9784 and steam line: dryness
fraction, X 0.9085 were calculated.

From the experiment, we can see that the dryness fraction for separating
calorimeter is lower than throttling calorimeter because in separating calorimeter the
steam is wetter. Temperature of in throttling calorimeter is higher than its saturated
steam temperature because it is already in superheated state.

8.0 DISCUSSIONS

Using the readings that were recorded in the lab the dryness fraction of the steam
could be found, using the theoretical equations. From the results obtained the dryness
fraction is 0.9286 at xs and 0.9784 at xt. The combined separating and throttling
calorimeter was found by using equation 7 where both xs and xt were multiplied to get
0.9085. Based on the results of the readings we obtained when conducting the
experiment in the lab, it can be said that using the readings that were recorded in the

lab, the dryness fraction of the steam could be found in regards with the use of the
theoretical equations from the thermodynamics textbook. From the results obtained,
the dryness fraction is 0.9286 at xs this showed us that at that point in time the
steam is 93% dry and 7% wet. We got 0.9784 at x1 so that showed us that the steam
is near to superheated because its value near to 1 at that point so the combined
separating and throttling calorimeters dryness faction was found by using the

equation where both xs and xt were multiplied to get the value of 0.9085. This shows
that the state of the steam is still wet because the value of the dryness fraction of
steam is less than 1. If the steam whose dryness fraction is to be determined is very
wet then throttling to atmospheric pressure is not sufficient to ensure superheated
steam at exit. In this case it is necessary to dry the steam partially, before throttling.
This is done by passing the part of steam from the steam main through separating

calorimeter as shown in figure. The steam is made to change direction suddenly, and
the water, being denser than the dry steam is separated out is measured at the
separator, the steam remaining, which now has dryness fraction, is passed through
the throttling calorimeter.
With the combined separating and throttling calorimeter it is necessary to condense
the steam after throttling and measure the amount of condensate (Ms).

It was observed that with increasing the boiler steam pressure there is increase in
steam temperature and when the part of the steam enters into the separating
calorimeter steam pressure before throttling is higher than steam pressure after
throttling. It is also observed that steam pressure decreases after throttling.
Corresponds to the steam pressure after throttling, from steam table it was noted that
steam temperature measured is greater than the saturation temperature. Therefore the

steam becomes superheated steam. From the measured values the various parameters
like dryness fraction of steam, enthalpy of superheated steam, equivalent evaporation
and factor of evaporation and boiler efficiency calculated. Steam calorimeters are
commonly used in process industries, power plants and other industries to determine
the quality of steam. Steam quality is a very critical parameter in steam applications
as the performance of steam processes depends on it. Conventionally, separating or

throttling or combined separating and throttling calorimeters are being used for this
purpose. An electrical calorimeter is a concept not well covered in literature, though it
has wide range of application and scope with accuracy and this may offset the
limitations of the conventionally used calorimeters. It is found that the proposed
concept can be applied conveniently to find the dryness fraction and can be validated
experimentally. In the present experimental work, therefore, electrical energy is used

to find dryness fraction of steam. The design of the system is based on fundamental
principles of thermodynamics. Mainly, steady flow energy equation has been applied to
derive the desired results. As per the requirements, specifications of various
components like steam generator, super heater, etc., have been decided. In the process,
electrical energy is used to make dry saturate from the wet steam in a controlled
manner, and steam parameters are recorded along with the heat supplied to the wet

steam. The key feature of the system is easiness of use without compromising the
accuracy. It is also found that this system can be used for a wide range of the dryness
fraction unlike conventional methods, which give results in a narrow range.

9.0 ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS


1. What is the steam dryness fraction?

Wet steam consists of dry saturated steam and water particles in


suspension. The dryness fraction of steam is defined as the ratio of mass
of dry saturated steam to the total mass of wet steam containing it. It is
represented by x. Dryness fraction, x = mass of dry steam/ total mass of
wet steam.

