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Trietanolamina
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76085

UNIT OPERATIONS II: SEPARATION PROCESSES

Solution to Homework 4

Assigned: Wed, June 20, 2001

Due: Mon, June 25, 2001

Exercise 6.7 The exit gas from an alcohol fermenter consists of an air-CO2 mixture

containing 10 mol% CO2 that is to be absorbed in a 5.0 N solution of triethanolamine,

which contains 0.04 mol of carbon dioxide per mole of amine solution. If the column

operates isothermally at 25oC, if the exit liquid contains 78.4% of the CO2 in the feed gas

to the absorber, and if the absorption is carried out in a six-theoretical-plate column,

calculate:

(a) Moles of amine solution required per mole of feed gas

(b) Exit gas composition

Equilibrium Data

Y

0.003 0.008 0.015 0.023 0.032 0.043 0.055 0.068 0.083 0.099 0.12

X

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11

Y = moles CO2/mole air; X = moles CO2/mole amine solution

Subject: Absorption of CO2 from air at 25oC by 5N aqueous triethanolamine.

Given: Feed gas containing 10 mol% CO2 and 90 mol% air. Absorbent of 5N aqueous

trieathanolamine containing 0.04 moles of CO2 per mole of amine solution. Column with

6 equilibrium stages. Exit liquid to contain 78.4% of the CO2 in the feed gas. Therefore,

exit gas contains 21.6% of the CO2 in the entering gas. Equilibrium data for CO2 at 25oC

in terms of mole ratios.

Assumptions: Negligible absorption of air and stripping of amine and water.

Find: (a) Moles of amine solution required per mole of feed gas.

(b) Exit gas composition.

Analysis: Use the nomenclature and type of plot shown in Fig. 6.11(a). Therefore, for

CO2

X0 = 0.04 mol CO2/mol amine solution

YN+1 = Y7 = 10/90 = 0.1111 mol CO2/mol air

Y1 = 0.216(10/90) = 0.024 mol CO2/mol air

(b) Therefore, the exit gas composition is 0.024 mol CO2/mol air or 0.024/(1 + 0.024)

100% = 2.34 mol% CO2 and 97.66 mol% air

(a) A plot of the equilibrium data as Y vs. X is given below. The operating point (X0, Y1)

at the top of the column is included. A straight operating line through this point is found

by trial an error to give 6 equilibrium stages, when using Y7 = 0.1111. The resulting XN =

X6 = 0.0878. From Eq. (6-3), the slope of the operating line L/G = (0.1111

0.024)/(0.0878 0.04) = 1.822 mol triethanolamine solution/mol air. The feed gas

1/10

contains 9 mol air/10 mol feed gas. Therefore, moles of amine solution/mol feed gas =

1.822 (0.9) = 1.64

X6

Y7

0.1

0.08

Operating line

0.06

0.04

Y1

0.02

Equilibrium Curve

0.02

X0

0.04

0.06

Y, mol CO2/mol air

2/10

0.08

0.1

Exercise 6.11 Groundwater at a flow rate of 1,500 gpm, containing three volatile organic

chemicals (VOCs), is to be stripped in a trayed tower with air to produce dinking water

that will meet EPA standards. Relevant data are given below. Determine the maximum

air flow rate in scfm (60oF, 1 atm) and the number of equilibrium sates required if an air

flowrate of twice the minimum is used and the tower operates at 25oC and 1 atm. Also

determine the composition in parts per million for each VOC in the resulting drinking

water.

Composition, ppm

Component

K-value Groundwater Max. for Drinking water

1,2- Dichloroethane (DCA)

60

85

0.005

Trichloroethylene (TCE)

650

120

0.005

1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA)

275

145

0.200

Note: ppm = parts per million by weight

Subject: Stripping of VOCs from water by air in a trayed tower to produce drinking

water.

Given: 1500 gpm of groundwater containing ppm amounts of DCA, TCE, and TCA

given below. Stripping at 1 atm and 25oC to reduce the ppm amounts to the very low

levels below. K-values of VOCs given below.

