Michael Chiu AP US History Period 2 9/10/09

Outline of Chapter 2: Transplantations and Borderlands
-the occurrence at Roanoke dampened the colonization enthusiasm in England for a period of time -many propagandizers such as Richard Haklyut kept image of America alive in English society -By early 17th century, efforts to colonize the New World continued -In the first permanent English settlements, the English tried to separate themselves from the Native Americans – “transplantations” of the English world -English colonies were primarily agricultural, also some merchant class, plantation system in the South; all colonies had some form of self-government The Early Chesapeake -After James I had issued charters to the two companies (London and Plymouth), the Plymouth group unsuccessful tried to colonize once but failed and abandoned any other colonizing efforts -The London group moved quickly and established a voyage of 144 people aboard three ships: the Godspeed, the Discovery, and the Susan Constant The Founding of Jamestown -They reached the American coast in the spring of 1607, only 144 surviving the trip – established a colony called Jamestown – however, they chose their site poorly because it was swampy, humid in the summer, and prey to malaria- also lay in territory of territory of Indians ruled by the chief Powhatan -the colonists had no immunity to malaria so many were killed or weakened – tried to find gold fruitlessly because the promoters in London wanted a quick return to their investment -The absence of woman in this colony made it difficult for the colonists to establish a real “society” – was at first an entirely male settlement – colonists didn’t intermarry a lot -In 1608, when more ships came with extra supplies, only 38 of the original 104 were left -the survival of the colony was maintained by Captain John Smith, a capable organizer who became council president and asserted his will – imposed work and organized raids -During the second winter, less than 12 died – by 1906, colony seemed able to survive Reorganization -The London Company obtained a new charter from the king in 1609, increasing its power over the colony and enlarged the area of land to which it had title- in the spring of the same year, the company sent nine vessels of 600 people headed for Virginia – one of the ships was lost at sea in a hurricane, another ran aground on the Bermuda Islands – many who survived this died of fever – the winter that followed was known as the “starving time” – many died and when the people who had run aground on Bermuda returned, only 60 people of the original 500 had survived – the survivors went onto their ship and sailed downriver, however, they met another British ship that was bringing supplies and had the colony’s first governor, Lord De La Warr

-De La Warr harshly disciplined the colony- didn’t work – began to permit private ownership of land – Virginia expanded – new settlements were formed – one of the most important reasons was because the colonists had discovered tobacco Tobacco -King James I opposed tobacco smoking and in 1604 wrote A Counterblaste to Tobacco -in 1612, John Rolfe developed a type of tobacco that were of higher quality and spread up and down the James River – demand for land increased because plants needed a lot of land – planters began to encroach on Native land Expansion -Tobacco was not producing enough profit for the Virginia Company, so in 1618, it launched a last great campaign to attract settlers and make the colony profitable -the “headright” system consisted of fifty-acre grants of land that new settlers could acquire – each new settler would receive their own headright -In 1619, the Virginia Company sent 100 Englishwoman to become wives of male settlers – it also sent skilled craftsmen -On July 30, 1619, the House of Burgesses met – delegates from different communities – first meeting of an elected legislature, a representative assembly within the U.S -A month later, the first slaves were brought to the English colonies – marked first step of enslavement of Africans within what was to be the American Republic -the expansion of the colony resulted from the effective suppression of the local Indians, the Powhatan Indians – led by Sir Thomas Dale who kidnapped chief’s daughter, Pocahontas – in 1614 married John Rolfe and converted to Christianity – died while abroad -Powhatan’s brother began to lead efforts to try to defend their land – In 1622, tribesman pretended to sell goods, but attacked and killed 347 whites including John Rolfe – Powhatans eventually stopped in 1644 because they failed in other attempts -By this time, the Virginia Company was bankrupt because Jamestown did not yield profits so in 1624, James I took away their charter and Jamestown was under control of the crown until 1776 Exchanges of Agricultural Technology -English thought they were superior to Indians – reason for hostility toward them -Whites technologically more advanced – however, the survivial of Jamestown was largely due to the agricultural technologies developed by the Indians and borrowedbetter adapted to the soil and climate of Virginia than English farming traditions -English learned value of corn, easier to cultivate and producing greater yields Maryland and the Calverts -the Maryland colony was the original dream of Geroge Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore – died before he could get a charter from the king, so his son Cecilius, the second Lord Baltimore, received a charter granting him a huge area of territory – encompassing present-day Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia, and Maryland – also made them “absolute lords” -Lord Baltimore made his brother Leonard Calvert governor -In 1634, 200 to 300 passengers in the Ark and the Dove began to settle into Maryland – were befriended by Indians

