saklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj

mhaviTüal½ysgÁmsaRsþ nigmnusSsaRsþ
ed):atWm:g; RbvtþiviTüa

sarNabBa©b;briBaØab½RtRbvtiþviTüa

R s a v R C av n ig n iBn § e d a y ³
nisSitRbvtþiviTüa CMnan;TI 23
d w kn aM eday ³
elaksa®sþacarü vg; suFar:a
PMñeBj mifuna 2006

saklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj
mhaviTüal½ysgÁmsaRsþ nigmnusSsaRsþ
ed):atWm:g; RbvtþiviTüa

sarNabBa©b;briBaØab½RtRbvtiþviTüa

R s a v R C av n ig n iBn § e d a y ³
nisSitRbvtþiviTüa CMnan;TI 23
12345-

elak
GñkRsI
elak
GñkRsI
elak

KN³kmµkarvaytMél
ehg sMNag RbFan
hak; suCati
GnuRbFan
vg; suFara:
sa®sþacarüdwknaM
sun vNÑa
sa®sþacarüriHKn;
Ca vi F U r
sa®sþacarüriHKn;

karBar enAéf¶TI09 Exmifuna qñaM2006

GarmÖkfa
8

karelIkykRbFanbT {EsVgyl;BIclnaExµr\sSr³-krNIsikSaelICIvitts‘Urbs;GtIt
Exµr\sSr³ nI va:n;FI} mksikSaRsavRCav KWedIm,IEsVgyl;GMBICIvPaBénkarts‘U TamTarÉkraCüBI
)araMg tamry³GtItGñkts‘UmYyrUb. Gñkts‘UrUbenH k¾dUcCaRkumts‘UExµr\sSr³TaMgmUlEdr ebI
sineyIgniyayCaTUeTA minRtUv)anRbCaCnExµrsMEdgnUvkardwgKuN b¤y:agehacNas;KYrnwk
eXIjdl;GVI EdlBYkeK)anbUCakmøaMgkay nigBlICIvitsRmab;CatienaHeT. pÞúyeTAvij clna
Exµr\sSr³ RtUv)aneKecaTRbkan;fa Ca {\sSeracak;}eTotpg.
CakarBit karecaTRbkan;EbbenHmanPaBRtwmRtUvmYycMENkEdr b:uEnþvak¾minBitCaRtwm
RtUv100PaKryenaHeT . eRBaHfa clnaExµr\sSr³RbmUlpþúM edaymnusSeRcInCMBUk1 manTaMgBYk
eqVgniym BYksþaMniym GñkesñhaCatiExµrBitR)akd GñkesñhaCatiEkøgkøay b¤BYkGñk»kas
niym. dUcCa BYkecaréRBEdlmincab;GarmµN_Rslaj;ÉkraCüGVIesaH EteqøóteBlEdlRsuk
eTsmanerOgRcbUkRcbl; k¾taMgxøÜnÉgCa\sSr³ ehIyedIrbMPitbMP½yqk;bøn;RbCaCnsøÚtRtg;
eTA. m:üageTot RbCaCnExµrPaKeRcInmin)ankt;sMKal;fa clnaExµr\sSr³minEmnCaclna
T½BéRBdUc²KñaenaHeT. etIBYkeKmandwgeTfa buKlÁ TaMgLayénclna\sSr³mankMeNItedImTg
TsSn³neya)ay/ TisedA nigCatisasn_epSg²Kña2.
´)aTsUmbBa¢ak;fa karsikSaRsavRCavrbs;´naeBlenH BuMmaneKalbMNgecaTRbkan;
fanrNaCa\sSr³GaRkk;/ CaecarlYcbøn;/ xilxUc/ k,t;Cati>>>enaHeT ehIy´k¾minBüayam
bkRsayTak;Taj[RbCaCnExµr nigRbiymitþGñkGanTaMgLayeCOCak;fa nrNaCa\sSr³l¥ b¤
esñhaCatiBitR)akdenaHEdr. eKalbMNgBitR)akdénkarsikSaRbFanbTenH KWsMxan;´)aT
cg;RbmUlBt’man b¤erOgr:avBitEdl)anekIteLIgCMuvijclnats‘UExµr\sSr³ mklatRtdag[
RbCaCnExµrnigRbiymitþ)andwg nigRCabEtb:ueNÑaH. cMENk karsnñidæan nigvaytMély:agNa
1

Available at : http://www.asianartmall.com/Cambodia/Independence.html

on 09/05/06 at 8:44.

2

Ibid., http://www.asianartmall.com/Cambodia/Independence.html

on 09/05/06 at 8:44.

i

enaH CaPar³rbs;Gs;elak edayeyaleTAelIkaryl;dwgerog²xøÜn. b:uEnþ ´Kitfa elakGñkKYr
RbmUl nigEsVgyl;Bt’man[)aneRcIn eTIbsMerccitþsnñidæanGVImYyRbkbedaysuRkwtPaB)an.
enHCakic©xitxMRbwgERbgmYy sRmab;karsikSaRbvtþisa®sþ tamry³Éksarrs; edayeFVI
karsaksYrBIsakSIénsm½yenaH EdlkMBgu rs;enAkñgú eBlsBVéf¶enH kñgú v½ycas;CraNas;eTAehIy
enaH [)anTan;eBlevla. ebIytW eBlenaH ´eCOfa Gaf’kM)aMgCaeRcIn nwgRtUvkb;)at;Gs;eTACamYy
Gñksøab;. mü:ageTot ebIeyIgenAcaMlT§PaBsikSatamRTg;RTayFMenaH k¾R)akdCahYseBlEdr.
kñúgn½yenHehIy eTIb´)aTseRmccitþRbmUlcgRkgBt’man sRmab;bMeBjlkçxNÐénkarsikSa
enH nigsRmab;elakGñk nigRbiymitþGñkGanTaMgGs; Ettamry³sakSI nigCaGñkman
bTBiesaFn_cUlRbLÚkkñúgkargarts‘UEtmñak;.
eKalbMNgsMxan;mYyeToténkarsikSaRbFanbTenH KWedIm,IlatRtdagGMBIkarts‘U
RbyuT§CamYysRtUv/ l,ickic©klyuT§saRsþ/ neya)ayépÞkñúgrbs;clnats‘U nigkarTak;Tg
CamYYysßab½nxageRkA k¾dUcCasikSaGMBIrbt;énkarts‘URbdab;GavuF nigdMeNaHRsaybBaðaEdl
RbQmmuxcMeBaHExµr\sSr³mYyRkumFM.
EteTaHCay:agNa kñúgdMeNIrkarRbmUlTinñn½yenH ´)anCYbRbTHnUvkarlM)akCaeRcIn
kñúgenaHrYmmankgVHÉksar karcgcaMkalbriecäTminc,as;rbs;elak nI v:an;FI eBlKat;pþl;kar
smÖasn_. ]TahrN_ Kat;min)ancgcaMkalbriecäTEdl Kat;)ancUleronsalanayTahanenA
taenov kñúgextþkMBg;s<W CamYYyemT½BeQµaH hwum xan; enaHeT. Kat;RtwmEtcaM)anfa dMNal
KñaenaH elaksWgu g¨ku faj; rt;clU éRBmþgeTot kñgú eKalbMNgbRgYbbRgYmclnaExµr\sSr³TaMg
Gs;. karenH tRmUv[eyIgeFVIkarRsavRCavteTAeTot rkkalbriecäTénRBwtþikarN_enaH. Cakar
garmYylM)ak EtKYr[cab;GarmµN_pgEdr EdlsßitkñúgkaleTs³EbbenH. eRkayBIkarEsVgrk
Éksarnana edayGt;Fµt; edIm,IbBa¢ak;BIeBlevlaEdlelak sWug g¨ku faj; rt;clU éRBmþgeTot
eTIbenATIbMput ´Gacdwgfa elak suWg g:ukfaj; )anrt;cUléRBmþgeTot enAéf¶TI9 Exmifnu a
qñaM1952. ehtudUecñH eTIb´dwgGMBIkalbriecäTEdlelak nI v:an;FI )ancUleronsalanay
Tahan enAbnÞaytaenov enHEdr.
dUcKñaenHEdr eBlcuHeTAsmÖasn_rUbKat;mþg² ´)aTk¾maneBlxøHCYbRbTHnUv eRKaHfñak;
edayécdnüpgEdr. eTaHbICa ´RtUveqøóteBlTMenrBIkareronkñúgfñak; eTAsuMCYbsmÖasn_Kat;
y:agNa k¾maneBlxøH ´RtUvxkxandMeNIredaysarKat;rvl;eFVIdMeNIreTARbkbrbrciBa©wmCIvit
ii

rbs;RKYsarKat;paÞ l;pgEdr. karenHehIy CaktþabNþal[kick© arsresrsñaédRsavRCavenH man
karyWty:av.
b:uEnþ CafñÚrnwgkarlM)akxagelI vak¾)anpþl[; ´nUvbTBiesaFn_kñúgkarRsavRCav nigcMeNH
dwgCaeRcInEdr CaBiess Tak;TgnwgbBaðalm¥itrbs;Exµr\sSr³esrI nigkMumuynIsþmYycMnYn kñúg
eBlts‘UenAkñúgéRB. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday ´eCOtamsmþIrbs;GñkR)aCJaCaeRcInrUb Edl)an
eBalfa {karRsavRCavniBn§ KµanTIbBa©b;eT} vaEtgEtGaRs½yeTAelIbec©kBaküd¾sMxan; BIrm:at;
KW (Time)kal³ nig (Space)eTs³. y:agNamij kic©karrbs;´enAeBlenH k¾dUcKñaEdr vamuxCa
mancMNucex©aH xVHxat nigqÁaMqÁgxøH edayGectnaCaminxan. ehtuenHehIy ´sUmsVaKmn_ nUv
ral;mtisßabnaTaMgGs;rbs;Gs;elakGñk nigRbiymitþGñkGanTaMgGs; edIm,IEklMGsñaédenH [
kan;EtsuRkwtüeLIg.
fVeI bIkarsresrenH ´)anTTYlkarRbwkSapþle; yabl; nigEktRmUvCaeRcInBIelaksa®sþacarü
dwknaMTaMgGs; b:uEnþ´Kitfa´Etmñak;ÉgCaGñkTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHxøwmsarénsarNaenH TaMgRsug
cMeBaHbTdæannana kñúgkarsresrEtgniBn§. ´sgÇwmfa sñaédenHnwgrYmcMENkCa RbTIbmYy
sRmab;bMPøWdl;GñksikSaRsavRCavCMnan;eRkay²eTot .
PñMeBj/ éf¶TI25 Exmifuna qñaM2006
GñkniBn§
fa lagGag

(Y)
iii

]TÞissñaéd
Cabzm ´)aTsUm]TÞissñaédenH CUndl;viBaØNkç½n§mhabuBVbursExµr Edl)ants‘U
bUCaTaMgkmøaMgkay/ citþ nigTaMgGayuCIvitrbs;xøÜn edIm,IÉkraCPaBrbs;km<úCa.
-RvH)aTC½yvmµ’eTvTI2 Edl)anbgábegáItGaNacRkGgÁrenAqñaM802K>s> nigCa
ehIyerobcMCaeRscnUvmUldæanRKwHrwgmaMénkarksagnKrsRmab;kUnecACMnan;eRkay EdlRBHraC
sñaRBHhsßd¾]tþúgÁ]tþmÖenH RtUv)anGñkR)aCJCaeRcInyl;RsbCasklfa KµanemdwknaMNamYykñúg
RbvtþisaRsþkm<úCa EdlGacksagRbeTsxøÜnÉg ehIyEfmTaMgGacbgðat;beRgon[kUnecACMnan;
eRkayecHbnþevn edayerobcMksag nigdwknaMRbeTs[)anrugerOgGs;ry³eBlCag500 qñaM .
-RBH)aThrirkSrama\sSraFibtI GgÁ dYg Edl)anxitxMBüayamkarBarTwkdIExµr.
-RBH)aT neratþm )anTb;Tl;cMeBaHeRKaHfñak;)at;bg;TwkdIExµr BIkarelbykrbs;esom
nigyYn edayesñI[)araMgCYykarBarkm<úCa.
TnÞwmnwgenH ´sUm]TÞissñaédenHCUndl;viBaØaNkç½n§Gñkts‘UExµresñhaCatiBitR)akdEdl
)anBlICIvit edIm,IbuBVehtuÉkraCü niglT§iRbCaFibetyüniymdMbUg²rbs;Catikm<úCa³
-RBHGgÁm©as; sIusuvtiþ yutþivgS, elakeGos ekIs, elak):ac QWn,
-elakGacarüEhm ecov nigelak sWug g:ukfaj;.
-bNþaemdwknaM nigyuT§CnExµr\sSr³TaMgGs;EdlmanKMnitesñhaCatiBitR)akd nig)an
xitxMrbwgERbgts‘UEsVgrkÉkraCüsRmab;RbeTskm<úCa.
-CIdUn nUc ywg nigCIta nU eRsg Edl)ancakecalRbBn§kUn edIm,Ikarts‘UrMedaHCati.
-bNÐit bBaØavnþ RbvtiþviTU nigGñkniBn§TaMgGs;EdlRslaj;cUlcitþCIkkkayGaf’kM)aMgBI
GtItkalmklatRtdagCUn CaKMrUdl;RbCaCnExµrRbeyaCn_ edIm,IcUlrYmksagRbeTsCati
km<úCa.
KuNUbkar³rbs;elakTaMgGs; sUmexmr³kulbuRt nigkulFItaTaMgGs;sMbYgsMrUgcitþ
rMlwknwkdl;KuN nigkic©kard¾éføføarbs;Gs;elak nigemtþaebþCJacitþxMrkSakic©karenHbnþeTot
edIm,I karBar nigEfrkSaTwkdIkm<úCad¾tUc nigkMst;enH[rs;ranmanCIvitrhUtdl;mankarGPivDÆ
dUcGarüRbeTselIBiPBelak.
(Y)
iv

esckþIEføgGMNrKuN
munnwg´mansmtßPaBcgRkgsñaédenHeLIg ´)anTTYlkarTMnukbRmug nigGb;rMBIGs;
elakGñkmanKuNCaeRcIn. ehtudUecñH CabzmenH ´)aTsUmEføgGMNrKuNdl;elakGñkmanKuN
TaMgGs;enaHedayesµaHs nigy:agRCaleRCAbMput CaBiesscMeBaH ³
CIdUnCIta elak«Buk nU suIfa nigGñkmþay RTI KImLag Edl)anxMts‘UciBa©wmbI)ac;rUbkUn
nigbgb¥ÚnTaMg8nak;eTot [)anFMFat; nigpÁt;pÁg;[kUn²TaMgGs; )aneronsURtecHdwg rYcput
BIGnkçrkmµ edIm,IcUlrYmcMENkksagFnFanmnusSenAkm<úCa [)aneRcInCaGtibrima RbeyaCn_
CYyksagmatuPUmikMst;éneyIg.
elakRKUGñkRKU Edl)anxitxMbgðat;beRgoneRbonRbedArUb´)aTtaMgBItUcrhUtmk nig
sUmGrKuNCaBiessdl;elak nigGñkRsIsaRsþacarüTaMgGs;éned):atWm:g;RbvtiþviTüa Edl)an
pþl;cMeNHdwgd¾mansar³sMxan; dl;´)aTpÞal; nigCatimatuPUmikm<úCa Edl´sUmbBa¢ak;namdUc
teTAenH ³
-elaksaRsþacarü gin vuF RbFaned):atWm:g;RbvtiþviTüa,
-elaksaRsþacarü sMbUr m:aNÑar:a GnuRbFaned):atWm:g;RbvtiþTüa,
-elaksaRsþacarü vg; suFar:a GnuRbFaned):atWm:g;RbvtiþviTüa Edl)andwknaMkareFVI
sarNaenH rYmTaMgkarpþl;eyabl; k¾dUcCakarykcitþTukdak;CYyeRCamERCg nig]btßmÖKaMRT
TaMgsµartI nigsmÖar³dl;´)aT kñúgkarcuHeFVIkarRsavRCavdl;TIkEnøg ¬Field Work¦ taMgBIedImTI
rhUtmk.
-elaksaRsþacarü GUn yuvr:a nig GñkRsIsaRsþacarü sun vNÑa Edl)anCYyEksMrYl
GkçraviruT§ enAkñúgsñaédsarNaenH.
-elaksaRsþacarü BMu sumunIr³ Edl)anpþl;karBiPakSa nigmtiEklMGl¥²CaeRcIn.
-GñkRKUbNÑarkSTaMgGs; énsklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBjmNÐl2 Edl)anGnuBaØat[´
)aTx©IsñaédsarNarbs;nisSitRbvtþiviTüaknøgmk.
-elak nI v:an;FI CaGtItGñkts‘UExµr\sSr³d¾BitR)akd Edlpþl;karsmÖasn_ nigEck
rMElkbTBiesaFn_CIvitd¾l¥ edIm,IcUlrYmcMENkcgRkg nigrkSaRbvtiþsaRsþkm<úCaeyIg.

v

CacugeRkay ´sUmsMEdgnUvkardwgKuNdl;elak eGdv:d eG> )øan; ¬Edward A. Blunt¦
BlrdæGaemrickaMg sBVéf¶ rs;enATIRkugjÚveb‘Ín rdæNt;kaLÚrINa shrdæGaemric ¬New Bern,
North Calorina, United States¦ Edl)ancab;GarmµN_elIRbFanbTenH ehIy)anCYyCMruj[
kargarRsavRCavmanPaBgayRsYl mYykMriteTot CamYynwgkarpþl;kuMBüÚT½ryYrédmYyeRKOg nig
esovePA Ed;lmanGtþn½yl¥²mYycMnYnpgEdr dl;´)aT.
´sUmsMEdgnUvkareKarBdwgKuN nigCUnBrdl;elakGñkmanKuN nigsb,úrsCnxagelI
sUm[elakTaMgGs; mansuxPaBl¥ nigeCaKC½ykñúgkic©kargar nigCIvitCaerogrhUt edIm,ICYy
júaMgnUvRbeyaCn_dl;CatimatuPUmi nigBiPBelakTaMgmUl.

(Y)

vi

Bakükat;EdleRbIkñúgsarNa
1. KPLC

: Khmer People’s Liberation Committee.

¬KN³CatimutþKahamCÄwmnKrExµr¦
2. KNLC

: Khmer Nation Liberation Committee.

¬KN³kmµaFikarrMedaHCatiExµr¦
3. UFI

: United Issarak Front.

¬rNsirSÉkPaB\sSr³¦
4. ICP

5.
6.

: Indochinese Communist Party.

¬KNbkSkMumµúnIsþ\NÐÚcin¦
¬s> m¦ ³ sUmemIl ¬See¦.
P. ¬TM¦
³ Page ¬TMB½r¦.

7. Viet Minh : Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi.
(League for the Independence of Vietnam)

¬sm<½n§edIm,IÉkraCPaBevotNam¦.

(Y)

vii

matika

8

TMB½r
GarmÖkfa ------------------------------------------------------ i
]TÞissñaéd --------------------------------------------------- iv
esckþIEføgGMNrKuN -------------------------------------------- v
Bakükat;EdleRbIkñúgsarNa-------------------------------------- vii
matika------------------------------------------------------- 8
CMBUkTI1 ³ esckþIepþIm ------------------------------------------ 1
1> eKalbMNg ------------------------------------------------- 4
2> RbvtþibBaða -------------------------------------------------- 4
2>1> kMNkMeNIt ------------------------------------------------- 4
2>2> smaCiknigkarrIklUtlas; ------------------------------------- 5
2>3> skmµPaB --------------------------------------------------- 7
2>4> karKMramkMEhgcMeBaHrdæGMNac --------------------------------- 9
2>5> esckþIbBa¢ak; -----------------------------------------------11
3> viFIsaRsþRsavRCav -----------------------------------------12
CMBUkTI2- CIvPaBkñúgclna\sSr³dMbUg ----------------------------14
2>1> RbvtþikalBIkumarPaB ---------------------------------------- 14
2>2> karRbLÚkcUlkñúgclna\sSr³dMbUg----------------------------- 14
2>2>1>mUlehtuénkarcUlrYm --------------------------------------- 14
2>2>2>kargareXasnakar ----------------------------------------- 15
2>2>3>CIvitenAPñMdgErk -------------------------------------------17
2>3> karrkR)ak;sRmab;Rkum ----------------------------------------18
k- karrksuIlYceKogeKa ------------------------------------------ 19
viii

x- karrksuIcab;CMrit----------------------------------------------21
2>4> skmµPaBRbyuT§dMbUg ----------------------------------------- 25
2>5> karEbk)ak;épÞkñúgKN³kmµkarExµrsagCati -----------------------30
CMBUkTI3- clnaExµr\sSr³rbs;neratþm cnÞrgSI --------------------- 33
3>1> RbvtþiRTg;neratþm cnÞrgSI------------------------------------ 33
3>2> karbegáItclna ---------------------------------------------35
3>3> kardeNþIm\Ti§BlKña -----------------------------------------36
3>4> vin½ykgT½B ------------------------------------------------39
3>5> CMenOelIkmøaMgeRkAxøÜn nigTMnak;TMngCamYyyYnevotmij ---------- 40
3>6> smrPUmisMxan; ---------------------------------------------- 45
3>7> yuT§sa®sþs®gÁamT½BéRB-------------------------------------- 47
3>8> snñisITRkughSWENv----------------------------------------- 50
CMBUkTI4- smahrNkmµkgT½BExµr\sSr³-------------------------- 52
4>1> smahrNkmµ nigkarxkcitþ---------------------------------- 52
4>2> tYnaTIfµI nigGnaKtPriyaraCvgS------------------------------- 54
4>3> etIGPiCncat;TukBYkExµr\sSr³eTAkñúgRkummnusSfñak;Na?----------- 58
4>4> karpÁt;pÁg;xøÜnÉgCafµI -----------------------------------------61
4>5> rdæRbharsøab;kñúgeBaH ----------------------------------------67
4>6> yuT§nakarkMcat;Exµr\sSr³------------------------------------- 69
4>6>1>l,icb®gáabrdæRbharKP’ ------------------------------------- 69
4>6>2>karePosxøÜneTARsukyYnxagt,Úg -----------------------------71
4>6>3>karCab;eTas]Rkwdæ ----------------------------------------- 74
4>6>4>rYcBIKukmunkMNt;salRkm----------------------------------- 75
CMBUkTI 5 ³ esckþIsnñidæan ------------------------------------ 77
KMnitKYrBicarNa ----------------------------------------------80
ix

ÉksarBieRKaH ----------------------------------------------- 82
1> bTsmÖasn_ ------------------------------------------------82
2> esovePAeyagCaPasaCati ------------------------------------82
3> PasabreTs ----------------------------------------------- 84
4> GIunF½reNt -------------------------------------------------- 84
]bsm<½n§ ----------------------------------------------------85

(Y)

x

CMBUkTI1 ³ esckþIepþIm

5

elak sM y:ag enAkñgú esckþeI pþmI énesovePA “savtar)at;dbM g;CardæsyY ” rbs;elak
)anecaTsYrfa etIRBHGgÁDgY )aneFVGI xIV Hø edIm,I[RbeTsExµrrs;eLIgvij bnÞab;BIRbeTsenHexÞcxÞaM
edaysars®gÁam nigkarQøanBanBIRbeTsCitxag?3 CakarBitNas; kñgú kal³eTs³RbeTsFøak;
Tn;exSayEbbenH eK)andwgfaRBHGgÁxlV x; aV yCanicc© eM BaHkar)at;bg;TwkdI. RTg;)anRCabfa)araMg
)ancUlmkdl;EdndIksU aMgsunI ¬Sic.¦ RBHGgÁmanRBHraCtMrHi cg;cgs<anemRtICamYy)araMg edIm,I
TamTarykTwkdIExµr BIesom nigBIGaNÑammkvij.4
eRkayeBlRBHGgÁesayTIvgÁt; Gs;ry³eBlCitmYystvtS rab;cab;BéI f¶cHu sn§si BaØaéf¶
TI11 ExsIha qña1M 863 RbeTskm<Cú a BitCaRtUv)andak;eRkamGaNaBüa)al)araMgEmn.5 eyag
tamsn§si BaØaenH RbeTs)araMgRKan;EtCaGaNaBüa)al emIlkarxusRtUv karBarRbeTskm<Cú aEt
b:eu NÑaH. b:Eu nþ karGnuvtþGN
M acpÞal;rbs;)araMg manlkçN³epSg nigmindUcRBHraCtMrHi RBHGgÁdgY
nigneratþm TaMgRsugenaHeT. m®nþGI aNaBüa)al)araMg)anRbRBwtniþ vU GMeBICaeRcIn xusBIsn§si BaØa
enH nig)anbgç[M RBH)aTneratþm[cuHGnusBaØafµmI YyeTot edIm,IbMeBjtamtRmUvcitþ niggayRsYl
eFVGI ²IV EdleKKitfa saksmnwgeFVI 6 ehIyERbkøaykm<Cú a CaTwkdIGaNaniKmmYyeTAvij.
etIm®nþTI aMgenaH man)anRCabeTfa GVIEdleKKitfa s½ksiþ menaH vaminRtUv)anRbCara®sþ
Exµr eBjcitnþ gi KaMRTeLIy. elIsBIenHeTAeTot sUm,IEtRBH)aTneratþmxønÜ RBHGgÁhgwñ k¾)an

3

sM y:ag{savtar)at;dMbg;CardæsYy qñaM1795-1907} san;dWELn m:asaQUEqt qñaM 1995 TM> 7.
4
QWn sumina{viPaKxøwmsarGnusBaØa)araMg-Exµr 17 mifuna 1884} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüa CMnan;TI saklviTüal½y
PUminÞPñMeBj RkugPñMeBj mifuna 2002 TM> 3-4.
5
nYn suIdar:a{EsVgyl;BIsn§isBaØa)araMg-Exµr 11 sIha 1863} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüa CMnan;TI saklviTüal½y
PUminÞPñMeBj RkugPñMeBj mifuna 2002 TM> 21.
6
QWn sumina {viPaKxøwmsarGnusBaØa)araMg-Exµr 17 mifuna 1884}, op. cit., TM> 3-4.

-1-

ttaMg raraMg cMeBaHkarBüayamrbs;)araMg RKb;meFüa)aypgEdr7. dUecñHehIy eTIbmanpÞHú eLIg
nUvclnabHe)ar nigRbqaMgekItmanCabnþbnÞab;.
Cak;EsþgenAcenøaHqña1M 863-1866 bkSBYkGacarüsVa enAextþRTaMgsBVéf¶ sßti enAextþ
kMBt nigextþtaEkv edIm,ITamTar[)araMgRbKl;ÉkraCüdl;RbeTsExµrvij8.
enAqña1M 865-1867 bkSBYkGacarü eBaFikeM )ar)anegIbRbqaMgnwgkarRbmUlBn§darF¶n;
F¶rrbs;)araMg ehIyQaneTArkkarvayRbharraCFanI]tþgú Á nigCayRkugPñeM BjenA éf¶T7I mkra
1867.9
enAqña1M 876-1877 nig1885-1886 suvI tu aß )anbgábkSBYkenATisbUBa’ edIm,IRbqaMg
nwg)araMg ¬eTaHCaGñkRbvtþsi aRsþCaeRcIn ecaTfa sIvu tu aß manbMNgdeNþmI raCübløg½ k¾eday¦.10
elIsBIenHeTAeTot eKsegáteXIjmanclnaRbqaMgnwg)araMgCaeRcIneTot dUcCa bkS
BYk]kj:aRkLaehamKg; ]kj:aBisÑúelakQUk ]kj:asYKa’elakC½y bNÐitnU )aLat;enA
GacarüeBA )aLat;m:a )aLat;RsI ]kj:amhaviC½y. eTaHCay:agNa ral;karbHe)aHRbqaMgTaMg
LayenaH RtUvTTYlbraC½y. eRBaH clnaTaMgenH minmanbec©keTssmÖar³ nigGavuFl¥²
sRmab;eRbIR)as;dUc)araMg. BYkeKmanEtkaMePøIgburaNlMEBg dav Exl rYmTaMgmankmøaMgtictYc
nigRtUv)andwknaMkarRbyuTt§ amkaryl;eXIjrbs;emT½B b¤ embHe)armñak; EdlxVHkarshRbtibtiKþ añ
nig kll,icyuT§sa®sþ. 11
enAeRkays®gÁamelakelIkTI2 manelceLIgnUvRkumCatiniymTMenIbfµI dUcCa elak
):ac QWn/ elak sIum v:a/ elak suWg g:ukfaj;/ elakRKU ):ag xat;/ elakGacarü Ehm ecov
7

s>m> semþc neratþm sIhnu {RBH)aTsemþcRBHneratþm RBHGgÁ)aneRbImeFüa)ayGs;sBVRKb; edIm,IeCosvagkuM[
RbeTsFøak;cUleTAenAeRkamGaNaBüa)al} RBwtþib½Rt raCaniymExµr kñúgsarB½t’man er:GalIet kaMbUdEhSn bkERb
eday semþc Eb:n nut.
8
Qwm KImlI nigGñkdéTeTot{clnaExµr\sSr³kñúgCIvPaBneya)ayExµr} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüaCMnan; TI13
saklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj qñaM1995-1996 TM> 3.
9

Ibid., p 3.

10
11

Ibid., p. 3.

hiun sIufan{kRmgÉksarsMxan;²sþIBIRbeTskm<úCa} RkugsIuGafil shrdæGaemric/ 1986 TM> 22.

-2-

Edl)aneRbIviFIsarBt’man nigkareXasna edIm,IbMpusTwkcitþRbCaCn[eRkakQrTamTar
ÉkraCüBI)araMg. TnÞwmnwgenaH k¾mankarbegáItCaRkumclnaCatiniymepSg² dUcCa clnats‘U
Exµr\sSr³ CaedIm. xusBI RkumbBaØavnþxagedIm Edl)aneRCIserIskarykkarts‘Umti nigkarTUt
dUcCa tamry³karbegáIt kaEstnKrvtþ b¤ kareTsnadas;etOnstiGarmµN_ [RbCara®sþExµr
ecHPJak;rlwk RkumclnaenH)aneRCIserIsykkarRbyuT§ edayGavuF edIm,ITamTarÉkraCü
BI)araMg. etIkarts‘Usm½yeRkayenH manrUbPaBEbbNaxøH? etIBYkeKbgábegáItkmøaMgKaMRT )an
edayrebobNa? ehIymaneCaKC½y b¤eT? etImanlkçN³xusBIkarts‘Usm½ymun y:agNaxøH?
etInrNa)ancUlrYmkñúgclnaenH?
m:üageTot TaMgemdwknaM nigyuT§CnExµr\sSr³)aneBalGHGagfa xøÜnmanmnsikareRkak
QreLIgdeNþImÉkraCüBI)araMg nigcg;EsVgrksiT§iesrIPaBCUnRbCaBlrdærbs;xøÜn EtEbrCaRtUv
eKecaTRbkan;faCa {\sSeracak;} eTAvij. etIBaküecaTRbkan;enHmanRbPBmkBINa? etIehtuGIV
)anCaGñkEdlcat;TukxøÜnÉgfa CaCnmanmnsikar bENþtbeNþay[xøÜnmanekrþ×eQµaHsMGuy
y:agenH? b¤mYymankarlM)ak b¤Gaf’kM)aMgepSg?
cm¶l;CaeRcInGacelceLIgCuMvijbribTenH. sMNagl¥rbs;matuPUmikm<úCaeyIg Edl
sakSIrs;d¾sMxan;mñak;enAmanCIvitrs;enA ehIyyl;RBmEckrMElkbTBiesaFn_CIvitpÞal;xøÜn nig
CYypþlc; emøyI tbeTAnwgcm¶lE; bbenH eTAtamGVEI dlKat;)andwgnigqøgkat;RBwtkiþ arN_Rbvtþsi a®sþ
knøgmk. sakSIrbU enH KWelak nI v:an;FI sBVéf: r¶ s;enAkñgú Rsukbresdæ extþkBM g;s.W< Kat;)ancUlrYm
kñúgclnaExµr\sSr³enH taMgEtBIKat;manGayu13qñaMemø:H enAÉRsukkMeNItrbs;elak enAkñúg
extþ)at;dMbg. etIehtuGVI)anCaKat;cUlrYmkñúgkarts‘UenaH ehIy etIKat;)aneFVIGVIxøHedIm,IbuBVehtu
Cati? Kat;BitCa)aneFVIkic©karCaeRcInsRmab;RbeyaCn_Catikm<úCa EtKat;hak;dUcCa minEmnCa
buKÁl»kasniym nig{q¥ink,alsuIk,al q¥inknÞúysuIknÞúy}dUcGñkts‘UdéTeRcIneTotesaH .
edayemIleXIjnUvvIrPaB ]tþmKtid¾Ebøk nigskmµPaBd¾sMxan;rbs;elak nI v:an;FI kñúg
karbeRmIIsgÁmCatiy:agesµaHsEbbenHehIy eTIb´sMerccitþeFVIkarRsavRCavelIRbFanbT
{EsVgyl;BIclnaExµr\sSr³-krNIsikSaelICvI itts‘Urbs;GtItExµr\sSr³ nI va:n;FI} edIm,Ibgðaj
BIKMrUCIviténGtItGñkts‘UExµr\sSr³mñak;Edl Rbwgts‘U edIm,IbuBVehturMedaHCatimatuPUmi nigedIm,I
cgRkgTukCaÉksaremeronRbvtiþsaRsþmYyRCug[Exµr TaMgGs;)andwg nigTukCabTBiesaFn_.
-3-

1> eKalbMNg
clnaExµr\sSr³ KWCaclnats‘URbdab;GavuFmYyEdl)anRbwgERbg edIm,IdeNþImÉkraCü
sRmab;RbeTskm<Cú a. va)anCH\T§Bi ly:ageRcIndl;CvI PaBneya)ayExµrnasm½yenaH. karsikSa
RbFanbTenH naeBlenHKWmaneKalbMNgdUcteTA ³
- EsVgyl;GMBICIvPaBénkarts‘U.
- EsVgyl;GMBIkarRbyuT§CamYysRtUv ¬karRbyuT§ nigyuT§saRsþ¦.
- bgðajBIneya)ayépÞkñúgrbs;clnats‘U nigkarTak;TgCamYYysßab½nxageRkA.
- sikSaGMBIrbt;énkarts‘URbdab;GavuF nigdMeNaHRsaybBaðaEdlRbQmmux.
2> RbvtþibBaða
tamry³GñkniBn§knøgmk dUcCaelak b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul hak;BüayamBnül; {Kat;CaRbFan
b¤RbmuxénclnaExµr\sSr³dMbUgeK} enA)at;dMbgEtb:ueNÑaH. EttamkarBitkMNkMeNItrbs;
clnaExµr\sSr³ ebIsineyIgeFVIkarBiPakSa EvkEjk edayepÞógpÞat;CamYynwgÉksarBieRKaH
déTeTot k¾dUcCaBt’manEdlTTYl)anBIkarsaksYrelak nI v:an;FI KWmandMeNIrdUcxageRkam ³
2>1> kMNkMeNIt
clnats‘UdMbUgenH RtUv)an pþÜcepþImbegáIteLIgedaybcäaCnd¾man\T§iBlmñak;rbs;GP½y
FIebs{Ebn} eQµaH b:uk KuN b¤ b:uk plÁúN ehAtaRtLac. Kat; nigbkSBYk)andak;eQµaHfa
{clnaExµr\sSr³} manmUldæanbEg¥kenAextþ)at;dMbg EdlkalenaHCaEdndIsßitenAeRkamkar
RtYtRtarbs;éf mYyry³eBlxøI eqøóteBlEdl)araMgcaj;édkñúgs®gÁamelakelIkTI2 nigRtUv
sßitenAeRkam\T§iBlénGMNaceyaFaCb:un.12 clnaenH manTIsñak;karFMenApÞHGñk lµ:ay Edl
CakUnRsImñak;énRtkUl {kfafn} EdlCabcäaCnrbs;GP½yFIebs {Ebn} Edr. ta RtLac
)antaMgemdwknaMpÞal; EdlCaGtItRKUbeRgonmñak; eQµaH rs; eyOn nigPUQYyrbs;Kat; eQµaH

12

Qwm KImlI nigGñkdéTeTot{clnaExµr\sSr³kñúgCIvPaBneya)ayExµr} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüa CMnan;TI13
saklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj qñaM1995-1996 TM> 9-10.

-4-

bUrin. clnaExµr\sSr³)aneFVIRbtibtiþkarEtenAkñúgtMbn;TIrYmextþ nigCayTIRkug)at;dMbg Biess
enAmþúM vtþkþaMggar vtþelob nigvtþBiPiTærgSI ehAvtþ kMPit.13
enAkñúgsñaEd {critExµr} rbs;Kat;/ elak b‘uNÑ cnÞm‘ul BitCamin)anbgðajkMenItedImTg
rbs;Exµr\sSr³[)anCak;c,as;enaHeT ehtudUcenHehIy eTIbmanGñkGanCaeRcInyl;fa rUbKat;
Etmñak; EdlCaempþÜcepþImbegáItclna\sSr³dMbUg²enaH. m:üageTot Tak;TinnwgbBaða vaküs½BÞ
{\sSr³} enH Kat;)an[niymn½yfa {FM/ minkBa¢HeK/ CaGñkCa. dUecñH Exµr\sSr³ KWCaRkumExµr
EdlCam©as;elIxøÜnÉg KµanenAeRkamGMNacnrNa/ CaExµrmanÉkraCü/ manesrIPaB/ mansiT§i
RKb;RKan;CaExµr}.14 etIedaysar Exµr\sSr³ CaExµrminkBa¢H b¤ enAeRkambgÁab;eKdUcecñHehIyb¤
EdlbNþal[BYkemdwknaMExµr\sSr³minrvl;eTABwgBak;kmøaMg b¤CMnYyBIbreTs EdlGacnaM[
BYkeKFøak;kñúgGnøg; b¤nwmRtYtRtarbs;breTsenaH? em:øaHehIy edIm,ICMnYsCMnYybreTs etIBYkeK
RtUveFVIGVIxøH edIm,IeFVIkarts‘U)an?
2>2> smaCiknigkarrIklUtlas;
manehtuplCaeRcInEdlpþl;»kas[clnaExµr\sSr³rIkFMFat; nigRbmUl)ankarKaMRT
y:ageRcInBIsMNak;RbCaCnExµr. mUlehtumYykñgú cMeNamehtuplsMxan;²bMput KWedaysarkar
Kabsgát;BIsMNak;)araMg. dUcEdleK)andwg manm®nþIGaNaniKm)araMgmYycMnYnFM EtgeFVIkar
Kabsgát; TarBn§darF¶n;F¶rmkelIRbCara®sþExµrRkIRk. dUecñHehIy eTIbmankarts‘Uvay)araMgqñaM
1984-1986 RBwtiþkarN_1916 RBwtþikarN_sMlab;elak)aredsqñaM1925 nig)atukmµq½Rt
rbs;RBHsgÇqñaM1942CaedIm.15 TaMgenH GacCamUlehtusmrmüsRmab;RbCara®sþExµreRkak
QreLIg RbqaMg)araMg.
elIsBIenHeTAeTot eRkaykarcab;xøÜnrbs;Gacarü Ehm ecov enAqñaM1942k¾)anCMruj[
RBHsgÇExµrCaeRcIn rt;cUlrYmCamYyclnaenHEdr. karP½yxøacbNþalmkBIkarmankarrMelaP
bMBanBIsMNak;)araMg dUcCaKMrUkñúgkartamcab;xøÜnCnesñhaCati ):ac QWn nigcugeRkaykarcab;
13

sMeNAedImGtßbTelaksaRsþacarü vg; suFar:a/ Rbvtiþts‘Urbs;RTg;cnÞrgSI TMB½rTI3.
sUmemIl b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul critExµr TM> 34-35.
15
huin sIufan, op.,cit., p. 31.
14

-5-

xøÜnelak sWug g:ukfaj; naqñaM1945 RBmTaMgGñkBak;B½n§déTeTot naeBl)araMgvilmkkm<úCa Ca
elIkTI2 )anbgçM[kUnecA bkSBYkrbs;Kat; rt;eTAextþ)at;dMbg nig cUléRBrYbrYm Caclnats‘U
\sSr³ edIm,ICakaredaHeKcxøÜn nigbuBVehtud¾smRsbmYy KWts‘UdeNþImÉkraCüCati enaHsRmab;
BYkGñkecHdwg. dUecñHmeFüa)ay d¾l¥bMptu sRmab;BYkeK KWcab;kan;GavuFRbqaMg)araMg16.
b:uEnþebItamelak v>m> erDÐI (V.M. Reddi)yl;fa karcuHsn§isBaØa m:Udus vIv:g;DI (Modus
Vivendi) EdlTTYlsÁal;karvilRtLb;rbs;)araMg mkkan;RbeTskm<úCa naExmkraqñaM1946
enaH )anbeBaäHGñkmineBjcitþnwgrdækar)araMg [mancMnYnkan;EteRcIneLIg naMKñaRbqaMg)araMg
CamYyExµr\sSr³Edr.17 b:uEnþ ebItamelak cn kUs (Jonh Coast) elIkeLIgfa {Exµr\sSr³
minGacFMFat; nigGacTak;Tajkarcab;GarmµN_BIsMNak;)araMg nigrdæaPi)alExµr)aneT ebIsinKµan
karKaMRTy:agxøaMgkøaBIsMNak;bBaØav½nþ nig CnCatiéfEdlmancitþs¥b;)araMg nigelaPln;cg;)an
TwkdIExµrenAtMbn;GgÁr.18 dUecñH etImtieyabl;rbs; elakGñkR)aCJNamñak;EdlRtwmRtUvCag? b¤
mYymanehtuplGVIepSg? ehIynrNaGacCYypþl;cemøIysmRsb nigCak;EsþgtamRBwtþikarN_
enAkñúgkMLúgeBlenaH?
eTaHCay:agNak¾eday rhUtdl;qñaM1945 clnaExµr\sSr³manGñkKaMRTEdlmansman
citþTaMgRbusTaMgRsIRbEhl 3000nak; nigmankgT½BRbEhl1000nak;enAqñaM1946 EdlGñk
TaMgGs;enaH eRtomxøÜnCaeRscsRmab;karvayRbhardMbUg enARkugesomrabenAéf¶TI7 ExsIha
qñaM1946.19
16

V. M., Reddi, “A History of the Cambodian Independent Movement (1863-1955).” Tirupati, India,

Sri Venketeswara University, 1970, p. 118.