Assumptions: No stripping of water and no absorption of air. System is dilute with

respect to the VOCs

Find: Minimum air flow rate in scfm (60oF and 1 atm).

Number of equilibrium stages for 2 times the minimum air flow.

Composition in ppm for each VOC in the resulting drinking water.

Analysis: Flow rate of water L = (1,500 gpm) (8.345 lb/gal)/18.02 lb/lbmol = 695

lbmol/min

% stripping of a VOC = 100% (inlet ppm outlet ppm)/inlet ppm

VOC

K-value

Inlet ppm Outlet ppm % stripping

DCA

60

85

0.005

99.994

TCE

650

120

0.005

99.996

TCA

275

145

0.200

99.862

Because of its high % stripping and a K-value that is much lower than for the other two

VOCs, the stripper is likely to be controlled by DCA. So base the calculations on DCA

and then check to see that the % stripping for TCE and TCA exceed the above

requirements. Because of the dilute conditions, use Kremsers method.

From Eq. (6-12),

Gmin = (L/K) (fraction stripped) = (695/60) (0.99994) = 11.58

lbmol/min or mimimum flow rate = 11.58 lbmol/min (379 scf/lbmol) = 4,389 scfm at

60oF and 1 atm

For 2 times the minimum value, G = 2 (11.58) = 23.16 lbmol/min

K G 60(23.16 )

The stripping factor, given by Eq. (6-16), is for DCA, S DCA = DCA =

= 2.0

L

695

3/10

S N +1 S 2 N +1 2

=

Solving this

S N +1 1 2 N +1 1

equation, N = 13 stages.

Now, for G = 23.16 lbmol/min and N = 13 stages, compute the fraction stripped for TCE

and TCA from Eq. (6-14) with the stripping factor from Eq. (6-16). The results are:

VOC

S

Fraction

stripped

DCA

2.0

0.99994

TCE

21.7

1.00000

TCA

9.16

1.00000

The drinking water contains 0.005 ppm of DCA and essentially zero ppm of TCE and

TCA.

4/10

Exercise 6.13 Determine by the Kremser method the separation that can be achieved for

the absorption operation indicated in Figure 6.47 for the following combinations of

conditions: (a) Six equilibrium stages and 75 psia operating pressure (b) Three

equilibrium stages and 150 psia operating pressure, (c) Six equilibrium stages and 150

psia operating pressure. At 90oF and 75 psia, the K-value of nC10 = 0.0011

Subject: Absorption of a light hydrocarbon gas mixture by n-decane as a function of

pressure and number of equilibrium stages at 90oF.

Given: Light hydrocarbon gas containing in lbmol/h, 1,660 C1, 168 C2, 96 C3, 52 nC4,

and 24 nC5 for a total of 2,000 lbmol/h = V. Absorbent of L = 500 lbmol/h of nC10.

K=value of nC10 = 0.0011.

Find: Component flow rates in the lean gas and rich oil for:

(a) N = 6 and P = 75 psia

(b) N = 3 and P = 150 psia

(c) N = 6 and P = 150 psia

Analysis: Use the Kremser method with Eqs. (5-48) for fraction not absorbed, A, (5-50)

for fraction not stripped, S, (5-38) for absorption factor, A, (5-51) for stripping factor, S,

(5-45) and (5-53) for component flow rates in the exit gas, v1, and (5-44) and (5-52) for

component flow rates in the exit liquid, lN, since no light hydrocarbons enter with the

absorbent. Use Aspen Plus (or another source) to find the K-values.

