What is a brand?

A name, a term

A symbol, a sign

A name, term, sign, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller s product or service as distinct from those of other sellers -The American Marketing Association

Brand relationships
Brand identity framed by marketers

Brand relationships

Brand image in the mind of customers

Branding process Brand the actual image of the firm in customers· minds
A new definition based on Brand relationships: Brand is created in relationships: continuously developing brand relationships where the customer forms a differentiating image of a product or service based on all kinds of brand contacts that the customer is exposed to. to.

A unique set of associations in the minds of customers concerning what a brand stands for and the implied promises the brand makes.

The sum of all tangible & intangible traits. traits. It represents all internal & external characteristics. characteristics. It's anything & everything that influences how brand or a company is perceived by its target constituencies. constituencies. It is the best, single marketable investment a company can make. make.

Personality and character Hard and Soft attributes Visual representations

Visual representations
A white sari with a blue border

Round shaped spectacles and a stick

Company image vs. Brand image
Brand image = the image of a good or service which is formed in the customer s mind Company image = the valued customers, potential customers, customers, lost customers and other groups of people connect with the organization

The two concepts are slightly different
Ex: The French national railway company: Brand image: one can travel easily and safely by train in France Company image: very paternalistic and old fashioned company

Two main different levels of company image 
Corporate THE image people have of an organization (more for big companies)  Local obviously linked to the Corporate image but can develop its own fame and image The 2 levels are interrelated and influence each other. other.

The importance of image 
Image communicates expectations  Image is a filter influencing perceptions of the performance of the firm  Image is a function of expectations and experiences  Image has employees an internal impact on

Brand Image Vs Sales
Sales Low Hi Brand Image Low Unrealized Potential Dying Brand Hi Healthy Brand


Advertising strategy 
Type of brand association : Benefit Fun, unpretentious, informal, classless, social Appropriateness of brand association Promotional advertising Theme advertising Strength of brand association Importance for consumers Consistency Uniqueness of brand association

Image and Identity
Sending Brand identity Signals transmitted Other sources of Inspiration Mimicry Opportunity idealism Brand image Media Receiving

Competition And Noise

BRAND IMAGE is a unique set of associations in the minds of customers concerning what a brand stands for and the implied promises the brand makes. makes. BRAND IDENTITY is the strategic goal for the unique set of associations that a brand should stand for. These associations also for. imply a potential promise to customers. customers. PERCEPTION GAP. GAP.

Brand Equity & Image Assessment

Developing image in the good way 
What is important for customers is what they experience Bad experiences always result in bad image Hence, if a company has a poor image, it has to take the correct measures to improve it based on reality: 

Company unknown or not well known  Action: communication campaign  Company known but performing badly  Action: internal action in order to improve performance. Communication can be used but at a second level.

The Top 25 Global Brands
Image Power
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Coca-Cola Sony Mercedes-Benz Kodak Disney Nestle Toyota McDonalds IBM Pepsi Cola

Share of Mind
1 4 12 5 8 7 6 2 20 3

6 1 2 9 5 14 23 85 4 92

Image Power
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Rolls Royce Honda Panasonic Levi¶s Kleenex Ford Volkswagen Kellogg¶s Porsche Polaroid BMW Colgate Seiko Nescafe Canon

Share of Mind
23 9 17 16 13 10 11 14 27 15 32 21 33 19 35

3 22 10 8 14 24 26 30 11 44 12 51 15 64 17

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