17

enAéf¶TI7mkra 1946 RBHGgÁm©as;munIer:t)ancuHsn§isBaØaenH CamYyGKÁbBa¢akar)araMg GaLicsg;RDI enATIRkug
PñMeBj. tamry³sn§isBaØaenaH RbeTskm<úCa)anTTYlsV½yPaBRKb;RKgxøHBI)araMg EtsßitenAeRkam karpþl;eyabl;
BIebskCnCan;x<s;rbs;)araMg ehIykarRbCuMsMerccitþTaMgLayRtUv)anRtYtBinitü b¤ BiPakSarbs;TIRbwkSa)araMgTaMgdb;
edIm,IFanaGVIEdleKyl;fa CaRbsiT§iPaBkargarsMrab;km<úCa. cMENkkarsMerccitþTaMgLay CaBiess karsMerccitþ
EpñkhirBaØvtßúminGacsMerc)aneT ebIKµankaryl;RBmBI)araMg. sUmemIl ³
Jonh Tully, France on the Mekong: A History of the Protectorate in Cambodia, 1863-1953. Martland,
University Press of America, pp. 402-403.

18
19

V. M., Reddi, op. cit, p. 199.
Ibid., p . 199.

-6-

2>3> skmµPaB
edIm,IsMerc)aneKaledArbs;xøÜn RkumExµr\sSr³)anGnuvtþnUvskmµPaBCaeRcInKYr[kt;
sMKal; nigP½yxøacsRmab;GaNaniKm)araMg. BYkeK)ankMnt;fa eFVIy:agNa edIm,IrMxanGaCJaFr
)araMg [mankarBi)akRKb;RKgRsukeTs dUcCa kareFVIs®gÁamT½BéRB karvayqµk; nigkarBYnsÞak;
edIm,IvayykPsþúPar nigsmÖar³epSg²EdlBYk)araMgdwkCBa¢ÚntampøÚvCaedIm. m:üagvijeTot
BYkeKk¾Etg)anbiTpøvÚ TMnak;TnM grbs;)araMg EdlnaM[)araMgBi)akTak;TgKñaeFVkI arRtYtRta b¤b®gáab
RkumbHe)ar. Exµr\sSr³ kMcat;ecalnUvCnCatiExµrTaMgLay EdlniymcUlcitþ nigeFVIKij)araMg
RtUvrgkareFVITukçbukemñjBIkMhwgrbs;Exµr\sSr³.20
Cakarl¥RbesIrEdrsRmab;karsikSaRbvtþisa®sþ Edlknøgmk elak b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul )an
erobrab;[eyIgdwgBIGMeBIeXareXAmYycMnYnrbs;\sSr³ dUcCakarsMlab;Kij)araMgeQµaH b‘un can;
nigkareFVITaruNkmµKijdéTeTot EbbRsEgEBn.21 elIsBIenHeTot Kat;)anerobrab;y:aglm¥it
GMBIRBwtþikarN_vayRbharelIkdMbUgrbs;Exµr\sSr³enATIRkugesomram enAéf¶TI7 ExsIha qñaM
1946.22
BYkkgÉkPaBrYmrbs;Exµr\sSr³ CaGñk)ancab;epIþmecjRbtibtiþkarvayRbharenH.
BYkeK)anEbgEckKñaCaR)aMRkum TImYyKWRkumdwknaMeday Ehm sav:ag nig Ehm sav:at ¬Cabg
b¥ÚnbegáItnwgKña¦ EdlmanTisedAvaysNæaKarextþ. RkumTIBIr KWRkumsRmab;vaybnÞayTahan
eCIgexµA. RkumTIbIKW RkummaneKaledAvayb:usþ_éRbsNIy_ nigpþac;viTüú. RkumTIbYn vayBn§naKar
rMedaHGñkeTas. RkumTIR)aM dwknaMedaydabQYn maneKaledAvay tRmYtextþ nigpÞHKy. Et
ebItamkarRsavRCavrbs;RbvtþiviTUGU®sþalI cn TUlI ¬ Jonh Tully ¦)anGHGagfa kñúgkarvay
RbharenH RbeTséfRtUv)an)araMgbenÞas nigecaTRbkan;fa )anpSMKMniterobcMEpnkar

20
21
22

Ibid., pp. 121-2.

sUmemIl b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul critExµr TM> 21-23.
sUmemIl b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul critExµr TM> 21-23.

-7-

nigbBa¢aelIkarvayRbharenH.23 Ettam elak b‘uNÑ cnÞm‘ul GHGagfa KWBYkéfk¾min)ancUlrYm
b¤ dwgKMeragkarN_enHeLIy. BYkExµr\sSr³pÞal;Etmþg EdlerobcMkarvayRbhardUcxagelI. 24
kgT½BExµr\sSr³)anvaylukRkug)anry³eBl 4em:ag EtRBwkeLIgRtUvT½B)araMgedj
vayvijy:agsgçúj. BYkeKRbmUlC½yP½NÐ)any:ageRcIn BiessRkumRbtibtiþkarrbs; dab QYn
EdlCaehtumYyeFVI[Kat;maneQµaHl,IeLIg nigmanfvikaeRcInCagRkumdéTeTot. Kat;min)an
RtLb;mk)at;dMbgvijeT eRkaykarvaybky:agelOnrbs;)araMgenaH. CalT§plénkarvay
RbharenH mansaksBsøab;enAkEnøg 30nak; rYmbBa©ÚlTaMgnayTahan)araMg7nak;pgEdr.25
cMENkkaEst)agkk b:usþ_fa PaKITaMgsgçagmanmnusSsøab; nigrbYsRbEhleRcInCagenH.26
vahak;dUcCafa Gs;elakGñkts‘U nigGñkRsavRCavTaMgGs;enHGacpþl;Bt’man)anl¥ nig
c,as;CagKñaedayGenøI ehIyGacb®gÁb;KñaeTAvijeTAmk begáIt)anCaTidæPaBRbvtþisa®sþmYyén
clnaExµr\sSr³. EtkarBit ´yl;fa Gs;elakTaMgGs; enAminTan;)anlatRtdagRbvtþisa®sþ
BiténclnaenHeT. TImYy elakm‘ul dUcEdlKat;)anbBa¢ak; KWKat;)andkxøÜnecjBIclnaExµr
\sSr³ taMgBIPaKdMbUgénclnats‘UenHem:øH. em:øaHehIy manGaf’kM)aMgCaeRcIneTot Biess
CIvPaB nigrbt;énkmøagM ts‘rU bs;Exµr\sSr³rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI¬naeBleRkay¦EdlKat;mni Gacdwg
b¤mni )ansresr.
TIBIr TaMgRbvtþiviTU\NÐa v> m> erDÐI TaMgRbvtþiviTUGU®sþalI cn TUlI k¾dUcCaGñkRsavRCav
mYycMnYneTot BitCamin)ansikSalMGitBIclnats‘UenHeT. Cak;Esþg enAkñúgsñaédrbs;xøÜn Edl
mancMNgeCIgfa{Rbvtþisa®sþénclna¬TamTar¦ÉkraCükm<úCa} elak erDÐI )anRtwmEterobrab;
xøH²Etb:ueNÑaHGMBIclnaExµr\sSr³. m:üageTot Kat;)anRtwmEtbB¢ak;BIrUbPaBTUeTAénclnaenH
edayKat;cMNayeBlEvg føaEføgBIkarTamTarÉkraCürbs;Rkumts‘UedayviFkI arTUtenAkñgú Rsuk.
clnaTamTarÉkraCüenAkñgú RsukenHrYmman RkumGPirkSniym ¬the Conservatives¦ Edlman
23

Jonh Tully, France on the Mekong: A History of the Protectorate in Cambodia, 1863-1953.

Martland, University Press of America, pp. 462-463.

24

b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul critExµr TM> 69-77. Kat;GHGagfaKWeRkayBIBYkTahanExµr\sSr³TTUcvay)araMg BYkKat;)an
RbCuMKña CamunedIm,IsMercfavayrwk¾minvay)araMg ehIyvayelIeKaledANa? See also Bun Chanmol, Chareut Khmer,
pp. 69-75, Bankok Post, 12 August and 2 November 1946.
25

26

Jonh Tully, ibid., p.462.
"Cambodians stage uprising at Siem Reap", Bangkok Post, August 12 1946.

-8-

semþc neratþm sIhnu CaRbmux/ RkummCÄnþikCn ¬the Moderators¦ EdlmanBYkbBaØav½nþsm½y
TMenIbCaeKal/ ehIyKat;)anbnþcat;TukBYkExµr\sS³esrIniym CaEpñkmYyénRkumeRkayenH.27
ÉRkumTIbI KWBYk]TÞaméRB ¬the Radicals¦ dUcCaBYkExµrevotmij. eTaHCaKat;)anEbgEck
y:agc,as;dUcenHehIykþI EtKat;min)anføwgEføgRsavRCavBICMBUkGñkts‘UTaMgbIRkumenaH [esµIKña
eT. TnÞwmnwgenH clnaExµr\sSr³RtUv)anelak cn TUlI BiPakSanigcMNayRtwmEtmYyCMBUktUc
énesovePA {RbvtþiGaNaBüa)al)araMg enAkm<úCa} rbs;elak EdlmanCag 500TMB½r ÉeNaH.
eRkABIenH GñkniBn§déTeTot hak;dUcCaminmankarRsavRCavpÞal;xøÜn[c,as;GMBIclna
ts‘UEbbenHeT KWBYkeK)anRtwmEtdkRsg; nigeyagelIÉksarcas;rbs;eKb:ueNÑaH.
2>4> karKMramkMEhgcMeBaHrdæGMNac
elak b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul )anyl;fa{karvayRbharelIRkugesomrabenH minsnµtfa eCaKC½y
b¤ braC½yGVIeT. b:uEnþCaRsemalts‘UmYy EdleFVI[BYk)araMgP½yEp¥mmat;mYyRKad¾FMeTAEdr
ehIyvaGacbNþúHTwkcitþExµrÉeTot [PJak;rlwkeLIgpg.}28 enHRKan;EtCakarRBmanmYyrbs;
Exµr\sSr³ eTAelIGaNaniKm)araMg. ÉkarBitenaH KWcab;taMgBIeBlenaHmkrhUtdl;eBl)araMg
sMerccitþRbKl;ÉkraCüeBjbribUN’ dl;RbeTskm<úCaenaH clnaExµr\sSr³)anbgábBaðaeRcIn
Nas; dl;GaCJaFr)araMg.29
ebItamkarGYtGagrbs;GtItExµr\sSr³mñak;eQµaH Rkut Fam )anR)ab;eTAelak b‘ín eXonin
faRbsinebI)araMgmin)anpþl;ÉkraCüeBjbribUrN’dl;semþcsIhnuenaHeT em:øHRTg;BitCaRbQm
muxnwgeRKaHfñak;F¶n;F¶rCaminxan eRBaHnaeBlenaHEdndIkm<úCamYyPaKbIRtUv)anRtYtRtaedayExµr
\sSr³30. eqøIytbnwgkarGYtGagenH semþc sIhnu pÞal;)ansarPaBR)ab;rdæmRnþIkarbreTséf
faebIKµanRBHraCbUCnIykic©TamTarÉkraCüBI)araMgeT RbeTskm<úCaRbEhlmanpÞúHeLIgnUvkarbH
27
28

29

V. M., Reddi, op. cit, pp. 103-105.

b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul critExµr TM>75.
Kenneth T. So, "The Road to Khmer Independence" in the webpage:

http://www.asianartmall.com/Cambodia/Independence.html on 09/05/2006, 8:44.

30

Jonh Tully, op. cit. p. 458. See also Krot Theam, a former Khmer Issarak from Samlaut

district of Battambang, cited in Ben Kiernan and Chanthou Boua (eds), (1982), "Peasant and
Politics in Kampuchea, 1942-1981," Zed Press, London, p. 129.

-9-

e)arF¶n;F¶rRbqaMgnwg)araMg nigRbqaMgraCaniympÞal;Etmþg31. RbsinebIRBHGgÁminRbjab;Rbjal;
TamTarÉkraCüeBjbribUNe’ TenaH RbCaCnkm<Cú amuxEtnwggakeTAsgÇwmelIelak sWgu g:ku faj;
nig Exµr\sSr³CaBuxM an eRBaHBYkeKR)afñacg;)anEtÉkraCüeBjbribN
U _ edaymineBjcitnþ gw GVEI dl
RBHGgÁBmI nu )anehAfa {ÉkraCü50PaKry} enaHeT.32
dUecñHcg; b¤mincg; TaMg)araMg TaMgsemþcsIhnuRtUvRbugRby½tñcMeBaHkarrIkeLIgnUv\T§iBl
rbs;BYkExµr\sSr³ nigdwgnUvtYnaTIsMxan;rbs;Exµr\sSr³ kñúgkarTamTarÉkraCüsRmab;Cati
matuPUmikm<úCa. dUecñH semþc sIhnu RtUvRsUtrUtepþImyuT§nakarTamTarÉkraCü[)anmunkarKMram
kMEhgcMeBaHRBHGgÁEdlGacekIteLIg ehIyedIm,ICMnHelIkarKMramkMEhgenH RBHGgÁRtUvQan
eTAmux munBYkCatiniym\sSr³ nigBYkkMumuynIsþevotmij.33 EteTaHCay:agNak¾eday cab;BI
qñaM 1948 clnaExµr\sSr³ k¾kan;EtrIkFM tamkardwknaMrbs;empÞal;rbs;BYkeKEterog²xøÜn
dUcCa Exµr\sSr³ eRkamkardwknaMrbs; dab QYn34/ Buy qay35 lav EkvmunImanTItaMgenA
PñMdgEr:k/ ekA tk; nigRkum Exµr\sSr³ rbs;RTg;neratþm cnÞrgSI EdlkMBuge)aHTItaMgenAtaenov
énextþkMBg;s<W.

31

Ibid, p. 458. See also PRO (Public Record Office) FO 628/89. Cambodia (1-50). British
Minister at Bangkok, Mr. G. C. Whitterridge to the Foreign office, 19 June 1953. "Note on
conversation with the (Thai) Minister for Foreign Affaires, 18 June 1953.
32
See http://www.asianartmall.com/Cambodia/Independence.html
on 7/30/2006 at 5:25 PM.
33
Jonh Tully, op. cit., p. 458.

34

dab QYnenH Føab;eFVICaembBa¢akarelIKN³mµaFikarrYmrvagExµr\sSr³nigevotmijEdlRtUv )anbegáIteLIgtaMgBI qñaM
1947. Kat;Føab;)aneFVICanayTahankñúgkgT½BExµr ehIy)anrt;ecaltMENgenH kñúgqñaM1943eTARbeTséf. Kat;
)anbegáItkgT½BéRBgakmkRbqaMgnwg)araMgvij. Kat;RtUv)anRbCaCnExµreCOfamanmnþGaKmþGUmGampgEdr nigbBa¢a
kgT½BCnCatiGaLWm:g cMnYn200nak;/ Cb:un 300nak;nig RsþIiExµrcMnYn200nak; nigbursCaeRcIneTot. enAqñaM 1948
Kat;)ankøayCaembBa¢akarénKN³Catimtu þKahamCÄwmnKrExµr EdlmankgkMlaMgCag 800nak; enAÉPñMKUeln. enA
éf¶TI30ExkBaØa dab QYn)ancuHcUlCamYyrdæaPi)al semþc sIhnu.
35
But qayRtUv)aneKniyayfaCaCnRbmwk KµankarsikSaecHdwgeT. Kat;KWCaemecarFMenARsuks¥ag ehIyFøab;RtUv
)an)araMgcab;dak;KukedaysarKat;)anlYcbøn;RTBüsm,tiþGñkRsuk. eRkaymk Kat;k¾)anRbkasdwknaMkgT½BpÞal;xøÜn
Cag 1000nak; EdlPaKeRcInmancitþs¥b;KuMKYn)araMg. eBlsWug g:ukfaj;rt; cUléRB Kat;)aneTAcUlrYmCamYyfaj;.

-10-

2>5> esckþIbBa¢ak;
eRkayBI)anBiPakSaRtYs² dUcxagelI GMBIRbvtþiénkarRsavRCavelIRbFanbTclnats‘U
TamTarÉkraCü KWKµankarsikSalm¥itBIvaeLIy. dUcecñH ´sUmeqøótyk»kasenHbBa¢ak;bEnßm
fa karsikSaelIRbFanbT {EsVgyl;BIclnaExµr\sSr³-krNIsikSaelICIvitts‘Urbs;GtItExµr
\sSr³ nI v:an;FI} mksresrCasarNabBa©b;briBaØab½RtEbbenH KWCaRbFanbTfµIsuT§saF b:uEnþ
bribTsikSaGMBIclnats‘UdeNþImÉkraCüBI)araMg dUcCaclna\sSr³enH BuMEmnmanlkçN³fµI
RsLagenaHeT. Cak;EsþgenAqñaM1995-1996 GtItRkumnisiStRbvtþiviTüaCMnan;TI13 Edlkñúg
enaHmanelaksa®sþacarü Nub suxa Caesµrmñak;Edr )ansikSaRbFanbT {dMeNIreq<aHmkrk
ÉkraCüExµr} Edl)anqøúHbBa©aMgBIclnaCatiniym nigraCbUCnIykic©TamTarÉkraCürbs;RBH)aT
neratþm sIhnu mþgrYcehIy. RbFanbTmYyeTot EdlmanGtItnisSit s‘ag dar:a/ Qwm KImlI
nig GñkdéT mancMngeCIgfa {clnaExµr\sSr³kñúgCIvPaBneya)ayExµr} EtsñaédenHhak;dUcCa
niyayeRcIn GMBI\sSr³niymBYkevotmij edayRbEhlCaRkumKat;manKMniteTarTn;tamsñaéd
elak b‘ín eXonin EdlCaGñkniBn§esovePA {etIb:ul BtcUlkan;GMNacEbbNa?} EdlsikSa
BIkMNkMeNIt nigRbvtiþBYkkuMmµúynIsþ_ rhUtQandl;kareLIgkan;GMNacrbs;b:ul Bt.
TnÞwmnwgenH ´)aTsUmbBa¢ak;[c,as;eTotfa manGñkts‘UCati nigGñkRsavRCavCati
b¤GnþrCatimYycMnYnEdr )anRsavRCav nigsresrGMBIbribTenH dUcCa³
-elak b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul {critExµr} kñúgesovePAenHerobrab;y:agEvgEtGMBICIvPaB nig
TsSn³rbs;Kat;CMuvijcritExµr edayelIkykRbvtiþénemdwknaMExµr\sSr³mkbBa¢ak; nighak;dUcCa
karxitxMbgðajfa {Kat;CaRbFan b¤RbmuxénclnaExµr\sSr³dMbUgeK}enA)at;dMbg Etb:ueNÑaH.
-elak hiun sIufan {kRmgÉksarsMxan;²sþIBIRbeTskm<úCa}.
-elak edob supl {s®gÁam nigsnþiPaB}.
-elak v>m> erDIÐ (V. M. Reddi) “RbvtiþénclnaÉkraCükm<úCa” ¬A History of the
Cambodian Independence Movement¦.
-elak cn TUlI ¬Jonh Tully¦{RbvtþiGaNaBüa)al)araMg enAkm<úCa} ¬France on the
Mekong: A History of Protectorate in Cambodia¦.
-elak b‘ín eXonin (Ben Kiernan) {How Pol Pot Came to Power?} ¬etI b:ul Bt
cUlkan;GMNacEbbNa?¦.
-11-

eTaHCay:agNa ÉksarTaMgenaH niyayminTan;lm¥itRKb;RCugeRCayeT edayehtufa
clnats‘UExµr\sSr³enAkm<úCa eRkays®gÁamelakelIkTI2 maneRcInRkumNas;. EtGñksikSa
knøgmk )ankt;smÁal;fa clnad¾eRcIn nigFMTUlayenH manninñakarBIrc,as;las; KW Rkumniym
esrI nigniymkuMmuynIsþ. GñkRsavRCav nigniBn§xøH niyayeRcInBIclna\sSr³TMenarkMumµúynIsþ
xøHeTot niyayGMBIclna\sSr³esrI)aneRcInEdr Etmin)anniyay[suICeRmABICIvPaB nig
rUbPaBBitrbs;Exµr\sSr³eT. pÞúyeTAvij eRkambBaðaFMdEdlenH ´)anxitxMsikSa EsVgyl;BI
clnaExµr\sSr³mYyRkumy:aglm¥it cab;taMgBIerOgr:avCak;Esþg EdlyuT§CnExµr\sSr³ dUcCa
elak nI v:an;FI )aneFVI/ rYmman karcUlrYmRbyuT§dMbUg kargareXasnakar karts‘UenAPñMdgErk
nigGVIEdl Kat;GHGagfa CakarEsVgrkviPaKTan edIm,IpÁt;pÁg;Rkumrbs;xøÜnCaedIm Edl´eCOCak;
fa knøgmk BMuTan;manGñkRsavRCavNamñak;)aneFVIenAeLIy. karsikSaEbbenH hak;Rsbtam
TsSn³rbs;elak ém:eXIl vIkeXIrI (Michael Vickery) Edlyl;fa RbPBÉksarl¥CageK
sRmab;sikSaRbvtiþsaRsþ KwÉksarsresrecjBIkEnøgEdleyIgcg;sikSa ehIyÉksarenaH
sresreLIgkñúg kMLúgeBlRBwtiþkarN_enaHekIteLIg.36 dUecñHehIy eTIb´xitxMsaksYr nig
cgRkgÉksarenHeLIg edayEp¥kelIsakSIpaÞ l;BsI m½yenaHmñak;Edl)aneXIj dwgB¤ nigcUl
RbLÚkpÞal;kgúñ clnaenH.
3> viFIsaRsþRsavRCav
kñúgdMeNIrkarRsavRCavsarNaenH ´)aneRbInUvviFIsaRsþBIrRbePT KW tamry³Éksar
enAbNÑal½y nigÉksarrs; dUcCa ³
-EsVgrk nigRbmUlÉksarEdlTak;TgnwgRbFanbTenH enAkñúgbNÑal½yhu‘nEsn
bNÑal½ysaklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj¬mNÐl2¦ bNÑal½yraCbNÐitsPakm<úCa nigenAtam
b½NÑsardæanCati bNÑal½yCati bNÑal½yBuT§sasnbNÐitü nigtameKhTMB½rGuInF½reNt.
-sMxan;bMput KweFVIkarsmÖasn_tamviFIsa®sþcRmuHmYycMnYn edayERbRbYltamsßanPaB
dUcCa dMbUgsmÖasn_tamEbbm:üag EdlTuk»kas[GñktbsmÖasn_ erobrab;GMBIdMeNIrerOg
36

Michael Vickery, “History of Cambodia”. Phnom Penh: Vidya Series, Pre-Angkor Studies Society,

Summary of Lecture Notes given at the Faculty of Archaeology, Royal University of Fine-Arts, 2002.
p. 2.

-12-

bnÞab;mk smÖasn_tamEbbminpøÚvkar (informal
interview) nigcugeRkay tamEbbsuICeRmA (in-deep interview) CamYyrUbelak nI v:an;FI Edl
CaGñkpþl;Bt’manKnøwH (Key informant) kMBugrs;enAkñúgextþkMBg;s<W.
karviPaKTinñn½y EdlCaBt’manTTYl)anBIkarsmÖasn_ )anRtUveFVIeLIgtamviFIsa®sþ
KuNvis½y nigedayepÞógpÞat;CamYYynwgÉksare)aHBum<pSayrYcTaMgLay edIm,IrkcMNucrYm b¤
kalbriecäTEdlGñkpþl;smÖasn_ min)ancgcaMc,as;. CagenHeTot ´)anepÞógpÞat;RBwtþikarN_
TaMgenaH edaykarsaksYrRbCaCnepSgeTot EdlCasakSIpÞal; kñúgsm½yts‘U\sSr³pgEdr.
edayELk smÖar³caM)ac;EdlRtUv)aneRbIR)as;kñúgkarRbmUlTinñn½yenH mankaEstnig
Rbdab;ftsMelg/ esovePAkt;Rta/ kMrgsMnYrEdl)aneRKagTuk/ kaemr:aDICIfl nigvIedGU.

GtItkal

(Retrospective interview)

(Y)

-13-

CMBUkTI2- CIvPaBkñúgclna\sSr³dMbUg
2>1> RbvtþikalBIkumarPaB
enAqñaM1933 elaknI v:an;FI)ancab;kMeNIt enAPUmivtþsMeBA XuMsVaye):a RsuksEgá
extþ)at;dMbg elakCabuRteTalrbs;GñkRsI daM enb nigelak Pav nI.37 edaysar «Bukrbs;
elakykPriyafµI cab;BIeBlenaHmk elak)ankøayCakUnkMRBa nigRtUv)anciBa©wmbI)ac;eday
CIdUneQµaH Xut nigCIta eQµaH daM sn EdlFøab;)aneFVICacaghVagtulakarRkug)at;dMbg kñúgraCü
RBH)aT suIsuvtiþ munIvgS ¬1927-1941¦. taMgBItUcrhUtdl;elakmanGayu13qñaM elak)an
eronPasaéfenARsukkMeNItrbs;elak. eRkaymk edaysarmancMeNHPasaéfenH rYmnwg
mrtktMNBUCBI«Bukrbs;xøÜnEdlCaGñkCMnajxagKUrbøg;epSg² )anCYyse®gÁaHCIvitrbs;elakkñúgRKa
man TukçlM)akxøaMg b¤ eRKaHGasnñKMramkMEhgdl;GayuCIvit.
eTaHCay:agNa elakyl;fa CIvPaBkñúgv½ykumarrbs;elakminmanGVIlM)akxøaMgeLIy.
eRBaH elakmanmrtkBImatabitasRmab;ciBa©wmCIvitRsab;. EtenAqñaM1946 CIvitKat;)ancab;
epþImERbRbYl KwcMeBlEdl«Bukmarbs;elak )anBlICIvitenAkñúgsmrPUmiextþesomrab. eTaHbI
CaenAmanv½yekµgenAeLIykþI Kat;mankarQWcab;CaxøaMg.
2>2> karRbLÚkcUlkñúgclna\sSr³dMbUg
2>2>1> mUlehtuénkarcUlrYm

elak nI v:an;FI )ancUlrYmclna\sSr³taMgBIqñaM1946 kñúgeBlEdlelakman Gayu13
qñaM. mUlehtucMbg KWedaysarelakmankarQWcab;cMeBaHkarBlICIvitrbs;»BukmaCaTIRslaj;
rbs;elak. elakfa elakcg;bnþkatBVkic©d¾éføføaenH edIm,Iedj)araMgBIRsukExµr. snÞúHcitþrbs;
elak ekItmanRsbeBlEdlRbCaCnExµrenARkug)at;dMbg keRmIkqnÞ³ nigsµartIesñhaCatieLIg
RBmCamYykarPJak;rlwkcg;deNþImÉkraCüCUnCatimatuPUmi tamkareXasna nigbBa©úHbBa©Úlrbs;
emxül;EdlCabBaØav½nþTMenIb nigRbéBNImYycMnYn.
37

eRBaHeRkayeBlbegáItelak nI v:;an;FI )anb:unµannaTI GñkRsI)anTas;søab;edaysar GVIEdlGñkRsukmanCMenOfaCa
RBayRkLaePøIg.

-14-

dMbUgelak nI v:an;FI minTan;)ancUlRbyuT§ kñúgsmrPUmieT edaysarrUbKat;enAekµgeBk.
b:uEnþekµgrUbenH BitCa)ancUlrYmclnaenHy:agskmµ tamry³karsMEdgelçan dMNaleBleK
¬kumarav:an;FI¦eronsURtnaeBléf¶. naeBlenaH clnaExµr\sSr³)aneRCIserIyykkarsMEdgelçan
CameFüa)ay edIm,IbMpusbMpulTwkcitþRbCaCn[cUlrYmCamYyxøÜnRbqaMgGaNaniKm)araMg .
elçanenH PaKeRcInminRtUv)aneKsMEdgBIerOgBuT§niym dUcCa erOgRBHevsSnþCatkeT Et
pÞúyeTAvij BYkeK)anelIkykCIvPaBRkxSt;etaky:ak karCiHCan;ekgRbv½Ba©BIsMNak;;)araMgmk
elIra®sþExµr mksEmþgelIqakEtmþg. eKaledAénkarsMEdgenH KWeFVIy:agNaedIm,I[RbCaCn
ExµrmankMhwgQWcab;nwg)araMg ehIynaMKñaeRkakQreLIgcUlrYmCamYyBYkeKRbqaMg)araMgTamTar
ÉkraCü. EtBYkeKminsMEdgerOgNaEdlGb;rM[RbCara®sþGt;Fµt; RTaMnwgkarKabsgát;rbs;Cn
breTstamRTwsþIkmµplenaHeT.
elak nI v:an;FI )anrMlwkGnusSavrIy_naeBlenaHfa rUbelaksMEdgCatYGgÁkUnksikrRkIRk
Edlman»BukCab;kMEnn b¤ KµanR)ak;bg;Bn§dl;rdækar)araMg. QutqakmYy EdlelakeBjcitþ
ehIycgcaMrhUtdl;sBVéf¶ KwQutEdlelakrt;yMesakGaNit»BukEdlRtUv)araMgvaydM nigGUs
beNþIrykeTAdak;Kuk eRBaHEtKµanluybg;Bn§. elakGHGagfa elaksMEdg)anl¥\tex©aHeday
sarsac;erOgenH vaRtUvnwgerOgBitEdl«Bukmarbs;elak minRtwmEtRtUv)an)araMgvaydM b¤ dak;
exñaHenaHeT EtRtUv)araMgsMlab;ecalEtmþg. karQWcab;enH BitCasßitenAkñúgcitþrbs;Kat; ehIy
CMruj[Kat;sMEdgy:agsmnwgsac;erOgQWcab; RBat;R)asnirasKña.
eTaHCardæaPi)aléf)anyl;RBm [mankarbegáItclnats‘UExµr\sSr³elITwkdIeRkamkar
RtYtRtarbs;xøÜnk¾eday k¾eKminePøcKitTamTarplRbeyaCn_sRmab;CatixøÜneLIy. Cak;Esþg
50 PaKryénR)ak; EdlTTYl)anBITsSnikCnemIlelçanxagelIRtUvRbKl;eTAdl;rdæaPi)aléf.
dUcecñH éfGacTTYlplRbeyaCn_eRcInBIExµr\sSr³ eRBaHebItamelak v:an;FI GHGagfa BYkKat;
RbmUlR)ak;)aneRcInNas;BITsSnikCnExµr.
2>2>2> kargareXasnakar

sUmrMlwkfa eRkaykarvayRbharrbs;clnaExµr\sSr³elIrdækar)araMgenARkugesomrab
kalBIéf¶TI7 ExsIha qñaM1946 nigeRkayTwkdIPaKBayBüRtUv)anRbKl;mk[RbeTskm<úCa
vijenaH RkumGñkBak;B½n§nwgclnaenH PaKeRcIn)anrt;eKcxøÜneTAkan;RbeTséf enAExvicäika
-15-

qñaM194638. eRBaHBYkeKlWBaküccamGaramfa BYk)araMgnwgkat;k,alBYkExµr\sSr³edatnwg
bMBg;b¤sSI. edayesckþIP½yxøaccMeBaHbBaðaenH elak nI v:an;FI k¾)aneLIgCiHrfePøIgrt;eKcxøÜn
eTARsukGarBaØénRbeTséf CamYynwgemdwknaMsMxan;²déTeTotEdr.
mYyry³kalénkarsñak;enARsukGarBaØ elak v:an;FI enAEtRtUv)aneKtRmUv[sMEdg
elçandEdl. karsMEdgelçanmþgenH RtUv)anerobcMedaysmaKmse®gÁaHénclnaExµr\sSr³
EdlRKb;RKg edaynaykQYn39. EteRkaymk naykQYnenH )ank,t;nwgsmaKm ehIy
XubXitCamYy)araMg cab;ykembBa¢akarrbs;bkSBYkxøÜndUcCa elak mIu bUrin nigelak m:aeso
yWn ykeTAsMlab;. edayP½yxøacmaneRKaHfñak;bnþeTot emdwknaMTaMgLay)anRsuHRsYlKña
eTAe)aHTItaMgfµI. cMENk elak v:an;FI eday)at;bg;emekIyrbs;xøÜn k¾rt;eKceTApÞHGñklµ:ay
kñúgTwkdIsurinÞ CaTIEdlemExµr\sSr³)ane)aHTItaMgenATIenaHrYcCaeRsceTAehIy. enApÞHenH KWCa
kariyal½yTMnak;TMngrvagem\sSr³enARkug)agkk dUcCa b:uk KuN nigRTg; cnÞrgSI nigRkumts‘U
enAÉPñMdgErk.
clnats‘UenH)anmUlmtiKñabegáItCa{KN³kmµaFikarExµrksagCati} Edlmanrcnasm<½n§
Rbhak;RbEhlnwgrdæaPi)almYyEdr. smasPaBénrdæaPi)alenH mandUcteTA ³
-elak lav EkvmunI CaRbFanKN³.
-elak dab QYn CaGFibtIkgT½B nigCaembB¢akarCan;x<s; zannþr³s½kþicugeRkaybg¥s;
Bak;páay7.
-ekA tk; CaembBa¢akarrg nigTTYlxusRtUvTijGavuFBIesom.
-elak mIu pU CaGFibtIRksYgeXasnakar.
-elak mhaqan; CaGFibtIRksYgmhaépÞ.
-elak lwm Xwm CaGFibtIRksYghirBaØvtßú.
-Gacarü qU CaGFibtIRksYgXøaMg EdlmanPar³RbmUlfvikaEdlTTYl)anBIkarrk
viPaKTanrbs;skmµCnrbs;Exµr\sSr³.
38

vg; suFar:a nigGñkdéTeTot/ {snñisITTIRkughSWENv nigbBaðaRbeTskm<úCa} sarNanisSitRbvtþiviTüa CMnan;TI 13
énsaklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj/ Exmifuna qñaM1996/ TM> 91.
39
naykQYnenH minEmnCa dab QYn ¬QYn m¢úleBRC¦enaHeT.

-16-

-Em: mYn CaTIRbwkSaénKN³kmµaFikar b¤RbFanKN³.
-Gacarü dYg CaTIRbwkSaénKN³kmµaFikar.
dUcenH elak v:an;FI sßitenACamYyelak muI pU kñúgEpñkeXasnakar. EteRkaymk elak
bMrgu nwgcUlbeRmIkgúñ CYrkgT½BEtmþg EtRtUvxkxanvij eRBaHKat;enAmanmaDtUcenAeLIy. TIbpM ut
elakk¾)ankøayeTACaelxaeXasnakarrbs;elak lav EkvmunI.
2>2>3> CIvitenAPñMdgErk

elak lav EkvmunI )anRCIserIsykelak v:an;FI Caesµón edaysarKat;ecHGkSr kñúg
cMeNamTahanGnkçrCnCaeRcIneTot nigmanTwkédl¥CageK kñúgkarsresr nigKUrKMnUr. m:üag
eTot lav EkvmunI eCOCak;fa Kat;CamnusSmancitþesµaHRtg; GacTukcitþ)an. esµón nI v:an;FI
mantYnaTIsMxan;² dUcCa eFVIGñkkt;RtacmøgBIÉksarRBagrbs; lav EkvmunI [)ans¥at edIm,I
Eckcaydl;smaCikTaMgLay. elak k¾CaGñkkt;RtanUvral;kMnt;ehtuénGgÁRbCuMTaMgLay
k¾dUcCa sresrlixitEtgtaMgtYnaTI niglixitcat;taMgtYnaTIpgEdr.
kic©karcaM)ac; Edlelak lav EkvmunI KitKUrcat;EcgeFVImuneK KWerobcMhVwkhVat;kgT½B
eLIgvij nigkareXasnaeKogKrkarKaMRT. cMeBaHbBaðaeXasnakar BYkeK)ancat;[elak
v:an;FI bgðat;ePøgCati nigelçanCati dl;yuvCnyuvnarIts‘U [sÁal;GVICamrtkCati nigeKaledA
pÞal;énclnaenH. tamRbsasn_elak v:an;FI )an[dwgfa Exµr\sSr³enAPñMdg;Erk k¾)anbegáIt
kaEsteXasnapSBVpSay eQµaH{ÉkraCü}pgEdr. EtkaEstenH ecjpSaymþgkñúgmYys)aþh_
edaymankRmas;bYnTMB½r. GñkCMnaje)aHBum<cmøgkaEstrUbenH )anR)ab;[eyIgdwgGMBIrebob
eFVIkaEstfa {eBlenaH Kµan]bkrN_TMenIbeT KWBYkeyIg)aneRbIR)as;RkdasTwkexµA nigRbdab;
GUsr:UeNGU EdlTijBIRbeTsesom. dMbUg ´ykGtßbT Edlsresreday elak mIu pU Ca
naykeXasnakar mksresrsgát;elIRkdasRkmYn edIm,Ibeg;áItCaBum<. bnÞab;mk ´RtUvyk
RkdasBum<enaH eTAe)aHBum<BIelIRkdaskaEst EdleKeRtomrYcCaeRsc edayeRbIr:UeNGUsRmab;
sgát;TwkexµA[ pþamditelIRkdaskaEstxageRkam}.
eRkaye)aHBum<kaEstrYc RkumGñkeXasnaRtUvykkaEsteTAEckcay nigpSBVpSaydl;
GñkKaMRT nigély:agNa[kareXasnaneya)ayenH RCYtRCabdl;hVÚgmhaCnTUeTA RbeyaCn_
bMpusbMpulRbCaCnExµr [PJak;rlwkeRkakeLIgTamTarÉkraCüBI)araMg. rIÉPñak;garEckcay
-17-

ebIeyagtam elak nI v:an;FI )an[dwgfa PaKeRcInCasmaCikén{smaKmsisScas;}40 Edl
mkBIviTüal½ysIusuvtßi nigRBHsgÇ. viFIEckcayRtak; nigxitþb½NÑd¾manRbsiT§iPaB nigqab;rh½s
KWykExScgRkbYc vaP¢ab;CamYYyExøgÉk edaydutFUbEdlcgep¥abCab;ExSenaH ehIybegðaHExøg
enaH [)anx<s;. bUkrYmnwgkmøaMgxül; enAeBlFUbenaHeqHdl;ExS vanwgdutExSbNþac;eFVI[rbUt
mat;cMNg bNþal[xitþb½NÑTaMgLay RCuHBRgayeTAtameKaledAEdl)anRBagTuk.
esckþIsMxan;² enAkñúgkaEsteXasnaTaMgenaH PaKeRcInlatRtlagnUvGMeBIKabsgát;
CiHCan;ekgRbv½Ba©rbs;)araMgmkelIra®sþExµrd¾kMst;evTna b¤ CYnkalriHKn;tiHeTonelIPaBx¢Hx¢ay
hYsehturbs;raCvaMgCaTIeKarBbUCaénRbCara®sþExµr. elakv:an;FI enAcgcaM)anfa elakFøab;)an
e)aHBum<rUbRtak;tiHeTonsemþc neratþm sIhnu pgEdr. enAelIRtak;enaHmanrUbtøúksemþc Edl
kMBug erraMBt;eBn tamcgVak;ePøgrbs;)araMgy:agsb,ayrIkray enAelI)atédTahan)araMgkn§at;
mñak; EdlkMBugCan;BIelIrUbRbCara®sþExµrRkIRkd¾sÁaMgsÁm. elakbnþeTotfa rUbenH )anTak;Taj
karKaMRTbEnßmBIRbCaCnExµresñhaCati nigBIGñkEdlrgeRKaH nigQWcab;edaysarkarCiHCan;
d¾F¶n;F¶rBIsMNak;)araMg. GVIEdlKYr[kt;sMKal;CagenH KWviciRtkr nI v:an;FI manPaBkøahan h‘an
suIej:dak;eQµaHxøÜnKat; enAelIrUbtøúkenHpÞal;Etmþg hak;dUcCaminxøacsemþc sIhnu TteXIj
ehIydak;eTaskMhusdl;Kat;eLIy.
2>3> karrkR)ak;sRmab;Rkum

Rbtibtiþkarrbs;Exµr\sSr³GacRbRBwtþieTA)an KWGaRs½yedaykarxMRbwgERbg edayxøÜn
Ég nigKaMRTrbs;RbCaBlra®sþExµrcUlrYmKaMRT Biess edayskmµPaBrbs;yuTæCn\sSr³. GVI
EdlExµr\sSr³GacpÁt;pÁg;xøÜnÉg)anenaH mandUcCa karlk;eRmc C½reram xøwmc½nÞ Rkvaj enA
40

smaKmenH RtUv)anbegáIteLIg edIm,IEsVgrkkargar[BYksisSsalaviTüal½yRBHsuIsuvtßieFVIenAkñúg rdæaPi)al
GaNaniKmeRkayeBlBYkeKeroncb; ehIyBuMmanlT§PaBEsVgrkkargareFVIedayxøÜnÉg. va)an KMramkMEhgy:agxøaMg
cMeBaH)araMg nigraCaniymExµr. eRBaH va)anpþl;fvikardl;RBHsgÇ EdlnimnþeTAtamRsukERs edIm,IeTsnaRbqaMg
)araMg k¾dUcCa edIrEckcayxitþb½NÑ dUckrNIxagelIRsab;. eRkaymkelak sWug g:ukfaj; )ankøayCaTIRbwkSa én
smaKmenH ehIy)aneFVI[mankarRBmeRBogneya)ayrvagGñkCatiniym vNѳeRkam nigvNѳx<s;. sUmemIl³ elak
Nub suxa nigGñkdéTeTot {dMenIreq<aHmkrkÉkraCüExµr} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüaCMnan;TI13 saklviTüal½yPUminÞ
PñMeBj qñaM1995-1996 TM> 16.
29
elak GaMg KImXn CabgRbusmñak;rbs;GñkRsI GaMg exn énviTüúsMelgshrdæGaemricsBVéf¶.