(a) N = 6 and P = 75 psia

Component K-value

A

C1

29.0

0.0086

C2

6.08

0.0411

C3

2.03

0.1232

nC4

0.62

0.4032

nC5

0.21

1.1905

nC10

0.0011

Total

(b) N = 3 and P = 150 psia

Component K-value

A

C1

14.6

0.0171

C2

3.18

0.0786

C3

1.09

0.2294

nC4

0.35

0.7143

nC5

0.117

2.1368

nC10

0.00042

Total

A

0.9914

0.9586

0.8768

0.5978

0.0797

0.0044

0.9956

A

0.9829

0.9214

0.7728

0.3863

0.0573

0.0017

5/10

0.9983

v1

1645.7

161.1

84.2

31.1

1.9

2.2

1926.2

l6

14.3

6.9

11.8

20.9

22.1

497.8

573.8

v1

1631.6

154.8

74.2

20.1

1.4

0.8

1882.9

l6

28.4

13.2

21.8

31.9

22.6

499.2

617.1

Component K-value

A

C1

14.6

0.0171

C2

3.18

0.0786

C3

1.09

0.2294

nC4

0.35

0.7143

nC5

0.117

2.1368

nC10

0.00042

Total

A

0.9829

0.9214

0.7707

0.3153

0.0056

0.0017

6/10

0.9983

v1

1631.6

154.8

74.0

16.4

0.1

0.8

1877.7

l6

28.4

13.2

22.0

35.6

23.9

499.2

622.3

Modified Exercise 6.13 Determine using Aspen Plus, the separation that can be achieved

for the absorption operation indicated in Figure 6.47 for the following combinations of

conditions: (a) Six equilibrium stages and 75 psia operating pressure (b) Three

equilibrium stages and 150 psia operating pressure, (c) Six equilibrium stages and 150

psia operating pressure.

Subject: Same as previous exercise.

Given: Same as previous exercise.

Find: Same as previous exercise.

Analysis: Using Aspen Plus, the following results are obtained:

(a) N = 6 and P = 75 psia

Component Vapor

Liquid

C1

1648.4

11.6

C2

161.9

6.1

C3

83.7

12.3

nC4

32.3

19.7

nC5

1.7

22.3

nC10

2.0

498.0

Total 1930.0

570

(b) N = 3 and P = 150 psia

Component Vapor

Liquid

C1

1635.3

24.7

C2

155.6

12.4

C3

72.5

23.5

nC4

20.0

32.0

nC5

1.2

22.8

nC10

1.3

498.7

Total 1885.8

614.2

(c) N = 6 and P = 150 psia

Component Vapor

Liquid

C1

1635.3

24.7

C2

155.7

12.4

C3

72.6

23.4

nC4

17.4

34.6

nC5

0.1

23.9

nC10

1.2

498.9

Total 1882.3

617.7

7/10

packed tower operating at 20oC and 1 atm. Solute-free water enters the top of the tower at

a constant rate of 1,000 lb/h and is well distributed over the packing. The liquor leaving

contains 0.6 lb SO2/100 lb of solute-free water. The partial pressure of SO2 in the spent

gas leaving the top of the tower is 23 torr. The mole ratio of water to air is 25. The

necessary equilibrium data are given below.

(a) What percentage of the SO2 in the entering gases is absorbed in the tower?

(b) In operating the tower it was found that the rate coefficients kg, and kL remained

substantially constant throughout the tower at the following values:

kL = 1.3 ft/h

kg = 0.195 lbmol/h-ft2-atm

At a point in the tower where the liquid concentration is 0.001 lbmol SO2 per lbmol of

water, what is the liquid concentration at the gas-liquid interface in lbmol/ft3? Assume

that the solution has the same density as H2O

Solubility of SO2 in H2O at 20oC

Partial Pressure of

lb SO2

100 lb H2O

SO2 in Air, torr

0.02

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.30

0.50

0.70

1.0

0.5

1.2

3.2

5.8

8.5

14.1

26.0

39.0

59

Subject: Operating data for absorption of SO2 from air into water in a packed column.

Given: Column operates at 1 atm (760 torr) and 20oC. Solute-free water enters at 1,000

lh/h. Mole ratio of water to air is 25. Liquid leaves with 0.6 lb SO2/100 lb of solute-free

water. Partial pressure of SO2 in exit gas is 23 torr (0.0303 atm). Equilibrium data are

given as partial pressures of SO2 in air as a function of lb SO2 dissolved/100 lb H2O

Assumption: No stripping of water. No absorption of air. Density of liquid taken as

water.