-Calverts quickly adopted a policy of religious toleration because they knew they need Protestants as well as Catholics in order to colonize Maryland – appointed a Protestant governor in 1648 to appease the Protestant majority -In 1655, there was a civil war that temporarily unseated the proprietary government and replaced it with one dominated by Protestant -Maryland replaced their land system with the “headright” system and became a center of tobacco cultivation like Virginia and eventually began to use slaves Turbulent Virginia -By the mid-17th century, the Virginia colony’s population and the state of its economy were both increasing – needed to expand, however, border conflicts with natives were common -Sir William Berkeley was appointed governor of the Virginia by King Charles I in 1642 -Popular because advocated for westward expansion and fought off Indian attacks -However, tried to protect Indian territory, which failed because of population increase -By the 1660s, Berkely had become an autocrat in the colony – voting rights became more exclusive to landowner, the same burgesses remained every year- the more recent settlers in the “backcountry” were underrepresented Bacon’s Rebellion -In 1676, backcountry unrest and political rivalries combined to create a major conflict -Nathaniel Bacon arrived in Virginia in 1673 and won a seat on the governor’s council -Settlers in the backcountry were more vulnerable to Indian attacks and white settlers in western Virginia resented the governor’s attempts to hold the line of settlement steady -Bacon resented his exclusion from the governor’s inner circle council – also was angry at the governor’s refusal to grant him a piece of the Indian fur trade -In 1675, Doeg Indians raided plantation – local whites struck back haphazardly – Indians responded with more raids and killings of many white settlers – Bacon defied Berkeley and struck back at the Indians – was dismissed from the governor’s council – this unauthorized assault and challenge to the government was known as Bacon’s rebellion -In 1677, the Indians signed a new treaty giving whites more land -Bacon’s rebellion was important because it showed how unwilling the English settlers were to abide by earlier agreements with the natives and how unwilling the Indians were to tolerate further white movement into their territory – also caused landed people in the East and West to recognize a common interest in preventing social unrest from below – turned to the African slave trade to fulfill need for labor The Growth of New England -the Puritan Separatists considered leaving England because of persecution Plymouth Plantation -Although it was illegal to emigrate without the king’s permission, the Separatists from the hamlet of Scrooby did in 1608 a few at a time to Leyden, Holland where they could worship without interference -However, they were troubled by the Dutch society, so decided to move across Atlantic -Obtained permission to settle in Virginia – the king also said he would not harm them -In 1620, the puritans left the port of Plymouth in England in the Mayflower- ended up in Cape Cod instead of their original destination of the mouth of the Hudson River – settled just north of the cape, an area John Smith had called Plymouth after the port they had left