-18-

RbeTséf. kñúgkarCYjdUrenH BYkeKCYnkal)aneRbIR)as;dMrIsRmab;dwkCBa¢ÚnpgEdr. viFImYy
eTot sRmab;pÁt;pÁg;xøÜnÉgenaH KWkarsuMviPaKTanBIBYkGñkmanenAtamCnbT. dUckrNImYy Edl
BYkeK)ansuvM Pi aKTanBIelak GaMg KImXn41 EdlkalenaH KWCaGñkrt;LanQñlÜ tampøvÚ )at;dbM gPñMeBj. CadMbUg BYkeK)anbBa©ÚnPñak;garrbs;xøÜn naMsMbuRtykeTAcUlesñIsuMR)ak;viPaKTan
BIGñkmankñúgnamExµr\sSr³. TnÞwmnwgenH BYkeKGacsuMRbCara®sþmandUcCaGgár fñaMeBTü semøók
bMBak; b¤ es,ógGahar. viFITaMgb:unµanxagelI RtUv)anRbCaCnTTYlCYyedaysniþviFI.42 BYkeK
eBjcitþnwgCYypþl; tamkmøaMgsT§a. eRBaHBYkeK k¾TnÞwgcg;)anesrIPaB nigÉkraCüpgEdr.
eTaHCay:agNak¾eday manRbCaCn b¤ GñkmanmYycMnYnmineBjcitþ nigminmancitþcg;CYyeLIy
EdlCaehtu CMruj[BYkExµr\sSr³bgçMcitþeRbIFm’ekþAcMeBaHBYkTaMgenaH. viFIcugeRkayenH mandUc
CakareKogeKa RkbI rbs;BYkGñkRsuk ykeTAlk;enARbeTséf nigkarcUleTAcab;xøÜndl;pÞH
edIm,ICMritykR)ak;.
k- karrksuIlYceKogeKa

cMeBaHkareKogeKa RkbI BYkemExµr \sSr³ )aneRCIsykGñkcat;karerOgenH edaykar
cab;eqñat. ebIeQµaHNa cab;)aneqñat EdltRmUv[eTARbtibtþikareKogeKa RkbIlk; eTIbRtUv
TTYlbBa¢aGnuvtþ.
elaknI v:an;FI erobrab;R)ab;eyIgBIskmµPaBCak;EsþgmYy EdlKat;)aneFVIkMLúgeBlKat;
kMBugenAkñúgRkumcas;. kñúgqñaM1947 elak nI v:an;FI RtUv)aneKcab;eqñatcMeQµaHsRmab;ecj
RbtibtiþkareKogeKaCaelIkdMbUg. Kat;mankarBi)akcitþCaxøaMg mindwgCaGaceFVIy:agem:c mindwg
CaRtUveKogeKay:agNa)aneLIy ehIymindwgCaeTAykeTAlk;enATINaeLIy. kalenaH Rkum

42

elakb‘uNÑ cnÞm:ulk¾)anGHGagpgEdrfaBYkKat;)anérGgÁasR)ak;BIRbCaCnedIm,ITijGavuF. RbCaCn sµ½®Kcitþnwg
CYYjCaR)ak;edIm,IbþÚrykÉkraCüPaBsMrab;CatiExµr. sUmemIl³ b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul critExµr TM> 48.

-19-

RbtibtiþkarCamYyKat;maneQµaHdUcCa Qit, Twm, y:at, nigeGog43 EdlCaGtItemecar
lYceKa. cMeBaHbBaðaenH elak v:an;FI GHGagkarBarfa karGnuvtþlYceKogeKaGñkRsukeBlenaH
xusBIkarlYceKogeKaEdlecarlYceKaFmµtaFøab;eFVI. eRBaHfa BYkecarFmµtalYceKa edIm,Iyk
luyeFVICasm,tiþpÞal;xøÜn EtBYkKat;ykluyEbbenaH edIm,ICYydl;buBVehtuÉkraCüCati. y:ag
Nak¾eday Kat;fakareFVIEbbenHminEmnCaGMeBIl¥ b¤ gayRsYlenaHeT.
dMbUgBYkKat;RtUveKogeKaGñkRsuk)anCaeRcIn ecjBIvalERsenARsukExµr edayKµancgExS
dUceKaFmµta. CYnkalKat;ehAhVgÚ eKaenaHfa {eKar:at} CaeKarbs;degçARsukERs EdlciBa©mw Ca
eRcInk,al edayKµankarEfrkSaRtwmRtUv dUcCakarcab;xHúø RcmuH cgExSCaedIm EteKaTaMgenaH RtUv
eKciBa©mw CahVgÚ dak;RTug enAekonPUmi Ek,rmat;éRB EdlCYnkal sUm,IEtcMnnY b:nu aµ nk,al k¾ma© s;va
minTaMgdwgpg. eKaEbbenH eRcInEtgayPJak;ep¥lI Bi)akbBa¢adUceKaRsukFmµta. emøa: HehIy Et
eBlNaeTAdl;kEnøglk; KwenAmancMnnY tictYcNas; Etb:unµank,alb:ueNÑaH eRBaHvaTTYlkar
PJak;ep¥IltampøÚveKog ehIyrt;R)ascakecalhVÚgCaRbcaM. GVI Edlbgá[BYkeKlM)akCagenH KW
GMeBIEdlBYkeKRtUvBYkQµÜjéfe)akR)as; b¤ RtUvecaréfbøn;bnþ.
Rkumelak nI v:an;FI Føab;TTYlrgnUvkarbøn;enHEdr kñúgeBlEdlBYkKat;kMBugGgÁúycuH
Qb;sRmakenAtampøÚv. éf¶mYy eBlKat;kMBugGgÁúycuH edayKµan)anRbugRby½tñxøÜn PøamenaH
Rsab;EtmanecaréfmYyRkumRbdab;edaykaMePøIg CiHesH tRmg;mkkEnøgsRmakrbs;BYkKat;.
edayKµanGVItédnwgeK eRBaHkaMePøIgrbs;Kat;)aj;minecj ehIy m:üageTot ebIeTaHCa)aj;ecj
k¾minGacTb;Tl;)anEdr eRBaHBYkecaréf manKñIKña nigGavuFeRcInCag. bnÞab;BI)anPøk;emeron
enH BYkExµr\sSr³)andUryuT§saRsþlk;eKa edayQb;eKoghVÚgeKaykeTAlk; EdlTRmaMman
QµÜjmkTij nigRbmUlluy)an ykeTAedIrrkTijkaMePøIg mkeRbIviFIRbesIrCagenaHbnþic KW
{eKogeKaykeTAdUrkaMePøIgBIBYkéf} vij. edayeFVIskmµPaBxøI EtmYyRBwb[cb;Etmþg mincaM
)ac;eRbIeBlyUr nigRbQmmuxcMeBaHeRKaHfñak;énGMeBIbøn;CaeRcIneTot.
EteTaHCay:agNa GMeBIedIreKogeKarbs;GñkRsukyk edayKµankarRBmeRBogKñaEbb
enaHehIy EdlCaFmµtaRtUvnwgBakübBaØtþifa {ecar} . tamsuPasitRbCaRbiy EdlmanenA
43

k¾dUcCaeQµaH eGog enHEdr emecarlYceKadéTeTotRtUv)anRkumExµr\sSr³cab;)an ehIycuHcUlCamYy\sSr³.
dUecñHehIy eTIbelak nI v:an;FI )anR)ab;eyIgfa nasm½yExµr\sSr³enaH minmanemecarlYcepþspþas; edIm,IeFVIman
)anpÞal;xøÜneLIy. eRkaymk Kat;RtUv)an saLút qay sresrkñúgkaEst[rh½snamKat;fa Ca{ecarcitþCa}.

-20-

RKb;RbeTs EtgeBalfa {QñHCa esþc caj;Ca ecar}. mü:ageTot etImanGñk b¤karts‘UNamYy
Edlminb:HBal;dl;plRbeyaCn_ b¤ RTBüsm,tþirbs;RbCara®sþ? RbsinebI Gñkts‘U nigkarts‘U
enaH )aneCaKC½y muxCaKµanGñkNah‘anecaTfa Føab;eFVIecar eLIy.
x- karrksuIcab;CMrit

viFankarekþA 44 rbs;Exµr\sSr³mYyeTot sRmab;BkY GñkmanRTBü EdlminRBmpþl;vPi aK
Tan edaysRmYleRkayBITTYlsMbuRtesñIsuMenaH KWkarcUlcab;xøÜnedIm,ICMritykR)ak;. krNIenH
elak nI v:an;FI nigRkumrbs;Kat; RtUv)aneKtRmUv[rkR)ak;[)anmYyEsnerolkñúgmYyGaTitü.
enAéf¶TImYy RkumKat;R)aMnak;)anecjRbtibtiþkarenAkMBg;RBH enACitGnøg;vil kñúgextþ)at;dMbg;.
enATIenaH BYkKat; )ancUleTAkñúgpÞHrbs;efAEkcinCYjTwkXµúMmñak; tamPñak;garesuIbrbs;BYkeK.45
EtsMNag minsUvl¥ BYkKat;minGacrkR)ak;)anmYYyesneLIy KW)anEtRtIeq¥IrmYYyRkas; EdlBYk
Kat;ykmktam edIm,IkuM[s‘yEtb:ueNÑaH eRBaHéf¶enaH efAEkTwkXMµúeqøIyfa Kµanluy[.
enAéf¶TIBIr BYkKat;)aneTAXøaMcaMemIl edIm,Irk»kascab;CRmitTarR)ak;BIefAEkenaH Ca
bnþeTot. RbEhlCaefAEkenaHdwgxøÜn b¤ k¾P½yxøac eTIbKat;ykR)ak;rbs;xøÜn eTAepJITukenA
ecAGFikarvtþkMBg;RBH EdlCakUnrbs;Kat;. EteTaHCay:agNak¾eday Kat;enAEtRtUvrgeRKaH
dEdl eRBaH enAeBlKat; nigRkumRKYsarkMBugCYbCMuKñal¥ Rsab;EtmanmnusSmYyRkumsMrukcUl
eTAkñúgpÞH. emRkumrbs;BYkeKesøókBak;sMelokbMBak;yYnevotmij edayBak;mYkkUb Edltam
BitenaHKW v:an;FI nigsmaCikmñak;eQµaH Twm sEmþgCaGñkbkERbyYn. karEdl Kat;esøókBak;
EbbenH edIm,I[RbCaCnyl;RcLM cat;TukBYkKat;fa BYkyYn evotmij eRBaHl,icklEbbenH
BYkyYnevotmij k¾Føab;EkøgbnøMeFVICaExµr\sSr³Edr ehIyedIrCMritTarluyBIRbCaCnExµr.
eBlenaH BYkKat;TaMg5nak; )ancab;yk)an taefAEkenaH rYmTaMgkUnRsIrbs;Kat;TaMgBIr
nak;eTot ehIyePøccab;elaksgÇEdlCakUnrbs;efAEkenaHEdr. CaehtueFVI[elaksgÇenaH
rt;eTAbþwgb:UlIs. cMENkefAEkenaH)anERsksYrfa {yI¡ etIBYkxagNamkcab;xJúMhñwg?} eday
eXIjelakemRkumesøóksMelokbMBak;EbbyYn Kat;bnþeTotfa {ehtuGVI)anCamkcab;BYkxJúM etI
44

sUm,IEtBYkbkSRbCaFibetyü k¾)anyl;RsbnwgviFankarekþA ¬the violent methods of the Khmer Issarak¦
rbs;BYkKat;Edr. Available at: http://www.asianartmall.com/Cambodia/Independence.html , accessed

on 09/05/2005, 8:50.

45

kic©smÖasn_CamYyelak nI v:an;FI enAextþ kMBg;s<W enAéf¶TI25 kumÖ³ 2006.

-21-

elakcg;)anGVI?} TwmeqøIytbbnþeTotfa {BYkxúJMTTYlbBa¢aBIfñak;elImkesñIsMuR)ak;kasBIelak
edIm,IdeNþImÉkraCü}. efAEkTwkXµúMPøat;mat;fa {eyIgsuT§EtCaKñaÉgetI¡ emþccaM)ac;eFVIEbbenH?
eQµaHTwmeqøIyfa {mindwgeT¡ xJúMmktambBa¢afñak;elIeT}. dMNaleBlEdlkUnRsIc,gkMBug
ERskyM kUnRsIb¥ÚnsYredaykøahanfa {xJúMsBVéf¶RkIRkBMumanluykak;[BYkelakeT}. Twm )an
KMramkMEhgfa {ebIBuMmanluyeT cUrGgÁúyPavnaFm’ muneBlsøab;[ehIyeTA}. edayesckþI
P½ytk;søútxøaMg efAEkenaH )anERskGgVrfa kuMGalsMlab;BYkKat;GI ehIysYrrkCYbempÞal;
Etmþg. TwmeqøIytbfa {emrbs;xøÜneTIbmkBIhaNUy Kat;minecHniyayPasaExµreT. dUecñH
mincaM)ac;CYbKat;eT pþl;EtR)ak;viPaKTan)anehIy};. taefAEkenaH sYrbnþeTotfa {etIBYkelak
RtUvkarR)ak;b:unµan?} TwmeqøIyfa {sUmpþl;tamlT§PaB)anehIy}. nagkUnRsIefAEkeqøIyfa BYk
nagRkNas; KµanR)ak;[eT. CafµImþgeTot TwmGaremkaMePøIgbeNþIr ERskKMramfa {ebIGBa©wg
GgÁúyPavnaeTA¡}. taefAEkenaHBüayamGgVrfa {eT¡ kMuGalGI¡ eyIgsuT§EtCaKñaÉgetI
caM)ac;eFVIGIdl;fñak;enH.} edayxøaceKmineCO Kat;xMGYtfa {rUb´Føab;)anCYyRkummutþKahaCa
erogral;Ex. ´)anCYyCaGgár luykak; fñaMsgáÚv b¤ sMelokbMBak; KW´)anCYyeRcInNas; rhUt
dl;)anb½NÑsresIreTotpg. caMeBldl;pÞH ´nwgykva[BYkelakemIl}. Twm bnþsMlutfa
{mindwgeT¡ eTaHCay:agNa \LÚveyIgTTYlbBa¢aBIfñak;elImksuMviPaKTanBIelak}.
sUmbBa¢ak;fa elak nI v:an;FI EdlbnøMxønÜ eFVICayYnnaeBlenaH minenACitkEnøgtéfø
KñaenHeT KWKat;enAQrq¶aybnþiclµmsþab;B¤karsnÞnaKña. dUecñHehIy eBlmankarGVIniyay
BiPakSa b¤ sYrKña elak Twm enaH RtUvrt;sMedAmkKat; ehIyeFVICaniyayPasayYn. CaBiess
enAeBl taefAEkenaHtéføbg;R)ak;elaHxøÜn TwmRtUveFVICart;mksYrKat;. TIbMput BYkeKRBmeRBog
KñaykR)ak;30muWnerol edaykMNt;yk enAem:ag12yb;. tbeTAnwgl,icklrbs;taefAEk
Edlcg;[kUnRsITaMgBIrrbs;Kat; eTAykR)ak;BIpÞH emRkumcab;CRmitEkøgxøÜn )anR)ab;eTATwm
[taefAEkenaHeTApÞH ykR)ak;mkelaHkUnRsITaMgBIrvij eRBaH Kat;)armÖfa taenaH[kUnRsI
TaMgBIreTApÞH ehIyeTAbþwgb:UlIs edayminKitBIsuvtßiPaBrbs;Kat;pÞal;Ca«Buk Edlmanv½y
cMNas;eTAehIyenaH. m:üageTot Kat;yl;fa {efAEkenaH CamnusSelaPln; EdlGacnwgsux
citþsøab; edayTukR)ak;[kUnRsI²rbs;Kat; CaCag[eTABYkecaréRBcab;CRmit}.
muneBlefAEkTwkXµúMenaHeTAykR)ak;enAÉpÞH edIm,ImkelaHkUnRsI eQµaH Twm )anham
min[taenaHbþwgb:UlIseLIy. Twm bnþKMramfaebImindUcecñaHeT caMyksaksBkUnRsIeTApÞHeTA.
-22-

BYkeKNat;CYbKña enAéRBel,aHmYyEk,rpøÚvCatielx5. eRkayBIefAEkTwkXµúMecjput BYkeK
BiPakSaKñas¶at;² BICMhanbnÞab;EdlRtUveFVI niigKYrRbugRby½tñ. BYkeK)andak;evnKñayam søab
eqVgsþaMmñak;mþg eRBaHxøacERkgb:UlIsmkcab; ehIysnµtsBaØaKña ebIsinmankareFøaHeFøay b¤
y:agNa TaMgGs;KñaRtUvePosxøÜneTACYbKñavij mþúMGUrRseLA.
niyayBIRBHsgÇenAvtþÉeNaH )anbþwgb:UlIstamrkejam ¬«Buk¦rbs;xøÜn ehIycMeBl
EdlefAEkTwkXµúMeTAdl;pÞH nigdwgBIkEnøgRkumrbs;BYkecarcab;CMrit k¾)annaMKñaeTAykR)ak;eTA
elaH edaynaMTaMgb:UlIseTACamYypg.
eBleTAdl;Pøam efAEkTwkXµúMenaH )ansuMCYbelak v:an;FI CaemRkumecar EdlKat;eCOfa
mkBIRkummutþKahaCafµImþgeTot edaysgÇwmfa )anTTYlkareyaKyl;xøH edayKat;EfmTaMg
)annaMykb½NÑsresIrBIBYkevotmijeTACamYyeTotpg. edaykarRbugRby½tñ eQµaH Twm )an
eqøIytbdUcmun ehIybEnßmeTotfa rUbKat;nwgehIy CaemrgEdlGacsMerckic©karenH)an.
eXIjdUecñH elaksgÇenaH)ansakl,gcrcasuMCYb elak v:an;FI ERkgelaKat;RBm. cMENk
b:UlIsEdlmkCamYy ehobnwgs®gÁb;cab;BYkcab;CMritenH)aneTAehIy EtxøaccMNab;xµaMgman
eRKaHfñak;. taefAEkTwkXµúM nigkUnCaRBHsgÇkMBugCnøCenøjsuMCYbemFM nigsnµtKñafa RtUvRBElg
kUnRsIrbs;Kat; dMNaleBlKat;hucluy[. eXIjsßankarN_minRsYl Twm )ankBaäk;yk
es,agR)ak;BIefAEkenaHrt;ecj TaMgbkSBYkrbs;xøÜnminTan;)anRBElgkUnRsIefAEkTwkXµúMpg.
efAEkTwkXµúM )anrt;eTATajykkUnRsI ÉelaksgÇCakUn )anTajykkaMePøIgecjBIfg;yam)aj;
tRmg;rUbelak v:an;FI EtsMNagl¥RKab;kaMePøIgenaH)anRtwmEt RtUvédGavrbs;emecarcab;CMrit
{citþCarUb}enHEtb:ueNÑaH. Kat;)anGHGagfa eK)aj;Kat;minRtUv eRBaHKat;)anbBa©úHmasenAkñúg
sac;. elak va:n;FI )anrt;eKcBIkartamcab;xøÜnBIsMNak;b:UlIs nigGñkPUmi edaymindwgfa
RCuH)at;kaMePøIgtaMgBIeBlNa. rhUtdl;PUmimYy EdlsMbUredayedImdMbgykS nigGñkecHk,ac;
KuN Kat;)anTal;Rck eTIbeFVIl,icCaKMramrk)aj;BYkeK RbsinebIBYkeKNamñak; EdlenAEtcg;
cUlmkrkvayKat;. b:uEnþ BYkGñkPUmienaHxøac minh‘aneFVIGIVKat;eLIy. Kat;)anR)ab;´fa tamBit
enAeBlenaH kaMePøIgKat;RCuH)at;eTAehIy ebIsinGñkPUmienaHcUlvaydMEmn Kat;BitCasøab;
BuMxan. mþgenH Kat;hak;dUcCakan;EtmanCMenO;fa Kat;BitCamanGMNacGaf’kM)aMgeRkAxøÜn tam
CYy[rYcBIeRKaHGasnñTaMgLayEmn. cMENkKñIKñaKat;b:unµaneTot k¾kMBugP½yekalahldUcKña
Edr eRBaHRtUv)anb:UlIs ERskbBa¢a[shkarIeK edjB½T§)aj;y:agskmµEdr. EteCaKvasna
-23-

minTan;Gs; BYkeK)anrt;eKcvagpøÚvcuHeLIg rhUtevsputBIeRKaHfñak;TaMgP½ytkáma. bnÞab;mk
BYkeK)anCYbKñaenAkEnøgNat; rYcehIyykR)ak;TaMgGs;eTA[fñak;elIBYkeK. mñak;²RtUv)an
eKpþl;R)ak;CakarelIkTwkcitþcMnYn 5000` nig)anQb;sRmakcMnYnBIrbIéf¶ eRBaHBYkKat;rk)an
R)ak;)anRKb;cMnYn.
tamBitBYkemExµr\sSr³ )ankMNt;[RkumkargarnImYy² rkR)ak;[)ancMnYn1Esnerol
kñúgmYYyGaTitü. dUecñH ebIBYkKat;rk)an 3Esnerol BYkKat;GacQb;sRmak)anmYyry³
EtebIsin rkmin)antamkarkMNt;eT BYkeKnwgRtUvTTYlkarBin½y nigrgkarsþIbenÞas.
eRkaymkeTot Rkumrbs;Kat;)ancuHmkeFVRI btibtþki arEsVgrkviPaKTanenAtambwgTenøsab
dUcCa rnamdUnsM EdlCakEnøgsMbUredayCnCatievotyYnrksIutampøÚvTwk. Kat;bnþfa eTaHbICa
enATIenaH manRbCaCncitþl¥Gacbg;viPaKTandl;clnats‘Uk¾eday CakarKYr[jejItNas;enATI
enaH eRBaHvasMbUredayexµacGnafa GENþtTwkRtUv)anEk¥kcwksIu. mkdl;TIenH eTIbelak va:n;FI
RCabfa BYkGNikCncin b¤ yYn EtgmansmancitþcMeBaHBYkKN³mutþKaha CaCagBYkExµr\sSr³
BIeRBaHfa kñúgkarEsVgrkkarKaMRTEpñkhirBaØvtßú TaMgRkumevotmij nigRkum\sSr³esrI EtgbnøMyk
eQµaHRkumdéT edIm,IsuMR)ak;BIra®sþ KµanRkumNamYy h‘anykeQµaHRkumxøÜnÉgBitR)akdeTAR)ab;
GñkRsukeLIy. emø:aHehIy RkumNaEdlecjedIrérGgÁasBIra®sþ minsUvjwkjab;dUceK muxCa
RtUvxUceQµaHkan;EteRcIn. BIeRBaH RkumNaecjérGgÁas b¤CMritTarBIRbCara®sþeRcInCageK Etg
EtykeQµaHRkumNamYyepSg EdlmanRbiyPaB nigekrþ×eQµaHl¥Cag eRkABIRkumrbs;xøÜneTA
beBaäatR)ab;eK. cMENk RkummutþKaha RtUvGñkRsukcUlcitþCageKenaH edaysarBYkenHman
RbKl;viBaØabnb½RtsresIr [dl;GñkeFVIGMeNay edIm,ICakarbBa¢ak;BIkarrYmcMENkkñúgbuBVehtu
rbs;eK. k¾b:uEnþ kareFVIEbbenH brimaNR)ak;GgÁas)an minmancMnYneRcInRKb;RKan;sRmab;
cMNayeLIy. PaKeRcIn eKEtgEtcab;CMritTarR)ak;BIGñkmanluyeRcIn dUcKñanwgRkumdéTeTot
Edr ehIyTegVIEbbenH eKEtgEtTmøak;kMhuseTAelIRkumNamYykñúgcMeNamRkumExµr\sSr³Na
mYyvij eyagtamkRmitRbCaRbiyPaBrbs;RkumenaH.
etIExµr\sSr³ ecHEtedIrEsVgrkviPaKTanBIRbCaCntamEtGMeBIicitþb¤? etIeKGacTTYlyk
)anb¤eT cMeBaHBaküfa {suMviPaKTan} EdlCYnkalEsþgeLIg CarUbPaBbgçM b¤ cab;CMritykR)ak;
Rss;² dUckrNIcab;CMritefAEkTwkXµúMxagelI? eqøIytbnwgsMNYrenH elak nI v:an;FI )anGHGag
fa BYkExµr\sSr³ maneKalkarN_RtwmRtUvmYy sRmab;RbmUlviPaKTanedIm,IpÁt;pÁg;xøÜnÉg.
-24-

CaTUeTA eKaledAsMxan;rbs;BYkExµr\sSr³ kñúgcab;CMrit KWBYkGNikCncin/ yYn nigExµrkat;cin
EdlCaGñkCMnYj b¤ CaGñkmanRTBüsm,tiþeRcIn. mü:ageTot kUtaEdlBYkeKGacCMritTar CaEbb
viPaKTan KWykeRcInbMputRtwm 30° eTA 50°énbrimaNRTBüsm,tþi EdleKman. BYkeKmin
EdlrwbGUsykRTBüsm,tiþGñkmanrUbNa rhUtdl;eFVI[BYkeKGs;edImTunrksIueLIy. munnwg
BYkeKseRmccitþcab;CMritTarR)ak;BIRKYsarNanImYy eKetagesuIbsYr nigsegáty:agl¥itl¥n;GMBI
muxrbrrksuI nigskþanuBlbrimaNFnFan énRKYsareKaledAenaH. m:üageTot GñkEdlkøayCa
eKaledAénkarcab;CRmitykR)ak;enH edaysar eKminRtwmEtminRBmCYypþl;viPaKTantam
sMrYlenaHeT EtEfmTaMg)aneTAraykarN_R)ab;)araMg[mkvayRbharbkmkelIskmµCnExµr
\sSr³vijpg.
2>4> skmµPaBRbyuT§dMbUg

minyUrbu:nµaneRkaykartaMgTI)anRsYlbYlbnþic RkumExµr\sSr³enAPñMdgErkmanEpnkar
BRgIkEdndI. BYkeK)anTak;TajykGñkKaMRT)anCaeRcIn [cUlhVwkhVat;yuT§saRsþkgT½B. Et
eTaHCay:agNa BYkeKenAmankarxVHxatkmøaMgmnusSbeRmIkgT½B. em:øaHehIyBYkeKxitxMGUs
TajkmøaMgKaMRTrbs;xøÜnBIRKb;EpñkTaMgGs;. Cak;EsþgrUbelak nI v:an;FI EdlsßitenAkñúgEpñk
eXasnakar k¾RtUveKtRmUv[cUleronsalanayTahanfñak;TabpgEdr. CalT§pl BYkExµr
\sSr³ )anBRgIkEdndIdl;extþ)at;dMbg. dUcKñaenHEdr eBlBYkeKvaydl;TINa Etg)anhVwk
hVat;yuT§saRsþ bEnßmdl;nayTahanrbs;xøÜnenATIenaH. dUcCa krNIsalanayTahanrg
Edlsßti enAeRkambBa¢akarrbs; elakskþbi I G‘cU nigPUQyY rbs;Kat;eQµaH ]T½y.46 CafµmI gþ eTot
rUbelak v:an;FI k¾)ancUleronnwgeKEdr eRkamkarbgðat;beRgonBI elakskþibI Em:n GKÁIenRt.
skmµPaBKYr[cab;GarmµN_ EdlExµr\sSr³)aneFVeI nAeBlenaH KWkarvayRbharGUtéU r: dwk
luyR)ak;Exrbs;Pañ k;garebIkR)ak;Ex[m®nþrI aCkarCMnan;)araMg.47 ebItamRbsasn_rbs;elak
v:an;FI )an[dwgfa enAeRkambBa¢akarrbs;skþibI G‘Uc BYkKat;)anBYnsÞak;vayykR)ak;Exm®nþI
46

zannþrs½kþi {s½kþibI} hak;dUcCa s½kþimYykRmit EdlRtUv)anEtgtaMgedaysmaCikRkum\sSr³KñaÉg RbKl;dl;
emT½Bl,I² nigxøaMgBUEk. ebIBYkeKmineRbIzan³s½kþibI enABImuxeT emT½BTaMgenH EtgmaneRbIrh½snamP¢ab;knÞúyeQµaH
rbs;xøÜn dUcCa G‘Uc nileBRC/ Em:n GKÁIenRt/ taéL C½ymgÁl/ QYn m¢úleBRC EdlBak;páay7 CaedIm.
47
kic¢smÖasn_rvagGñkniBn§ nigelak nI v:an;FI enARkugPñMeBj éf¶TI 02 mifuna 2006.

-25-

raCkar nigsmÖar³epSg²eTot EdlRtUv)aneKdwkCBa¢ÚntampøÚvrfePøIg. BYkrdækar)araMg)an
karBarExSrfePøgI enaH edaykardak;[BYkTahan ehS> ev:> EGhV> ¬G. V. F.¦48 enAyamkam
y:agtwgrwg. elIsBIenHeTAeTot BYkeK)anerobcMkaMePøIgFMenAxagmux/ xageRkay nigTaMgsgçag
énTUrrfePøIg edIm,IFanasuvtþiPaBGñkdMeNIr nigTMnijTaMgLay. eTaHCay:agNa karRbugRby½tñ
EbbenHminGacTb;Tl; karvayRbharBIBYkT½B\sSr³)anRKb;eBlevlaenaHeT. yuT§Cn\sSr³
eRkamkarbBa¢arbs;skþibI G‘Uc )anykRKab;mInFM² Edl{BYkKN³kmµaFikarsagCati}enA PñM
dgErkplit)an edIm,Imkvayqµk;deNþImyk)ansmÖar³C½yP½NÐrbs;BYkrdæaPi)al. BYkeKman
eCaKC½ydeNþIm)anC½yP½NÐeRcInNas;.
cMENk RbCaCnenAPUmiEk,renaH mandUcCa enAmþúMvtþsVayCati k¾TTYl)ansmÖar³xøH²
pgEdr. eRBaHBYkeKdwgBIKeRmagkarN_mun ehIybrreTHmkrg;caMerIsykC½yP½NÐ. CYnkal
BYkKat;RtUvrgvinaskmµy:agexøacpSar. eRBaHExµr\sSr³minEmnsuT§swgCaGñkeFVIs®gÁamy:ag
cMNanenaHeT. kic©karRbyuT§rbs;Kat; eRcInEteFVIedayRbfuyRbfan nigkñúgdMNak;kal
sakl,g. RKab;mInFM² EdlyuT§CnExµr\sSr³PMñdgErkEkécñplit)an RtUveKbBa¢Únykmk[
Pñak;garxagkñúgeRbIR)as;edayKµankarhVwkhat;viFIeRbI. manmþgenaH eK)aneRbImIndak;bMpÞúHsÞak;
ExSrfePøIgenaH. edaysareKminGacbMpÞúHva[Tan;eBlevla eFVI[TahankarBarExSrfePøIgemIl
eXIj ehIy)aj;epøagdak;BYkeK EtRKab;kaMePøIgFMEdl)aj;ecjenaH)anxÞatmkRtUvBYkGñkRsuk
Edlrg;caMenAxageRkayxñgBYkeK edIm,IcUleTAerIykC½yP½NÐeTAvij.
ebIBinitüelIsßanPaBenH[Cak;c,as; eyIgGacrkeXIjfa RbCaCnBitCamanPaBCitsñiT§
nigmanTMnak;TMngCamYyclnaExµr\sSr³. eRBaHfa BYkeKGacdwgBIKeRmagkarN_vayRbhar
epSg²rbs;clnats‘U ehIyGaceTAdeNþImdwkyksmÖar³C½yP½NÐ)anEdr. karN_enHminxusBI
esckþIbBa¢ak;rbs; elak nI v:an;FI fa BYkRbCaCnCnbT mansmancitþRsLaj;rab;GanBYkExµr
\sSr³.49
karRbyuT§d¾KYr[Gs;sMeNIcmYyeTot KYrRtUv)anelIkykmklatRtdagpgEdr. KUr
RbyuT§mþgenHminEmn rvagyuT§Cnrbs;elakskþibI G‘Uc CamYynwgBYkrdækar)araMgeT Etrvag BYk
48

49

RbEhlCaBakükat;énPasa)araMg ‘Guardiens des Voies-Fers.’ Edlmann½yfa {kgkarBarpøÚvEdk}.
Op. cit,.

-26-

yuT§Cns½kþibI G‘Uc CamYynwgBYkyYnevotmij EdlmanTItaMgFMenAPñMl¥agnM ÉnayTisGaeKñy_
énPMñFibetyü¬PMñGFibtI¦. TIenH CamUldæanrwgmaMmYyrbs;BYkyYnevotmij. BYkeKtaMgenAkñúg
l¥agPMñd¾FM EdlmantaMgBIm:asuInePøIg m:asuInedr niges,ógGaharCaeRcIn. BYkyYnevotmij Bit
CamanButt,útd¾Gs©arüEdlKµanGñkNaFøab;bgðaj[dwgeLIy. BYkeK)ancab;ykRsþIExµr EdleFVI
dMeNIrqøgkat;tMbn;eKRtYtRta tamrfePøIg b¤ tamrfynþnana eTAXMuXaMgTukenAkñúgl¥agPMñenaH
edIm,I[BYknagkat;edrsemøókbMBak; nigeFVIGgár[kgT½Bevotmij. narIxøHCakUnRkmMuGñkksikr
CnbT xøHCaRKUbeRgon xøHCaPriyarbs;m®nþIraCkarExµr nigmanmñak;CakUnRsIrbs;)araMgmñak;
eFVIkar enAextþ)at;dMbg. eRkABI edrsemøókbMBak;sRmab;kgT½Bevotmij BYknagCaeRcInnak;
RtUvmanépÞeBaHCamYy emT½B nigTahanevotmij. RbEhledaysarRtUveKcab;rMelaP nig
rYmr½kSCaRbcaMEbbenaH eTIbmannarIExµrenAlIvCaeRcInkñúgcMeNamenaH hak;dUcCamansmancitþ
RsLaj; sresIr nigTukcitþcMeBaHbuBVehturbs;Tahanevotmij EdleKEtgEtlYgelam nig
TUnµanBYknag GMBIkarts‘Urbs;BYkeK edIm,IbuBVehturMedaHRbeTsevotNam nigCYydeNþImÉkraCü
BI)araMgmk[km<úCa. CaRbkarmYyKYr[esaksþay sRmab;RbeTskm<úCa EdlPaKeRcInénRsþI
cMNab;xµaMgTaMgenaH min)anKitnwkxwg b¤ekþARkhayGVI cMeBaHBYkyYnevotmij Edlcab;ykrUbxøÜn
bgçM[eFVIkarbeRmIBYkeK nigkMBuglg;kñúgkare)akbeBaäatenaHeTAvij. elIsenHeTot eKeRbIsmþI
pþaeM pJItamGñkRsuk EdlCaBakümak;gaybnÞabtémøénkarts‘rU bs;bru srYmCatirbs;xnÜø ÉgeTAvij.
BYknag)anecalBaküsmþIfa {caMemIl²¡ ebIminyYnyk)anÉkraCümun¡} BYknagminykbþIExµreT
ebIyYnTTYl)anÉkraCümun¡ ebIsgÇwmelIExµrenaH KµanpøÚveT¡} CaedIm. BaküRbmafTaMgenH )an
elcB¤dl; RtecokyuT§CnExµr\sSr³d¾eqvqav nigminecHRtiHriH. BYkeKxwgsm,arCaxøaMg ehIy
)anerobcMKeRmagkarN_eTAvayrMedaHRsþIcMNab;xµaMgTaMgenaHmkvij edIm,IkuM[BYknagmaneføImFM
h‘anemIlgayBYkeKdUecñaHeTot.
eqøót»kasEdlkgT½BRsYcrbs;BYkevotmijminenA elakemT½Brgrbs;elaks½kþibI G‘Uc
eQµaH ]T½y )andwknaMRbtibtþikarrMedaHRsþIcMNab;xµaMgTaMgenH TaMgRBwkRBlwm. BYkeK)ansMruk
cUleTAvayrMedaHRsþITaMgenaHedayeCaKC½y eRBaHmanTahanevotmijcMnYnEtb:unµannak;b:ueNÑaH
enAyambnÞay TaMgegakguy. BYkeK)anrwbGUsmkCamYynUvk,alm:asuInedrmYycMnYn nig
RsþIExµrRbmaN800nak; CamYyRsI)araMgekµgmñak;pgEdr. BYkeK)anbeNþIrRsþITaMgenaHmk eday
[TahanenAedIrGmsgçag. elak nI v:an;FI )anbBa¢ak;fa kareFVIdMeNIrRtLb;mkvijenaH )anCYb
-27-

RbTHnUvkarlM)akCaeRcIn. BYkKat;RtUvRsUtrUtdMeNIr[rh½s eRBaHxøackgT½BRsYcrbs;BYk
evotmijRtLb;mkTan; vaydeNþImRsþIcMNab;xµaMgCag800nak;enaH ykeTAvij. b:uEnþ RsþITaMg
enaH hak;min)an)armÖBkI arlM)akenHTal;EtesaH. BYknag)anedIryWt²dUcGeNþIkvar Éelak
]T½y edaynwkGaNitRsþITaMgenaH eTIbminh‘anbgçMBYknag[edIrelOn. eRBaH kñúgcMeNamenaH
man®sþIkMBugmanépÞeBaHCaeRcInnak; edaysarkarcab;bgçMrbs;BYkevotmij nigkarsµ½RKcitþrbs;
BYknagpÞal;.
mkdl;GUrmYy EdlmanTwk lµmGacdaM)ayhUb)an BYkeKQb;sRmakmYyry³sin.
BYkTahanrbs;elak ]T½y naeBlyb;enaH hak;emIlgaysßankarN_ nigmin)anbegáInkarRbug
Rby½tñeLIy. BYkTahan\sSr³TaMgenaHPaKeRcIn keRmIkcitþcg;yayIpøÚvePTdl;RkumnarIrg
eRKaHTaMgenaH. BYkeKbgçMelak ]T½y [ebIkéd[BYkeKsb,ayCamYynag² ebIBMuenaHeT BYkeK
nwgElgTTYlsÁal;Kat;CaembBa¢akarteTAeTot. eRBaHKat;minsÁal;suxTukrbs;kUnecA Edledk
enAts‘UEtkñúgéRB KµanRbBn§CayUrmkehIy. RbEhlCamkBIKat;CaemT½BKµanl,ickl50 nig
manGMNacRKb;RKgkUnecA)anl¥ Kat;)anRtwmEtGgVrBYkenaHvij [Rbkan;Gakb,kiriya[)an
RtwmRtUv nigRsUtrUtdMeNIreTAbnÞayxøÜnvij dl;ehIycaMsb,ay ERkgelaBYkyYnevotmijtam
BIeRkaymkTan;. Cak;Esþg GñkTaMgenaHminsþab;bBa¢a nigRbugeCIgkarN_RbqaMgKat;vij eTIbKat;
suxcitþ[BYkeKQb;daM)aysuIu. eqøóteBlenaH BYkeK)ancat;karnarIrgeRKaHTaMgenaH edaykþI
eRtkRtGalhYsnisS½y. CalT§pl kgT½BRsYcrbs;BYkevotmij)antammkTan;. edaymin
)anRbugeRbob GñkxøHkMBugCab;RbtibtþikarkamraKenAeLIy Exµr\sSr³TaMgenaHminGacman
»kasvaytb b¤ Tb;Tl;eT. BYkeK)anrt;eKc TaMgPitP½y xøHrt; edayqk;ykexaminTan;
xøHePøcykRbdab;Rbdar b¤ GavuFpÞal;xøÜn rYcelatcUleTABYnkñúgGUr b¤RCkeRkamkarkarBarrbs;
emRkumxøÜn. kñúgeBlekalahlenaH elak va:n;FI fa Kat;)aneRbIkaMePIøgynþ)aj;rH elIsRtUv
CaFmµta emT½Bmñak;² EtgmanTahanCMnit Tukcitþ)anmYycMnnY enACMuvijxøÜn edIm,IbeBa©jcgáÚmkMejIj kUnecAdéT
eTot[sþab;tambBa¢arbs;xøÜn EtemT½B\sSr³ mancMNucexSayRtg;enHÉg. eKminEdlGPivDÆn_bkSBYkesµaHRtg;enA
CMuvijxøÜn edIm,IbgáareBleLIgsmrPUmieLIy. edaysar BYkeKmanqnÞ³TukcitþKña. ehtuenHehIy eTIbkrNIécdnü
enAeBlBYkeKRsuHKña cg;bHe)arRbqaMgnwgbBa¢arbs;embBa¢akar ²KµanmeFüa)aynwgb®gáabBYkeK)aneLIy. cMENk
Gacarü qU EdlCaGFibtIxagRksYghirBaØvtßúeBlenaH k¾eFVIdMeNIrEtmñak;ÉgEdr eBleLIgsmrPUmiCamYyyuT§Cn
edayKµancitþxøacrEGg RtUveKcab;vayykR)ak;eLIy.
50

-28-

edIm,IkarBarkUnecAKat; eRBaH CanayRkumrg. eqøóteBlRcbUkRcbl;kñúgyb;enaH RsþIExµrrg
eRKaHxøHrt;eKcecj xøHrt;cUleTAxagBYkevotmijvij xøHk¾rt;BYneKcBIRKab;kaMePøIg. BYkevotmij
)anRbmUlykGavuFrbs;\sSr³)anmYycMnYn ehIynaMyknag²RbmaNcMnYnBak;kNþal nig
k,alm:asuInedr RtLb;eTAvij. cMENk emkgGñkkøahanCYyRsIRss; eQµaH ]T½y nigemRkum
ÉeTot Edlmin)anraraMgGMeBIlamkenaH RtUvTTYlkarBin½yBI elaks½kþIbI GUc y:agcas;éd.
enHCaemerond¾CUrct;mYysRmab;Exµr\sSr³. EtemeronenH )anbgðaj[eyIgeXIjnUv
cMNucexSayrbs;Exµr\sSr³EdlRbEhsemIlgaysßankarN_. ebskkmµrbs;BYkeK KwRtUveTA
rMedaHRsþIExµrEdlCacMNab;xµaMg EtEbrCaRtUvxatbg;kmøaMg\tRbeyaCn_ eRBaHcMNab;xµaMgk¾rMedaH
min)an ehIyRtUv)at;bg;smÖar³rbs;xøÜnd¾xSt;exSayeTotpg. CakarhYscitþenaH BYkeKdac;citþ
cab;narITaMgenaHrMelaP edayKµanKitEvgq¶ay. m:üageTot vaCakaresaksþay Edlnag²TaMg
enaHmansmancitþcMeBaHBYkevotmij EtminmancMeBaHRkumts‘UExµr ehIyemIlgayRkumCati
sasn_xøÜnÉgeTot. eyIgminEmnbenÞasnagTaMgRsug)anenaHeT EteyIgKYrsikSaBIPaBxøaMg
rbs;yYnevotmij EdlGacEkERb nigBt;citþKMnitnag²[eTarTn;tamBYkeK)an. b:uEnþ Gtþn½y
sMxan;bMputEdlRBwtþikarN_enHcg;bgðajeyIg KWKMnitxilxUcrbs;BYkyYnevotmij EdlGYtGagfa
xøÜnvay)araMgrMedaH[putBIkarEdl)araMgKabsgát;sgáin nigeKgRbv½Ba©BYkeK. KYr[q¶l; etIehtu
GVI)anCa BYkeKeFVIyuT§nakarrMedaHCatieKenAelITwkdIExµr ehIyEfmTaMgcab;ykRsþIExµrsøÚtRtg;
ykeTA[bRmIesckþIRtUvkarrbs;xøÜneTAvij?
bnÞab;BIkarxUcxatenHPøams½kþibI G‘Uc )anCiHesHmkdl; ehIymankarxwgsm,arCaxøaMg
cMeBaHelak ]T½y nig elak v:an;FI. Kat;)anbBa¢a[elakemkg ]T½y nigemRkumdéTeTot
eTAkab;eQI b¤Gus enACitvtþdUn)a edIm,Ilk;[BYkéfykeTAdutsRmab;kMedAm:asuInrfePøIg.
b:unµanExeRkaymk {KN³kmµaFikarExµrsagCati} )anbBa¢a[elakskþibI G‘Uc begIát
{kgry} edIm,IvayeTAcab;édCamYyRkum Exµr\sSr³rbs;RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI enAlaC kñúgextþ
eBaFisat;. kgryenH)anvaymkdl;TIedA nige)aHTItaMgrhUt dl;tMbn;Kas;RkLénTwkdI
extþ)at;dMbg nigeFVIskmµPaBrhUtdl; éRBsin/ RtBaMgreTH/ nigTUkRkhm EdlmanTItaMgEk,r
laC CaTItaMgrbs;RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI.