2. One kilogram of steam at 1400 kPa has a total enthalpy content of


2202.09 kJ. Determine the dryness fraction of the steam.
From steam table, P=1400 kPa
hf = 829.96 kJ/kg
hfg = 1958.9 kJ/kg
X = dryness fraction
Actual total enthalpy =hf + hfg (X)
2202.09 kJ = 829.96 kJ/kg+1958.9 kJ/kg (X)

X = 0.70046
3. A calorimeter with heat capacity equivalent to having 13.3 moles
of water is used to measure the heat of combustion from 0.303 g
of sugar (C12H22O11). The temperature increase was found to be
5.0 K. Calculate the heat released, the amount of heat released by
1.0 g, and 1.0 mole of sugar.

Heat capacity of the calorimeter, C = 75.2 J/Kmol


Heat released under constant volume, qv
qv = C x dT,
= 13.3 mol x 75.2 J/(K mol) x 5.0 K
= 5000 J
The amount of heat released by 1.0 g
= 5000 J/0.303 g = 16.5 kJ / g
Since the molecular weight of sugar is 342.3 g/mol,

The amount of heat released by 1.0 mole


= 16.5 kJ / g x 342.3 g/mol = 5648 kJ/mol.
10.0 CONCLUSION
It can be concluded that the experiment was successful and the dryness fraction
of the steam was found using the readings found to be 0.9085 which then
showed us that the steam state is considered wet and the experiment also

showed that the theory is proven on counting the dryness fraction of the steam.
Performance analysis on separating & throttling calorimeter was carried out. The
following parameters were measured: Steam Temperature, Steam Pressure,
Exhaust Gas Temperature, Fuel Pressure, and Water Temperature after
Economizer at various conditions. Dryness fraction of steam was calculated. The
following conclusions were drawn under various parameters like boiler steam

temperature; boiler steam pressure; steam pressure before throttling; Steam


pressure after throttling; steam temperature after throttling; steam flow rate
measured. Water particles from wet steam can fully seperated , thus resulting in
precise value. The actual Dryness fraction of steam calculated.Boiler efficiency
improved by 10 %.

11.0 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


The equipment in the lab should be either replaced or maintained in order to
get more accurate readings. The students should be given the opportunity to
record more than one value per reading so a mean can be obtained or so that
there can be more certainty for each reading.
Maintenance in the laboratory apparatus for the dryness fraction lab
conduction should be done before students are allowed to go and do the

experiments. This is due to varying data or reading that student get when
conducting the labs as that would make lecturers to mark the laboratory work
easier. That could also constitute to the improvement on the efficiency of the set
of apparatus as seen above calibration.
12.0 REFERENCE
1. Separating and Throttling Calorimeter. Retrieved from sakshat virtual lab:

2. Lab

http://iitg.vlab.co.in/?sub=58&brch=160&sim=1603&cnt=1
(Assessed on 28/11/2014).
manual thermodynamics. Retrieved from: http://jnec.org/Labmanuals/MECh/SE/SE-ET%20Lab%20Manual1.pdf.
(Assessed on 28/11/2014).

3. J.M. Smith. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic seventh


edition. Mc Graw Hill Companies Inc. ISBN 0-07-310445-0. (2005).

4. Kevin Dahm, Donald Visco. Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering


Thermodynamics SI Edition. Cengage Learning. ISBN
9781305178168. (2014).
5. Onkar Singh. Applied Thermodynamics Third Edition. New Age International
(P) Ltd. Publishers. ISBN 9788122429169. (2009).

Prepared by/Disediakan oleh :

Approved by/Disahkan oleh :

Signature/Tandatangan :
Name/Nama : DR. NADIRUL HASRAF BIN
MAT NAYAN

Signature/Tandatangan :
Name/Nama : PROF. MADYA DR. ANGZZAS SARI
BINTI MOHD KASSIM

Date/Tarikh :

Date/ Tarikh :