-Realized they were not there legally so they signed a document, the Mayflower Compact, saying that they had established a civil government and proclaimed allegiance to the king -The Pilgrims stepped ashore on Plymouth Rock on December 21, 1620 – barely survived first winter – half of the colonist perished -Not many Indian attacks because they were weakened by disease the English had brought – realized that they had to try to get along with the Europeans – many Indians such as Squanto and Samoset, showed them how to gather seafood, cultivate corn, and hunt local animals -In 1621, the settlers marked their alliance with the Wampanoags by inviting them to an October festival, the first Thanksgiving -Thirteen years later, a smallpox epidemic ravaged the Indian population near Plymouth -In 1622, the office Miles Standish established a system to discipline the settlers -the colonists of Plymouth chose William Bradford as their governor The Massachusetts Bay Experiment -Turbulent events in England in the 1620s caused many other Puritans to become interested in colonization -James I had harsh and repressive policies toward Puritans and after his death in 1625, his son Charles I also adopted these policies – eventually leading to a civil war in the 1640s -At this time, some Puritan merchants obtained a grant for land comprising Massachusetts and New Hampshire, creating the Massachusetts Bay Company – in 1629; they were ready to dispatch a voyage to New England -The owners of the company chose John Winthrop as their governor – commanded expedition to New England in 1630 – Boston became capital -Congregational Church- a system where each congregation chose its own minister and regulated its own affairs -Puritan Massachusetts was a theocratic society, where the line between the church and the state was hard to see The Expansion of New England -There was growing religious dissent when more people arrived in Massachusetts who did not accept all the religious aspects of the colony’s leaders- were given the choice of either to accept the religion or leave – many left -Thomas Hooker defied the Massachusetts government in 1635 and established a colony in the Connecticut Valley in the town of Hartford – adopted a formal constitution known as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut -Roger Williams, a controversial young minister founded Rhode Island; he was banished, bought a tract of land from the Narragansett Indians in the winter of 1635-1636 and created Providence on it – obtained charter permitting him to establish a government – this government gave no support to the church and let people have religious freedom -Ann Hutchinson had come to Massachusetts in 1634 and claimed that many clergy were among the nonelect and had no right to exercise authority over their congregations – questioned role of women in Puritan society – ideas nicknamed “Antinomianism” – in Greek meaning ‘hostile to the law’ – died in 1643 -Alarmed by Hutchinson’s heresy, male clergy began to restrict women’s roles in congregations – many of Hutchinson’s followers emigrated out of Massachusetts Bay

-Colonies were established in New Hampshire and Maine in 1629 when Captain John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges received a grant of land and divided it – New Hampshire became a separate colony in 1679 while Maine remained until 1820 Settlers and Natives -Indians were very important and provided crucial assistance to the early settlers- shared agricultural techniques, served as trading partners -However, there were also many conflicts because of the whites’ insatiable appetite for land -At first, many white New Englanders had looked at the Indians with a slight admiration but soon looked at them as “savages” The Pequot War, King Philip’s War, and the Technology of Battle -the first major conflict broke out in 1637, when white settlers in the Connecticut Valley and the Pequot Indians began to be hostile to each other -The English settlers allied with the Mohegan and Narragansett Indians (Pequot rivals) in what became known as the Pequot War – in the bloodiest act of the war, Captain John Mason set afire a palisaded Pequot stronghold – the Pequot tribe was almost wiped out -In 1675 occurred the most prolonged and deadly encounter between whites and Indians in the seventeenth century – known as King Philip’s War – Wamponoags, under their chief, King Philip to the whites, tried to resist the whites – terrorized Massachusetts towns – in 1676, the white settlers fought back and prevailed, receiving aid from the Mohawks, rivals with the Wampanoags – resulted in death of Metacomet (chief) -In these wars, the Indians used the flintlock rifle, replacing the matchlock rifle – caused many deaths -Narragansetts built a large fort in the Great Swamp of Rhode Island in 1675 – the site of many bloody battles – in the end, the technology the Indians gained proved no match for the advantages of the English settlers The Restoration Colonies -By the end of the 1630s, English settlers had established six significant colonies in the New World; Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire The English Civil War -Charles I, James’ I son, dissolved Parliament in 1629, ruling as an absolute monarch -In 1642, some members of parliament launched a military challenge to the king, which started the English Civil War -the conflict was between the Cavaliers (supporters of the king) and the Roundheads (forces of Parliament) and it lasted for seven years -In 1649, Parliament defeated the king’s forces and captured Charles himself – beheaded the monarch – replaced him with Oliver Cromwell who ruled for the next nine yearsafter he died in 1658, King Charles II, son of Charles I, returned from exile and claimed the throne -Charles II began to give grants of land in the New World – issued charters for four additional colonies: Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania – goal was to provide proprietors with land and power The Carolinas -Charles II award this territory to a group of eight court favorites – were issued charters in 1663 and 1665 – received almost kingly powers over grant