-29-

2>5> karEbk)ak;épÞkñúgKN³kmµkarExµrsagCati

enAPñMdgErkÉeNaHvij elak lav EkvmunI CaRbFanKN³kmµaFikarExµrksagCati
¬PaK1¦ )anBüayamBRgIk\T§iBlxøÜn nigBRgwgkic©karTUt edayerobcMsnñi)at nigkartaMg
BiBr½N_plitRKab;mIn nigBüúHhyaRta edIm,Ibgðaj[PaKIdéTeTot Biessrdækar)araMg faRkum
rbs;eK mankarrIkceRmInTaMgEpñkswk nigneya)ay. EtebItamRbsasn_ elak v:an;FI Edl
eBlenaHCaesµónrbs; lav EkvmunI )an[dwgfa enHCakll,icmYypgEdr sRmab; lav EkvmunI
kMcat;smaCikkñúgRkumEdlmancitþRbqaMg b¤k,t;.
BIdMbUgsnñi)atenH hak;mandMeNIrkarl¥ nigCasBaØaeCaKC½ysRmab;clnaExµr\sSr³
eRBaHmankarcUlrYmBItMNagRKb;PaKIsMxan;²TaMgGs; sUm,IraCrdæaPi)al EdlmansemþcRBH
neratþm sIhnuCaRbmux )ancat;[RBHraCtMNagrbs;RBHGgÁ KWÉk]tþm b‘U h‘g [cUlrYm nig
manelak sux Fwm CatMNagrbs; dab QYn GaCJaFrenAextþesomrabpgEdr. eRkABIenaH
enAmantMNag rbs;Rkum But qay CaRBHsgÇmYyGgÁcUlrYm. tamelak v:an;FI )an[dwgfa
lav EkvmunI )ansgS½yfa ekA tk; EdlCaemT½BmanKMeragkarN_bMEbkxøÜn b¤ k,t;RkumxøÜn.
eRBaHfa ekA tk; CaGñkTTYlxusRtUvcat;Ecgluy EdleKérGgÁas)anBIRbCaCn EdleKcat;Tuk
faCaGñkKaMRT edIm,IykeTATijGavuFBIRbeTséf. enAb:unµanelIkcugeRkayénkarRtLb;mkBI
TijkaMePøIgvij elak ekA tk; Kat;EtgEtmkyMERskedaHsarfa raCkar b¤ ecaréRBéf)anBYn
sÞak;vaydeNþImykkaMePøIg EdlKat;Tij)anTaMgenaHGs;ehIy. BYkeK)anvayqµk;deNþImyk
enAtampøÚvrfePøIg b¤ rfynþQñÜleTAkan;extþsurinÞ muneBlcuHmkdl;RBMEdnéf-km<úCa. Cakar
BitNas;fa buKÁlTaMgBIrnak;enH ¬elak ekA tk; nig elak lav EkvmunI¦ manninñakarxusKña
RsLHxagEpñkmenaKmviC¢aneya)aykñúgeBlts‘UenaH. lav EkvmunI )anKitfa ekA tk; man
ninñakaresrIniym ehIyRbugbMEbkxøÜnecj. Kat;sgS½yeTotfa ekA tk; BitCa)anlYcyk
GavuF EdlTij)anBIéfeTAkb;TukkEnøgs¶at;kM)aMgNamYy edIm,ITukeRbIR)as;éf¶eRkay. Kat;min
eCOesckþIraykarN_rbs; ekA tk; faecaresombøn;ykkaMePøIgTaMgenaHGs;eLIy. ebItam
skçIPaBCMhrts‘Urbs; ekA tk; enAeBlCabnþbnÞab;mkeTot EdlsuxcitþRbKl;GMNacdwknaMRkum
rbs;xøÜn enAeRkambBa¢akarrbs; suWg g:ukfaj; EdlCamnusSesrIniymmñak;d¾l,Il,aj. enAeBl
Edl lav EkvmunI )anrt;eTAcuHcUlCamYyRkummutþKahaenaH CemøaHrvagBYkeKTaMgBIrnak;enaH
GacmkBIkar ExVgKMnitKñakñúgkarRbkan;maK’adwknaMRkumenaHÉg. dUecñHehIy elak lav EkvmunI
-30-

)anbBa¢a[GñkesµaHsµ½RKnwgxøÜn RbedjtamvayRbharelIelak ekA tk; Edl)anCiHesHRtlb;
mkBIkEnøgeFVIsnñi)atvijy:agRbjab;Rbjal;enaH.51 RkumRbmaj;rbs; lav EkvmunI )antam
Tan;Rkum ekA tk; EdlkMBugqøgkat;sÞwgBRg xagekItsMerag kñúgextþesomrab. BYkeK)anBYnkñúg
Kuem<atéRB nigdMbUk )aj;sMedAelIbkSrbs; ekA tk; bNþal[ekAtk;rgrbYs. EtsMNagl¥
kUnecArbs;Kat; EdlenAxaglicsÞwg )anecjmkCYyGnþraKmn_Tan;eBlevla. Pøam²enaH
edaymanGavuFl¥² EdlxøÜnKat;)anRbevseTAlak;TukenAPñMxøaXµúMknøgmk RkumRbdab;GavuFrbs;
ekAtk; )anvaysn§ab;eTAelIRkum lav EkvmunI vijy:agcas;éd.
edaykmøaMgrbs;xøÜnmanticpg nigemIleXIjsßankarN_dundabeBksRmab;xøÜn lav
EkvmunI nigKñIKñaBIrbInak; rYmTaMgelak nI v:an;FIpg RtUvbgçMcitþrt;eKcecalTIlanRbyuT§ edaykat;
tamsMeBAlUn Gnøg;sa )ak;RBa-ERBkRtb; mkkan;mUldæanrbs; GU‘c enA)at;dMbg edIm,IsMuCMnYy.
EtenATIenaH elak EkvmunI nig va:n;FI CaesµónEdl)anrt;s<ayfg;yam tamesHrbs;ecAhVay
)anmkCYbelak smuTÞ nigtaéL¬C½ymgÁl¦ EdlCaemT½Bl,Ixagcm,aMg. lav EkvmunI )an
bBa¢a[BYkeK CYyTb;Tl;nwgRkum ekA tk; EdltamRbkitmkenaH EtRtUv)antaéL bdiesFn_
edayKat;mankmøaMgRbdab;GavuFtic GavuFminsUvTMenIb xøacminGacTb;Tl;QñH Rkum ekA tk;
EdlmanKñIKñaeRcIn nigGavuFl¥Cag. minbg¥g;yUr BYkelak munI )anRbj:ab;Rbj:al;eTAkan;
mUldæanEdlelak G‘Uc¬nileBRC¦QreCIgenAmþúMPMñNn; edIm,IbBa¢a[Kat;shkarCamYyT½B
taéL enA)ak;RBa. G‘Uc )aneFVItambBa¢a edayelIkkgkmøaMgrbs;Kat; eTATb;Tl;. k¾b:uEnþ
enAEtminGacykC½yelIRkumelak ekA tk; )an. kgT½BCMnYyenH bMEbkCYrKñart;eKcBIkartam
Rbharrbs;yuT§Cnrbs; ekA tk;. edayGs;sgÇwm lav EkvmunI )anbnþrt;rhUtdl;PñMTwkePøóg
51

ebItamesovePAsarNarbs;Rkumelak Nub suxa fa Rkumrbs; ekA tk; eTAvijeT Edl)anBYnvayRbharelI
elak lav EkvmunI enAéf¶TI13 ExkumÖ³ qñaM1951 enAPUmiéRB EtRtUvRkumrbs; lav EkvmunI edjvay[braC½yvij
ehIyekAtk;xøÜnÉgvijRtUvrgrbYspg . cMNucdUcKña KWskmµPaBRtUv)anerobrab;fa mankic©RbCuMdUcKña EtkarRbCuMenH
RtUv)aneFVIeLIgbnÞab;BI lav EkvmunI RtUv)aneK eRCIserIs[eFVICaRbFan {KN³kmµaFikarrMedaHCatiExµr}. Kat;)anekaH
RbCuMenAkñúgEdndIrMedaHrbs;xøÜnenA)at;dMbg EdlmanTaMg b:uk Xun cUlrYm nigTahan200nak; EtekAtk;RtUv)an
eKbeNþjecjmin[cUlRbCMueLIy EdlCaehtueFVI[Kat;xwg ehIyBYnsÞak;caMvaysMlab; lav EkvmunI. sUmemIl³
elak Nub suxa nigGñkdéTeTot {dMenIreq<aHmkrkÉkraCüExµr} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüaCMnan;TI13 saklviTüal½y
PUminÞPñMeBj qñaM1995-1996 TM> 33.

-31-

k¾)anCYbnwgelak savin ehIyKat;BüayamsuM[ savin CYy. CafµImþgeTot sMeNIrbs;Kat;RtUv
braC½y. Kat;)anRbwgERbgCacugeRkay eTACYbnwgelakskþibIG‘UcTaMgGs;sgÇwm. enATIbMput
RkumExµr\sSr³ enAPñMdgErk RtUvrlay nigEbk)ak;KñaCaeRcInRkum52 edaysarPaBTn;exSay
nigPaBmincuHsRmugKña rvagemdwknaMTaMgenaH.
eRkayBIkarRbyuT§KñaenaH elak lav EkvmunI køayCaRbmux {KN³kmµaFikarExµrsag
Cati¬PaK1¦} EdlmanEteQµaH eRBaHKat;ElgmankgkmøaMgBiteTotehIy. cugeRkay Kat;k¾
sRmccitþcUlrYmCamYy {KN³mutþaKahar} s‘b; eRkamkardwknaMrbs; elak suIv ehg nig sWg
g:ukmij enAÉBay½BüTis. eRBaH Kat;CamnusSmanninñakareTArkyYnkMumuynIsþ taMgBIyUryarmk
ehIy. eRkaymk elak G‘Uc )ancuHcUlCamYyrdæaPi)alénsemþc RBHneratþm sIhnuenA
RBHenRtRBH kñúgExemsa qña1M 951 edaynaMTaMgTahancMnYn 37nak; eTAcuHcUlCamYyxøÜn.53
CabnÞab;mkeTot Kat;)annaMkmøaMgraCrdæaPi)al eTAedjRbharbgçM taéL C½ymgÁl [yl;RBm
cuHcUlkñúgrdæaPi)alEdr.

(Y)

52

Kenneth T. So, "The Road to Khmer Independence," http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9000936 on

09/05/2006, 8: 44AM.

53

eBlcuHcUlenaH Kat;)ancuHkic©RBmeRBogmYyCamYyrdæaPi)al EteRkaymkhak;manPaBsµúKsµaj mindwgCaman
mUlehtuGVI)anCa Kat;cab;skiþbImñak; nigbkSBYkEdlmkcuHeQµaHkñúgRkumrbs;Kat;. b:unµanéf¶ eRkaymk Kat;k¾edaH
ElgBYkenaHvij ehIyrUbKat;k¾)anrt;cUléRBvijeTA. sUmemIl³ b‘ín eXonin {etIb:ul Bt cUlkan;GMnacEbbNa?}
RkugPñMeBj TIPñak;garsarBt’man km<úCa ¬eGs>eb:>ka¦ qñaM1992 TM> 117.

-32-

CMBUkTI3- clnaExµr\sSr³rbs;neratþm cnÞrgSI
3>1> RbvtþiRTg;neratþm cnÞrgSI54
RBHGgÁm©as;neratþm cnÞrgSI)anRbsUtenAqñaM1926 RtUvnwgqñaMxalenAkñúgsßanPaBmYy
EdlRbeTskm<úCasßitenAeRkamnwmGaNaniKm)araMg. bitaRBHGgÁmanRBHnamfaRBHGgÁm©as;
cnÞelxa ehARBHGgÁm©as; tU EdlRtUvCabuRtrbs;RBH)aT neratþm CamYynwgGñkmñag tat. RTg;
manb¥ÚnRsIrYmépÞmñak;eQµaHGñkGgÁm©as; Eg:t.
RBHGgÁ)ancUlRbLÚkkñúgCIvPaBneya)aydMbUg enAmanvtþmanCb:unmkRbeTskm<úCa
kMLúgBak;kNþalcugeRkayénTsvtSqñaM1940. RBHGgÁ)ancUlrYmCasmaCikkñúg{Tahansµ½RK
citþ} EdlRtUv)anbegáIteLIgeRkamkar]btßmÖKaMRTBIsMNak;eyaFaCb:un. enAéf¶9 mInaqñaM1945
Cb:un)ancab;xøÜnkgT½B GñkrdækarnigCnsIuvil)araMg ehIybIéf¶eRkaymk BYkeK)anCYyCMruj[
semþcneratþm sIhnuRbkasÉkraCükm<úCa. vasnaCb:unenAelITwkdIkm<úCaminmanry³eBlEvg
eLIy edaysar\T§iBlrbs;BYkeK)anFøak;cuHeRkayeBleKcaj;sRgÁamelakelIkTI2. )araMg
k¾)anvilRtlb;mkkan;TwkdIkm<úCavij EdlCaehtueFVI[GñkTaMgLayNa)aneFVIshRbtibtþikar
CamYyCb:un dUcCa{RkumTahansµ½RKcitþ}CaedImmankarP½yxøac)araMgcab;xøÜn. {RkumTahansµ½RK
citþ}RtUvrMsayxøÜnCasV½yRbvtþi.
cMENkRTg; cnÞrgSI k¾)aneKcecjeTAextþ)at;dMbg; EdlkalenaHCaTwkdIsßitenAeRkam
karRKb;RKgrbs;éf. enATIenaH RTg;)ancUlrYmCamYyclnaExµr\sSr³EdlRtUv)anbegáIteday
elak b:uk KuN nigelak rs; eyOn rYceTAehIy. eK)an[RTg;kan;tMEngCaembBa¢akarkgvr³
esnatUc. BYkeK)aneFVIskmµPaBepSg²eRkamkarCYyKaMRTBIéf rhUtdl;eBlEdlextþ)at;dMbg;
RtUvepÞrmkeRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs;RbeTskm<úCavij. RkumExµr\sSr³TaMgLayRtUvrt;eKceTARkug
)agkk. enAcenøaH Extula nigExvicäika BYkemExµr\sSr³TaMgLaynaMKñaRbCuMmYyEdldwknaMeday
b:uk KuN. eRkaykar BiPakSad¾l¥itl¥n;rvagemdwknaMl,I² dUcCa hUlvgS GanuPaB/ dab QYn/

54

sMeNAedImGtßbTrbs;elaksaRsþacarü vg; suFar:a/ Rbvtiþts‘Urbs;RTg;cnÞrgSI TMB½rTI1-3.

-33-

ekA tk;/ suIv ehg/ Ehm savag/ tMNagmkBIrdæaPi)aléf nigBYkevotmij/ esckþIsMerccMnYn
bYnRtUv)anGnum½t.
tamry³esckþIsMercTI3 RTg;cnÞrgSI nig b:uk KuN RtUv)aneKbBa¢Ún[eTA)agkkedIm,IeFVI
CatMNagGnþrCatirbs;Exµr\sSr³ nigTTYlxusRtUvEpñkTMnak;TmngCamYyGaCJaFréf nigBYk
evotmij. TnÞwmnwgenH tamry³esckþIsMercTIbYn RTg;RtUv)aneKEtgtaMgCatMNagnigCanimitþrUb
énRkumraCvgSanuvgSEdlRbqaMgnwg)araMg. GgÁRbCusM eM rcfaExµr\sSr³RtUvBRgIkskmµPaBs®gÁam
T½BéRBkñúgRbeTskm<úCa[)anRKb;RcklðkkñúgeBlqab;² nigRbkas[begáItrdæaPi)alÉkraCüén
clnaExµr\sSr³EdlnwgbeNþj)araMgnigsemþcsIhnu edayrkSasmaCikraCvgSaNamñak;Canimitþ
rUbKW RTg; cnÞrgSI55.
enAkñgú ry³eBlrdæaPi)alelak RBIDI paNumy:g kan;kab;GMnackñgú RbeTséf BYkExµr\sSr³
)anTTYlnUvkarKaMRTCaeRcInBIrdæaPi)aléf. b:uEnþskmµPaBrbs;BYkeKRtUv)anbBa©b; eRkayman
{BlRbhar}mYyenATIRkug)agkknaéf¶TI7 vicäikaqñaM147. rdæaPi)alfµI)ansMercbBaÄb;nigcab;
xøÜnbNþaemdwknaMExµr\sSr³TaMgLay. cMENkRBHGgÁm©as; cnÞrgSI bMrugEtnwgrt;eTAehIy Et
sMNagl¥RTg;RtUv)an b:uk KuN FananigraraMgmin[eKcab;xøÜnRTg;eT. enAcenøaHExvicäika
qñaM1947 nigedImqñaM1948 RTg; cnÞrgSI nigbNþaemdwknaMExµr\sSr³déTeTotrYmman Ehm savag/
muI pU/ suIv ehg nigekA tk;CaedIm)anrt;eKcmkTwkdIkm<úCavij. RTg; cnÞrgSI )anb:HTgÁicKña
CamYyBYkevotmij eRBaHBYkeK)anecaTRbkan;faRTg;KWCaBYkskþiPUmiRbtikiriy:a. dUcenH RTg;k¾
)anbegáItRkum\sSr³mYyedayxøÜnÉg EdlRbtibtþikarenAPaKxagt,Úgénextþ)at;dMbg; dMNal
eBlEdlemdwknaM\sSr³déTeTotdUcCa lav EkvmunI nig ekA tk; )anrYmshkarKñaenAPaKxag
eCIgextþ)at;dMbg; nigextþesomrab. RTg;)anpþac;xøÜnecjBI{KN³kmµaFikarrYbrYmCati-NUC}
edaydak;eQµaHclnarbs;RTg;fa clnaeq<aHeTA{maK’asnþiPaB-Peaceful Path}. clnaenHman
TsSn³pÞúyBIRTwsþIkuMmµúynIsþ ehIyelIktemáIgkareKarBsiT§imnusS56. Rkumrbs;RTg;)aneFVIRbtibtþikar
CabnþbnÞab;nigBRgIkEdndIRtYtRtabnþicmþg² rhUtdl;TwkdIextþkMBg;s<W.
55
56

Interview between Steven Hedder and Haul Vonganupheap.
Ibid.

-34-

3>2> karbegáItclnats‘UfµI
taMgBIeBlenaHmk Rkum\sSr³rbs;RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI RtUv)aneKsÁal;faCa{KN³kmµa
FikarExµrksagCatiPaK4} EdlmanEdndIRKb;RKg cab;BIEpñkRBMRbTl;Exµr-éfPaKxageRkam
rhUtdl;extþkMBg;s<WmþúMtMbn;rlak;kgeCIg kenÞl b¤sSIRCMu RsIRsM valEvg. ebItamRbsasn_
elaknIv:an;FI)an[dwgfa kalBIedImeLIyRkumenHmankmøaMgRbEhl30nak;EdlRtUv)aneKbBa¢a
[cuHmkkan;t,ÚgXµúM extþkMBg;cam edIm,IbMpøicbMpøajesdækic©xµaMg rYmmancMkarekAs‘U)araMgCaedIm.
buKÁlsMxan;²TaMgenaHmandUcCaelak Ehm sav:ag/ elak hwum xan;57;/ elak cnÞ etaeRts nig
elak suk esgerOgmunI. kaleNaHRkumenHeFVIdMeNIrtamGaNaextþPaKxaglicbwgTenøsab
enAcenøaH extþkMBg;qñaMg kMBg;høÜg nigBjaB¤ b:uEnþedaysarkgT½BeCIgTwk)araMgyamkamtamdg
TenøtwugrwgeBk CaehtueFVI[RTg;minGacbnþdMenIrqøgkat;eTAeRtIyxagekItTenøsab)an ehIyk¾
sMerccitþtaMgTIenATIenaHsin.
eRkayBIRTg;)anBRgwgGMnacRtYtRta)anrwgmaMehIyRTg;k¾)anerobcMBIFIRbkas begáIt
{KN³kmµaFikarExµrksagCatiPaKTI4} enAkñgú kMLúgqñaM1949. RkumenHmansBaØasMKal;
Tg;BN’RkhmEdlmanrUbR)asaTkMBUlbIBN’elOg enAcMkNþal. eTaHbIRTg;sßitenAkñúgRtkUl
kSRtEdlRtUv)antMNagedayCayTg;BN’exovdUcCaTg;rbs;Cati RTg;min)aneRCIsykBN’exov
enHCasBaØasMKal;Edr edayehtufaRTg;mincUlcitþrbbraCaniymEtcUlcitþrbbsaFarN³rdædUc
elak ln; nul enAeBl20qñaMeRkay.
sUmrMlwkfa muneBlEdl lav EkvmunI rt;cUlrYmkñúgKNmutþKaha Kat;)anepJIelak nI
v:an;FI [enACamYyelak G‘Uc nileBRC. EteRkayeBl Edlelak G‘cU cuHcUlCamYyrdæaPi)al
mk nI v:an;FI k¾RtUv)anTak;TajedayGacarü b‘un edIm,I[cUlrYmCamYyclnarbs;RTg; neratþm
cnÞrgSI enAextþkMBg;s<Wvij. enAkñúgRkumenH Kat;)ancUleronsalanayTahanenA taenov
kñúgextþkMBg;s<W edaysaremT½BeQµaH hwum xan; cg;[Kat;CYyeFVIkargarxøÚÜn. dMNalKñaenaHEdr
enAéf¶TI 9 Exmifnu a qña1M 95258 elaksWgu g:ku faj; rt;clU éRBmþgeTot kñgú eKalbMNg
bRgYbbRgYmclnaExµr\sSr³TaMgGs;. GVIEdlCMruj[Kat;eFVIEbbenH KWedaysarBYkKat;yl;
57

58

elakemT½B hwum xan; EdlCYnkalRtUv)aneKehAfa Ehm xan; CaemT½BCMnitmñak;rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI.
viTüúsMelgGasuIesrI ecjpSayqñaM2003.

-35-

eXIjBIeRKaHfñak;EdlbgáBIkarlUkédcUlrbs;BYkevotmijkñúgclnaExµr\sSr³.59 dUecñH BYkKat;
RtUvEteTAbRgYbbRgYmBYkExµr\sSr³eLIgvij. eRkayeBl Edlelak GIuv y:ag EdlCamnusS
Tukcitþrbs;elak suWg g:ukfaj; )anEsVgrkkEnøgtaMgmUldæan)anl¥enAesomrab nigPñMdgErk
ehIyenaH elak faj; k¾)aneTAsñak;enACamYYyRkumrbs; ekA tk;. enATIenHdEdl manbuKÁl
sMxan;²déTeTot dUcCa elak KirI cinþa/ elak Ekv eyOn/ elakeGo sIucUv/ elak Lwk sMeGOn
páayRBwk/ nigelak KaM er:t.
KWkñúgTisedAxagelIenHehIy Edlelak suWg g:ukfaj; )anbBa¢Únelak eGo sIucUv eTAcUl
rYmkñúgRkumRTg; cnÞrgSI.60 enATIenH elak eGo suIcUv )anbegáItsalaneya)ay nigsala
Tahan EdlmanrUbelakpÞal;CaRKUbgðat;neya)ay nigmanCnCatiCb:unmñak; eQµaH tadakuma
¬TADAKUMA¦ CaRKUbgVwkyuT§saRsþkgT½B. eRkayBIbgVwkTahancb;Pøam RTg; cnÞrgSI )anbBa¢a
[vayBRgIkEdndIRtYtRta. edayELk elak v:an;FI RtUv)aneKbBa¢Ún[dwknaMkgT½BmYyRkumeTA
smrPUmiERsGMbil nigekaHkug. y:agNamiuj karRbyuT§BRgIkGaNaextþRtYtRta EtgTTYl)an
eCaKC½yCalMdab; EdlCMruj[RTg; cnÞrgSI kan;Etmankitþis½BÞ nigekrþ×eQµaHl,Il,ajEfmeTot.
kMLúgeBlenaH EdndIEdlBYkeKRtYtRta manTMhMFMRKan;ebI KWRBMRbTl;xagt,Úg Cab;nwgpøÚvCati
elx4 sBVéf¶ xaglicTl;nwgERsGMbil nigextþekaHkug xageCIgTl;nwgRsukvalEvg niglaCén
extþeBaFisat; nigxagekItTl;nwgCayxaglicénextþkMBg;qñaMg.
3>3> kardeNþIm\Ti§BlKña
ehtuGVI)anCaRkum\sSr³rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI mankitþis½BÞl,Il,aj enAextþkMBg;s<W nigtMbn;
xaglicénRbeTskm<úCa? ebItamelaksa®sþcarü vg; suFar:a yl;fa vaGacmkBIrebobrbb
eFVIkarCaRkum manTIRbwkSaeyaFad¾l¥ dUcCa tadakuma enACamYy nigykcitþRbCaBlrdækñúgtMbn;
QreCIg)an.
59

huin suIfan op., cit. pp.41-48; Available at: http://www.asianartmall.com/Cambodia/Independence.html on

09/05/2006, 8:44 AM.

60

Etelak Kenneth T. So. yl;faelak sWug g:ukfaj; sMerccitþdUecñHedaysarKat;P½yxøacnwgBakü ccamGar:am
Edlfa eKbMrugcab;xøÜnelakmþgeTot. eRBaHelakecjpSaykaEst {ExµreRkak} EdlBImYyéf¶eTAmYyéf¶ Kat;kan;
EtriHKn;)araMgxøaMgeLIg².
Available at: http://www.asianartmall.com/Cambodia/Independence.html on 09/05/2006, 8:44 AM.

-36-

enAeBlRkum manGMNac nig\T§BlRKan;ebIeLIg BYkemRkumsMxan;²enAkñúgclna cab;
epþImmankarRbECgdeNþImGMNacépÞkñúgrvagKña. kñúgRkumRTg; cnÞrgSI cab;epþImmanGñkerobcM
KeRmagkar eFVIKt;RTg; edIm,IdeNþImyksiT§iembBa¢akarRkumFM. sMNagl¥ RTg;)aneKcputBI
eRKaHP½y nigcab;)anGñkbu:nb:gCamYyPsþútag. Gñkk,t;RTg;muneKenaH KWelak Ehm sava:g
EdlCaehtu eFVI[RTg;Gnuvtþtamvin½yRkum edaysmøab;ecal nige)assMGatGñkXubXitTaMg
Gs;ecal. elak nI va:n;FI fa RTg;mincg;smøab;elak sava:g ecalTal;EtesaH b:uEnþelakmin
GacRbQmmuxnwgemRkumdéTeTot Edl[eyabl;Rtg;fa RtUvEtsmøab;ecal edIm,ITukCakar
RBman. b:uEnþ tamelak b‘uNÑ can;m:ul fa elak sava:g RtUv dab QYn smøab;ecal eRkamkl
l,icehARbCMuBiPakSaKña.61 eTaHCay:agNa elak m:ul Kat;min)anenAkñúgRkum\sSr³pÞal;eTot
eT eRkayBIBYkenHnaMKñadkfyeTAkan;RbeTséf nigRbmUlpþúMKñaeLIgvij enAPaxageCIgextþ
esomrab ÉnayCYrPMñdgErk. elIsenHeTot Kat;)anQb;Tak;TgCamYyRkumenaH muneBlRTg;
cnÞrgSI bMEbkxøÜneTAeTot.
eRkaymk RkumRTg; cnÞrgSI kan;EtmanGMNacFM GacvatTITwkdI)an kan;kab; QreCIg
y:agFMTUlay. smtßPaBenH RbEhlCamkBIs‘ab62d¾køahan nig ekøóvkøakñúgkarRbyuT§ eFVIBut
CacuHcUlCamYyRkumRTg; Gs;mYyry³eBl. eRkayBI)andwgfa Kat;Cacarbursrbs;Rkum But
qay EdlCaemExµr\sSr³mñak;eTot63 ehIynigkarkMcat; s‘ab ecjBIRkumvij eKsegáteXIjfa
Rkumrbs;RTg; minsUv)aneCaKC½ykñúgkarvatTItMbn;kan;kab;rbs;xøÜnbnþeTAeToteLIy.
RbEhlvtþman nigekrþ×eQµaHrbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI )aneFVI[ Rkum\sSr³cl½trbs;But qay
minsb,aycitþeLIy eTIbnaM[ekItkþIRcENn nigkarekþARkhay. mü:ageTot CaerOy²
RkumTaMgBIr b:HTgÁicKña nigRbQmmuxdak;Kña edayGavuFKYr[tk;søút CaBiessenAtMbn;RsHXøaMg
GgÁexµA énRsuksMeragTg nig]dugÁsBVéf¶. ehtuenHehIy eTIb But qay EdlCaem\sSr³mñak;
61

sUmemIl b‘uNÑ can;m:ul critExµr/ 1972/ TMB½r 87.
kic©smÖasn_rbs;elaksaRsþacarüvg; suFar:aCamYyelaknI v:an;FI. sUmemIlGtßbT {Rbvtþits‘Urbs; RTg;neratþm
cnÞrgSI} TM> 13-15.
63
{\sSeracak;}But qayenH)andwknaMRkumExµr\sSr³mYyRkumEdr EtKµanEbgEcgrcnasm<½n§ b¤dak;eQµaH CapøÚvkar
eT. Rkumrbs;Kat;manGMnacxøaMgRKan;ebI ehIy)ane)aHsemøgl,Il,ajedaysarskiþbIs‘abEdl CayuT§Cnman
fVIédx<s;KµannrNakøahanh‘aneBIbRbyuT§CamYyKat;eLIy.
62

-37-

KµanTItaMgQreCIgBitR)akdenH )anerobcMEpnkareFVIKt;RTg; cnÞrgSI edaybBa¢nÚ [ s‘ab nigKñKI añ
RbEhl30nak;epSgeTot eTAcUleFVkI arkñgú Rkum\sSr³RTg; cnÞrgSI.
enAkñúgzan³CaemT½Bmñak;enAkñúgRkumfµI s‘ab)anxitxMcUlRbyuT§y:agGg;Gackøahankñúg
smrPUmei pSg² hak;\tjejItnwgesckþsI aø b;eLIy edIm,IsagesckþITku citBþ sI MNak;RTg; cnÞrgSI.
TaMgenAkñgú smrPUmei nAextþekaHkug Kat;xti xMvayRbharBYkevotmij. edaykþGI aNitnigRslaj;
xøacERkg s‘ab mankarenOyht; eRBaH)anRbwgERbgykC½yCMnHelIsmrPUmCi aeRcInehIyenaH
eTIbRTg; cnÞrgSI )anbBa¢nÚ sar[ehAKat;mkQb;sRmakenAmþPMú mU Ri kaMgmáak;.
BImyY éf¶eTAmYyéf¶ RTg; cnÞrgSI kan;EtmanesckþeI Bjcitnþ gw sñaédrbs; s‘ab xøagM eLIg.
écdnüGVI éf¶myY yuTC§ nrbs;RTg;cab;)ansMbRu tsm¶at;myY c,ab;epJmI kBIem\sSr³ But qay Edl
etOn[ s‘ab qab;smøab;RTg; cnÞrgSI. s‘ab min)andwgxønÜ Camunfa KMeragkar rbs;xnÜø RtUvEbk
karN_sm¶at;eLIy. Kat;EbrCanaMKKIñ añ Cb;elogpwksucI nM nY 7yb; 7éf¶ edIm,ICakarGb;GrsaTrdl;
C½yCMnHrbs;Kat; dMNaleBlEdlRTg; cnÞrgSI )anerobcMeCIgRBYlkMcat;Kat;ecalvij. RTg;)an
sRmitsRmaMgeRCIserIsykGñkEdlmansñaédRbyuT§l¥² nigesaHsµR½ KnwgcMeBaHxønÜ . eTaHCay:ag
Na BYkyuTC§ neqñmI rbs;RTg;TaMgenaH enAEtmanPaBjejItnwgcUleTAkMcat; s‘ab Edr. BYkeK
suTs§ gw jejItekatxøacvIrPaBekøóvkøarbs; s‘ab kñgú GarmµNC_ anic.©
BYkxµan;RbyuT§TaMgenaH mankarRbugRby½tN
ñ as;kgúñ karerobeCIgRBYl. BYkeKerobcMKKIñ añ
eLamB½Tk§ Enøg s‘ab nigbkSBYkCb;elogrhUtdl;eTAbICan;ÉeNaH edIm,IRkesabcab; nigsmøab;
[Gs;k[uM mankareføaHeFøay. GñkerobcMEpnkar mankarekatsresIr s‘ab RKb;²Kña eRBaHKat;
EtgmankarRbugRby½txñ nÜø Cab;Canic.© eTaHbI Kat; nigbkSBYkRsvwgeCaKy:agNak¾eday k¾Kat;enA
EtcuHBIelIpHÞ x<sr; bs;Kat; mkdas;[kUnecAyamrvaMgCab;Canic© nigbBa¢amñak;[GgúyÁ elIkaMCeNþrI
pÞHEdlKat;edk. b:Eu nþ BYkenaHRsvwgeCaKeBk k¾Tn;k edklk;)at;eTA.
»kasl¥rbs;xnÜø mkdl; elak suk esgerOgmunI nigelak nI v:an;FI )anlblYccUleTA
eRkampÞH bMrgu nwg)aj;smøab; s‘ab BIeRkampÞH TaMgkñgú citPþ y½ rGary:agxøagM . Rsab;Etxµan;RbyuT§
mñak; EdlcUlrYmkareLamB½T§ enAkñgú yb;enaHEdr )anralékkaMePøgI pÞHú eLIg EdlRbEhlmkBI
esckþtI ku søtú jjIjj½rxøac etCédrbs; s‘ab. PøamenaH s‘ab sÞHú eRkakkBaäky; kkaMePøgI ynþ
EdlbBaÄrenAEk,réd)an ehIyrt;elat cuHBIelIpHÞ )aj;rHrMedaHxønÜ ecj. elak suk esgerOgmunI
nignI v:an;FI man»kas)aj;seM dA s‘ab BIeRkayxñgehIy k¾enAEtminGaceFVGI sIV a‘ b)an eRBaH
-38-

kaMePøgI rbs;BkY eK )aj;mni pÞHú TaMg2 TaMg3 RKab;dbM gU . cMENk BYkGñkeLamB½TP§ y½ xøacetCéd
rbs; s‘ab k¾mni h‘anxÞbp; vÚø Kat;eLIy. beNþay[Kat;GacnaMRbBn§ynY nigKUknb:nu aµ nnak;vay
rMedaHxønÜ rt;rcY edaysuvtßPi aB. sl;BeI nH kUnecArbs;Kat;bnu: aµ nnak;RtUvsøab; nigmYycMnnY eTot
rYmnwgRbBn§CnCatiExµrrbs;Kat;RtUvcab;xnÜø )an sRmab;Gkñ Kµan»kas)aj;téd cMENkGñktéd)an
)aj;ebIkpøvÚ rt;tam s‘ab Gs;eTA. karrt;R)asykGayu y:agTn;hn;rbs; s‘ab elIkenH
eFV[I Kat; yktamxønÜ minTan;nvU ExSkmasmYyExSmanbenþageKaedkd¾sk½ siþ Ti i§ EdleKl,IfaCavtßú
BUEks½ksiþ Ti ri§ bs;Kat;; RtUvRkumRTg; cnÞrgSI rwbGUsyk. CalT§pl Rbtibtþki arkMcat; s‘ab
¬carbursrbs; But qay¦ TTYl)aneCaKC½y edayTb;saá t;mni [ s‘ab Gacman»kassmøab;RTg;
cnÞrgSI )aneLIy.
3>4> vin½ykgT½B
eTaHbIxøÜnCaT½BéRBy:agNa Exµr\sSr³enACamnusSmanvin½yy:agtwugrwg nigCMenOy:ag
mutmaMpgEdr. ebItamelaknI v:an;FI )anbBa¢ak;R)ab;eyIgfa RTg;cnÞrgSI )andak;vin½yy:agmuWg
m:at;sRmab;BYkKat;Gnuvtþ RbeyaCn_ksagRkum\sSr³rbs;RTg;[manekrþ×eQµaHl¥ mineFVI[Gñk
Rsuk EdlCaGñkKaMRTmankarekþARkhay b¤ xwgsM)areLIy. vin½yd¾l¥ nigsMxan;bMput KWkar
hamR)amrbs;BYknayTahanmin[eFVI)abGñkRsuknigkUnecATaMgRsITaMgRbusrbs;BYkeKeLIy.
RbsinebIyuT§CnNamñak;RtUv)aneKTan;fa )anRbRBwtþxusnwgvin½yenH dUcCakarcab;rMelaPkUnRkmuM
GñkPUmi GñkenaHnwgRtUveKnaMykeTA)aj;ecalCaminxan edIm,ICakarRBmankuM[GñkeRkayyk
tRmab;tam.
elakta tib pn )anbeBa©jTsSn³rbs;Kat; cMeBaHclnaExµr\sSr³rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI fa
{RTg; cnÞrgSI CaemdwknaMecHseNþasGaNitRbCara®sþ ehIyRTg;manbTbBa¢atwgruwg. cMeBaH
nayTahan nigBlTahanrbs;RTg; minEdleFVI)ab b¤ CiHCan;sgát;sgáinRbCara®sþ Edlrs;enA
CuvM ji bnÞay dUcCa BYkeyIgenaHeT}.64 dUecñaHehIy BYkyuT§CnTaMgenaH manreboberobryl¥
minRceLImRceLagxameLIy. esÞIrEterogral;eBlEdlBYkTahanvilRtLb;mkBIsmrPUmivij
64

kic©smÖasn_CamYyelaktatib pn Gayu83 sBVéf¶rs;enAPUmiRtBaMgKin XuMPñay RsuksMeragTg extþkMBg;s<W
kalBIéf¶TI24 ExemsaqñaM2005.

-39-

RTg;)ancat;Ecg[manBiFIraMkMsanþelg sb,ayCamYynwgt®nþI EdlRbKuMedayédnayTahan
EdlFøab;Etkan;GavuF. Et»kasenH eKEbrCakan;GnøÚgvaysÁr vaye):at enAkñúgbnÞay edIm,I
begáItsUrs½BÞcgVak;ePøgraMvg;. kUnecAGñkRsuk CaBiess narIRkmuM² k¾mkraMelgsb,aynwgeK
Edr. eRBaHBYkeKeCOCak;fa BYknayTahan nigBlTahanTaMgenaH minEdlRbRBwtþiGVIhYsehtu
xusTMngenaHeLIy.65
3>5> CMenOelIkmøaMgeRkAxøÜn nigTMnak;TMngCamYyyYnevotmij
CMenOenAkmøaMgeRkAxøÜnKWCamenaKmviC¢ad¾eBjniymrbs;Gñkkan;GavuF. eK)ancat;Tuk
faCaktþamYy EdlGacCMruj[manRbsiT§PaBkñúgkarRbyuT§rbs;kgT½BExµr\sSr³pgEdr eRBaH
vaeFVI[BYkeKmanPaBkk;ekþA nigkareCOCak;kñúgxøÜn.66 RTg; cnÞrgSI CamnusSmñak;manCMenOy:ag
mutmaMelImnþGaKm nigGPiniharEbbenHEdr. k¾dUcCaemExµr\sSr³déTeTotEdr RTg;EtgBak;
benþagy½nþ nigeRKOgs½kiþsiT§iepSg² EdleKehAfa {épÞRKU}.67 BYkeKEtgsakl,g {épÞRKU} Ca
erogral;s)þah_ edIm,Il,gemIlfa etI{épÞRKU}enHman)armIy:agNa? elak nI v:an;FI Etgsegát
eXIjfa PaKticNas;EdlBYkeK)aj;{épÞRKU}RtUv. dUecñHehIy kMLúgeBlenaH Kat;Bi)aknwgeCO
elI)armI)aj;minRtUv dutmineqHrbs;kEnSgy½nþenHNas;. b:uEnþ Kat;RtUvsÞak;esÞIrvij edaysar
karPñal;KñarvagRkumKat;CamYynwgBYkyYnevotmij. nayTahan rs; ehOn EdlCakUnecA
mñak;rbs;RTg; manCMenOgb;gl;elIeRKOgvtþús½kiþsiT§iTaMgenH dMNaleBlEdlemT½ByYnevotmij
mineCOelICMenOepþspþasEbbenH.68 erOgPñal;KñaenH )anekIteLIgenAkMLúgqñaM1949 enAcMBImux
bnÞayrbs;RkumTaMgBIrenH. kalenaH TaMgBIrRkum)ane)aHTItaMgT½BenATl;muxKña edaydak;Tg;
sMKal;rbs;pgxøÜnenATnÞwmKña min[Tab b¤x<s;CagKñaeLIy. dUcsBVmYydg enARBwkmYy TaMgBIr
Rkum)anecjmkeKarBTg;sMKal;erog²xøÜn.
65

kic©smÖasn_CamYyelakyayCIn mehsIRTg;cnÞrgSIkalRTg;eFVJIkarts‘UExµr\sSr³ sBVéf¶rs;enAPUmi RtBaMgKin
XuMPñay RsuksMeragTg extþkMBg;s<W kalBIéf¶TI24 ExemsaqñaM2005.
66
kic©smÖasn_CamYyelaknI v:an;FI kalBIéf¶TI7 Ex]sPa qñaM2006 enAbresdæ extþkMBg;s<W.
67
sUmemIl³ hiun suIfan{kRmgÉksarsMxan;²sþIBIRbeTskm<úCa} TM> 34-36.
68
RbEhlCaeK CaCnkuMmµúynIsþRkhmq¥ineq¥AdUcemXatkrkñúgrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyüEdlmineCOelI CMenOGVITaMg
Gs; ehIyEbrmkkMeTcRbmafRBHBuT§rUbeTAvij.