Find: (a) % of SO2 absorbed.

(b) Concentration of SO2 in the liquid at the gas-liquid interface in lbmol/ft3 at a

point where the bulk liquid concentration is 0.001 lbmol SO2/lbmol of water and:

kL = 1.3 ft/h

kg = 0.195 lbmol/h-ft2-atm

Analysis: (a) Inlet water rate = 1,000/18.02 = 55.5 lbmol/hr

8/10

Partial pressure of air in exit gas = 760 23 = 737 torr

By partial pressure ratio, SO2 flow rate in exit gas = 2.22(23/737) = 0.0693 lbmol/h

Molecular weight of SO2 = 64.06

SO2 flow rate in exit liquid = (0.6)(1,000)/((100)(64.06)) = 0.0937 lbmol/h

By material balance, SO2 flow rate in entering air = 0.0693 + 0.0937 = 0.1630 lbmol/h

Partial pressure of SO2 in entering gas = 0.1630/(0.1630 + 2.22) = 0.0684 atm

% of SO2 absorbed = 0.0937/0.1630 100% = 57.48%

(b) At the point, the rate of mass transfer for SO2 as a flux across the gas-liquid interface,

can be written by the two film theory as, kg(pb pi) = kL(ci cb)

(1)

As shown in Fig. 6.31, the equilibrium interface composition can be determined in terms

of the ratio of mass-transfer coefficients. However, here, instead of compositions in mole

fractions, the gas composition is in partial pressures and the liquid is in concentration.

From Eq (1), kL/kg = 1.3/0.195 = 6.67 = (pb pi)/(ci cb)

(2)

At the point (column height location), bulk liquid concentration = 0.001 lbmol SO2/lbmol

H2O and the flow rate is 0.001(55.5) = 0.0555 lbmol/h for SO2 in the liquid phase. The

flow of SO2 in the gas phase at that location is obtained by a material balance around the

top of the column:

SO2 in entering liquid + SO2 in gas at the point = SO2 in liquid at the point + SO2 in exit

gas

Therefore, 0 + SO2 flow rate in gas at the point = 0.0555 + 0.0693

SO2 flow rate in gas at the point = 0.1248 lbmol/h. Therefore, the partial pressure of SO2

in the bulk gas at the point = 0.1248/(0.1248 + 2.22) 1 atm = 0.0532 atm = pb

The density of water is 62.4 lb/ft3 or 62.4/18.02 = 3.46 lbmol/ft3. Therefore, the

concentration of SO2 in the bulk liquid at the point = 0.001(3.46) = 0.00246 lbmol/ft3 = cb

We now need an algebraic equilibrium relationship between pi and ci.

Convert the given equilibrium data to partial pressures and concentrations in the vicinity

of the values at the point:

The SO2 concentration in the liquid is obtained from,

c, lbmol SO2/ft3 = (lb SO2/100 lb H2O) (62.4/64.06)

lb SO2/100 lb H2O

0.30

0.50

0.70

1.0

c i,

lbmol SO2/ft3

0.00292

0.00487

0.00682

0.00974

Partial Pressure of

SO2, torr

14.1

26.0

39.0

59

pi of SO2,

atm

0.01855

0.03421

0.05132

0.07763

From Eq. (2), 6.67 (ci 0.00346) = (0.0532 pi)

6.67 (ci 0.00346) = 8.6926 ci + 0.060689

Solving this equation, we find ci = 0.0055 lbmol/ft3 and pi = 0.0403 atm

9/10

(3)

The same result can be obtained by constructing a plot of SO2 partial pressure versus SO2

concentration in the liquid, similar to Fig. 6.31. First, the operating line is drawn as a

straight line connecting the column en points (0.0303, 0.0) and (0.0690, 0.00584), as (p,

c). Then the equilibrium curve is drawn, using Eq. (3). Then the point (pb, cb) is marked

on the operating line. A straight line is extended from this point, with a slope of (-kL/kg) =

-6.67, to the point of intersection on the equilibrium line, giving the same result as above.

10/10

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