-The Charter of Carolina guaranteed religious freedom to everyone who would worship as a Christian – also gave settlers political freedom – laws made by representatives -these initial efforts to encourage settlement failed and most of the proprietors gave up except Anthony Ashley Cooper who convinced his partners to finance migrations to Carolina from England -Eventually, Charles Town was established as the capital of Carolina in 1690 -Cooper, with the aid of John Locke, drew up the Fundamental Constitution for Carolina in 1669 -Northern and Southern Carolina differed greatly – for several decades, Carolina remained one of the most unstable English colonies in America – tensions between Northern small farmers and Southern wealthy planters -After the Lord Shaftesbury’s death, the colonists seized control of Carolina in 1719 – ten years later, the king divided the colony into two colonies: North and South Carolina New Netherland, New York, and New Jersey -In 1664, Charles II granted his brother James land that was already owned by the Dutch -the English resented Dutch presence in North America because they served as a wedge between the Northern and Southern colonies -In 1664, Richard Nicolls an English fleet that sailed into the port of New Amsterdam and extracted a surrender from its Dutch governor, Peter Stuyvesant -In 1674, the Dutch lost New Amsterdam for good -James, the duke of York, renamed the colony New York, and prepared for diversity -New York contained many people from different countries and different religious faiths -James did not create a representative assembly in New York – power unequally balanced -When James ascended the throne as James II, New York contained about 30,000 people -When James received the charter, he gave a large portion to two political allies, Sir John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret – Carteret named the territory New Jersey, after the island in England where he was born – in 1702, New Jersey became a royal colony -New Jersey had ethnic diversity, but consisted of mostly small farmers – also did not produce any single important city Quaker Colonies -the followers of George Fox and Margaret Fell became known as the Quakers, also called the Society of Friends, which originated in mid-seventeenth century England -Quakers rejected idea of predestination and thought that everybody had an “inner light”, which would guide them righteousness – also, women and men had the same positions in the church as men – the Quakers had no church government – refused to fight in wars -Many Quakers wanted their own colony – because many people hated them, they needed an influential person at court to get a royal grant -One of these people was William Penn-became a Quaker and wanted to find a place for them to go in America – Charles II gave him a grant of territory between New York and Maryland – named Pennsylvania after Penn’s late father -Many residents of Pennsylvania were resentful of Penn’s absolute power over them and in 1701, Penn agreed to a Charter of Liberties, establishing a representative assembly -The charter also permitted “the lower counties” of the colony to create own representative assembly, this became a separate colony: Delaware, in 1703 Borderlands and Middle Grounds

-At this time, the English colonies were frail settlements surrounded by other competing societies such as the Spanish Empire to the south and the French one to the North The Caribbean Islands -Many English immigrants settled in the islands of the Caribbean and Bermuda -Before arrival of Europeans, the Caribbean island had substantial native populations, but since 1942 through 1496, when Columbus established a colony on Hispaniola, the native population was mostly wiped out by European epidemics -After Spain and the Netherlands went to war in 1621, the English had an easy time settling into the Caribbean islands – however, colonies were constantly attacked -English discovered that the most lucrative crop was sugar, which would be made into rum -Because sugar involved heavy labor to plant, the English eventually using an enslaved African work force, which soon outnumbered them Masters and Slaves in the Caribbean -Because slaves outnumbered them, whites in the Caribbean grew fearful of slave revolts -In the 1660s, the islands enacted legal codes regulating relations between masters and slave, giving white people absolute authority over Africans -In these harsh conditions, it was hard to develop a stable society and culture -The Caribbean settlements were connected to the North American colonies in that they were a source of sugar and rum and also were the main source of African slaves for the mainland colonies The Southwestern Borderlands -The Spanish had developed a great empire in the South, Mexico City its capital -However, the principal Spanish colonies north of Mexico remained weak and peripheral parts of the great empire to the south – the most populous of these was New Mexico which after they had quelled the Pueblo revolt in 1680, developed a flourishing agriculture – by the early nineteenth century, New Mexico had the greatest population in a European settlement west of the Mississippi and north of Mexico -The Spanish began to colonize California in the 1760s – used Indian slaves -the Spanish considered the biggest threat to the northern borders of their empire to be the growing ambitions of the French – in the 1680s, French explorers traveled down the Mississippi Valley to the mouth of the river and claimed the territory, calling it Louisiana -Unlike the English, the Spanish colonies in the Southwest did not displace the native populations but instead enlisted them The Southeast Borderlands -The Spanish claimed Florida in the 1560s – the site between the Carolinas and Florida was under increasing tension and frequent conflict between the Spanish and English and also the Spanish and the French, who threatened their northwestern borders with settlements in Louisiana and what is now Alabama -In 1668, English pirates sacked St. Augustine – both sides in this conflict used natives -Eventually, the English acquired Flirida after the French and Indian War The Founding of Georgia -Georgia was founded by a group of unpaid trustees led by General James Oglethorpe – wanted to erect a military barrier against the Spanish lands on the southern border of English America