-40-

karPñal;Kña )ancab;epþImekIteLIg. dMbUgTaMgsgçag sakl,gpSgcg;dwgemIlfa etIyYn
b¤ ExµrEdlnwgTTYl)anÉkraCüBI)araMgmun? BYkeKsnµtfa ebIxagNabgðÚtTg;Catidl;elIkMBUl
mun vaGacCaRbpñÚlfa RkumenaHnwgTTYlÉkraCümun. eRtomxøÜnCaeRsc tMNagTaMgBIrRkum
cab;epþImTajExSTg;sMKal;eLIgelIkMBUl. edaytMNagxagyYnrh½srhYnCagxagtMNagExµr
mundMbUg Tg;sMKal;rbs;yYn)anrMkileLIgelIelOnCag. dMNaleBlxagExµr kMBugBaJab;j½r
ehIyxagyYn GbGnwgsßanPaBenH Rsab;EtExSTg;sMKal;rbs;yYn Edlcas;puybUkrYmnwgkMedA
EdlkkitCamYyr:kERbCadac;mYyrMeBc Tuk»kas[tMNagxagExµr bgðÚtTg;eLIgdl;elIkMBUl
edaysuvtßiPaB.
)atuPUtenH )anbNþal[\riyabfcMeBaHCMenOrbs;elak nI v:an;FIcab;epþImpøas;bþÚrbnþic.
eRkayéf¶km<úCaTTYl)anÉkraCü Kat;ecHEtnwkKitkñúgBicarNakñúgcitþmñak;Égfa karpSgxagelI
hak;RtUvCamYysßanPaBGaNaniKmenA\NÐÚcinxøaMgNas;. eRBaHKat;segáttamRbvtiþsaRsþeTA
eXIjfa ebIeRbobeFobCamYyCnCatiExµr yYnhak;)anRsUtrUtrh½srhYnRbqaMgnwg)araMgCag.
cMENksßanPaBenARsukExµrvij mansPaBs¶b;s¶at;eRcIn edaysarCnCatiExµrminsUveRkakeLIg
RbqaMgnwg)araMgeLIy.69 elakbnþeTotfa ebIeTaHbICamankarTb;Tl;RbqaMgnwg)araMg k¾vamin
RtUv)andwknaMeFVIedayRbCara®sþsamBaØeT EtvaRtUv)aneFVIedayBBYkvNѳGñkecHdwg nigBYk
GPiCn EdlmanTMnas;plRbeyaCn_CamYy)araMgEtb:ueNÑaH.70 rhUtdl;éf¶)anÉkraCü eday
snþiviFI munevotNam Edl)anÉkraCüedaykarRbyuT§Kñay:agxøaMgkøaenA edonebonhV71
Ú Kat;kan;
EtnwkeXIjkarpSgKña EdlExµr)anbgðÚtTg;sMKal;rbs;xøÜnedaysuvtiþPaBEdr.
BYkyYnevotmijminTan;Gs;citþeT edayykelsfa ExSTg;sMKal;rbs;xøÜncas; gay
puy eTIbmin)anbgðÚt[dl;elI. edayB¤l,IBIkUnTahanrbs;xøÜnGYtsresIrBI)armIrbs;Tg;
69

manesckþIraykarN_rbs;Pñak;gar)araMgCaeRcIn)ankarRsb rWKaMRTTsSn³rbs;elakv:an;FI. ]TahrN_ maneK
raykarN_fa {enAkñúgqñaM1927 CnCatiExµrTaMgGs;mansPaBs¶b;s¶at;}. sUmemIl³ b‘ín eXonin {etIb:ul BtcUlkan;
GMnacEbbNa?} RkugPñMeBj TIPñak;garsarBt’mankm<úCa ¬eGs>eb:> ka¦ qñaM 1992 PaKTI1 TM> 28.

70

V. M. Reddi, p. 103. "The Conservatives, in general, were prepared to trim their patriotism to suit

their particular interest."

71

Central Intellegence Agency (CIA), "Communism and Cambodia", February 1972, Approved for

release 15 December 2004. "…Sihanouk's increasingly success in extracting concessions from the
French. To many Cambodians he seemed to be getting peaceably from France what the Vietnamese
Communists nextdoor were buying with blood…"

-41-

sMKal;T½BExµr emT½ByYnevotmijmñak; )anbbYYlExµr\sSr³)aj;Tg;sMKal; dak;kaMePøIgynþmYy
edIm. Kat;)anGYtGagfa Kat;)aj;Rtg;minEdlxus ehIybnþúHbg¥ab;fa minEdlTg;sMKal;
xagExµrÉNa EdlKat;)aj;minRtUvenaHeT. Kat;bnþedaytMekIg b¤kBaRbmafExµrfa caMemIl
etI)armITg;sMKal;rbs;Exµr\sSr³BUEks½kþisiT§i b¤k¾RKab;kaMePøIgKat;Rtg;Cag. elaknI v:an;FI enA
eBlenaH mankar)armÖCaxøaMgxøac)at;bg;kaMePøIgynþmYyedIm. eRBaHfa Kat;enAEtminTan;Tukcitþ
elI{épÞRKU}eT. edaysar Caerogral;s)þah_EdleKsakl,g)armI {épÞRKU} Kat;eXIjEtvaeqH
esÞIrral;EtelIk. CYnkal écdnüeTA vak¾maneBleK)aj;mineqHeTAEdr ehIymkdl;eBlenaH
elak rs; ehOnykvamkelgesIcPñal;Kña dak;kaMePøIgynþmYyedImdUecñaH Kat;dUcCaminRsYl
kñúgcitþesaH. elak v:an;FI )anbnþbBa¢ak;eTotfa tamBiteTA Tg;sMKal;Edlykmk)aj;Pñal;
enaH RKan;EtCaRkNat;Fmµtarbs;elak rs; ehOn eT.
elak rs; ehOn )anERsksnµtbBa¢ak;fa [emyYnevotmij)aj;EtmYyRKab;Kt; Et
RbsinebI)aj;eTAehIymineqH b¤k¾minRtUvenaHeT kaMePøIgynþEdlyYn)anGUsmkdak;Ek,rdgTg;
enaHnwgkøayCarbs;;Exµr¬\sSr³¦ehIy nig)anERsk[kUnTahanTaMgsgçagCYyeFVICasakSI.
snµtKñaminTan;)ancb;RsYlbYlpg eK)anlWsñÚrRKab;kaMePøIgkar:ab‘ÍnmYyRKab;lan;B¤rMBgéRB Et
eKmineXIjTg;sMKal;rbs;ExµreqH b¤RtUvRKab;eLIy. BYkExµr\sSr³rbs;RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI
)ancab;ERskeh‘arkeBa¢óv edaysarPJak;ep¥IlnwgPaBGs©arüenH72.
BYkxagyYns¶at;mat;eRcob dMNaleBlEdlemT½Brbs;BYkeKeFVICaniyaylublagPaB
Gam:asrbs;xøÜn edaysþIbenÞaseTAkan;kUnecAxøÜnfa x¢ilminecHCUtsMGatlagkaNugkaMePøIg[
s¥atl¥ eFVI[sÞHkaNug)aj;Tg;sMKal;ExµrminRtUv. KiteTAExµr\sSr³ dUcCaelak rs; ehOnman
GMnYtNas;Edr enAcMeBaHsßankarN_enH eRBaHKat;cg;[BYkyYncaj;edayGs;citþ. elak)an
ERskeTAkan;BYkyYn EdlminTan;Gs;citþfa [BYkyYn)aj;bIRKab;EfmeTot ehIyebIenAEtmin
RtUveT xagExµr\sSr³nwgykkaMePøIgynþenaHehIy.
emT½ByYndEdl )an[eKykkaMePøIgfµImkTaj)aj;Tg;sMKal;ExµrTaMgkMeral. mYyRKab;
ehIyenAEtminRtUv¬eqH¦ mYyRKab;eTotenAEtmineqHTg;sMKal;Exµr\sSr³ EdlRbEhlCaBYk
Tahan\sSr³ERskeh‘arxøaMgeFVI[yYnenaHsøn;esøa)aj;minRtUv. mYyRKab;cugeRkayenAEtmin
72

elaknI v:an;FI )anR)ab;fa {kaMePøIgkar:ab‘ÍnenH mingayfa)aj;mineqHeT} EtcMELkGVI )anCadUecñH.

-42-

RtUv BYkExµr\sSr³minbg¥g;yUrk¾hk;cUleTAGUsykkaMePøIgynþ. cMENkBYkyYnekþAmYrhµg;naMKña
fyeRkayEtminEmnfyeTANaeT KWfyeRkayeLamB½T§edj)aj;ykkaMePøIgynþvij. BYkExµr
\sSr³k¾enAEtxMRbwgTajykkaMePøIgrt; ÉxøHeTotxMRbwg)aj;tTl;CamYyBYkyYnevotmijrhUt
dl;GUsvadak;cUlkñúgbnÞayrbs;xøÜn.
ehtukarN_k¾bBa¢ak;[eyIgeXIjEdrfa ExµrcUlcitþmanGMnYtePøcxøÜn nigesµaHRtg;rhUt
køayCaeqatl¶g; lg;xøÜncUlGnÞak;sRtUvEdlmanButt,út. PaKeRcIn edaysarGMnYt ExµrEtgEt
Gn;eGan[sRtUvmun. b:uEnþ sRtUvdUcCayYnvij BitCamanl,ickic©kl ehIyminEdleKarB
tamBaküsnüarbs;xøÜnenaHeT. RKan;Et]TahrN_ kMbuikkMbu:kxagelI k¾GacbBa¢ak;bgðaj GMBI
Butt,útrbs;BYkyYn)anEdr. mü:ageTot RbEhlCa Exµr\sSr³PaKeRcIneqatl¶g;EbbenHÉg
eTIblg;eCOelIehtupl EdlyYnevotmijeXasnafa cUlmkCYyc,aMg edIm,IbeNþjsRtUvrYmKña
edayemIlmineXIj mhicätaFMrbs;eK enAeRkayéf¶TTYl)aneCaKC½yBitR)akd. b¤mYy
mkBIeKKitfa Exµr\sSr³gayRsYl[BYkeKelgExSelI eTdwg.73
nayTahanExµr\sSr³manCMenOelIvtßúEdleKeCOfa s½kþisiT§iCaeRcIneTot mandUcCa
kEnSgy½nþ ExSkfa cgáÚmstVéRB Eckac; kuy Pøúk edIm b¤emImRbTal>>> CaedIm.74 eRkABIenH
Exµr\sSr³énRkumRTg; cnÞrgSI manCMenOelIerOgkab;minmutpgEdr. BYkeKmanviFIcas;KMril
edIm,IbegáItrUbmnþ nigfñaMkab;minmutdutmineqH.75 BYkeK yl;fa dgáÚvnag KWCastVEdlman
RbeyaCn_RtUv)an eKciBa©wmykséssMbuksURtEdl)anBITwkmat;rbs;vaykmkeFVIhUl b¤ pamYg
edaysarsURtenaHmanKuNPaBd¾maM sVitmingaydac; b¤puyeLIy. dUecñH nagBitCamanPaBsVit
maMenAkñúgxøÜnrbs;vaehIy eFVI[BYkeKeCOfa GacykvamkeFVICafñaMpwk[sac;Kg; sRmab;karBar

73

sUmemIl/ hiun sIufan{kRmgÉksarsMxan;²sþIBIRbeTskm<úCa} RkugsIuGafl shrdæGaemric qñaM1986 TM> 5455/ 203. Kat;)anerobrab;eRcIn enAkñúgesovePArbs;Kat; GMBIkll,icyYn e)akR)as;ExµrsøÚtRtg;gayeCOlg;Bakü
e)akR)as;rbs;eK. ]TahrN_ yYnhUCImij)aneRbI[Gacarü emon EkeQµaHCa suWg g:ukmij edIm,Ie)akykExµr Edl
)an)at;emekIy[cUlkñúgGnÞak;yYnbeRmIclna nigbMerIplRbeyaCn_yYn>>> .
74

75

Ibid,. pp. 34-36.

kic©smÖasn_CamYyelak nI v:an;FI kalBIéf¶TI18 ExFñÚ qñaM2005 enAextþkMBg;s<W.

-43-

xøÜn)an. cMENk eRKOgpSMmandUcCa kUndgáÚvnag76 RbTal)alI TwkXµúM b¤ Rsa. dMbUg BYkeK
ykkUndgáÚvnagcMnYn 1naLimkbuk[EbkecjBBuHsÁúl edIm,IykTwkmat;rbs;vamklayCamYy
Rsapwk. rIÉkakrbs;va RtUvBYkeKykeTAlayCamYyTwkXµúM sRmab;hUbkarBarCMgWepSg².
elak nI v:an;FI)anerobrab;bnþeTotfa manKñIKña nigkUnTahanKat;CaeRcIn EdlnaMKñaeCO
elIPaBs½kiþsiT§irbs;sMbukdgáÚvnagenH. eRkayBIpwk{fñaMkab;minmutdutmineqH}EbbenH sac;rbs;
BYkGñkpwkERbCaBN’exov ehIyBYkeKtaMgykdav b¤kaMbitmkkab;saklemIl. BYkeKeRtkGr
edayCMenOCak;kan;EtxøaMg enAeBleKkab;KñaminmutRKan;EtRtutsac;Etb:ueNÑaH. RbEhlCadav
b¤kaMbitTaMgenaHKMrwlEdrpgk¾mindwwg. eRBaH enAkñúgsmrPUmi Kat;segáteXIjmannayTahan
TaMgenaH RtUvsRtUv)aj;smøab; b¤RtUveKkab;mutdac;sac;TaMgduM² dUcEtmnusSFmµtaEdr. elIsBI
enHeTAeTot karpwk{fñaMkab;minmut dutmineqH} EbbenH min)anCYyBYkExµr\sSr³enaHeT Etva
kan;EtnaMPaBlM)akdl;BYkeKEfmeTot. CakarBit RbEhlCavaGacCYy[BYkeKmansac;sVit
b:uEnþsac;sVitrbs;BYkeKenaHnwgeFVI[BYkeK QWrhUtdl;søab;. eRBaH Kµanm¢úl sWraMgcak;fñaMNa
mYy Gaccak;fñaMbBa©Úlsac;BYkeK)aneLIy RbsinNa ebIBYkeKQWfáat;. emøaHehIy BYkeKenAEt
bnþeRbI»sfburaN EdlBuMmanRbsiT§iPaBdEdl eTaHCaman»sfeBTüTMenIbs½kþisiT§ik¾eday.
ebItamRbsasn_rbs;elak nI v:an;FI )an[dwgfa yYnevotmijFøab;)anrYmCamYyExµr
\sSr³rbs;RTg;cnÞrgSI eTAvay)araMg EteRkayBIkarRbTUsþrayxagelI TMnak;TMngenaH )ancab;
epþImeRbHqa. sUmbBa¢ak;fa muneBlekItehtuenH RTg; cnÞrgSI )anRtUvBYkyYnGeBa¢IJjeTARbCuM
enANambU énevotNamxagt,Úg77 ehIyRTg;k¾)andas;etOnkuM[kUnecArbs;RTg;tbteQøaHRbEkk
KñaCamYyBYkyYnevotmij EdlenATl;muxbnÞay[esaH xøacmankarlM)ak nigrMxandl;eKaledA
énRkumts‘Urbs;xøÜn kññúgkarvayTamTarÉkraCüBI)araMg. m:üageTot RTg;)armÖdl;suvtßiPaBpÞal;
rbs;RTg; EdleTARbCuMenARsukyYnenaHpg xøacERkgy:agem:cy:agm:aeTA eKeFVI)abRTg;.
76

elak nI v:an;FI fa kalenaHdgáÚvnagEdll¥nigRtUv)anBYkKat;niymykmkeRbIsMrab;pSMfñaMeRcInCageKKW dgáÚvnagenA
RtBaMgfµ énRsukPñMRsuk extþbnÞaymanC½ysBVéf¶.
77
Rkumevotmij )anTak;TgCamYyRkm\sSr³rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI eTARbCMuenANambUCajwkjab;
bnÞab;BIemdwknaMrbs;eK KWhU CImij )anGeBa¢Ijfñak;dwknaMExµr\sSr³déTeTot dUcCa Em: mYn Gacarü nYn dYg
nigeRkaymkman lav EkvmunI nig mI pU CaedIm edIm,IBiPakSarkpøÚvdeNþImÉkraCü. mnusSTaMgenaH
suT§EtRtUv)anlg;xøÜn nwgmenaKmviC¢akMumuynIsþ nig karlYgelame)akbeBaäatrbs; hU Cimij.

-44-

{Emn¡ dUckar)armÖrbs;RTg;Emn/} elak nI v:an;FI )anKUsbBa¢ak;. Kat;)anbnþfa BYkkUn
ecArbs;RTg;manerOgr:avdUcxagelI ehIyRtUvBYkyYnxilxUck,t;Baküsnüa minRBmpþl;kaMePøIg
ynþ edaysnþiviFIeT EtEbrCatamedj)aj;BYkKat;ykkaMePøIgynþvij. TIbMputTMnak;TMngl¥
CamYyBYkeKRtUvbBa©b;. ÉrUbRTg; cnÞrgSIpÞal; RtUvBYkyYncab;Xat;xøÜndak;kñúgKukGs;mYyry³
TMraM)anrt;ecjmkvij)an edaysar)anGñkyamKukmñak; CaCnCatievotNamFøab;rab;Gan nig
mansmancitþdl;RTg; )aneRbI])ayklk,t;RkumxøÜnedIm,IlYcedaHElgRTg; EtRtUvBYkeKdwgTan;
eBl ehIyedjcab;RTg;vij esÞIrEtrt;minTan;. taMgEtBIeBlenaHmk BYkeKecH Etmankarb:H
TgÁicnwgKñaCaerOy².
skçIPaBénkarmincuHsRmugKñarvagRTg; cnÞrgSInigBYkevotmijRtUv)anbBa¢ak;edayRTg;
cnÞrgSI pÞal; enAkñúgbTsmÖasn_RTg;CamYyelak sÞIvin ehd½r naeBleRkaymkfa {´>>>Qb;eFVI
bdivtþn_CamYyyYn eRBaHeRkayeBl´shkarCamYyBYkeKtaMgEtBIeRkayeBlmans®gÁamelIk
TI2 Pøam c,as;Nas;EdlfaBYkeKkMBugeRbIR)as;´ edayeRbIeQµaHraCvgSanuvgSrbs;´. BYkeK
EfmTaMg)anBüayamRtYtRtaelIclna¬\sSr³¦rbs;´eTotpg. ehIyeBlEdl´CMTas;elIGVI
EdlBYkeKesñIsuM BYkkUnecArbs;eKElgehA´faCaRBHGgÁm©as;esñhaCatieToteT. pÞúymkvij
BYkeKnwgehA´ecaT´faCaRBHGgÁm©as;k,t; b¤CnskþiPUmik,t;.78
3>6> smrPUmisMxan;
kMlugeBlqñaM1951 bnÞab;BI)anbgVwkhat;yuT§Cnrbs;xøÜn enAsalanayTahanCMnan;
TI1 RTg; cnÞrgSI )anbBa¢a[kUnTahanrbs;xøÜnCag 800nak; ecjeFVIsmyuT§eTAextþekaHkug
EdlCaTwkdIeRkamkarRtYtRtad¾sMxan;mYyrbs;RTg;. elakemT½B hwum xan; TTYlPar³dwknaM
nayTahanTaMgenaH ecjBIsalanayTahanenAtaenov79 kat;tampøÚveTAERsGMbil. ebItam
78

kic©smÖasn_rvagelaksÞIvin ehd½r nwgRBHGgÁm©as; cnÞrgSI enAéf¶TI 16 Exvicäika qñaM1974 nabnÞayc,armn
extþkMBg;s<W.
79
taenov sßitenAxaglicénRtBaMgRkLwg extþkMBg;s<W. ÉTIbBa¢akarBitR)akdrbs;Exµr\sSr³énRkumRTg; cnÞrgSI
KWstiß enAÉ vtþreyob mþRMú kaMgdIv:ay xaglicc,armn. enATIenaHvaRtUv)aneKsagsg;eLIgelIépÞdITMhM 1KILÚEm:Rt
eTVrKuN edaymaneQIFM²CasrsrkMEBg. b:uEnþ TahanTaMgLayrbs;RTg;minsñak;enATIenaHCaRbcaMenaHeT eRBaHeK
CaT½BéRBEdlRtUvcl½teRcIn minRtUvsñak;enAkñúgbnÞayyUreBkeT xøacERkgkgT½B)araMgmkkMeTc.

-45-

Rbsasn_rbs; elak nI v:an;FI EdleBlenaH Caelxaelak emT½B hwum xan; )anerobrab;[
eyIgdwgfa nayTahanCMnan;TI1TaMg800nak; )aneFVIdMeNIrkat;tammat;smuRT eTAe)aHTItaMg
enAxSac;sGs;ry³eBlmYyGaTitü. enAPUmixSac;senH BYkeKCafµImþgeTot )anbHTgÁicRbdab;
GavuFCamYyBYkyYnevotmijbnþicbnþÜcEdr. Cak;Esþgelakelxa nI v:an;FI EdlmanPar³kic©CYy
kic©karepSg²rbs;elakemT½B hwum xan; dUcCa xagkic©karrdæ)alepSg² nigs<ayfg;Gahar
EpnTI nigRtarbs;emT½B hwum xan; CaedIm. elakKitfa eBlenaH BYkyYnevotmij BitCaeRtomxønÜ
KuMKYn caMvayT½Brbs;RTg;cnÞrgSI dUcCaBYkeKmankMhwgFMduMBIkalNaGBa©wg.80 enAevlaéf¶ mYy
eBlEdlKat;eTAdgTwk Kat;RtUv)anBYkyYnevotmijedj)aj;. Kat;xMRbwgrt;eKcBIkartam
cab;enH rhUtmindwgxøÜnfa RCuHRtarbs;emT½B hwum xan; )at;taMgBIeBlNa b¤enAkEnøgNa.
bnÞab;BIrt;eKcedaHxøÜnrYc Kat;)anykdMNwgGaRkk;enHeTAR)ab;elak hwum xan; EtKat;EbrCa
Rcelatxwg edj)aj;elakesµónP½yrt;esÞIrsøab;mþgeTot. elak nI v:an;FI niyaykarBaredIm
ehtuénGMeBIEdlelak hwum xan; RceLatxwgnwgKat;fa eRBaHelak hwum xan;)armÖxøacBYksRtUv
xilxUcerIsRtaenaH)an ehIymanKMnitGaRkk;bnøMeFVICaekaHehA b¤bBa¢a[kUnTahanrbs;Kat;
eTATINamYy edIm,IkMcat;BYkeKecal naM[manlT§plexøacpSarBn;eBksRmab;RTg; cnÞrgSI.
bnÞab;BeI naHmk BYknayTahanTaMgLay)anbnþdeM NIreTAe)aHTItaMgcas; enAPUmCi XI enA
Ek,rRsukERsGMbil extþekaHkug. elak v:an;FI fabnÞayCIXenHmanTItaMgyuT§saRsþl¥Nas;.
vamanTItaMgelITITYlmYyEdlB½T§CMuvijedayrukçCatisMrug81 EdlCaGnøg;FmµCatiCaeRcIn. vak¾Ca
RbPBesdækic©mYyd¾sMxan;pgEdrsRmab;RkumRTg; cnÞrgSI. eRBaHeKGacRbmUlrukçpl)anCaeRcIn
dUcCa RKab;eRmc C½reram xøwmc½nÞ nigRkvaj CaedIm. dUcEdlRtUv)anerobrab;xagelI rukçplTaMg
80

Kat;sgS½yfa RbEhlCaKat;cUleTAkñúgTwkdIRtYtRtarbs;BYkyYnevotmij eTIbBYkenaHsgS½yfaKat;Ca GñkesuIb
karN_kMcat;TItaMgrbs;eK.
81
sMrug KWCareNþAEdlmanKuem<atéRBduHs‘ubRTubBIelI. eKmankarlM)akCaxøaMgkñúgkareFVIswkenATIwenaH RbsinebIeK
minsÁal;TItaMg[)anc,as;eT vaGacRbQmmuxnwgeRKaHfñak;enH. EteTaHCay:agNa va)anCYyGnueRKaHdl;BYkKat;
CaeRcIn. eRBaH sRtUvTaMgLayRtUvsøab;edaysarFøak;cUlkñúgGnøg;enaH. BYkKat;minmansøab;eRcIneT edaysarBYk
Kat;sÁal;PUmisa®sþc,as;las;. enAkñúgGnøg;enaHmanstVl¥itmü:ag rs;enAkñúgsMbukFMb:unceg¥r. eBlmanmnusS b¤
stVFøak;cUlkñúgrUg vanwgsuImnusS b¤stVenaHrhUtdl;sl;Etq¥wgb:ueNÑaH. eBlEdlstVcMELkenHdUrsMbuk ehIrecj
BIsMbukcas; BYkKat;)anedIrcUlkñúgenaH. BYkKat;P½yrn§t;CaxøaMg eRBaHKat;eXIjsl;EtEsñg q¥wgstV q¥wgmnusS
nigRbdab;eRbIR)as; rbs;BYkeK dUcCa BUefA kaMbit CaedIm.

-46-

Gs;enH RtUv)anExµr\sSr³dwkCBa¢ÚnedayesH nigdMrI edIm,IykeTAlk;dUrenAextþRtaténRbeTs
éf. edaysarKuNsm,tiþTaMgGs;enHehIy eTIb BYkyYnevotmijEtgBüayamvayqµk;deNþIm
ykTItaMgenH CaeRcInelIkCaeRcInsar.
Cak;Esþg enAeBlBYknayTahanCMnan;TI1rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSIeFVIsmyuT§enATIenaH BYkeK
)anlYcvayeLIgelIbnÞayenaH. BYkeKmanKñaeRcIn edIm,IeLamB½T§ EtRtUvBYknayTahanrbs;
RTg; cnÞrgSI vayrujRcancuHvij rhUtdl;BYkeKFøak;cuHcUlkñúgsMrugenaHsøab;Gs;CaeRcInnak;.
TIbMput Exµr\sSr³GackarBarbnÞayd¾l¥rbs;xøÜn)anedaysuvtßiPaB ehIy)anGbGrsaTreCaK
C½ydMbUgrbs;xøÜn eRkayeBlecjBIsalahVwkhVWnfµIefµag.
3>7> yuT§sa®sþs®gÁamT½BéRB82
xusBIclnaCatiniymkm<úCaTMenIbdéTeTot clnaExµr\sSr³)aneRCIserIsykpøÚvts‘U
edayGavuFecjBIkñúgéRB edIm,ItamTarÉkraCüBI)araMg. etIBYkeKmanyuT§sa®sþGVI CaTIGag?
elak va:n;FI )aneqøIytby:agxøIfa KW {s®gÁamT½BéRB}. etIGVICas®gÁamT½BéRB? etIBYkyuT§Cn
Exµr\sSr³ manCMnajeFVIs®gÁamT½BéRBkMritNa? elak nI va:n;FI Edl)aneronsURtCamYy GtIt
nayTahanCb:unmYyrUb Edlmin)andkfyeRkayGFiraCCb:uncuHcaj;s®gÁamelakelIkTI2 KW
elak tadakuma ¬TADAKUMA¦ nigGnuvtþpÞal;kñúgGMLúgeBlts‘U )anerobrab;R)ab;eyIg[
dwgdUcteTA ³
s®gÁamT½BéRB KWCarebobénkarvayluk EdleRbImnusSrs;enACuMvijtMbn; EdlxµaMgkan;
kab; b¤ eLamB½T§. s®gÁamT½BéRBenH manlkçN³sMKal;cMbg² EdlyuT§Cnrbs;BYkeK RtUv
dwgxøÜnCamundUcxageRkam³
1¦ KµanrNsirS b¤ mUldæanbEg¥kc,as;las;
2¦ RbtibtþikaredayRkumtUc² ehIyRbdab;edayeRKOgGavuFexSaybMput
3¦ dwgCamunfa xµaMgxøaMgCagxøÜnCanic©.
4¦ Gacrs;enAq¶ayBIPUmiRsuk)an eBleFVIRbtibtiþkargar dUcCacUlesuIbkarN_CaedIm.
82

EpñkenHBwgEp¥kTaMgRsugelIemeronEdlelaknI v:an;FI)aneron.

-47-

5¦ manKMnitpþÜcepþImCanic©kñúgkareBlRbtibtþikar eRBaHkñúgkal³eTs³PaKeRcInbMput
BYkyuT§CnT½BéRB nwgKµannrNaCYyENnaM[eFVIGVIeLIy KWBYkeKxøÜnÉg CaGñkpþÜcepþÍm.
6¦ RtUvTak;Taj[mankarKaMRTBIRbCaCn
7¦ sMxan;bMput RtUveCosvagkuMeRbIT½BéRB edIm,ITb;Tl;nwgT½BéRBmYyeTot pÞúyeTAvij
eKRtUvEteRbIR)as;yuT§viFIenH CamYykmøaMgT½B EdlenATIcMhrEtb:ueNÑaH.
elIsBIenHeTot elak v:an;FI )anBnül;R)ab;fa kñúgnamKat;CayuT§CnT½BéRBmYyrUb
Kat;RtUvcgcaM nigmansmtßPaB7 epSgeTot pgEdr.
TImYy Kat;RtUvecHkeRmIkedaybuinRbsb;. kñúgn½yenH Kat;fa Kat;RtUveFVIRbtibtiþkar
[)anrh½sbMput.
TIBIr Kat;RtUvecHbMP½nþ dUcCa eFIVCapþl;Bt’manxusdl;xµaMg b¤ enAeBlT½lRckRtUvxµaMg
cab;)an KYrRbKl;xÜøn[xµaMg bnÞab;mk eBlxµaMgsYrcemøIy RtUv[cemøIyxuseTAxµaMg b¤ CYnkal
BYkKat;RtUvecHeFVIviT§gSna ehIycUleRCotERCkxagkñúgépÞdIsRtUv.
TIbI KWCacMNucsMxan;CageK EdlyuT§Cn\sSr³RtUvecH {kareFVI[PJak;ep¥Il}. edIm,IeFVI[
xµaMgPJak;ep¥Il eKRtUveFVIKMeragkarCamunsRmab;bMP½nþxµaMg b¤ k¾eFVIkarbEgVgdan edayvaybeBaäat
TItaMgtUc edIm,IgayRsYlqµk;vayTItaMgFM.
m:üageTot BYkKat;RtUveRtom xøÜnCanic©sRmab;vaylukkEnøg Edls¶at;es¶óm nig
mUldæanxµaMgtUc² EdlenAq¶ayBImUldæanFMrbs;xµaMg. TnÞwmnwgenH BYkKat;RtUveFVIdMeNIr[)an
elOnbMput nigmanPaBbuinRbsb;kñúgkareRbIR)as;sNæanTItaMgPUmisa®sþ fa etIKYrlak;bMBYn b¤
eFVIGVIenAkEnøgNa edIm,I[s½kþismbMput sRmab;KMeragkareRtomRbyuT§NamYy.
sMxan;CagenHeTAeTot BYkeKRtUvecHRtYtRtaekþabkþab;PUmiRsuk EdlxøÜneFVIskmµPaB[
)an dUcCa RtUvdwgBIsmancitþRbCaBlrdæcMeBaHBYkeK b¤eTAelIsRtUv. kñúgdUckrNIxageRkay
enH yuT§CnT½BéRB RtUvecHeXasna[RbCaBlrdæRslaj; nigCYyTMnukbRmugEpñkepSg².
BYkeKRtUvdwgfa s®gÁamenH nwgmingaybBa©b;eT. dUecñH eKRtUverobxøÜneRtomlkçN³
ts‘UyUrGEgVg sRmab;s®gÁammYyyUrGEgVg ehIymunnwgcUleFVIs®gÁamT½BéRB yuT§Cnmñak;²RtUv
sMerccitþCamun[)anRtwmRtUv.

-48-

cMNucsMxan;cugeRkay BYkKat;RtUverobcM[manExSry³Bt’man[)anRKb;TIkEnøg edIm,Iu
ykeCaKC½yeTAelIxµaMg. dMNalKñaenHEdr BYkeKk¾RtUvecHk,Ünrt;eKc nigyl;dwgnUvRbkar
sMxan;²mYycMnYn pgEdr ³
1¦ Kb,IbMEbkCYr edIm,Irt;enAeBldMbUgbg¥s; EtKb,IrkkEnøgBYn.
2¦ RtUvbMEbkCYr ehIyrt;. EtebI kalNasRtUvehvht; eKRtUv[mankarQøb
KyKn;enAeBlyb; edIm,Icat;karBYksRtUvvij .
3¦ [mankarrt;ecjenAeBlyb;.
4¦ RtUveFVIkareRbobpÞwm dl;karRbmUlRbCuMT½BxøaMgeLIgvij RBmTaMgeBl)ay.
5¦ RtUveFVI b¤ erobcMCamunnUvcMNucCYbCuMTaMgLay dUcEdlKat;)anNat;RkumKat;CYbKña
enAGUrRseLAeRkayeBlBYkKat;cab;CMritR)ak;BIefAEkTwkXµúM EdlRtUv)anlatRtdagkñúg
EpñkxagelI.
6¦ RtUveRbIR)as;GnÞak;pÞúH edIm,Ibg¥ak;el,ÓnéndMeNIrxµaMg.
7¦ RtUv[)anl¥ b¤ maneRbobCagsRtUvCadrab.
8¦ [manbec©keTsRKb;RKan;kñúgkarecHrs; kñúgeBlGasnñ.
ebIniyaykalEdlRkumelak nI v:an;FI cUleTAcab;CMritenApÞHefAEkTwkXµúM BYkKat;k¾min
Emn ecHEtcUleTAedaymin)anesIubkarCamunenaHeT KwKat;RtUv)anPñak;gar b¤ rnukkñúgrbs;Kat;
raykarN_BIkEnøg EdlefAEkenaHlak;luy nigeBlevlaEdlKat;enApÞHCaedIm. enHbBa¢ak;fa
BYkExµr\sSr³k¾yl;nwgcat;TukkaresuIbkar b¤ karykBt’manCakarsMxan;bMput sRmab;BYkeKeFVI
Rbtibtiþkar RbkbedayRbsiT§iPaBx<s;.
s®gÁamT½BéRB mankarTak;TgeTAelITMhMd¾FMTUlayénskmµPaBmnusS. kñúgkareFVI[
kic©RbtibtiþkarmaneCaKC½y BYkExµr\sSr³RtUvdwgfa mnusSNaxøHKaMRTRkumrbs;eK ehIy
GñkNaKaMRTsRtUv. ebItamkarecHdwg)anBIbTBiesaFn_rbs;elak nI v:an;FI s®gÁamEbbenH
eKminRtUveFVI[mankarxusqÁg cMeBaHmCÄdæanGñkRsukGayeLIy. elIsBIenHeTAeTot T½BéRB
RtUvRby½tñ minKYreFVI[mankar)at;bg;nUvyuT§Cnrbs;xøÜn eRKOgsmÖar³ rYmTaMgGñkKaMRTrbs;
pgxøÜneT. BIeRBaHT½BéRB KWeFVIkarRbyuT§EbbGñkRk edaysarskþanuBlsmÖar³swk minsUvman
eRcIneT. dUcKñaenHEdr eKk¾RtUvman tMerHviC¢a nigbTBiesaFn_RKb;RKan; EdlkøayCaktþa
-49-

man\T§iBlelIlT§pleCaKC½y b¤ braC½ypgEdr. kaleNaH BYkKat;)anEbgEckBakü
{dMNwg} nig{Bt’man}kñúgn½yxusKñafa³
-dMNwg KWCaplEdlRtUv)anpþúMRbmUl edayRbPBTIéTCaeRcIn.
-Bt’man KWCakarecHdwgGMBIxµaMgeTAelITIdI eTAelIRbCaBlrdæ RBmTaMgeTAelIFatu
Gakas Edl)anmkGMBIdMNwg EdlRbmUlpþúMehIyécñ¬[tMélpþúMKña nigqøgkat;karBiPakSarYc¦.
cMeBaHembBa¢akar RtUvdwgGMBIBt’mansþIBIxµaMg FatuGakas nigsßanPaBdICamun eTIbGac
emIleXIjeCaKC½ymkxagxøÜn.
3>8> snñisITRkughSWENv83
edaysareRKagkarsnñisITTIRkughSWENvqñaM1954 eTIbRTg; cnÞrgSIdak;GavuF cuHcUl
CamYyraCrdæaPi)alrbs;semþc neratþm sIhnu.
edIm,IedaHRsayCemøaHenA\NÐÚcin mantMNagRbeTscMnYn19 )ancUlrYmkñúgsnñisITmYYy
enAéf¶TI26 Exemsa qñaM1954 EdlmanRbeTsmhaGMNacsMxan;² dUcCa shrdæGaemric
RbeTs)araMg Gg;eKøs shPaBsUevot nigRbeTscin )anRBmeRBogKña R)arBVeFVIsnñisITmYy enA
TIRkughSWENv edIm,IbB©ab;s®gÁam nigsþareLIgvijnUvsnþiPaBenAkUer: nigenA\NÐÚcin. EtebI
niyay[RsYlsþab; KWedIm,I[RbeTs)araMgdkxøÜnecj nigRbKl;ÉkraCüdl;RbeTs\NÐÚcin
)araMg.84
eRkayBIB¤esckþIRbkasenHPøam bNþardæsamI nigPaKIsamI kñúgCemøaHTaMgGs;cab;epþIm
BicarNarkesñót nigeFVIkary:agjab;édeCIg eq<aHeTArksiT§icUlrYmkñúgGnaKtsnñisITRkug
83

sUmemIl/ Nub suxa nigGñkdéTeTot{dMenIreq<aHmkrkÉkraCüExµr} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüaCMnan;TI13
saklviTüa l½yPUminÞPñMeBj qñaM1995-1996 TM> 46.
84
sUmemIl/ vg; suFar:a nigGñkdéTeTot/ snñisIThSWENv>>>> TMB½r 2-13. enAéf¶TI8 ]sPa xagPaKI)araMgman
elakrdæmRnþIkarbreTs h‘Sk b‘ÍdUl¬Georges Bidault¦/ PaKIGg;eKøsmanelak EGnfUnI eGEdn¬Anthony Eden¦
PaKIshPaBsUevotmanelak m:ULÚUtUv ¬Molotov¦ PaKIcinmanelak CU eGnLay¬Chou Enlai¦ ÉPaKIGaemric
manGñksegátkareQµaH v:tF½rebEdlsµIt¬Walter Bedell Smith¦ cMENkKN³RbtiPUExµrmanelak eTB pn Ca
RbFanrYmdMeNIr edayelak ng KImnI/ elak sm sarI/ elak sWn san/ elak b:uk eFOn/ ]tþmesnIy_jwk CULúg
CaedIm.

-50-

hSWENvenH. rdæaPi)alevotNamxageCIg EdldwknaMedayhU CImij nig pam va:n;dug )anerobcM
l,icyuT§sa®sþy:agjab;éd edIm,IbegáItCardæaPi)almYy [clnats‘UExµr\sSr³kMumuynIsþ enA
km<úCa Edlman suWg g¨ukmuuij CaRbmux nigbNþavrCnCaeRcIneTot EdleKFøab;sÁal;yUrmkehIy
enaH dUcCa suIv ehg/ TU samut/ lav EkvmunI nigelakmuIpU.
cMeBaHmuxsßankarN_EbbenH semþc neratþm sIhnu )aneRbIR)as;neya)ayd¾Qøasév
mYy edIm,IbeBaäatmtisaFarN³GnþrCati. RBHGgÁ EdleRkaymkRtUv)an RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI
ehAfa {l,icRBYjmYy)aj;)anstVBIr}. CadMbUgRBHGgÁ )ancat;[ Ék]tþm b‘U h‘g eTAniyay
bBa©úHbBa©ÚlemExµr\sSr³ [cUlrYmCaFøúgEtmYYykñúgraCrdæaPi)al kMu[Ebk)ak;Kña naM[eKBuHEck
TwkdIExµrCamYyExµrevotmij enAeBlGnaKt. EteTaHCay:agNa elak hiun sIufan )anecaTfa
BYkemExµr\sSr³ EdlcuHcUlCamYyrdæaPi)alenH KWedIm,I)anlaPskáar³ nigysskiþpÞal;xøÜn.¬?¦
eRkaycrcaKña)ansMerc RBHGgÁ)annaMykem²Exµr\sSr³TaMgLay dUcCa elak dabQYn/ RTg;
neratþm cnÞrgSI/ elak sav¨ag vgS/ nigelak But qay eTAcUlrYmsnñisITRkughSWENv edIm,IeFVI
CasakSIR)ab;BiPBelak fa KWBYkeKÉeNHeT EdlCaGñkts‘UBitR)akd kñúgbuBVehtuvaybeNþj
)araMg ehIykMBugmanEdndIRtYtRta nigkgT½BeRcInCagPaKIdéTeTot. BYkeK)aneBalGHGag
bEnßmfa BYkeK)aneFVIkarts‘UedIm,IbeRmIplRbeyaCn_RbeTsExµrBit² ehIy\LÚvBYkeKRBmdak;
GavuFcuH edIm,IrYmrs;CamYyKñaedaysuxsnþiPaB. CacugeRkay BYkeK)anvayRbhar edayBakü
sMdIdak;BYk suWg g¨ukmiuj fa CaCnk,t;Caticg;BuHbMEbkEdndIExµr.
eRkaysnñisITenH PaKIBak;B½n§)ansMercbBaÄb;skmµPaBb:HTgÁiceyaFaTaMgRsug cab;BI
éf¶TI7 ExsIha qñaM1954 teTA. enAeRkayeBlbBa©b;s®gÁam CaFmµtaenARbeTsPaKeRcIn
kñúgBiPBelak eKRtUvKitKUdl;BYkGñkts‘UEdl)anrgrbYsBikarédeCIg EPñk b¤ ragkay edaykar
pþl;rgVan; b¤ muxtMENgtYnaTI b¤kargarepSg²RbeyaCn¾BYkeKGacciBa©wmCIvit)an. dUecñHCafñÚr
nwgkarcuHcUlCamYyrdæaPi)al semþc sIhnu )ansnüafa nwgbBa©ÚlkgT½BExµr\sSr³TaMgGs;
enAkñúgkgT½BexmrPUminÞ CabnþbnÞab; tamdMNak;kal.
(Y)

-51-

CMBUkTI4- smahrNkmµkgT½BExµr\sSr³
{RsukeTs)anÉkraCüehIy eyIgKYrnaMKñacUlrYmrs;kñúgsgÁmCativij.}

4>1> smahrNkmµ nigkarxkcitþ
enAkñúgExkumÖ³qñaM1954 rdæaPi)alExµr)anR)arBVBiFITTYlsÁal;karcuHcUlCapøÚvkar na
bnÞayrbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI enARsukc,armnextþkMBg;s<W. TidæPaBenAkñúgBiFIenH mansPaBG‘ÅkFwk
xøaMgNas;. KYrkt;sMKal;fa Exµrsm½ymans®gÁam)an[tMélelInayTahanNas;. Cak;Esþg
enAeBlerobcMBiFIenaH manm®nþIraCkar nigGñkRsukCaeRcIn )annaMkUnRsIeTAcUlrYmBiFIenaHEdr
edIm,Iman»kasbgðajdl;BYknayTahan. eRBaH BYkeKeBjcitþ nigmankUnRbsarCaTahan.
edayELkrUbelak nI v:an;FI pÞal;k¾RtUv)anGnaKtPriyaKat;)anmkcUlrYmBiFIenH ehIynagEfm
TaMg)ancab;citþlYcRslaj;Kat;eTotpg.
eRkayBIBak;sMelokbMBak;fµIrYcehIy85 RTg; cnÞrgSI )anRbkasehA[elak nI v:an;FI
eLIgeRcograMkMsanþ. EtKat;niyayfa eBlenaH hak;dUcCaminsUvkøahan86 dUcsBVmYydg
esaH. eRBaH sMlwgeXIjmanm®nþIraCkartUcFMCaeRcIn cUlrYm. Kat;PøamenaHrt;kat;hVÚgmnusS
kuHkreTAdak;mYytysin edIm,Ikat;saj EdlPasakMEbøgsMgat;rbs;RkumKat;fa pwkKgÁa rukça
Rbmaj;87. rYcehIy Kat;eLIgelIqak cab;eRcogbTceRmogts‘UExµr\sSr³bYnbT. TImYy Kat;
eRcogbT {eyIgxJúMsUmeKarB} rYceRcogbT {GasUrkUnExµr} {Tahankøahan} nigcugeRkaybT
85

ebItamelak nI v:an;FI fa Kat;eTIbEtmkBIbnÞayenAextþekaHkug eRkayeBlKat;cakecjBI salanayTahan
enAtaenovmk. BYkKat;kMBugEtenATIenaH Rsab;EtelakemT½Brg can; etaeRts CiHesHeTAehABYk Kat;[mkc,armn
edayR)ab;fa RsukeTs)anÉkraCüehIy. RBHGgÁm©as; cnÞrgSI sMerccitþcuHcUlCamYyraCrdæaPi)alehIy ehIy
\LÚvBYkeyIgRtUvRbBaJab;eTAeFVIBiFIcUlrYm¬smahrNkmµ¦enAc,armn. BYkKat; RsUtrUtdMeNIrmkTaMg sMelokbMBak;
ÉksNæancas;BN’exov k,alBak;mYkEdk. mkdl;kEnøgeFVIBIFI BYkKat;eXIjnayTahan rYmCMnan;CamYyKña
Bak;skiþrYcGs;ehIy ehIyEfmTaMgmansgSarRss;s¥atmñak;mYyeTotpg. BYkKat; hak;manesckþIRcENnNas;
edayKµan)ans¥InwgeK eRkABIkBa©b;eRmcykmkBIekaHkug edIm,IdUrKuyTavcinhUb. eRBaH BYkKat;KµanR)ak;ExGVIeLIy.
86
elak v:an;FI )ansarPaBfa eTaHbICaKat;Føab;)ansMEdgelçanenABImuxhVÚgmnusSrab;rynak; ¬kalKat;eFVICa\sSr³
CamYy lav EkvmunI edIm,IRbmUlR)ak;viPaKTan¦ k¾eBleLIgeRcoéfsmahrNkmµ elakenAEtP½yjab;j½rdEdl.
87
KgÁa = TwketñatCUr/ rukçaRbmaj; = kUnkEgábGaMg.

-52-

{sm½ymYyExµr CaCatikøahan}. eRcogcb; eKTHédR)a:v. cab;taMgBIeBleRcogbTceRmog
TaMgenHehIy EdlKat;RtUv)anbuRtIGñkGgÁm©as; suIsuvtiß vDÆqay:avgS cab;citþRslaj; eday
es¶óms¶at; rhUtdl;eBlKat;cUleFVIkarkñúgdMNak;GñkGgÁm©as;tU ehIyekItmanerOgr:avCamYy
nag eTIbdwgfa mkBInagcab;citþRsLaj;Kat;yUrmkehIy.
raCrdæaPi)al)anEcksemøókbMBak;ÉksNæan énkgeyaFBlexmrPUminÞ 1sRmab;mñak;
dl;yuT§Cn)anRKb; 1000nak;. EtkarbBa©ÚleQµaHCapøÚvkar eTAkñúgRkbx½NÐkgexmrPUminÞ )an
RtwmEt cMnYn 300nak; b:ueNÑaH. cMENk RTg; cnÞrgSI TTYlzan³Cavr³esnIyRtI Bak;skiþ4 nig
emT½BrgBIrnak;eTotrbs;RTg; KWelak hwum xan; nigelak can; etaeRts )anTTYlzan³Ca
GnuesnIyÉk Bak;skþi3. Éelak suk esgerOgmunI )anTTYlzan³CaGnuesnIyeTa Bak;skiþ2
nigrUbKat;/ nI v:an;FI )anTTYlzan³RtwmCaGnuesnIyRtI Bak;skiþ1. semþc sIhnu )anbnþsnüa
eTotfa nwgbBa©ÚlyuT§Cn 700nak;eTot kñúgry³eBl7ExeRkay.
ebItamRkbx½NÐkgT½B RTg; cnÞrgSI EdlmankgT½BrhUt dl;eTA 1000nak; EdlGac
begIát)anCa {kgvr³esnaFM}. pÞúyeTAvij RTg;)anRtwmEt {kgvr³esnatUcsV½yPaBclnaelx
3} bnÞab;BI {kgÉkPaBelx2} rbs;elak savag vgS Edl)an cuHcUlenAéf¶CamYyKñaenHEdr
enAtMbn;PMñRsg; extþkMBg;s<W. enHbBa¢ak;BIGMeBI Edlsemþc neratþm sIhnu mineKarBtamBakü
snüarbs;RBHGgÁ. CalT§pl BYkExµr\sSr³enAPñMdgErk nigyuT§Cn \sSr³rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI
KµankargareFVI cMeBaHGñkEdlKµanCMnajkargar. EtGñkmanCMnajkargar tictYc RtUveTARbkb
muxrbrepSg².
edIm,ICYyciBa©wmyuT§Cn700nak;eTot Edlmin)ancUlRkbx½NÐ nigKµanR)ak;Ex RTg;
cnÞrgSI )anrkviFICYyBYkeKedayxøÜnRTg;. CadMbUg RTg;)ancat;Ecg[kat;rMElkR)ak;ExTahan
manRkbx½NÐ cMnYn2PaK3 edIm,ICYypÁt;pÁg;dl;yuT§Cn 2PaKénkUnT½Brbs;RTg;. 7 b¤ 8Ex
knøgputeTAehIy enAEtmineXIjmankarbBa©ÚlkUnTahanxøÜncUlkñúgRkbx½NÐkgexmr³PUminÞCati
bEnßmeTot tamBaküsnüaTal;EtesaH. ÉsMelokbMBak; nig PsþúParepSg²eTot enAEtmin
eXIjpþl;[bnþ. rhUtrMlgeBlCag1qñaM k¾enAEtKµanGVIl¥ekIteLIg cMeBaHRkum Exµr\sSr³cuHcUl
CamYyrdæaPi)al semþc sIhnueLIy. ebItamRbsasn_ elak nI v:an;FI )an[dwgfa RTg; cnÞrgSI
Gs;sgÇwmCaxøaMgcMeBaHehtukarN_enH. RTg;)anPJak;RBHT½yfa {»¡ enHCal,icklrbs;esþc
sIhnueTetI¡ esþcenH BitCaRbsb;eRbIR)as;klmayaEmn rhUtmkdl;eBlenH eTIbeyIgdwgfa
-53-

eyIgcaj;kleK. eKGacdeNþImykplRbeyaCn_BIrRsbeBlEtmYy)an edaysarmaneyIg.
TImYy KWeKGackMcat;BYkExµr\sSr³eyIg)anedayRsYl. bnþicmþg² BYkeyIgmuxCaRtUveKkMcay
edaymeFüa)ayy:agRtCak;. TIBIr KWeKGacTTYl)aneQµaH CaGñkdeNþImÉkraCü rkSaÉkPaB
Cati nigTwkdI edayykBYkeyIgeTATb;Tl;CamYyBYk\sSr³kMumuynIsþ EdlKaMRTedayyYn
evotmij nigkMcat;BYkenH[xÞatBIsnñisITRkughSWENv)ay:agRsYl. enHBitCa {l,icRBYjmYy
)aj;)anstVBIrEmn}. dUecñaHehIy RBHGgÁm©as; cnÞrgSI RtUvcat;karerOgciBa©wmkUnTahanrbs;
xøÜnedayxøÜnÉg edaykarebIkbnEl,gkasuINU nigkarcab;BRgt; CMritTarR)ak;BIKhibtIFM²
enAkNaþlTIRkugPñMeBj.
4>2> tYnaTIfµI nigGnaKtPriyaraCvgS
dMNaleBlEdlkgT½BcuHcUlrbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI e)aHmUldæan enAbnÞayfµI enAc,armn
elak nI v:an;FI RtUv)anRTg; cnÞrgSI Tuk[enAeFVIkarenATIRkugPñMeBj. elakmantYnaTIyamenA
RBHdMNak;GñkGgÁm©as; tU CamYynwgnayTahan cMnYn 30nak;epSgeTot.88 KWenATIenHehIy
Edlelak)anCYbRbTHnUvehtukarN_Ebøk²CaeRcIn EdlelakminGacTb;citþsþab;tambBa¢arbs;
RTg; cnÞrgSI )anRKb;Rbkar.
eTaHbICa RTg; cnÞrgSI Føab;)anenAkñúgéRBts‘UCamYyBYkKat; eday\tRbkan;xøÜnCa
raCvgSanuvgS89 EteBlmkdl;kñúgRsukvij elak nIv:an;FI )ansegáteXIjfa RTg;cab;epþImERb
RbYleRcIn. RTg;)anbBa¢a[BYkKat; mankarRby½tñBaküsmþI nighammin[niyaysþIGVIb:HBal;
RbmafemIlgaydl;RkumraCvgSanuvgS b¤ k¾cg;lelgEccg;kUnecAesþceLIy. elak v:an;FI
88

TahancMnYn 1 section = 30nak; enaH RtUv)aneKbBa¢a[yamenAdMNak;GñkGgÁm©as;tU kñúgeBlEdlkUn Tahan
epSgeTotrbs;RTg;cnÞrgSI, But qay, sav:ag vgS nig dab QYn RtUvmanebskmµyamenARBHbrmraCvaMg. BYkeKsñak;
enATItaMgénkEnøgPsþúParsBVéf¶.
89
ebItamelaknIv:an;FI edIm,IRbmUlkarKaMRTnigTak;TajBIGñkts‘U nigk¾dUcCararaMgkuM[BYkevotmijecaTRTg;faRTg;Ca
skþiPUmiRbtikiriy:a RTg;cnÞrgSICamnusSminRbkan;xøÜneLIy RTg;eBjcitþnwg[kUnTahanrbs;RTg;ehARTg;dUcCaraRsþ
samBaØ edaymin[BYkeKeRbIraCs½BÞeLIy. elIsBIenHeTot RTg;cUlcitþesøóksMelokbMBak; EdlmanbMNHrEhk
rab;rybMNH edIm,I[kan;EtmanPaBsñiT§sñalCamYyGñkts‘UCaraRsþrbs;xøÜn.

-54-

RtUv)aneKcg¥úl[eXIjmannUvKMrUGñkbMBanvaMgrbs;naysm,tiþ.90 dUecñaHehIy elakmankar
RbugRby½tñCanic© minh‘aneFVsRbEhs niyaysþIGVI KMeraHKMerIydak;GñkenAkñúgdMNak;Gñkm©as; tU
eLIy.
EteTaHCay:agNa elak nI v:an;FI enAEteCosminputBIerOgr:avbBaðaenAkñúgdMNak;enaH eT
CaBiess CamYybuRtIrbs;GñkGgÁm©as;mYyGgÁ. enAéf¶TIbI KWdMNaleBl EdlKat;kMBugvaybBa¢I
dwkCBa¢ÚnCMnYy EdlRbeTséf)anpþl;dl; kgvr³esnatUcsV½yPaBclna elx3 rbs;RTg;
cnÞrgSI.91 Rsab;EtmankBaØamñak; cUlmkkñúgkEnøg Kat;kMBugeFVIkar. nagkBaØaenaH edIrcUl
beNþIr jjwmjEjmbeNþIr edaysMlwgemIlmuxKat; EdlkMBugeQ¶akvaybBa¢I. Kat; k¾egIbmux
emIlnagkBaØaenaHvij Rsab;EtnagERskeCrKat;Pøamfa {yIGaKuk¡ ÉgemIlGI? skþiEdlÉgBak;
hñwg KWsVaéRBPñM92Bak;[eT¡ kuMmkcg;eFVIElbxay¬LÚyqay¦GI¡}. ebItamelak nI v:an;FI fa
eBl)ansMlwgemIleTAnag eXIjfanags¥ateqIt Etmancrwkqñas;xuserOg. eTaHCay:agNa
Kat;minGacTb;GarmµN_Kat;)aneLIy. Kat;)antbeTAvij edaykMhwgfa {yInagenH mkBIxag
Na )anCamkeCreK eCrÉgmindwgerOgEbbenH¡}. edayFøab;eFVICayuT§CnmanBiesaFn_ xag)aj;
e)aH/ Kat;bnþeTotfa {ticGt;min)an Gj)aj;ecal\LÚvhñwgehIy¡}. kñúgnamCaraCbuRtITMeyI
kñúgraCvgSanuvgS nagkBaØaenaHRbEhlCaB¤BaküRTeKaHEbbenH CaelIkdMbUgehIy eTIb)anCa
nagxwg ERskeCrKat;eTotfa {GaKuk¡ ÉgdwgeTeyIgCanrNa?93 Ehñ¡ eyIgCabuRtIesþc¡} fa
ehIynagk¾ERskyM ecjeTAbþwgRBHmatarbs;nag.
eBlnagecjeTA)at; elaknI v:an;FI mankarRBYy)armÖBIeCaKvasnaxøÜnCaxøaMg edaynwk
P½yxøacRtUveKecaTfa {bMBanvaMg}. ebIdUcecñaHEmn Kat;nwk)armÖfa mindwgCamannrNaGacCYy
Kat;)aneT. ebIrkRTg; cnÞrgSI [CYy Kat;c,as;CaRtUvRTg;sþI[Caminxan. eRBaHfa muneBl
90

mUlehtuEdlRTg;neratþm cnÞrgSI hamR)amKat;dUecñH edaysarRTg;GaNitRslaj;Kat;. eRBaHman nayTahan
mñak;eQµaH sm,tiþ EdlFøab;)anTTYlParkic©eTAyamvaMg ehIyRtUvbeNþjecjBIvaMg.
91
éf)anpþl;CMnYydl;RkumExµr\sSr³EdlcuHcUlCamYyrdæaPi)alman Rkumrbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI nigsav:ag vgS CaedIm.
RkumRTg; cnÞrgSI TTYl)ankaMePøIgcMnYn 300edIm.
92
elaknI v:an;FI )ancUleFVIsmahrNkmµeTAkñúgkgT½BraCexmr³PUminÞ ehIyRtUv)anRTg; cnÞrgSI bMBak;[ skþi1.
93
tamBiteTA enAeBlB¤sMNYrmYym:at;cugeRkayenH elak nI v:an;FI BitCaPJak;sµartInwkeXIjdl;krNI naysm,tiþ
ehIynwkhYscitþxøÜnÉgminKYrNa manerOgEbbenHEdresaH.

-55-

cUleFVIkarkñúgdMNak;enH RTg;manbBa¢a hamehIyhameTot [Kat;Gt;Fµt; kMutmat;CamYyRkum
mnusSraCvgS ehIyRtUvecHekatxøaceKarBBYkeKpg.
RbEhl 30naTIeRkaymk RTg; cnÞrgSI bnÞab;BITTYl)anTTYlBakübNþwgecaTRbkan;
kUnecAxøÜn k¾)aneFVICacUlmkrkelak nI v:an;FI. RTg;sYrKat;fa etImanerOg ehtuGVI )anCaÉg
beNþay[ekIterOgy:agenH? elak nI v:an;FI )antbvij edayjjIjj½rfa Kat;minGacTb;citþ
)an eBleKERskeCr Biess Kat;enAes¶ómmin)an eBlB¤eKeCrRbmafemIlgaydl;emTahan
rbs;xøÜn.
RBHGgÁm©as;neratþm cnÞrgSI xwgxøaMgNas; minmat;minsþIGVImYym:at; ehIyedIrecjeTA
)at;mYyRsbk; k¾edIrcUlmkvij ehIybBa¢a[eKnaMxøÜnelak nI v:an;FI eTAbnÞÞayc,armn eday
manP¢ab;sMbuRtCUnelakemT½B hwum xan; mYyc,ab;pg. enAeBlenaH Kat;P½yxøaMgeBk lYcyM
xSwkxSÜlmñak;Ég. edaysarxøac eKykeTA[elak Ehm xan;sMlab;ecal. eRBaH elakemT½B
rUbenH CamnusSkactwgruwg. eBlCiHLan EdlkMBuge)aHBYysMedAeTAbnÞayc,armn Kat;kan;Et
manesckþIP½yxøacsøab;kan;EtxøaMgeTVeLIg. edaysar Kat;nwkeXIjGnusSavrIy_GaRkk; Edl
emT½B hwum xan; edj)aj;Kat; eRBaHEtKat;eFVI[RCuH)at;RtaemT½B. elak v:an;FI BicarNa
edaysegVKfa {cuHTMraMelIkenH Kat;)anRbmafrk)aj;buRtIesþcmYyGgÁ etIman»kasNa Edl
emT½BrUbenH elIkElgeTas[Kat;?} Kat;nwk minGs;citþfa ehtuGVIRKan;EterOgr:avb:uNÑwg eK

Rbkan;eTasKat;EbbenH? ehtuGVImineKminrkxus rkRtUv [Kat;pg? Kat;bnþeTotfa ehtuGVIenA
sux² nagenaHedIrmkeCrRbeTcKat; eday\tmanTMngGBa©wg?94 EteTaHCay:agNa Kat;enAEt

Gs;sgÇwmkñúgCivitCaxøaMg ehIyGgÁúyRsgUtRsgat;rhUtdl;bnÞayT½B enAc,armn.
elak hwum xan; RKan;eXIjmuxelak nI v:an;FI Pøam )anniyayEbbbeBa©IcbeBa©I fa
{ÉgeXIjeT? hñwgehIy² CalT§plrbs;Gñkcg;eFVICaéc¬énRBHbrmraC¦vaMg¡ Ég[enAeFVIkar

94

eRkaymk eBlelaknI v:an;FI )annagkBaØaqñas;enaHCaPriya Kat;)ansYrfa ehtuGVI)anCanags¥b;Kat; ehIy
enAsux² edIrcUlmkeCrKat;EbbenH? nag)aneqøIyR)ab;Rtg;fa {nagmins¥b;elak v:an;FIeT tamBitnag)anlYc
Rslaj;Kat; taMgBIéf¶)anCYbKat;dMbUgenAc,armn ¬eBlKat;cUleFVIsmarNkmµCamYyrdæaPi)al emø:H¦. pÞúyeTAvij
elak v:an;FI min)an b¤h‘ancab;GarmµN_elInagvijeT EbrCacab;GarmµN_elInagtYÉk elçaneQµaHXun fat eTAvij. -tBITMB½rmun- nagbnþeTotfa dMbUgnagbMrugnwgjjwmdak;Kat; Etdl;nwkeXIjdl;erOgtYÉkelçan nagERbCaxwg
ehIyERskeCr kMelaH v:an;FI EtmþgeTA.

-56-

CamYyGj vaminRBmeT95¡ EbrCacg;eFVI {écvaMg}. faEtb:ueNÑH Kat;k¾EhkemIlsMbuRt EdlRTg;
cnÞrgSI epJImk nig)anGnuvtþtambBa¢aRTg; eday[eKbkskþi elak v:an;FI ehIybBa¢a[eKykeTA
dak;Kku edayminGnuBaØat[ecjBIKuk)aneLIy drabNa manbBa¢afµI eTIbGacedaHElg)an.
luHRBwkeLIg eK)annaMKat;eTACYbemT½B hwum xan; CafµImþgeTot esckþIP½yxøac)anmk
sNæitkñúgcitþKat;mþgeTot. eRBaHKat;nwkfa c,as;CaRtUveKRbharCIvitminxaneLIy. eBlCYb
elakemT½B hwum xan; Kat;EbrCaRtUveK[esøóksemøókbMBak;ÉksNæan kgexmr³PUminÞ nig
RbKl;skþieLIgvij. Kat;mankaregOnq¶l;pg nigeRtkGrpg enAcMeBaHmuxsßankarN_EbbenH.
Rsab;Et elak hwum xan; ecjbBa¢a[Kat;ecjebskkmµ naMBYkTahanrlak;kgeCIg cUlRkug
PñMeBj edIm,IcUlKal;semþc RBHmhakSRtIyanI kusum³narIrtñ.
KYrkt;sMKal;fa edaysarRTg;cnÞrgSI cab;epþImbþÚrGakb,kiriya edayRbkan;b¤kBarCaBUC
BgSesþc eRkayeBlRTg;cuHcUlCamYyrdæaPi)al )anbNþal[kUnTahan nigemT½Brbs;RTg; Ca
eRcInnak; mankarGak;Gn;citþnwgRTg;. Cak;Esþg emT½Brbs;RTg;eQµaH hwum xan; mñak;enHcab;
epþImRbRBwtþiGVI EdlRtUveKyl;fa CakareqøIyb®Ba©aseTAnwgTegVI b¤esckþIseRmccitþrbs;RTg;.
karedaHElg elak nI va:n;FI Pøam² edayelak hwum xan; k,t;nwgbBa¢arbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI KWCakar
qøúHbBa©aMgBIsBaØaénGriPaBépÞkñúgénRkumenHEdr. eTaHbICa elak hwum xan; bBa¢ak;ehtuplfa
RtUvkarGñknaMkgT½BCaGñkRsukrlak;kgeCIg cUlRkugPñMeBj edIm,IcUlbgÁMKal;RBHmhakSRtIyanI
k¾eday k¾minGaceFVIdUecñH)anEdr. RBwtþikarN_enH KYr[Gs;sMeNIcEmnETn eTaHbICasamIxøÜn
munenH P½yelaHRBlwgy:agNak¾eday. ehtukarN_ hak;dUcCakarelgelçancMGkmYy [
raCvgSanuvgSd¾manGMNacTtkMsanþ. edIm,IeqøIytby:agTn;hn; eTAnwgkarRbmafminsmehtu
plrbs;yuvkSRtImYyGgÁ kalBIéf¶mSil. eRBaHfa mnusSenArlak;kgeCIg KWCanimitþrUbén
RkummnusSéRBPMñ søÚtRtg; Tn;exSay minsÁal;GVIehAfa suIvil½y eLIy. cMENkRTg; cnÞrgSI
Edl suxcitþBin½yeTas kUnTahankMst;kRmrbs;xøÜnEbbenH RbEhlCa mkBIcg;rkSakitþiys
nig GMNacKµanRBMEdnrbs;BYkraCvgSanuvgSrbs;xøÜnEdr. fVIebI rdæFmµnuBaØExµr ekItmantaMgBIqñaM
1947 b:uEnþ KµanmaRtaNamYy kMNt;BIRBMEdnGMNacrbs;RBHmhakSRt k¾dUcCa raCvgSanuvgS
95

dMbUgelakemT½BrUbenHcg;yk elak nI v:an;FI mkeFVICaelxaKat;bnþeTot EtRtUvRTg; cnÞrgSI naMKat;eTAeFVI CaCMnYy
karbBa¢ÚnsarsRmab;RTg;eTAvij.

-57-

Edr. emø:aHehIy RbEhlCasMNagCIvitéførbs;elak va:n;FIehIy EdlBYkskþiPUmienH min)an
bBa¢a[eKsemø:HKat;ecalPøam.
4>3> etIGPiCncat;TukBYkExµr\sSr³eTAkñúgRkummnusSfñak;Na?
enAkñúgRBHraCBiFIbuNüGMuTUk GkGMbuk sMBHRBHExnaqñaM1954 EdlCaqñaMdMbUgénRbeTs
km<úCaÉkraCü semþcmhakSRtIyanI suIsuvtiþ kusum³narIrtñsirIvDÆna )ansBVRBHraChb¤T½y
GnuBaØat[BYkExµr\sSr³cuHcUlfµI² cUlbgÁMKal;RBHGgÁ.96 elak nI v:an;FI manPBVsMNagRtUvnaM
TahanExµr\sSr³cUlKal;RBHGgÁ. b:uEnþ elakminKitfa elakmansMNageT eRBaHelakTTYl
rgkarRbmafBInagkBaØabuRtIGñkGgÁm©as; suIsuvtßi vDÆqay:avgS nigcg;eKcmuxBInag. Kat;fa min
cg;eTAkñúgRBHbrmraCvaMgeT naMEtCYbmuxnag ehIyRsYlminRsYlRtUveKRbkan;eTasEfmeTot.
dl;éf¶kMNt; elak nI v:an;FI minGaceCosputBIParkic©enHeT KWKat;RtUvnaMTahanExµr\sSr³ Edl
suT§EtCaGñkRsukrlak;kgeCIg cMnYn 140nak; cUlmkTIRkugPñMeBj. mkdl;RBHbrmraCvaMg
GñkGgÁm©as; suIsuvtßi vDÆqay:avgS )anbBa¢a[BYkKat;cUlCYb edIm,IraykaN_BIcMnYnTahan[
)anc,as; gayRsYleKerobcM)ayTwkhUb. elak nI v:an;FI minh‘aneTACYbGñkGgÁm©as;eT eday
Tuk[Tahanrlak;kgeCIg97 eQµaHét cUlCYbCMnYsvij. bnþiceRkaymk eK)anbBa¢a[Kat;
dwknaMBYkTahanTaMgenH eTACYbRBHmhakSRtIyanI.
eBlcUldl; Kat;)anbBa¢a[BYkTahanrlak;kgeCIg eFVIKMnab;Karvkic©cMeBaHRBHGgÁ.
RBHmhakSRtIyanI kusum³narIrtñ )ancuHmkBIelIekAGI ehIymkkan;édelak nI v:an;FI. RBHGgÁ
Pøat;RBH»sæ hak;dUcminEdleXIj b¤sÁal;Exµr\sSr³ k¾]Tanfa {yI¡ \sSr³manmuxmat;dUcEt
mnusSFmµtaEdretI¡} RbeyaKenHsþab;eTA hak;mann½yFmµta. EtsMrab;elak nI v:an;FI Kat;
)annwkKitkñúgcitþfa {etIExµr\sSr³ Edlts‘UenAkñgú éRB dUcCaBYkKat;GBa©wg etImanmnusSNaxøH
EdlsÁal;BYkKat;? etImanGñkNaeTot EdlminsÁal;BYkKat; dUcCaRBHmhakSRtIyanI
kusum³narIrtñEbbenH? etIenAkñúgRBHhb¤T½yrbs;RBHGgÁExµr \sSr³KWCaGVIeTA? b¤mYy RBHGgÁ
yl;fa \sSr³CamnusSkacsahavdUcstVxøa b¤k¾dUcmnusSéRB KµansIlFm’ KµanesckþITukçesak
96

RbEhlCaRBHGgÁcg;eXIjmuxExµr\sSr³ cg;dwgfaetIBYkeKmanmuxmat;dUcemþc.
Tahanrlak;kgeCIg KWCaTahanEdlmkBIRsukrlak;kgeCIg. BYkeKCamnusSrs;enAkñúgéRBPñM minsUvCaecHdwg
rebobrbbsgÁmeT EtBYkeKmanPaBGg;GackøahankñúgsmrPUminigmansñaédl¥eTotpg.

97

-58-

QWpSa enAeBlEdlCatirbs;xøÜnRtUvbreTsCiHCan;?} elak v:an;FI bnþKiteTotfa {cuHTMraMebIRsuk
)anÉkraCüehIydUecñH etImanRbCaCnExµrb:unµannak; EdleCOCak;fa ÉkraCürbs;RbeTskm<úCa
)anmkBIkarcUlrYmts‘UrMedaHCatirbs;\sSr³d¾BitR)akdenaH?}
bnÞab;mk RBHGgÁ)anpþl;TwkR)ak;dl;BYkKat;cMnYn 10mWunerol nigGnuBaØat[cUlTsSna
BiFItaMgtu nigedIrkMsanþbuNüGuMTUk. bnÞab;mkeTot Kat;)ancUlCYb RTg; cnÞrgSI. RTg;)ansYr
elak v:an;FI edayegOgq¶l;fa ehtuGVI)anCamkdl;RkugPñMeBjvij ERkgRTg;bBa¢Ún[eTAc,armn
edIm,IeCosvagBIbuRtIGñkGgÁm©as; suIsuvtßi vDÆqay:avgS ERkgnageXIj k¾Rbkan;eTas. tamBit
nag)aneXIjelak v:an;FI rYceTAehIy eBlKat;edaHmYkeKarBRBHmhakSRtIyanI. Kat;fa nag
)ansMLk;sMLwg nigeFVImat;CIbGUc hak;dUckMBugeCrKat;eTotpg.
RTg; cnÞrgSI )anpþl;eyabl;dl;elak v:an;FI kuM[eTAcUlrYmBiFItaMgtu. eRBaHRTg;)armÖ
xøacRkumrbs;Kat; RbLÚkRbLakkñúgCMelaHrvagBYkTahan):ar:a nigBYkTahanrbs; But qay
EdlmanÉksNæanBN’exov dUcCa BYkKat;Edr. RTg;bnþeTotfa xøaceBleTAcUlrYmBiFItaMgtu
enaH BYk):ar:aeXIjÉksNæanBYkKat; manBN’exovEdr sµanfa BYkKat;CabkSBYk But qay
ehIynaMKñamkvayRbharelIBYkKat;. m:üageTot RTg;yl;fa vaminEmnCakic©kargayRsYl
sRmab;elak v:an;FI eT Edl dwknaMTahanrlak;kgeCIgeTAelgkñúgTIEnøgmanmnusSkuHkrEbb
enaH. eRBaH BYkeKminsUvsÁal;rebobrbbBiFIeKpg. TIbBa©b; RTg;)anCUnKMnit[BYkKat;naMKñaeTA
emIlelçan)asak;enACitpSarsuILib sBVéf¶vij. karBiPal;rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSIEbbenH sr[
eXIjfa eTaHbIcuHcUleRkammøb;raCrdæaPi)alEtmYyCamYyKña nigkñúgCakgeyaFBlexmrPUminÞ
dUcKñaehIyk¾eday RkumnImYy² enAminTan;CRmuHecal nUvPaBéRB \tc,ab;Tmøab;rbs;xøÜn
enAeLIy BYkeKenAEtedIrb:H CYb b¤ FMkøinKñamin)andEdl. BYkeK enAEtRbECgyk]tþmPaB
rvagKñanwgKña dEdl.
fVIebI CamnusSminsuIvil½y Tahanrlak;kgeCIg mancitþesµaHRtg; smUhPaBniym nig
smPaBniym kñúgskmµPaBnImYy². BYkeK Etgsþab;bTbBa¢ay:agx¢ab;x¢Ün.
enAl¶acTIBIrénéf¶buNüGMuTUk elak v:an;FI )annaMTahanrlak;kgeCIgcUlemIlelçan. KYr
kt;sMKal;Edrfa eTaHbICaTahanrlak;kgeCIg CamnusSrs;enAkñúgéRBmin)anTTYl)ankarGb;rM
x<sk; e¾ day k¾BkY eKmannUvlkçN³mYyl¥ KWkarecHCECkBiPakSaKñaCanic© munnwgsMerceFVGI mIV yY .
Cak;Esþg enAl¶acEdlBYkeKeTAemIlelçan elak va:nF; I )ansYrcitBþ kY eKfa etIcg;hbU GV?I Tahan
-59-

rlak;kgeCIgmñak;eQµaHét EdlCaemekIyBYkeK )angakeTAKñKI añ fa etIBkY eKKYrhUbGVI ehIyBYkeK
QrCuKM añ BiPakSarkGaharhUb. elak v:an;FI TukeBl[BYkeKsMerccitþ rhUtdl;BkY eKsMerccb;
k¾gakmkR)ab;BkY Kat;vji fa BYkeKcg;hbU KuyTav. eTIbKat; naMeTAhUbKuyTavmYycanmñak;.
Psþtú agmYyepSgeTot EdlbBa¢ak;fa BYkTahanrlak;kgeCIgecHBiPakSaKñaeFVkI arGVmI yY
enaH KWEsþgeLIgeRkayBYkeK hUbKuyTavehIy. elak v:an;FI )ansYrBYkeKfa cg;hbU bEg¥mGV?I
CafµmI gþ eTot BYkeKgakeTABiPakSaKña edayQrCuKM añ sMercfa etIhbU GVeI TIbq¶aj;? BYkeKhak;
minh‘anhUbGVI tamcMNlU citrþ bs;bKu lÁ erog²xønÜ eLIy. edayRbEhlmkBIBYkeK P½yxøacelI
RbkarNamYy. TIbpM ut BYkeKsMercfa hUbTwkkkQUs. eTIb elak va:nF; I eFVtI amcMNg;BkY eK.
bnÞab;mkeTot elak nI v:an;FI naMBkY eKeTAcUlkñgú eragelçanEtmþg. Kat;emIleTAekAGI
xagmux Kat;eXIjBYkTahan):ar:aGgÁyú emIlelçanEdr. Kat;kR¾ )ab;[BYkrlak;kgeCIg[begánI kar
RbugRby½tñ eCosvageFV[I BYkenaHyl;RclMfa BYkKat;CabkSBYkrbs; But qay xøacmankarb:H
TgÁci Kña. enAmuneBleKebIkqakelgePøgXueM rag eKsegáteXIjmanRBHqayalkSN_ RBH)aT
neratþm sIhnu ehIyTsSnikCnTaMgGs;Kañ RtUveRkakQreLIg edIm,IsMEdgkareKarBRBHGgÁ
nigedIm,IeKarBTg;Catipg.
GVEI dlRTg; cnÞrgSI )armÖ )anekIteLIgenAkñgú eragelçanenHEtmþg. eRkayeBl eKarB
Tg;Caticb; TsSnikCn)anGgÁyú cuH. cMENk BYkTahanrlak;kgeCIg EdlkMBgu P½yGr nig)armÖ
xøacBYk):ar:albvayxønÜ )anlWseM lgbHekAGIEdlBYkxagmuxGgÁyú xusekAGI ehIysµanfa BYk):ar:a
lbvayxønÜ EmnenaH k¾Py½ søne; søart;ecaleragelçan. TsSnikCnepSgeTot rYmTaMgBYk):ar:a
pgEdr k¾)anep¥lI rt;ecjBIeragelçan. niyaymkdl;RtwmenH elaknI v:an;FI )annwkGs;seM NIc
xønÜ Ég rkniyayteTAeTotminekIt.
Kat;fa minKYrNamin)anemIlelçan edaysarEtkarep¥lI KñaeTAvijeTAmkesaH. enAyb;
enaH Kat;RtUvedIrEsVgrkBYkTahanrlak;kgeCIgnaMmkkEnøgsRmakvij. eRBaH BYkeKrt;vegVgpøÚv
mindwgCaeTANamkNaeT. Kat;)anCUndMNgw eTA RTg; cnÞrgSI edIm,Icat;EcgKñKI añ CYyEsVgrk
BYkenaHEdr. dl;eBlrkeXIj BYkeKmYykan;édKñamYyKU enAcaMeRkamedImeQI EtenArayKña
ÉeNaHmYyKU ÉeNaHmYyKU esÞrI eBjRkugPMeñ Bj.
RbsinebI eyIgyksmtßPaBvb,Fm’ nigGakb,kiryi arbs;BkY TahanExµr\sSr³TaMgenH
mkBicarNa eXIjfa BYkeKRKan;Et CayuTC§ nm:asunI Kµanstism,C¢Baس EdlminGac[Tukcit)þ an
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sRmab;karTTYlbBa¢a[eFVGI mIV yY enAeBlGvtþman b¤ enAq¶ayBIemdwknaM. ebITku Ca manemdwknaM
Qøasévy:agNak¾eday lkçN³sm,tþiTB½ éRBEbbenH mingaynwgts‘RU byuT§ deNþmI ykeCaK
C½yelIGarükgT½B dUc)araMg)aneLIy. ehtudeU cñHehIy )anCaRbCaCnExµrPaKeRcIn ecaTRbkan;
fa Caecar nigminsUv[témøelIkarts‘Urbs;BkY eK eTaHbICaBYkeKmanlkçN³sm,tilþ k¥ e¾ day.
sUm,IRBHmhakSRtiyanI k¾manTsSn³buernicy½ä GviCm¢ ancMeBaHRkumenHEdr.
4>4> karpÁt;pÁg;xøÜnÉgCafµI
bNþaExµr\sSr³TaMgLay Edl)ancuHcUlCamYyrdæaPi)alTaMgRbfuyRbfanenaH eRkay
BI)andwgxøÜnfa caj;e)aksemþc neratþm sIhnu mankarxwgsm,arCaxøaMg. RkumnImYy² xitxM
RbwgERbgrs;edaymeFüa)ayerog²xøÜn. eRkABIkarEckrMElkR)ak;ExTahanKñaÉg nigmuxrbr
rksuIepSg² dUcCa karebIkkarsuINU k¾vibtþihirBaØvtßú énRkum neratþm cnÞrgIS enAEtekItman
eLIgdEdl. ehtuenaHehIy eK)anpþÜcepþImcat;viFankarN_edaHRsayvibtþi edaynaMyk KRmU
cas;eBlenAkñúgéRB mkGnuvtþenAkNþalTIRkugPMñeBj. enaH KWviFIcab;GPiCn Edlmanluy
eRcIn CMritTarR)ak;CabnþbnÞab;.
enAéf¶mYy evlaem:agRbmaN2resol kñúgkMLúgeBlmankarerobcM kartaMgBiBN’sgÁm
ra®sþniym qñaM1955 RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI )anbBa¢a[mnusSCMnitmYyRkumecjRbtibtþikarcab;
GñkmanRTBüsm,tiþeRcInCMritTarykR)ak; edIm,IciBa©wmBlTahan nignayTahanrbs;xøÜn. enA
kñúgLanm:akdUtrbs;shrdæGaemric manmnusSbYnR)aMnak; EdlmanTwkmuxmaMkMBugbrsMedAeTA
dMNak;RBHGgÁma© s;t.U 98 mkdl;TeI naH BYkeK)anERskehAelak nI v:an;FI EdlCamnusSCMnti mñak;
rbs;RTg; mkTTYlbBa¢aecjRbtibtþikareTAkMBg;s<W. tamelak v:an;FI )an[dwgfa karcab;CMrit
enaH minEmneFVIeLIgedayRTg; cnÞrgSI Etmñak;ÉgenaHeT. eBal KWmannayTahanGtIt
em\sSr³ Edl)ancuHcUlCamYyraCrdæaPi)aldéTeTot smKMnitCamYypgEdr. ehtuenHehIy
eTIbenAéf¶enaHmanmnusSEbøk²CaeRcInnak; )anRbCMueCIgKña GñkTaMgenaHrYm manelak eb:g
98

BYkeKbrmkdMNak;RBHGgÁm©as; tU EdlCaRTnMesayüsuxfµI kñugmYyry³eBlxøIrbs;elak nI v:an;FI. naeBlenaH
elak)ankøayxøÜnCabuRtsNñisarrbs;RBHGgÁm©as; sIusuvtþi vDÆqay:avgS. Priyarbs;Kat;eQµaHfa suIsuvtþi siT§INat
EdlFøab;)anbþwg[eKcab;xøÜnKat;dak;Kuk. kMLúgeBlLaneTAdl; Kat;kMBugBrRBHGnuCéførbs;Kat;eQµaHsuIsuvtþi
Panurtñ.