-In 1732, King George II granted Oglethorpe control of the land between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers -They excluded Africans from the colony, fearing revolts that could involve slaves forming allies with the Spanish – they also prohibited rum – excluded Catholics -The first colonial expedition to Georgia was in 1733 -Many of the first settlers disliked the strict regulations in Georgia and moved to South Carolina – eventually Oglethorpe began to loosen his grip – in 1750, the trustees removed the ban on slavery and removed the prohibition of rum a year later – they also returned control of the colony to the king Middle Grounds -in some parts of the British empire such as Virginia and New England, the English settlers had displaced most natives until they were dominated mostly by whites -the “middle grounds” were the places along the western borders of English settlement where neither Indians nor settlers were able to establish clear dominance -Before many English settlers had entered the interior of North America, the French had created mutually beneficial relationships with the native tribes – the English eventually learned somewhat to do this, but as American presence in the region grew, the balance of power shifted – the relationship between whites and natives began to deteriorate The Evolution of the British Empire The Drive for Reorganization -Many people in England believed that Imperial reorganization would contribute to the success of the mercantile system, the foundation of the English economy -Because the mercantilist theory said that any wealth flowing to another nation would come to the expense of England itself, the British government tried to monopolize trade relations with its colonies -Because a considerable trade grew between English colonies and non-English markets, the English Parliament passed three Navigation Acts: in 1660, it closed the colonies to all trade except that carried in English ships, the second act, in 1663, provided that all goods being shipped from Europe to the colonies had to pass through England on the way to tax them, the third act, in 1673, imposed duties on the coastal trade among the English colonies, and it provided for the appointment of customs officials to enforce these laws The Dominion of New England -Massachusetts became a royal colony in 1679 -James II, Charles II’s brother and successor, came to the throne in 1685 and in 1686, created a single Dominion of New England and appointed a single governor, Sir Edmund Andros, who enforced the Navigation Acts rigidly – despised in Massachusetts The “Glorious Revolution” -By 1688, the popular support of James II had vanished -James II wanted his son, who he would raise Catholic, to be his heir, but members of Parliament made the king’s daughter Mary and her husband, William of Orange to assume the throne together – when William and Mary arrived in England with a small army, James II fled to France – this was called the “Glorious Revolution” – no blood -when the Bostonians heard this, they quickly overthrew Andros and abolished the Dominion of New England -In 1691, the new sovereigns combined Massachusetts with Plymouth and made it a royal colony

-“Leislerians” and “anti-Leislerians -In 1689, John Coode, an old opponent of Maryland’s governor Lord Baltimore, drove out his officials in the name of Protestantism – his supporters chose a committee to run the government and asked for a charter to make Maryland a royal colony – William and Mary agreed and in 1691, stripped Lord Baltimore of his authority -The Glorious Revolution helped colonies revive their representative governments and thwarted the plan for colonial unification Summary/Conclusion -In the British colonies of the Atlantic seaboard, the northern colonies featured more traditional food crops and was based on free labor while the southern colonies focused on tobacco and cotton and was reliant on slave labor -the British empire in North America often had conflicts with the presence of other Europeans, particularly the Spanish and French -the English had to learn to accommodate the many Indian tribes that they lived near -the British would soon dominate a much larger area of North America

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