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suIcan; nig elak rI tMNagmkBIRkumdabQYn elakKImeGg can;riT§i CamitþPkþiCitsñiT§rbs;RTg;
nigmñak;eTot CatMNagmkBIRkum But qay rYmnwgGñkebIkLanpÞal;rbs;RTg;pg. tamBiteTA
enAéf¶enaH elak va:n;FI min)andwgEpnkarCamuneT. Kat;sµanfa RTg; cnÞrgSI bBa¢a[eTAeFVIGVI
enAÉextþkMBg;s<WEmn.
BYkeKebIkLanecjBIdMNak;enaH y:agelOnkat;tampøÚvRBHneratþm eTACitdl;vtþPñM BYk
eKmin)anbt;eTAkMBg;s<WeT pÞúyeTAvij BYkeKbt;mktampøÚvmat;TenømkctQb;Rtg;salsnñisIT
ctumux. edayegOgq¶l;eBk elak nIv:an;FI )ansaksYrRbFanebskmµelak KImeGg can;riT§i
faehtuGVI)anCamkTIenHvij ERkgelakfa manebskmµeTAkMBg;s<WEGðH? elak KImeGg can;riT§i
tbmkvijfa RTg;bBa¢a[mkcab;elak eb yan EdlkMBugQrRtYtBinitükarsagsg; BuT§ikviTüal½yebyan. KYrrMlwkpgEdrfa elak eb yan enH CaKhibtImanRTBüsm,tiþsþúksþmÖ nig
man\T§iBlmñak;enAkñúgsm½ysgÁmra®sþniym.
PøamenaH elak KImeGg can;riT§i )ancat;EcgKñIKña [yamkarBarsøabsþaMmYy nig
søabeqVgmYy ehIysYrrkGñksµ½RKcitþcUleTAcab;KhbtI eb yan. KµannrNakøahan h‘ancUl
eTAcab;esaH. elak v:an;FI sYredjedaleTotfa ehtuGVI)anCacab;xøÜnKat;? elak KImeGg
can;riT§i GHGagfa {KWrUb elak eb yan enHehIy EdlCamnusStamBüa)aTRTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI
nigraraMgmin[eK dak;bBa©ÚlTahan nignayTahaneyIgeTAkñúgRkbx½NÐkgT½BexmrPUminÞ}.
elak v:an;FI tbeday køahanfa {ebIRTg;bBa¢aeTAehIy sUmTuk[´cUleTAcab;cuH}. elak nI
v:an;FI edIrcUleTAkEnøg ctLanrbs;elak eb yan EdlenATIenaH manGñkebIkLanpÞal;rbs;
Kat; kMBugKUsvasdIelg niggaksMlwgmkrUbKat;¬v:an;FI¦. eXIjdUecñaH Kat;k¾eFVIkic©CaedIr
RkEvlEk,enaHbnþic eFVIdUcCa minmanerOgGVI.
cMENk BYkb:unµannak;eTot kMBugyamemIlxageRkA ERkgmanLanb:UlIsyaml,atmk
Tan;. rhUtdl;em:agCit 5l¶ac KhibtIebyan)anedIrsMedAmkLan EdlmanTVarRtUv)aneKebIk
rg;caMRsab;. eBlelak eb yanerobcUlLan elak v:an;F)I ansÞHú eTAcab;Kat;Pg¢ R; tg;cegáHjac;.
GgÁrkSebIkLanelak yan ERskeCrKMramelak v:an;FIfa {EGðgPøIePøIeTGðI?} Éelak eb yan
erIbRmas;beNþIr nigsYreTAGñkP¢g;beNþIrfa mankars¥I)anCaÉgmkcab;eyIgEbbenH? elak
v:an;FI kuhkfa Kat;TTYlbBa¢aBIsñgkarb:UlIstulakarcg;GeBa¢Ijelak eTAsaksYrBIkrNI
saksBCnCati)araMgmñak; EdlelbfñaMsMlab;xøÜnenAkñúgpÞúHsMNak;rbs;elak. niyaymin)an
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cb;RsYlbYlpg Rsab;EtGñkebIkLanrbs; elak yan rt;ecjBIRCugmçageToténrfynþtRmg;;
mkrUbelak v:an;FI. eXIjminRsYl elak v:an;FI )anTajykkaMePøIgxøIvayk,almñak;enaH
Ebkk,al hUrQam rhamrhUtsnøb;. eqöøót»kasenaH elak eb yan )anerIbRmas;Fak; elak
v:an;FI mYyeCIgepøagecjBILan. elak v:an;FI )anbBa¢ak;fa Kat;egOgq¶l; nigxwgsm,arnwgKñIKña
Kat; b:unµannak;eTot EdlkMBugQrcaMenAmat;pøÚv EdlmincUlmkCYycab;rUbelak eb yan esaH
eTIbKat;ERskehABYkeK[mkCYyekoksµaelak eb yan cab;bBa©ÚlkñúgLan.
BYkeK)anbrLany:agelOn RtLb;mkeRkaytampøÚvmat;Tenø bRmugecjeTAkMBg;s<W
tampøÚvshB½n§rusIu. mkdl;Ek,rRCugxag t,ÚgénRBHbrmraCvaMg EdlkaleNaH CaeragdMrIhøÜg
Rsab;EtBYkKat;)anB¤sMelgERtRbKMu eKaH Kg TUgePrI rMBgecjBIRBHbrmraCvaMg edIm,IbgðÚt
Tg;CaticuH. PøamenaH manBYkTahanhøÜg RbEhlmYykgtUcecjkat;pøÚv EdlCaehtubNþal
[BYkKat;sÞHdMeNIr. elak eb yan xMRbwgeGItk,alecjBILanERskrkeKCYy. Kat;ERskfa
{CYypg ecarcab;´dak;enAkñgú Lan}. edaycg;eFV[I Tahancab;GarmµN_ Kat;xRM bwgERskeTotfa
{CYypg skþibIs‘ab cab;´ ¬EdlkMBug¦ enAkñúgLanenH}.99 edayxøacEbkkarN_ Kat;)an[eK
brLanfyeRkayelOnesøvdUcehaH EbbsÞat;CMnaj sMedAmkpSarkab;eKa edIm,IeKcecjBIhVÚg
mnusS nigb:UlIsvaMg edaysuvtßiPaB. ehtuenHehIy )anCamYyéf¶eRkaymk RBwtþikarN_enaH
RtUv)ankaEstsresrraykarN_fa GñkebIkLancab;CMritenaH ebIkbredayGñksÞat;CMnajmkBI
shrdæGaemric.
CafµImþgeTot elakKhbtI eb yan )anRbwgerIbRmas;rt; edayeKosrUb elak v:an;FI
esÞIrEtFaøk;BIelILan EtsMNagl¥ Kat;min)anFøak; EtEbrCaPøat;esñótFøak;kaMePøIgxøIeTAvij. Kat;
)anxMRbwgERsk[KñIKña CYycab;elak eb yan bBa©ÚlkñúgLanvijTaMgRtdabRtdYs. RsbeBl
Rbjab;Rbjal;Tn;hn;enaH bU:lIsenAcieBa©ImpøÚvEk,renaH minyl;ehtukarN_ k¾taMgERsk
R)ab;RkumKat; fa :elak¡ RCuHkaMePøIgehIy²/ cuHmkerIskaMePøIgvijeTA}. edaysar P½ysøn;
esøaeBk BYkKat;min)anQb;Lan cuHeTAerIsykkaMePøIgenaHvijeLIy. sUmbBa¢ak;fa kaMePøIg

99

RbEhlCaelakKhibtI eb yan yl;fa skþibI s‘ab kMBugRtUv)anrdæaPi)altamcab;xøÜnRsab;pg ebIsinCaKat;
ERskR)ab;faskþibI s‘ab RbEhlCamanTahan b¤b:UlIsrt;mkcab; s‘ab ehIyGacCYyrUbKat;kñúgeBlenaHEdr.

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RCuHenaH CakaMePøIgrbs;elakemT½Brg can; etaeRts EdlkMBugRbcaMkar enAkMBg;s<WÉeNaH Et
eRkaymkRtUv)aneKRsavRCavrkeXIjm©as;.
rfynþenaH bnþdMeNIrmkdl;eragkunlucS maneRKaHfañk;cracrN_mYyenABImux EdlCa
ehtueFVI[BYkKat;sÞHdMeNIrmþgeTot nigCa»kassRmab;[elak eb yan ERsk[eKCYy. Kat;
RtUv)aneKykkUnkaMbitbukcegáH KMramcak;smøab;ecal ebIenAEtERskeT. elak eb yan eqøIy
edayP½yxøacfa Kat;Qb;ERskehIy. Kat;bnþedaykþIGs;sgÇwmfa tamBit Kat;ERsk eday
nwksgÇwmfa nwgGacmaneKmkCYy. Etdl;ERskeTA enAEtminmaneKCYydEdl Kat;minERsk
eToteT. elakk¾xMln;tYGgVrfa Kat;minTan;cg;søab;eT caMsem<aFGKarsalafµIsin ehIyRbwg
TajyksMbuRtGeBa¢IjePJóvcUlrYm karsem<aF GKarBuT§ikviTüal½y eb yanfµI mk[elak v:an;FI
edIm,ICaelssuMkMu[smøab;Kat;ecal. mkdl; Rtg;enHelak v:an;FI hak;Gs;sMeNIccMeBaH elak
eb yan EdlxMRbwgGgVrkMu[eKsmøab;xøÜn edayecHnwkeXIjhucsMbuRtGeBa¢IjrUbKat;EbbenH.
BYkKat;)anebIkLaneCoskarkksÞHenaH ehIycab;epþImsMlutKMhameTAelak eb yan
fa gab;ehIyÉg¡ eFIVRCuHkaMePøIgGj. ÉgRtUvEtsgmYyCadb;. elak eb yan tbfa {[Et
elakminsmøab;´ sUm,IEtmYysgCamYyBan; k¾´Gacsgelak)anEdr}. tamBitelak v:an;FI
k¾P½yxøacEbkkarN_ edaysarPsþútagkaMePøIgEdlRCuH)at;eTAenaH. m:üag Kat;xøaceKesuIbrk
RbPBm©as;kaMePøIg KWelak can; etaeRts. m:üageTot Kat;xøacRtUvemdak;TNÐkmµedaysar
kaMePøIgenaH eTIbKat;ekþAcitþsMlut eb yan [sgkaMePøIg enAtampøÚv.
mkCitdl;b:usþ_RtYtBinitüTwkføa manb:UlIsCaeRcInkMBugyaml,at cMENkenAeRkayman
Lanb:UlIskMBugedjtampgEdr. eXIjdUecñH BYkKat;)anbEnßmel,ÓnLanebIkkat;b:usþ×yam.
eTaHbICaeBlenaH BYkKat;)ansMKal;eXIjfa kugT½rsaMghak;bIdUcCaGs;k¾eday k¾BYkKat;Gac
CiHvarhUtdl;vtþGgÁexµA ehIybt;LancUlkat;TwkePøóg Edldk;enAtampøÚvedIm,IeTAPñMtµatBg.
Rtg;PñMenH BYkKat;)anbt;LaneTAlicsMedAeTAbnÞayTahanpÞal;rbs;RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI.
elak)anbBa¢ak;[eyIgdwgeTotfa BYkKat;min)andwgfa enATIenaHmankar)aj;Rbhar
KñarvagTahanrbs;RTg;EdldwknaMeday elak Ehm xan; nwgTahanrbs;elak But qay Edl
dwknaMedayemT½Brgrbs;Kat; EdlRtUv)aneKsÁal;fa skþibI s‘ab enaHeT. eBlmkdl;TIenaH
Pøam elak)an[dwgfa manRKab;kaMePøIgCaeRcIn)an)aj;tRmg;mkLanrbs;BYkKat; eLIgsuH.
edayyl;sPaBkarN_minRsYl nigxøacRtUvRKab;kaMePøIg Kat;)an[LanQb;tamkarKMramrbs;
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BYkTahanelak hwum xan;. eBlcuHBIelILan edayelIkédPøam Kat;eXIjmanTahan):ar:aexov
EdlCaÉksNæanrbs;Tahan\sSr³edIrcUlmk. eBlenaH BYkKat;BitCaP½yxøacEmnETn.
eRBaHsµanfa RtUvBYkTahanrdæaPi)alsÞak;cab;)an Rsab;EtTahan):ar:aexovenaH ERskfa {cum¡
KñaÉgeT} ehIyeKgakeTAeRkayhamKñIKñamin[)aj; edayERskfa {BYkenAdMNak;RTg;¬cnÞrgSI¦
eT kMu)aj;¡}. rYcemTahanmñak;EdlRtUv)anKat;sÁal;faCaelak lI lwms‘un sYrfa {elakRKU
mkTIenHmankarGI? dwgeT eyIgeTIbQb;)aj;KñaCamYyBYkskþibI s‘ab GM)aj;mijenHeT¡ ebIsin
Cah‘anqøgeTAEk,rsÞwgxagmux c,as;Ca kunFMRtUveK)aj;ehIy}.
bnÞab;mk elak nI v:an;FI sYrrkelakemT½B hwum xan; edIm,IRbKl;sMbuRtrbs;RTg; cnÞ
rgSIedaypÞal;éd. eBlelak eb yan eXIjelak hwum xan; Kat;sµanfa CaskþibI s‘ab.
Kat;)angakeTAsYrelak nI v:an;FI s¶at;² fa enHb¤CaskþibI s‘ab Edlrt;ecalBIrdæaPi)al?
elakk¾eFøaymat;fahñwg ehIyKWskþibIs‘ab EdleFVI[elak eb yan EdlFøab;lWBIPaBkac
sahavrbs;skþibI s‘ab kan;EtP½yxaøceLIg. eRkayBiPakSaKñacb; eK)an[elak eb yan
sresrsMbuRtykluymkelaH. eBl)ansMbuRtBIelak eb yan Pøam eKRtUvcat;Ecg[mnusS
ykeTARbKl;[RkumRKYsarelak eb yan enAÉTIRkugPñMeBj. KµannrNah‘anTTYlyktYnaTI
enHesaH eRkABIelak v:an;FI dEdl.
enAeBlRtLb;cUlRkugPMñeBjvij edIm,IyksMbuRtelak eb yan eTAhuc[RkumRKYsar
elak va:n;FI )anCiHLandwkeQIh‘ub. enAtampøÚv Kat;kt;smÁal;eXIjfa mankaryamkamCa
eRcInhUrEhtampøÚv xusBIFmµta. eBlqøgkat;tamb:usþ×yamnImYy² eKmin)anehAKat;Qb;eT
EdlTuk[Kat;GaceTAPñMeBjy:aggayRsYl. bnÞab;mk Kat;)ancUleTAkñúgdMNak;RTg; cnÞrgSI.
eBleXIjKat;Pøam RTg; cnÞrgSI )ansaksYrPøamfa {y:agem:cehIyerOgenaH? ´dwgfaKµan
nrNah‘aneT eRkABIelak FI Ég}. Kat;k¾tbeTAvijfa {dMeNIrkarRsYleT. EtTUlbgÁMmkenH
cg;x©IkaMePøIgxøIRTg;mYyedIm}. RTg; cnÞrgSI sYrfa{cuHkaMePøIg FIÉgeTANa)at;ehIy?} Kat;)antb
fa Kat;)aneFVI[RCuHkaMePøIgxøIrbs;elakemT½B can; etaeRts )at;eTAehIy.
bnÞab;mkeTot Kat;)annaMyksMbuRtenaH cUleTApÞHvILarbs;elak eb yan. enAÉkñúg
pÞHenaH manb:UlIs GFikarb:UlIsCati emKij EdlkMBugraraMgmin[GñkkaEstcUlCYbsmaCik
RKYsarelak eb yan. elak v:an;FI )anqµk;cUledayRsYl edayeXIjkUnecA eb yan yMERsk
ehIyeBleTAdl;Pøam Kat;)ansYrrkkUnRbsarelak eb yan eQµaH elak hg;rI EdlCama©s;
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eragBum<hg;rI. Kat;)anhucsMbuRteTAelak hg;rI ²)anTajédKat;cUlbnÞb;niyayKñas¶at;²
ERkgEbkkarN_dl;b:UlIs naM[maneRKaHfñak;dl;elak eb yan. elak hg;rI sYrfa {etI«Buk´
minGIeTb¤?}. Kat;k¾eqøIytbvij EbbP½ybnþic eTIbniyaysMlutfa {kMucg;eFVIGVIepþspþas; eRBaH´
mankan;kUnexµac¬manKñIKñakMBugrgcaMCYyenAxageRkA¦} ehIyKat;KMrame)akRKab;Ebkéd. elak
hg;rI tbvijfa {kMuRBYy¡ ´minh‘aneFVIGVIeT eRBaHxøacmaneRKaHdl;«Buk´}. eRkayeBlelak
hg;rI GansMbuRtcb; elakdkdegðImFMfa {huW¡ yb;efµIrenH ehIyrkluyÉNa )an60muWnerol
ebIFnaKark¾bTi TVareTot. sUmelak rg;caMéf¶Es¥keTA. elak v:an;FI tbvijfa {eT¡ ´mindwgeT¡}.
rhUtdl;em:agRbEhl10yb; eTIbRKYsarelak eb yan RbmUlR)ak;)an 60muWnerol RbKl;[
RTg; cnÞrgSI. eBl)anTwkR)ak;RKb;cMnYn 60muWnerol BYkeK)anedaHElgrUbelak eb yan eday
mansemþcsgÇnimnþeTAbiNÐ)aRtBI kMBg;s<Wmkvijpg.
KYrkt;sMKal;pgEdrfa cab;taMgBIeBlenaHmkelak eb yan k¾dUcCaBYkKhIbtIeTotEdr
Etg)anykR)ak;eTARbKl;[RTg; cnÞrgSI dl;dMNak;Etmþg. eRBaH xøacerOgEbbenHekIteLIg
cMeBaHxøÜnEdr. enHehIy CameFüa)ayrbs;RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI kñúgkarrkR)ak;ciBa©wmkUnTahan
EdlesµaHsµ½RKcMeBaHxøÜn kMLúgeBleFVIs®gÁamT½BéRBmunéf¶dak;GavuFcuHcUlCamYyraCrdæaPi)al
semþc sIhnu. cMENkÉelak v:an;FI vij eRkayBI cb;ebskkmµRtUv)anRTg; cnÞrgSI RbKl;R)ak;
cMnYn5000erol TukCargVan;. RTg;mankarRbugRby½tñCab; Canic© edayhamR)ammin[elak
v:an;FI ecjedIreTANaeLIy.
b:uEnþ yuvCnd¾køahanrUbenH hak;dUcCaKµankarRBYy)armÖ b¤jejItxøacmanGñksgS½y
tamcab;xøÜnBYkKat;eLIy. Kat;naMKñaedIrelgBiFItaMgBiBN’smiT§iplsgÁmra®sþniymqñaM 195455 edayrMePIy. écdnüGVI eBlKat;eTAelgCiHreTHePøIgenAmat;Tenø Kat;)anCYbnwgKhbtI eb
yan mþgeTotEmn. eBleXIj rUbKat; elak eb yan )ansYreTAKat;edaycitþP½yxøacfa
{elakkµÜyGeBa¢Ijmkdl;yUrehIyb¤?} elak v:an;FI tbfa {´eTIbmkdl;GM)aj;mijEdr¡}.
elak eb yan niyaylYgelamKat;fa {eRkay² sUmkµÜykMueFVIGIBa©wgeTotGI ebIsinxVHxatluy
kak;cayGI¡ sUmcUleTAelgpÞH´eTA kMucab;´eTotGI¡ ´P½yxøaMgNas; \LÚv ´hak;dUcCa)an
ekItmþgeTot}. elak v:an;FI )anGHGagfa TaMgrUbKat;pÞal;nwgTaMgrUbelak eb yan BitCaman
karPitP½yerog²xøÜn eBlCYbKñaenaH. elak eb yan P½yxøacmankarcab;xøÜnCMritTarR)ak;eTot
-66-

cMENkelak v:an;FI P½yxøacmaneKbþwgb:UlIscab;rUbKat;. dUecñHehIy eTIbeRkayeBlreTHePøIg
Qb;Pøam BYkKat;TaMgBIrEckpøÚvKña R)as;ykEtGayUserog²xøÜn edaysV½yRbvtþi.
´eCOfa eBlb:UlIs)anrkeXIjm©as;kaMePøIg ehIyGñkmanFM²enAPMñeBj cab;BIeBlenaH
mk EtgEtecjcUldMNak;RTg; cnÞrgSI edIm,IyksMENneTAfVay edIm,IbgáarkMu[mankareFVI)ab
xøÜn edaykarcab;CMrit dUckrNI eb yan TaMgenH suT§swgCaerOgEdlminGaclak;CiteLIy.
emøaHehIy RbEhlCa semþc neratþm sIhnu dwgerOgTaMgGs; CaBiessmuxemexøagkñúgcab;CMrit
enH EtRBHGgÁsEmþgeFVIeBICamindwgb:ueNÑaH. eRBaH vaCakarsmKMnitKñarbs;GtItemExµr\sSr³
CaeRcInRkum dUcCa RTg; cnÞrgSI/ But qay/ nig dabQYn. enHebItamelak va:n;FI sµan.
mü:ageTot krNIBYkGñkman )andwgmuxGñkcab;CMrity:agc,as; EtEbrCaminh‘anbþwgtulakar b¤
semþc sIhnu TMngCamkBIBYkeKeCOfa ebIeTaHbICabþwg k¾KµanGñkNarkyutþiFm’[ edaysar
eKemIleXIjGMBIKMnitRKYsarniym nigbkSBYkniym rbs;GñkdwknaMExµr EdlEtgEtekItmanCa
RbéBNI.
4>5> rdæRbharsøab;kñúgeBaH
elak nI v:an;FI )anGHGagfa edaysarkareqøIytbeTAnwgl,ickl {RBYjmYy)aj;)an
stVBIr} nigBaküPUtkuhkrbs;semþc sIhnu eTIbGtItemRkumExµr\sSr³mYycMnYn manKMnit
erobcMeFVIrdæRbhar Tmøak;RBHGgÁecjBItMENg CabnþbnÞab;. GñkEdlpþÜcepþImKMnitenH muneK
bg¥s; KWRTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI Etmþg Edl)anlblYcerobcMEpnkarenH enAkñúgqñaM1956 eday
mansgÇwmeTAelICMnYysmÖar³swkrbs;Gaemrik.
enAevlayb;cab;BIem:agRbEhl10rhUtdl;em:ag2rMlgGaRFat RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI
rYmdMeNIrCamYy edayelak Ey:m sMbUr GtItnaykrdæm®nþI nigelak esg Tib emb:UlIsCati
)ancUleTAkñúgsßanTUtGaemric edIm,IBiPakSaKñaBIKMeragkarN_eFVIrdæRbhar. eRkayBiPakSaKñaGs;
CaeRcInelIkeRcInsar BYkeK)anseRmcKñafa nwgbBa¢akgT½BexmrPUminÞeLamB½T§vaMgbgçM[semþc
sIhnu cuHecjBItMENg. BYkeK)anRbugeRbobeCIgkarrYcCaeRsc edayrg;caMEtCMnYyrbs;
shrdæGaemrikEtb:ueNÑaH. Cak;Esþg elak nI v:an;FI )anTTYlbBa¢a[eTAlblYceFVIvalynþ
ehaHenAmþúMPñMGagar GanesH kñúgéRBeRCAEk,rtMbn; rlak;kgeCIg nig PñMRBH edIm,ITTYlCMnYyGavuF
smÖar³swk nigluykak;BIkgq½Rteyagrbs;shrdæGaemric.
-67-

enArdUvR)aMgqñaM1955 Caécdnürbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI RTg;)anxJal;nigvayelak h‘ul saEr:n
CaelxapÞal;RTg;. edayehtuekþARkhaynwgRTg;eBk elak h‘ul saEr:n)anrt; eTATUlsemþc
sIhnu GMBIEpnkarGaf’kM)aMgéneRKagkarN_eFVIrdæRbharenHdl;RBHGgÁ. KeRmagkarN_enH
RtUvbraC½ydUcKP’søab;taMgBIenAkñúgeBaH. edaysarP½yxøacBYkGtIt\sSr³déTeTot rYmKMnit
semþc sIhnu )anXat;xøÜnemT½BTaMgGs;enaHmYyry³ rYcehIyRBHGgÁcab;epþImbnßy GMNac
rbs;BYkeK[kan;EtexSayeLIg² edIm,IeCosvagemerondUckrNIRTg; cnÞrgSI eTot.
eTaHbICay:agNa ry³eBl2qñaMeRkaymk elak QYn m¢úleBRC EdlsemþcsIhnu
bnßyecjBIPMñeBj EdlCaGtItrdæm®nþIRksYgmhaépÞ [eTAeFVIesþcRtaj;enAGaNaextþPaK
xageCIg manmUldæanenAesomrab )anpþÜcepþImeFVIrdæRbhardUcKñaenaHEdr. b:uEnþ KeRmagkarN_
rdæRbharrbs;Kat; RtUvEbkkarN_edaysarelxapÞal;rbs;Kat;eQµaHelak skþi5 sux FIm Edl
)anxwgsm,arnwgkarvaydMrbs; dab QYn100 eTIblYcrt;eTATUl semþc sIhnu nUvGaf’kM)aMg
k,t;CatiTaMgb:unµanrbs;Kat;. dMNwgenH rYmCamYydMNwgBIRbPBCaeRcIneTot Edlsemþc sIhnu
)anTTYl eTIbeFVI[rdæRbharrbs; dab QYn eRbob)annwgkUnsøab;enAeBlehobnwgekItBIépÞ
eTAehIy.
tamelak nI v:an;FI fa rdæRbharTaMgBIrenaH suT§swgbraC½y edaykarrg;caMTTYlCMnYy
eyaFaCasm¶at;BIGaemrik EdlmanlkçN³yWty:avdUcKña. RKan;Et dab QYn )anTTYlCMnYy
nighirBaØvtßú RBmTaMgsmÖar³brikçarsMxan;² BIGaemrik)anCaeRcInehIy EtRTg; cnÞrgSI vij
minTan;)anTTYlGVITal;EtesaH. dUecñH eRKagkarN_k,t;EbbenH TMngCamanRbPBmkBIBYk
emExµr\sSr³TaMgenaH Gak;Gn;citþnwgkare)akbeBaäatmYyBRBicEPñk edaysemþc sIhnu elIerOg
smahrNkmµkgT½B nigkarmineRbIR)as;BYkeKCabnþeTot eRkayBIeRbIR)as;cb;enAsnñisIT
hSWENvqñaM1954 CaCagkarlg;xøÜnnwgGnÞak;snüarbs;BYk suI>Gay>eG>(C.I.A.) nigmhicätacg;
kan;cgáÚtRbeTs edayxøÜnÉgpÞal;rbs;GñkTaMgGs;enaH.

100

Norodom Sihanouk, “My War with the CIA.” London, 1973. pp:102-111.

-68-

4>6> yuT§nakarkMcat;Exµr\sSr³
4>6>1> l,icb®gáabrdæRbharKP’

edIm,Ib®gáab KeRmagkarN_rdæRbharrbs;bkSBYkRTg; cnÞrgSIenaH semþc neratþm sIhnu
)anerobcMKeRmagkarN_y:agl¥mYy edIm,IkMcat;RkumExµr\sSr³TaMgGs;Etmþg. RBHGgÁ)aneRbI
R)as;kll,ic {beBaäatemxøaecjBIrUg} edIm,IcUleTAcab;kUnxøa. CadMbUg RBHGgÁ)anbeBaäat
emExµr\sSr³ rYmman RTg; cnÞrgSI elak sav:agvgS [eTAeronyuT§saRsþ enAbNÐitsPaeyaFa
enAéRBnKr. cMENk emT½Brbs;RTg;manelak hwum xan; nigelak cnÞ etaeRts EdleBlenaH
kMBugenAeronkñúgsalabNÐitsPaeyaFaExµrRsab; køayCaxøakñúgRTugrYcCaeRsc. eqøóteBl Edl
fñak;dwknaMrbs;RkumExµr\sSr³minenA semþc sIhnu )ane)assMGatnayTahanrbs;RkumenH.
KYrkt;sMKal;fa eTaHbICa RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI eFVIsmahrNkmµkgT½BCamYyrdæaPi)al
k¾eday k¾RTg;enArkSanayTahanExµr\sSr³rbs;RTg; enAkñúgbnÞayc,armn extþkMBg;s<W dEdl.
edayELk muneBlEdlRTg;yagecjeTATIRkugéRBnKr RTg;)anbgðajkþIRBYy)armÖfa RTg;)armÖ
Nas;¡ karRBYy)armÖenaH KWRTg;)anKitfa RbEhlCa semþc sIhnu RCabBIKeRmagkarN_rdæ
RbharehIy ²karbBa¢ÚnRTg;ecjeRkARbeTs KWCaGnÞak;mYyedIm,IkMcat;BYkRTg;mñak;mþg². dUecñH
ebIRTg;minenAeT KWrwtEtmanbBaða KYr[eKsgS½yEmnETn. tamBiteTA h‘ul saEr:n rt;eTATUl
semþc sIhnu edaymin)annaM ykPsþútagCaÉksareTAmYyeLIy. emø:aHehIy semþc sIhnu
KµanelsGVI nwgcab;eTaskMhusrbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI CacMh)aneT. k¾b:uEnþ muneBl cakecj
BIRbeTs RTg;)anpþaMepJIkUnecAfa sUmkMuxVl;BIRTg;fVI nigpþaMkuM[kUnecATmøak;GavuFcuH[esaH RtUvEt
xitxMRbwgts‘UluHRtadMNk;QamcugeRkay.
eRkaymk sPaBkarN_enAkñúgbnÞaysßitkñúgsPaB s¶at;es¶óm nigRbugRby½tñCab;Canic©
eRkamkarbBa¢arbs;elakemT½BsþITI suxesg erOgmunI. elak nI va:n;FI CamYyPriya rbs;elak
nam suIsuvtßi siT§INat EdlFøab;)anmak;gayelakBIkalmunenaH )annaMKñaeTAsñak;enACaRbcaM
kñúgbnÞayc,armnpgEdr. enAevlayb;mYyRbEhlem:ag1 rMlgGaRFat rUbelak nI v:an;FI )an
PJak;BIdMeNk edayKat; B¤sMelgkgrMBgénrfynþswk nigrfeRkaHrbs;kgeyaFBlexmrPUminÞ
eFVI[Kat;sgS½yfa maneKmkvaybnÞayrbs;Kat;. yUreTA² Kat;lWsMelgkan;EtxøaMgeLIg².
Kat;)anrt;eTAdas;elakemT½BsþITI suxesg erOgmunI edaybnøWfa {elakRKU¡ sPaBkarN_ dUcCa
minRsYleT. eRBaH mansMelgrfeRkaHkMBugtRmg;;mkrkBYkeyIg}. Kat;bEnßmeTotfa {enH
-69-

RbEhlCaBit dUcGVIEdlRTg;cnÞrgSI)an sgS½yEmnehIyemIleTA}. elak suxesg erOgmunI
)aneqøIytb EbbhI vijfa {minGIeT¡ kuMRBYy)armÖ¡ RbEhlCaeKkMBugeFVIyuT§nakare)assMGat
bkSBYkk,t;skþibI s‘ab eT}. edaysareBlenaH kMsYlénkartamRbmaj; skþibI s‘ab Edl)an
cab;BRgt;kUnRkmMurbs;elakvresnIyÉkmñak; enAPMñeBj minTan;cb;enAeLIy. mü:ageTot Kat;
)anlblYcvayRbharbusþ×b:UlIssgáat;CaeRcIn edIm,IdeNþImyksmÖar³swk nigRbmUlsµ½RKbkS
BYkEdlcg;edIrtamKat;.
RBlwmRsag² bnÞayc,armn rbs;RTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI RtUveLamB½T§edayTahanraC
rdæaPi)al GmedayrfeRkaH nigknÞúMruycM)aMg (Helicopter) EdlkMBugehaHEqVlqVat;BIelI.
yuT§nakarenaH bBa¢aedayelak]tþmesnIy sUxaMxUy nigelak eg:a hU‘ pg. bnþicmþg² kg
kmøagM rfeRkaH )anebIksnSwm²cUlekokbnÞay. PøamenaH elak suxesg erOgmunI )anbBa¢a [
ebIkXøaMgGavuFEckTahankan;RKb;²éd ehIyerobcMtRmg;kaNugkaMePøgI FMkgúñ bnÞaysMedArfeRkaH
edIm,IeRtom)aj;RbhartTl;Kña. eBlRBwkemIleXIjKñac,as; rfeRkaHCMrulcUlkan;Etekok
elak suxesg erOgmunI )anERskKMramfa {kMucUlmkeTot¡ ebIBMudUcecñaHeT BYkeyIgnwg
)aj;kMeTc\LÚvehIy}. eXIjsPaBkarN_dUecñaH xagkgexmrPUminÞ )anebIkKRmb;rfeRkaH
edIm,IbeBa©jelakemT½Brgrbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI TaMgBIrrUb KWelak hwum xan; nigelak can;
etaeRts. GñkTaMgBIrenH RtUveKP¢g;TaMgCab;cMNg edIm,IKMramBlTahanenAkñúgbnÞayc,armn
dak;GavuFcuH. BYkeK)anKMramfa ebIBuMdUcecñaHeT BYkeKnwgsmøab;emT½BTaMgBIrenaHecalehIy.
BYkeK)ankMejIjbEnßmeTotfa {GñkTaMgGs;Kña RtUvdak;GavuFcuH eRBaHRBHkruNasemþc neratþm
sIhnu RTg;)anbBa¢a[mk ebIBYkGñkTaMgGs;Kñamindak;GavuFcuH ehIycg;téd mann½yfa BYkGñk
TaMgGs;RbqaMgnwgRBHkruNaCIvittMkl;elIt,ÚgehIy}.
elak nI v:an;FI fa eBlenaH BYkKat;minRBmdak;GavuFcuHeLIy. EtkgexmrPUminÞ )an
KMramkan;EtxøaMgeLIg². emT½BrgTaMgBIr EdlCacMNab;xµaMgenaH ERskRTehayM GgVrnig)an
ERskBnül;elakemT½BsþITI suxesg erOgmunI fa {eyIgminGacTb;Tl;eK)aneT. eRBaHeKman
KñaeRcInNas; RBmCamYyGavuFFunF¶n;pg. ebIBYkeyIg enAEtcecs muxCaRtUvsøab; TaMgGs;Kña
CaGsarbgminxaneLIy}. edayyl;eXIjfa karBnül;rbs;emT½BTaMgBIr smehtupl elak
suxesg erOgmunI )anbBa¢akUnTahandak;GavuFcuH.
-70-

TIbBa©b; kgexmrPUminÞGaccUlcab;kUnT½Brbs;RTg;cnÞrgSI)any:aggayRsYl. BYkeK
)andkhUtykGavuF nigcab;kUnTahanTaMgGs;ykdak;kñúgLandwkykeTAdak;kñúgbBa¢akardæan
enAEbkcan. ÉemTahan nignayTahanRtUveKykeTAXuMenAGKÁesnaFikar. EteTaHCay:ag
Na manmnusSbInak; )aneKcputBIkarcab;cgenaH. BYkeK KWelak nI v:an;FI nigPriya rYmCamYy
elak eb:g suIcan; EdlCamnusSCMnitmñak;eTot rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI. eRBaH BYkKat;)anlak;xøÜn
kñúgGNþÚgTwk rhUtdl;cb;kare)assMGatenH. b:uEnþ BYkKat;enAEtminRtUveKbMePøc)aneLIy.
eRBaHeK)anEqkbBa¢IeXIjfa )at;mnusSCMnitBIrnak;rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI nig CasakSI y:agsMxan;
EdlGaccg¥úlbgðajBIkMhusrbs; RTg; cnÞrgSI kñúgkarlblYcerobcMKeRmagkarN_ rdæRbhar.
rdæaPi)alRBHGgÁ )anecjRbkastamcab;rUbelak nI va:n;FI taMgBIeBlenaHmk.
cMeBaHRTg; neratþm cnÞrgSI RtUv)aneKekaHehARtLb;mkvij ehIyRtUv)aneKP¢g;cab;xøÜn
BIRBlanynþehaH ykeTAXuMkñúgpÞHmYyTl;muxkEnøgXMuxøÜnnayTahanrbs;RTg;. raCrdæaPi)al
)anecaTRkumExµr\sSr³rbs;RTg;fa )anerobcMKeRmagkarN_eFVIrdæRbharTmøak;høÜg. kUnecAepSg
eTotrbs;RTg;eqøIyfa mindwgerOgeT sUmsYrRTg;pÞal;RBHGgÁ b¤ elak nI v:an;FIeTA. eRBaH BYkeK
dwgfa elak nI va:n;FI eKcxøÜn)at;eTAehIy. dUecñHehIy eBlEdlRTg; cnÞrgSI eqøIybdiesFn_Edr
kan;EteFVI[raCrdæaPi)al semþc neratþm sIhnu rwtEtbEnßmkaryaml,at tamEsVgrk cab;xøÜn
elak nI v:an;FI RKb;Rcklðk.
4>6>2> karePosxøÜneTARsukyYnxagt,Úg

Gs;ry³eBlmYys)þah_ elak nI v:an;FI )aneKcxøÜneTABYnkñúgbwgkMe)øakenAsÞwgmanC½y
EdlCakEnøgkMeNItrbs;mataRTg; cnÞrgSI kñúgPUmiRtBaMg. Kat;RtUvedklak;xøÜn enAEk,rm:ug
exµaccin. sMNagl¥ Kat;RtUv)anbgb¥ÚnFm’rbs;elak eQµaH eb:g sIucan; yk)ay[hUbBI
dMNak;GñkGgÁm©as; tU . rYceRkaymk Kat;cUleTAlak;xøÜnkñúgdMNak;enaHEtmþg. GñkGgÁm©as; tU
)anCYylak;bMBYnKat; eRBaH xøacEbkkarN_sm¶at; naM[maneRKaHfñak;dl;buRtrbs;RTg;Edr KW
neratþm cnÞrgSI. GñkGgÁm©as;tU nigGñkGgÁm©as; suIsuvtiþ vDÆqay:avgS101 manbMNgeFVIlixit
101

GñkGgÁm©as; suIsuvtßi vDÆqay:avgS EdlCaRBHraménRBHmhakSRtiyanI suIsuvtiþ kusum³narIrtñ ¬RBHmataTIéT¦
KWCaRbFanRkumRbwkSaraCblø½gá nigRtUvCabitaekµkrbs;elak nI v:an;FI.

-71-

qøgEdn[Kat; edIm,IePosxøÜneTARsukéf EtRtUv xkxanmin)aneFVIeTAvij edayxøacb:UlIscab;
eBlftrUb edIm,IbMeBjsMNMuEbbbT. dUecñH Kat;RtUvseRmccitþrt;ePosxøÜneTAkan;RsukyYn.
muneBlrt;eTARsukyYn elak nI v:an;FI )anTTYlLanmYyeRKOgBIbitaekµkEdlmanpøak
elx r>v¬raCvaMg¦ nigkaMePøIgGaka1edIm kaMePøIgkar:ab‘Ínbt;1edIm ÉRbBn§Kat;EdlrYmdMeNIreTA
CamYykan;kaMePøIgxøImYyedImEdr. Kat;cab;epþImecjdMeNIrtambwgTMBun tRmg;;eTAk,alfñl;.
enATIenaH manb:usþ×yammYYy EdlmanGgÁm©as; suIsuvtßi kusur³ ehAeRkA{fag}CaembBa¢akar.
b:UlIs)anbk;éd[LanKat;cUltaMgBIcm¶ay. Kat;P½ybukeBaH ehIynwkkñúgcitþfa ebIsinb:UlIs
ebIkTVarEqkeqrLanKat; ²nwg)aj;b:UlIsEqkeqrEdlGgÁúyelIm:UtUenaHecal edIm,Irt;eKsxøÜn
ehIy. Kat;Rbug)aj;rH[Gs;mYybg;Edlman30RKab;. EteBlmkdl; b:UlIs)an[LanenaH
bnþdMeNIreTAmuxeTot. eRBaH BYkeKeXIjmanpøakelxr>v. Kat;eRtkGr dUc)anekItmþgeTot
GIcwg ehIybEnßmel,ÓnLanEfmeTot.
eRkayeBlqøgputkMBg;cmøgGñkelOgbnþic maneKraykarN_[sÞak;cab;Lanpøakelx
r>v EdlKat;kMBugCiH. Kat; )anbEnßmel,ÓnsMedAeTARckck edaymineTAtamRck)aviteT
edIm,IecosvagkuM[eKsÞak;cab;)an. Kat;bnþeTAq¶ayrhUtdl;eXIjman GñkERsBak;dYn eTIbKat;
dwgxøÜnfa BYkKat;mkdl;RsukyYnehIy. Kat;)annaMKñacuHedIr enAtMbn;RtaMg)anEdlCatMbn;man
CnCatiExµrCaeRcIn kMBugrs;enA nigRbkbrbrCaGñkCYjdUr eKaRkbI. Kat; k¾sMerccitþQb;sMct
enATIenaH. eBléf¶Rtg; Kat;)ancUlhUb)ay nigCYbyYneyokmiijmñak;eQµaH G‘ug faj;. G‘ug
faj; ecHEtsMlwgemIlmuxKat; ehIysYrKat;fa {bgÉgeQµaHFIb¤? bgÉgePøc´ehIyGðI?
´eQµaH G‘ug faj; EdlFøab;cuHsmrPUmivayxµaMgCamYyKña}.102 Kat;saksYrsuxTukçKña eTAvij
eTAmk ehIyeRkayBIelak nI v:an;FI R)ab;BIdMeNIrerOgKat;rt;ePosxøÜn G‘ug faj; enaH )annaM
Kat; eTAsñak;enAkñúgpÞHtUcmYy EdlmanCBa¢aMgbUkdI\dæ nigcMebIg enAkñúgcMkarekAs‘UmYy.
bnÞab;BIcMNayluyGs;TaMg10muWn EdlkñúgenaH5mWunRtUv)anKat; RbKl;eTA[ G‘ug
faj;sRmab; eFVIdMeNIreTARbCuM. Kat;TaMgBIrnak; bþIRbBn§RtUvRbQmmuxnwgkarcMNayCaeRcIn.
RbBn§Kat;)anFøak;xøÜnmanCMgW ehIy)anBwg[elak eb:g suIcan; RtLb;mkRkugPñMeBjvij edIm,I
102

CakarBit BYkeKFøab;)anrYmshkarKñaeTAvay)araMgmuneBlTMnak;TMngrvagRkumeKmanPaBregÁaHregÁI edaysarkar
Pñal;Kña)aj;Tg;sMKal;enAmuxbnÞayrbs;Exµr\sSr³énRTg;cnÞrgSI.

-72-

suMluyenAdMNak; GñkGgÁm©as; tU ykeTAemIlCMgW nigeFVICaedImTunrksuI. elak nI v:an;FI EtgEt
ecjeRkAErkTwkeRsacdMNaM ehIyKat;EtgsegáteXIjmanmnusSesøóksarug kan;ExSeKaedIr
RkEvlpÞH EdlKat;kMBugsñak;enA. Kat;min)ansgS½yeT eRBaHnwksµanfa BYkeKCaGñkCYjeKa
RkbI. tamBit enaHCaPñak;garrbs;rdæaPi)altamcab;xøÜnKat;esaH.
edayehtufa eBlelak suIcan; mkdl;dMNak;m©as; tU enaH eXIjmanb:UlIseRcIn eLam
B½T§dMNak; edIm,Irkcab;xøÜnelak nI v:an;FI. écdnüGaRkk; manTahanmñak; eQµaH can;fn )an
RkeLkeXIjKat; ehIyk¾raykarN_R)ab;KñaeK [cab;Kat;sYrcemøIy. eK)ansYrKat;BIkEnøg
lak;xøÜnrbs;elak v:an;FI Etelak suIcan; eqøIyfa Kat;mindwgeT. b:UlIs)aneFVITaruNkmµ Kat;
sYrcemøIy rhUtdl;Kat;RTaMmin)an k¾R)ab;karBiteTA. raCrdæaPi)al semþc sIhnu )ansuM
GnuBaØatBIelak eg:a Dijeyom RbFanaFibtIénrdæaPi)alevotNamxagt,Úg edIm,IcUlevotNam
xagt,Úg tamcab;xøÜn elak nI v:an;FI. elak eg:a Dijeyom )anyl;RBm nig)anbBa¢ÚnTahan
mYykgmkCYykarBarenAtMbn;Rtag)an. eRBaHTIenaH CatMbn;rbs;BYkv:ahar EdlkMBugeFVI
skmµPaBRbqaMgnwgrdæaPi)alevotNamxagt,Úg.
cMeBlEdlelak nI v:an;FI kMBugeRsacdMNaMdUcsBVmYydg elak sam:n dar:a EdlCa
embBa¢akareb:GwmelIépÞRbeTs )anedIrtRmg;mkKat; ehIysYrfa {etIGñkGgÁm©as;¬Priyarbs;
Kat;¦enAÉNa?} Kat;eqøIytbvijfa {etIelakrknagmankarGVIEdr?} elak sam:n dar:a )antb
fa {matarbs;RTg;[tamsYrrk edayepJITaMgsMbuRtmYyc,ab;mkCamYy EdlpþaM[ehARTg; yag
RtLb;cUlRsukvij kuMenATIenHeTotGI naM[eKm:ak;gaydl;RkumraCvgSanuvgS}. elak v:an;FI )an
cg¥úleTArkxÞmEdlPriyaKat;kMBugsRmak edayniyayfa {nagkMBugmanCMgW}. eBlKat;gak
eTAmçageTot k¾eXIj elak eb:g suIcan; manTwkmuxs¶Üt edayRtUveKcab;beNþIrmkpg eTIbdwg
xøÜnÉgfa BYkKat;RtUv)aneKeLamB½T§CuMCitGs;ehIy ebIBuMdUcecñaHeT emøHelakvaysMrukecjBIkar
tamcab;xøÜnenHehIy. TIbMput Kat;RtUveKcab;bBa¢ÚnmkRsukExµrvij edayeFVIdMeNIrtamrfynþ
Lg;r:UEvr nigeqogcUlsalaextþRtag)anbnþicsin. enATIenH manGñkkaEstCaeRcInmkecam
eramftrUbBYkKat;.

-73-

4>6>3> karCab;eTas]Rkwdæ

mkdl;RkugPñMeBj Kat;RtUv)aneKbBa¢ÚncUlKukEk,rFnaKarRkhm. edayeyageTAtam
karecaTBIshkarIrbs;Kat; faKat;CaGñkenAEk,rRTg; cnÞrgSI ehIyGacdwgKeRmagkarN_rdæ
RbharTmøak;høÜg. eRkaymk eKbBa¢ÚnKat;eTAdak;KukeyaFaenAbnÞayEqá EdlCaTIkEnøgtRmUv
[eFVIkarF¶n;². enAmnÞIrXuMXaMgenAGKÁesnaFikar RTg; cnÞrgSI )anesñI[eK ykKat;eTAXuMXaMg
enAKuksuIvil.103 eRBaHTIenH eKmintRmUv[GñkeTaseFVIkareTasF¶n;eLIy. enAéf¶mYy tulakarswk
)anekaHehAKat;eTAsYrcemøIy. eK)ansYrKat;fa {etIRTg; cnÞrgSI mankarTak;Tgnwg Gaemrik
TTYlGavuFeFVIrdæRbharTmøak;høÜgEdrb¤eT?} elak v:an;FI eqøIyedaHsarfa Kat;mindwgeT eRBaH
Kat;CamnusSmantYnaTItUctac. edayxøacEbkkarN_ mataRTg; cnÞrgSI )anBwg[mehsIRTg;
CYyyk)ay[elak nI v:an;FI Bisa nigeqøót»kasGgVrKat;[sarPaBTTYlkMhusCYsRTg;
cnÞrgSI edayln;tYfa KWmanEtrUbelakmYyKt; EdlGacCYyRTg; cnÞrgSI )an. RTg;)ansnüa fa
nwgCYyrkemFavIBUEk² [CYybþwg]T§rN_vij ERkg)anrYceTasTaMgGs;Kña.
edayesµaHRtg;nwgRTg;eBk elak v:an;FI k¾RBmTTYlkMhusCYs ehIysarPaBenAmux
tulakar Edlmansemþc sIhnu CaRbFanKN³vinic½äyeTasfa {RTg; cnÞrgSI min)andwgGVIeT.
eRBaHRTg;kMBugenAeronÉsalabNÐiteyaFa)araMg. tamBitrUb´eT CaGñklYclak;Tak;Tgshrdæ
Gaemric edIm,ITTYlCMnYyeFVIrdæRbhar}. semþc sIhnu )anbBa¢a[Priya elak v:an;FI EdlCa
bgb¥ÚnCIdUnmYyrbs;RBHGgÁ eTAbBa©úHbBa©ÚlelakcMnYnBIr-bIdg fa [Kat;sarPaBRtg;eTA min
)ac;ykxøÜnrgeTasCMnYseKeT. mü:ageTot RBHGgÁmineCOeTfa elak v:an;FI EdlBak;Rtwm skþi1
mansmtßPaBGaceFVIerOgdUcecñaH)aneLIy. enAmuxRBHbrmraCvaMg tulakarswk Edlh‘¿uB½T§
edayrdæBasEdk nigrfeRkaHCaeRcIneRKOg Kat;enAEtTTYlkMhusdEdl EdlCaehtueFVI[
semþc sIhnu kan;EtxJal;CaxøaMg. emø:aHehIy RBHGgÁseRmcdak;eTasKat;[Cab;Bn§naKar dl;
eTA15qñaM nigbgçM[eFVIkarCaTm¶n;. cMENkRTg; cnÞrgSI RtUv XMuxøÜnmYyry³ nigbks½kþi[eFVICa
RbCara®sþsamBaØ.

103

naeBlenaHvak¾RtUv)aneKsÁal;faCa {KukExµr} EdleRkaymkkøayCa KuketbI-T3 ehIy\LÚvRtUveKlk;[
Rkumh‘unÉkCnmYyvij.

-74-

ebItamsmþI elak v:an;FI fa tamBit semþcsIhnucg;kMcat;RkumExµr\sSr³ CaBiess
RBHGgÁ TMngCacg;kac;FµúgkSRtswkd¾køahansm½yTMenIb EdlRtUvCamaCIdUnmYy ÉeNaHeT Et
EbrCaKat;rgeTasCMnYsdUecñaHeTA. minRtwmb:ueNÑaH RBHGgÁ EfmTaMgcarRBHlixitCaGkSrBN’
Rkhmfa Kat; {CaGñkeTaseRKaHfñak;} ehIy[eKXuMXaMgkñúgKukRTugxøa enAKuket3 enAxaglic
Cab;vtþ]NÑaelam CamYyemkMBUlecarFM ehA tasar:U Edlk,alkat;sk;ExVgsBaØapáay mkBI
CayEdn¬éRBEvg¦ nigtacin CaedIm.
RKan;EtcUldl;kñúgKukPøam tasarU emecarTl;Edn ERsksYrTNÐit v:an;FI fa {En¡Gal¥it
ÉgmaneTasGVI )anCamkdl;TIenH? ÉgdwgeTfa Gñkmkdl;TIenH Kµanéf¶ecjrYc eTACYbRbBn§
kUneTvuWy¡}. eBlB¤dUecñaH Kat;P½yERskyMEtmþg edayGs;sgÇwmkñúgcitþfa xøÜnKat;mþgenH
BitCacb;ehIy minGacCYbRbBn§)aneT. RbEhlCabIéf¶eRkaymk mataRTg; cnÞrgSI )anCYy
rkemFavI)araMg yYn nigExµr EdlmanCMnajBUEk²mkbþwgtv:a. eBl)anB¤dMNwgenH TaMgrUbelak
Kat; nigTaMgPriyaKat; mankarrIkrayCaxøaMg edaysgÇwmfa BitCaQñHkþI nigecjBIKukggwt
CaBMuxan. Priyarbs;elak )anerobcMmðÚbGaharQ¶úyq¶aj; exaGavfµI²sRmab;Kat;ykeTApÞH.
b:uEnþ bBaðaminsßitelIfa etIemFavIBUEk b¤ minBUEkÉNa KWsßitelIsemþc sIhnu EdlGac
elIkElgeTas b¤k¾minelIkElgEtb:ueNÑaH. karBüayamtva:erOgkþIenH edayRKYsarRTg; cnÞrgSI
kan;EteFVI[semþc n> sIhnu xJal;xøaMgEfmeTot cugbMput RBHGgÁ)anbEnßmeTas[Kat; Cab;Kuk
Efm5qñaMeTot srubTaMgeTasfµI nigcas; KW20qñaMkñúgKuk. naeBlenaH Kat;)anKitfa CivitKat;
kan;EtGs;sgÇwmxøaMgEfmeTot Gaharq¶aj; nigexaGavfµIEdlPriyabRmuugTuk[ k¾min)anhUb
nigesøókBak;Edr. cMENk ÉPriyaKat; RtUvsemþc sIhnu bMEbk[eTArs;enARsuk)araMgy:agyUr
edIm,IeFVI[nagrsaycitþBIKat;.
4>6>4> rYcBIKukmunkMNt;salRkm

enAkñúgKuk BIdMbUg CIvitrbs;elak nI v:an;FI hak;bIdUcCamankarlM)akxøaMgNas; Et
bnÞab;mkERbCamanPaBgayRsYleLIgvijbnþicmþg² edaysarCMnajeTBekaslürbs;Kat;.
enAkñúgKuk Kat;EtgEt BüayameFVIkarCaerogrhUt EdlbNþal[emKukeBjcitþnwgkar]sSah_
BüayamenaH. CaFmµtam®nþIraCkarxagBn§naKar EtgEteRbIGñkeTas[eFVIkargarepSg². eRBaH
BYkeK ekgykcMeNjelIkmøaMgBlkmµrbs;GñkeTas edaysarCakargarBuMcaM)ac;bg;luy.
-75-

Ca]TahrN_ BYkeK)anehA[Kat;eTAKUsbøg;dMNak;bwgykSeLam pÞHKUlug¬Colon¦104 nig
pÞHemm:ay.
tamBit semþc neratþm sIhnu )ancat;ebskCnrbs;RBHGgÁmñak;KW Ék]tþm Gwug vgSa
rdæm®nþIénRksYgmYyrbs;rdæaPi)alRBHGgÁ[cat;Ecgkarsagsg;pÞHTaMgenaH. edIm,I)anfvikar
xøHsRmab;dak;cUlkñúgehae):AxøÜn Kat;)aneTAniyayKñaCamYycaghVagKuk rkBwgkmøaMgTNÐiteFVI
kic©karsagsg;sMNg;xagedIm. KµanTNÐitNamñak; mansñaédl¥GacykeTAeRbI)aneLIy.
dUcecñH BYkeK RtUvlYclak;ykGñkeTasneya)ay nI v:an;FI ykeTA[eFVIkic©karCaeRcIn. bu:Enþ
skmµPaBTaMgenaH RtUveFVIeLIgedaysMgat;. CYnkal Kat;RtUvesøókBak; CaCnsuIvilFmµtaedIr
KUsbøg; b¤ GKarsMNg;epSg². elIsBIenHeTot enAkñúgeBleKerobcMBiB½rN_sgÁmra®sþniym
qñaM1963 emKuk)an[Kat;qøak;GkSr nigk,ac;rcnaepSg². yUr²eTA Kat;RtUv)anemKuk[eFVICa
GñkRtYt BinitüGñkeTas nigCYnkaleFVI CaGñklk;vtßúhtßkmµ EdlGñkeTaseFVI)anpgEdr.
karecHPJak;rlwk ksagxøÜneLIgvijrbs; TNÐit nI v:an;FI )anCYy[Kat;qab;ecjBITukç
eTasenH. manktþaepSgeTot EdlKat;Kitfa)anCYyCMruj[Kat;puteTas. TImYy KW «Bukrbs;
Kat; PavnI )ancUleTABwg[elak jwk CULúg [CYysMraleTas. elak jwk CULúg Føab;RtUv)an
CItarbs;elak v:an;FI eQµaH daM sn CYyciBa©wmTMnukbMrug[eronsURt dUcecñHehIy Kat;enAman
snþancitþGanit elak v:an;FI . m:üageTot enAkalBIéf¶TI03 Exemsa qñaM1960 TMgn;eTas
rbs;Kat;RtUv)aneKsMral)anbnþicEdr edaysar RBH)aT suraRmit RTg;cUlTIvgÁt; eRBaHtam
TMenomTmøab; eKEtgelIkElg b¤sMraleTasdl;TNÐitEdlecHPJak;rlwk ksagxøÜneLIgvij
eBlmanRBHmhakSRtcUlTIvgÁt;. TIbMput enAqñaM1964 eK)anedaHElgrUbelak nI v:an;FI
ecjBIKukmunkMNt;salRkm.
edaysareXIjTwkcitþesµaHsrbs;Kat; semþc sIhnu )anekaHehAKat; [eFVIkarkñúgvaMg
EtKat;lYcxwgnwgRBHGgÁ Edlcab;Kat;dak;Kuk eTIbrUbKat; RbEkkminRBmTTYl. eqøIytbnwgkar
bdiesFenH eKtRmUv[Kat;nireTsxøÜneTAq¶ay ehIymin[cUlRbLÚkkñúgerOgneya)ayeTot
eT. ehtuenHehIy eTIbKat;)ansMerccitþBencreTAbréb:lin.
(Y)
104

pÞHKUlug KWCapÞHEdlsemþc neratþm sIhnu cat;[eKsagsg;enAextþrtn³KIrI sRmab;m®nþIcUlnivtþn_. É®sþI
emm:ayRkxSt;xøHk¾RtUv)aneKCYYysagsg;[pgEdr.

-76-

CMBUkTI 5 ³ esckþIsnñidæan
eRkayBI)ansikSaEsVgyl;BICIvitts‘Urbs;elak nI v:an;FI kñúgCIvPaBCaExµr\sSr³CaeRcIn
Rkum nigdMeNIrBak;B½n§CayuT§ikCnrbs;Gñkneya)ay sr[eXIjfa kñúgclnaExµr\sSr³ man
CnesñhaCatiBIrRbePT KWCnesñhaCatiBitR)akd nigCn»kasniiym. b:uEnþ clna\sSr³TaMg
Gs; suT§swgCa ecarcab;CMrit EdleRbIEtkll,icTmøak;kMhusdak;Kña EdlCaehtueFVI[RbCaCn
ExµrenAtamCnbT mankarP½yxøac nigcMGkLkLWydak;BIeRkayxñgfaCa{\sSer:acak;}. eK)an
eRbIvaküs½BÞd¾KYrsmmYy KWBaküfasuM{viPaKTan}sRmab;CYyclnats‘U. BaküenHmann½yesµInwg
Bakü{bc©½y} b¤ {Bn§} EdlBYkeK)ankMNt;cMnYnedIm,ITarBIRbCaCn edIm,Its‘UdeNþImÉkraCü.
elIsenHeTot eK)anbegáItKRmUGaRkk;mYy sRmab;dMeNaHRsaybBaðakgVHhirBaØvtßúkñúg
karpÁt;pÁg;kgT½Bedaykarcab;CMritTarR)ak;BIBYkGñkmanluyeRcIn. emeronenH eFVI[eKnwkeXIj
faetIGMeBIcab;CMritBYkGñkmanluyeRcInenAPMñeBjsBVéf¶ KWCaviFankarN_edaHRsaykgVHxatfvika
pÁt;pÁg;kUnecArbs;nayTahanFM²Edr b¤y:agNa?
tamBt’manxagelI smasPaBEdl)ancUlRbLÚkkñúgclna\sSr³ KWcab;epþImecjBIBYk
eGlItEdlCaGPiCn nigbBaØvnþ/ GñkTTYlrgkarQWcab;/ BYkGtItecar nigmnusSEdleCOtam
BaküeXasna. karts‘URbqaMgrbbGaNaniKm)araMgrbs;RbCara®sþExµr enATsvtSr_qñaM1940
nigedIm1950 minEmnekIteLIgBIkMhwgqabeqHsen§arsen§A nigkarPJak;rBJkrbs;mhaCnTUeTA
edaykaremIIleXIjdUc²Kñafa )araMgkMBugCiHCan; ekgRbv½Ba©plRbeyaCn_BIExµrenaHeT. eday
RbEhlCaRbCara®sþExµrPaKeRcInelIslb;bMput CamnusSl¶g;exøA minyl;GMBIGVI EdlehAfa
{ÉkraCü} dUc RkumbBaØvnþ nigGPiCnmYycMnYntUc EdlenAtamTIRkug nigtMbn;RbCMuCnFMeLIy.
sUm,IEtbBaØtiþ {Catinyi m} k¾BkY RkumeGlItTaMgenaHPaKeRcInelIslb; minTan;TaMgyl;eTotpg.
krNIelak va:n;FI Edl)ancUleFVIkar[Exµr\sSr³ taMgBIkumarPaB GayueTIbEt)an 13qñaM
RtUvbBa¢ak;fa mkBIKat;manGarmµN_ecHQWcab; eRkayeBl«Bukmarbs;Kat;RtUv)an)araMgsmøab;
enAéf¶TI 8 ExsIha qñaM1946 elIsmrPUmiRkugesomrab ehIybnÞab;mk Kat;RtUv)anhVÚgmhaCn
enAelITwkdIkMeNItextþ)at;dMbgCYydutkMhwg[Kat;pugxøÜncUleTAkñúgclnaenH TaMgminTan;yl;
nigRbEhlCaedaysar Kat;CaekµgkMRBapg eTIbkan;Etlg;cUleRCA Edlbnþicmþg² køayCaman
-77-

TwkcitþesñhaCati nigqnÞ³køahan esµaHsµ½RKcMeBaHecAhVaynay KYr[ekatsresIr nigcat;Ca
KRmUl¥mYy.
bTBiesaFn_CIvitts‘UPaKdMbUgrbs;elak va:n;FIenH BitCabgðaj[eXIjBIPaBQøasév
rbs; semþc sIhnu kñúgkarrMlayclnats‘UExµr\sSr³ EdleBareBjedayerOgGaRsUv nigeFVIkMu
[evotNamseRmcEpnkarmhicätabegIátExSry³ nigGMNacrbs;xøÜnenAkm<úCa)an kñúgdMNak;
kalts‘UTamTarÉkraCüCatierog²xøÜnBI)araMg. sMxan;CagenHeTot vaCaemeronl¥mYy Edl
bgðajBIkll,ickñúgbBaðasmahrNkmµkgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuFBIPaKIFøab;bdibkSnwgKña mkcUlkñúg
kmøaMgsrubmYy b¤ kgexmrPUminÞEtmYy. KRmUdMeNaHRsayd¾l¥ kalBIedImTsvtSr_ 1950
RtUv)anKNbkSneya)aymYy enAkm<úCa ykmkeRbICabnþeTot kñúgkaredaHRsayCemøaHRbdab;
GavuF nigEpnkarsmahrNkmµkgT½BénbkSepSg²Kña naeBlknøgeTAfµI²enH.
CalT§plénkarbUCakmøagM kaycitGþ ayuCvI ti pÞal; elak nI v:an;FI )ansikSaeronsURtBIbT
BiesaFn_CvI ti Ebøk²CaeRcIn. Kat;man»kasGnuvtþngi eRbIR)as;nvU mt’krbs;Kat;sRmab;Cati. Kat;
)anyl;dgw
nigsÁal;rsCatits‘dU C¾ rU ct;BrI bbmYyeTArbbmYyfµrI bs;RbeTsExµrEdl)anpøas;brÚþ Ca
jwkjab;enaH. karenH)aneFV[I Kat;mancritcas;TMu smCaGñkdwknaMdm¾ anPaBbuni Rbsb; Edl
RbkbeTAedayPaBGt;Ftµ ; mugw m:at; EtsøtÚ bUt. GtþcrwtmYyeTotEdlmnusSRKb;rbU KYrsikSatam
KMreU naHKWkarmansnþancitlþ e¥ cHCYyuY TukFç ru ³kUnecA ¬kUnT½B¦ nigGñkEk,rxageTotpg.
tamry³karbn§rÚ bnßyeTasBICab;Kku 20qñaM mkRtwm 8qñarM bs;elak nI va:nF; I nigkar
BüayamehAKat;[cUleFVIkarkñgú RBHbrmraCvaMgvij bBa¢ak;[eXIjfa semþc sIhnu BitCaman
RBHraChbJT½yRsLaj; nigseNþascMeBaHmnusS EdlmanTwkcitsþ aV mIPkþcI eM BaHecAhVaynay
rbs;xnÜø . ebIBeuM naHeT elak va:nF; I RbEhlCaRtUvsøab;enAkñgú Kukminxan. eTaHbIemKukeBjcitþrbU
Kat;ya: gNa k¾mni Gacbn§rÚ bnßyeTas b¤seRmcedaHElgKat; [manesrIPaBvij)anEdr. Et
ehtuplenH RbEhlCaelak nI v:an;FI xønÜ Kat;mni )annwkeXIjeLIy. RbsinebI eKsakl,g
eRbobeFobeTassmKMnti KiteFVrI dæRbhar EdlCaeTas]Rkidæ CamYynwgeTastbtmat;CamYy
RkmurM aCvgSmñak; EdlRtUvbBa¢nÚ eTAdak;Kku edayKµanCMnCuM RmH etIeKGacBicarNa)anfa kñgú cMeNam
lkçN³sm,tþi nigstism,C¢Baس rbs;kSRtTaMgBIrGgÁ KW semþc sIhnu nig cnÞrgSI etImyY GgÁNa
-78-

mansuPvinci y½ä CageK? mü:ageTot erOgr:avTaMgLayenaH bgðaj[eXIjGMB\I T§Bi l nigGMNacd¾
xøaMgkøa minGacb:HBal;enAeLIyrbs;raCvgSanuvgSenAkñgú Epñkneya)ay nigsgÁmExµrnasm½yenaH.
clnats‘\U sSr³dwknaM[eday RTg; cnÞrgSI Edlelak nI va:nF; I esµaHsµR½ K sVamIPkþCI amYy
BitCa)aneFVsI kmµPaBviCm¢ anCaeRcIn ebITukCa)aneRbImeFüa)aycab;CrM ti GñkRsuk ykR)ak;ptÁ p; gÁ ;
BlTahank¾eday. BYkeKsuxcitþcuHcUlCamYyraCrdæaPi)alTan;eBlevla edIm,IbuBVehtuÉkPaB
Cati. RkumenHmantMbn;mlU dæankan;kab;RtwmRtUv nigmankics© hkarl¥CamYyGñkRsuk. man
mnusScas;²CaeRcInnak; EdlCayuvv½yCMnan;enaH ekatsresIrBIvni ½y nigkarRKb;RKgBlTahan
rbs;RTg; cnÞrgSI edayBYkeKrknwkkMhsu qÁgrbs;RTg;mni eXIjTal;EtesaH. RkumenH EtgEt
RbyuT§RbqaMgCamYy)araMg EdleFV[I BYkTahan)araMg nigExµrniym)araMg P½yelaHRBlwgCajwk
jab; enAkñgú extþkBM g;sW< nigekaHkug. ebIeKsakl,g eRbobeFobCamYyRkum But qayvij
eXIjfa RKan;ebICagq¶ayNas;. eRBaHBut qay minGacykcitRþ bCara®sþ)an eTIbminGacTuk
citGþ kñ Rsuk)an ehIyEtgEtcl½tTItaMgrbs;xnÜø minQb;Qr Caerogral;éf¶ nigral;eBl.
elaknI v:an;FI )ansarPaBxønÜ Égfa Kat;RtUv)aneKe)akR)as;eRbICaeRcInelIkeRcInRKa
edaysareKykpøakbdafa {edIm,IbBu eV htuCati}. RbEhl Kat;CamnusSmñak; EdlRslaj;kar
ts‘U edIm,IbuBVehtuCatimatuPUmiehIy eTIbgayrgeRKaHedaysarpøakbdamYyenH. mþgehIymþg
eTot Kat;RtUveKe)akR)as;TajykmkeRbI edIm,ImhicätapÞal;xøÜnénbuKÁlGatµaniym. dUcenH
KYrEt eyIgTaMgGs;KñaecHRbugRby½tñCab;Canic© kñúgkarTTYleCOBakürbs;nrNamñak; Edlfa eFVI
EbbenH b¤ EbbenaH {edIm,IbuBVehtuCati} drabNa xøÜnminTan;yl;c,as; nigBicarNarkeXIj
GMBIpll¥ nigplGaRkk; énTegVI b¤ skmµPaBTaMgenaH.
etIeBlNaeTA eTIbGñkneya)ayExµr h‘ane)aHCMhanecjBIKRmUGaRkk;RcMEdl² én
Rbvtþisa®sþrbs;xøÜn nigcab;ykKRmUfµI EbbeCOnelOn tmøaPaB nig karTukcitþKña)an?

-79-

KMnitKYrBicarNa
1- eday)anelssþIBIkarKMramkMEhgrbs;Exµr\sSr³ semþc RBHneratþm sIhnu)anyk
ehtuplenH edIm,IcrcarCamYy)araMgTamTar{ÉkraCüPaBeBjbribUrN_}. eFVIdUcenH)an
KWmann½yfa RBHGgÁGacTb;Tl;raraMgkuM[RbCaRbiyPaBrbs;clnaExµr\sSr³ekIneLIg
kñúgcMeNamRbCaBlrdæExµr. RTg;GHGagfa RbCaBlrdæExµrKaMRTExµr\sSr³ edaysarBYk
eKcg;TTYl)anÉkraCü etImanRbeyaCn_GVIeTotnwgKaMRTExµr\sSr³ RbsinebI {ÉkraCü
eBjbribUrN_}RtUv)anRBHGgÁTamTar)anehIyenaH?105
-etIenHminmann½ylµmRKb;RKan;bBa¢ak;fa clnaExµr\sSr³ mancMENkkñúgkarTamTar

ÉkraCüExµrEdreTb¤ y:agNa?

2- etIkarKaMRTrbs;rdæaPi)aléfénelakRBIDIy:aNumy:ug dl;clnaExµr\sSr³ ¬dUcEdlRtUv
)anlatRtdagenAkñúgCMBUkTImYy EdlfaxøÜnKaMRTCMruj[manÉkraCüExµr¦ KWCakarKaMRT
edaysuT§citþ b¤y:agNa?
-eRkayeBlsemþc sIhnu nireTsRBHkayRBHGgÁpÞal;eTAkan;TIRkug)agkk edIm,Its‘U
EpñkkarTUtTamTarÉkraCüPaBRbeTskm<úCa RBHGgÁminRtUv)anrdæaPi)alRkug)agkk
KaMRT nigsVaKmn_enaHeT. etIehtuGVI)anCardæaPi)aléf GacKaMRTclnaExµr\sSr³ edIm,I
TamTar{ÉkraCüeBjbribUrN_} ehIyehtuGVI)anCaéfminGacKaMRT b¤sVaKmn_ b¤shkar
CamYy semþc RBHneratþm sIhnu EdlmaneKaledATamTarGVIEdleKnaMKñaehAfa
{ÉkraCüeBjbribUrN_} EdrenaH? rdæaPi)aléf RbEhlCaKitfa BYkeKGacTajyk)an

plRbeyaCn_NamYyBIExµr\sSr³ EtplRbeyaCn_dEdlenH eKminGacTajykBI
semþc sIhnu )aneT.

3- cMeBaHBYkevotmij EdllUkédcUlkñúgclnats‘UExµr\sSr³ ehIyEdl)ancgsm<½n§PaB
CamYyBYksWug g:ukmiuj edIm,IeKaledAGVImYy EdleKehAfa rYmKñavay)araMgTamTar
105

Kenneth T. So, "THE ROAD TO KHMER INDEPENDENCE," Available at the webpage

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9000936 .

-80-

ÉkraCü sRmab;RbeTsnImYy²enA\NÐÚcinenaH etIvaCakarBit b¤ y:agNa? etIBYkeKcg;
eXIjkm<úCaTTYl)anÉkraCüeBjbribUrN_eT?
-eyIgsegáteXIjfa eRkayéf¶09 viciäka 1953 Caéf¶ EdlRbeTskm<úCaTTYl)an
ÉkraCü skmµPaBrbs;BYkevotmij nigbkSBYkxøÜndUcCa smaKmExµr\sSr³TMenareqVg
)anbnþ nigecHEtekIneLIgbnþbnÞab;.106 ebIBYkeKcg;eXIjman ÉkraCüsRmab;rdæ
nImYy² enA\NÐÚcinedaysuT§citþEmn ehtuGVI)anCaBYkeKminbBaÄb;skmµPaBrbs;xøÚn
ehIycUlmkGbGr{ÉkraCüeBjbribUrN_} nwgeK?
-edayELk RkumclnaExµr\sSr³rbs;GñkGgÁm©as; neratþm cnÞrgSI nigsav:ag vgS )an
cuHcUlCamYynwgrdæaPi)alenAéf¶TI 20 kumÖ³ 1954 edIm,IrYmrs;nwgsgÁmCativij.
etIenHminCakarcg;)anEtÉkraCüBitR)akdrbs;BYkeKeTb¤? ebIeTaHCay:agNa k¾BYkeK
minbgáskmµPaB EdlxuseTAnwgesckþIsMercrbs;snñisITRkughSWENvenaHEdr.

(Y)

106

b‘ín eXonin {etIb:ul BtcUlkan;GMnacEbbNa?} RkugPñMeBj TIPñak;garsarBt’mankm<úCa ¬eGs>eb:>ka¦
qñaM1992 TM> 146.

-81-

ÉksarBieRKaH
1> bTsmÖasn_
1> elak nI v:an;FI Gayu73qñaM GtItGñkts‘UExµ\sSr³eRcInCMnan; nigCaCMnitmñak;rbs;
GñkGgÁm©as; neratþm cnÞrgSI pgEdr. sBVéf¶elakrs;enARsuk bresdæ extþkMBg;s<W.
kic©smÖasn_RtUv)aneFVIeLIIg cab;BIExkumÖ³ dl;Ex mifuna qñaM 2006 erogral;cugs)þah_.
2> elaktaEg:t Gayu64qñaM GtItRBHsgÇenAvtþc½nÞvDÆnaram sBVéf¶rs;enAPUmiRtBaMgKin XuM
Pñay RsuksMeragTg extþkMBg;s<W. kic©smÖasn_RtUv)aneFVIeLIIg enAéf¶TI 24 emsa 2005.
3> elaktaGacarü tib pn Gayu83 sakSImñak;kñgú sm½yExµr\sSr³. sBVéf¶rs;enA PUmiRtBaMg
Kin XuMPñay RsuksMeragTg extþkMBg;s<W. kic©smÖasn_RtUv)aneFVIeLIIg enAéf¶TI 24 emsa qñaM
2005.
4> elakRKUecARBHnamb:ul G‘UcKg;enAvtþc½nÞvDÆnaramkñúgPUmiRtBaMgKin XuMPñay RsuksMeragTg
extþkMBg;s<W. kic©smÖasn_RtUv)aneFVIeLIIg enAéf¶TI 24 emsa 2005.
5> elakyayCIm mehsIRTg;cnÞrgSIkalRTg;eFVJIkarts‘UExµr\sSr³ sBVéf¶rs;enAPUmiRtBaMgKin
XuMPñay RsuksMeragTg extþkMBg;s<W. kic©smÖasn_RtUv)aneFVIeLIIg enAéf¶TI 24 emsa
2005.
6> GñkmIgh‘uy RbCaBlrdæExµr sBVéf¶rs;enAPUmiRtBaMgKin XuMPñay Rsuk sMeragTg extþ
kMBg;s<W. kic©smÖasn_RtUv)aneFVIeLIIg enAéf¶TI 24 emsa 2005.
2> esovePAeyagCaPasaCati
1> Eg:t ehon {]tþmKtielakeGosekIs } TIRkugPñMeBj km<úCa qñaM1973?
2> qaMg sug {rdæRbharTMlak;esnaRbmuxln; nul} .
3> s‘ag dar:a/ Qwm KImlI/ GWum Gun/ nin sIuENt/ Eb:n vin/{clnaExµr\sSr³kñúgCIvPaBneya)ayExµr}
sarNanisSit RbvtiþviTüaCMnan;TI13 saklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj qñaM1995-1996.
4> QWn sumina{viPaKxøwmsarGnusBaØa)araMg-Exµr 17 mifuna 1884} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüa
CMnan;TI 19 saklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj RkugPñMeBj mifuna 2002.
-82-

5> nI c½nÞNarI {EdndIPaKBayBüénRbeTskm<úCaBIqñaM1867-1907} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüa
CMnan;TI 19 saklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj RkugPñMeBj mifuna 2002.
6> nYn eXOn/ {rdæRbhar 1932 BIesomeTAéfLgþ} PñMeBj 1971.
7> nYn suIdar:a{EsVgyl;BIsn§isBaØa)araMg-Exµr 11 sIha 1863} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüa
CMnan;TI 19 saklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj RkugPñMeBj mifuna 2002.
8> edob supl {s®gÁamnigsnþiPaBrbs;km<úCaenAkñúgktþatMbn;nigktþasklelak} RkugPñMeBj
eragBumÖsuxlaP qñaM2005.
9> edob supl {rbbsgÁmra®sþniym-BImhaC½yCMnHQaneTAdl;vibtiþnigkardYlrlM} RkugPñMeBj
eragBumÖsuxlaP qñaM2005.
10> G‘ug favriT§/ Nub suxa/ G‘Yn PKinI/ BuM RsIFn/ r:ug suKn§I/ {dMeNIreq<aHmkrkÉkraCüExµr}
sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüa CMnan;TI13 saklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj qñaM1995-1996.
11> b‘ín eXonin {etIb:ul BtcUlkan;GMNacEbbNa?} RkugPñMeBj TIPñak;garsarBt’man
km<úCa ¬eGs>eb:>ka¦ qñaM1992.
12> b‘uNÑ cnÞm:ul {critExµr} RkugPñMeBj qñaM1973.
13> yin sMbUr {sßanPaBneya)aykm<úCaqñaM1965-1970} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüa
CMnan;TI 18 saklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj qñaM2000-2001.
14> vg; suFar:a/ Lwk savNÑ/ BuM suKn§I/ Guin Titüar:asIu/ eb:g esaP½N/{snñisITRkughSWENv nig
bBaðaRbeTskm<úCa} sarNanisSitRbvtiþviTüa CMnan;TI13/ mifuna qñaM1996.
15> sM y:ag{savtar)at;dMbg;CardæsYy qñaM1795-1907} san;dEW Ln m:asaQUEqt 1995.
16> semþcneratþm sIhnu {neya)ayTUeTA} RkugPñMeBj km<úCa 1959.
17> semþcneratþm sIhnu {RBH)aTsemþcRBHneratþm-RBHGgÁ)aneRbImeFüa)ayGs;sBVRKb;
edIm,IeCosvagkuM[RbeTsFøak;cUleTAenAeRkamGaNaBüa)al}/ RBwtþib½Rt raCaniymExµr
bkERbeday semþc Eb:n nut cuHpSaykñúg sarB½t’man er:GalIet kaMbUdEhSn.
18> esA qat {vibtþikm<úCa} ):arIs mkra qñaM2000.
19> hiun sIufan{kRmgÉksarsMxan;²sþIBIRbeTskm<úCa} RkugsIuGafl shrdæGaemric
qñaM1986.
-83-

3> PasabreTs
19. Angelino, Kat, “Colonial Policy: General Principles,” Vol.1, The Hague, 1931.
20. Ball, W. MacMahon, “Nationalism and Communism in East Asia.” Melbourne
1956.
21. Borthwick, Mark, “Pacific Century: The Emergence of Modern Pacific Asia.”
Westview Press, 2nd Edition, the USA, 1998.
22. Burtchett, W. G., “Mekong Upstream” Hanoi, 1957.
23. Central Intellegence Agency (CIA), "Communism and Cambodia", February
1972, Approved for release 15 December 2004.
24. Chandler, David P., “A History of Cambodia.” Bolder, CO: Westview Press, 3rd
Edition, Chaing Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 1998.
25. Elsbree, Willard H., “Japan’s Role in Southeast Asian Nationalist Movements,
1940-1945.” Cambridge, 1953.
26. Ghosh, Manmohan, “A History of Cambodia” Saigon, 1960.
27. Hammer, Ellen J., “The Struggle for Indochina.” Stanford, 1954.
28. …………………, “The Struggle for Indochina Continues: Geneva to Bandung.”
Stanford, 1955.
29. Herz, Martin F., “A Short History of Cambodia” New York, 1954.
30. McCullough, David, “1776” New York: Simon & Schulster, Inc. 2005.
31. Osborne, Milton, “Southeast Asia: An Introductory History.” 9th Edition,
Singapore: South Wind Production, 2004.
32. Reddi, V. M., “A History of the Cambodian Independent Movement (18631955).” Tirupati, India, Sri Venketeswara University, 1970.
33. Sardesai D. R., “Southeast Asia: past and present,”2nd, Westview Press.
34. Sihanouk, Norodom. “My War with the CIA.” London, 1973.
35. Steinberg, David J. “Cambodia: its people, its society, its culture.” New Haven, 1957.
36. …………………… “In Search of Southeast Asia.”University of Hawaii Press,
Honolulu, 1987.
37. Thomson, Virginia and Adloff, Richard, “Minority Problems in Southeast Asia.”
Stanford, 1955.
38. Tully, Jonh. “France on the Mekong: A History of the Protectorate in Cambodia,
1863-1953.” Martland, University Press of America,
39. Vickery, Michael. “Looking Back at Cambodia, 1942-1976” in Kiernan and Boua
(eds.), Peasants and Politics in Kampuchea, 1942-1981, London, 1982.
40. …………………. “History of Cambodia”. Phnom Penh: Vidya Series, PreAngkor Studies Society, Summary of Lecture Notes given at the Faculty of
Archaeology, Royal University of Fine-Arts, 2002.

4> GIunF½reNt
41. http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-2085.html on 09/05/2006, 8:44AM.
42. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9000936 "THE ROAD TO KHMER
INDEPENDENCE" an article by Kenneth T. So (In collaboration with Monireak
Keo), on 09/05/2006, 8:44AM.
43. http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/seasia/camb19451954.html on 09/05/2006, 8:44AM.
44. http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Cambodiaunder/Sihanouk/(1954-1970)
on 09/05/2006, 8:44AM.

-84-

]bsm<½n§

-85-

rUbT1I ³ RKsY armþayelaknI v:anF; I-xageqVgelakCItaKat; eQµaHdaM sn¬GtItcaghVagtulakar
extþ)at;dbM g¦; CIdnU XutkBM ugBr«BukmaeQµaHdaM nYn nigmþaymgI eQµaHdaM enA nigmaþ yKat;eQµaH
daMenbrYmnigRsþIBIrnak;enAxagsþaMCab¥nÚ CdI Unrbs;Kat;.

rUbTI2-3³ RBHGgÁm©as;n>cnÞrgSIkñúgsemøókbMBak;CaemTahanExµr\sSr²nigkMBugniyayeTAkan;GñkKaMRTenAsm½yeRkayÉkraCü.

-86-

rUbTI5³ semþcRBHneratmþ sIhnu.
rUbTI4³ elaksWug gu:kfaj;vrI burskñgú dgY cti þExµr
rUbTI6³ semcþ neratþm shI nucUlrYmCamYykgT½BRBHGgÁ.

-87-

rUbTI7³ pÞHksM t;rbs;elaknI v:anF; I sBéV f¶enAextþkMBg;sW<.
rUbTI8³ vtþGaramfµIelIdbI nÞaycas;c,armnkñgú PUmiRtBaMgKni Rsku sMeragTg extþkBM g;s<W.

-88-

rUbTI9³ yuT§Exµr\sSr³ nI v:an;FI enAPñMdg;Erk. KUredayviciRtkr nI v:an;FI.

-89-

rUbTI10³ yuT§Cn nI v:an;FI enAmat;smuRT énTwkdIextþekaHkug
EdlsßitenAeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;RTg;neratþm cnÞrgSI.

-90-

rUbTI11³ yuT§Cn nI v:an;FI eRkayeBlcuHcUlCamYyrdæaPi)al nigyuvkSRtI suIsuvtþi siT§INat.

-91-

rUbTI12³ elak nI v:an;FI cUlKukCMnYsemekIyrbs;xøÜn.

-92-

Filename:
FinaLeang Ang_Tha_Thesis2006
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Title:
The Khmer Issarak Movement
Subject:
History
Author:
Tha Leang Ang
Keywords:
Ny Vanthy
Comments:
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Creation Date:
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