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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

F I N I T E E L E M E N T C O D E F O R S O I L A N D R O C K A N A LY S E S

PlaxisVietnam2008

finiteelementcodeforsoilandrockanalyses

PLAXIS SEMINAR
Vietnam Seminar
2008

C tit ti S ilM d l St t lEl


t dSi l ti
ConstitutiveSoilModels,StructuralElementsandSimulation

THE PLAXIS APPROACH


VISUALISE ANALYSE OPTIMISE> T H E W A Y F O R W A R D

Dr WL CHEANG & Dr SW LEE

Compiled by:
William W.L. CHEANG
B.Eng (Hons), PG.Dip, M.Sc. Ph.D
Regional Technical Manager
PlaxisAsia

Contributed
Erwin BEERNINK
Dennis WATERMAN
Erick SEPTANIKA
Ronald BRINKGREVE
Siew Wei LEE

L A XI S P R O F E S S I O N A L v e r s i o n 8 . 5 - P L A XF L O W v e r s i o n 1 . 5 - D Y N A M I C S m o d u l e - 3 - D F O U N D A T I O N v e r s i o n 2 . 0 3 - D T U N N E L v e r s i o n 2 . 0 3 - D G E O T H E R M I E v e r s i o n 1 .

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

SOIL MODELS, STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS & BOUNDARY


CONDITIONS IN PLAXIS INPUT
A.

ConstitutiveSoilModels
LinearElastic(LE)
2. MohrCoulomb(MC)
3 Softsoil/creepmodel(SSMandSSCM)
3.
Soft soil / creep model (SSM and SSCM)
4. HardeningSoilmodel(HSM)
5. UserdefinedSoilModels(USM)
1.

B.

StructuralElements
Geotextileelement(membrane)
2. Beam(Plate)element
3. Node
Nodetonode
to nodeanchor
anchor
4. Fixedendanchor
1.

C.

RecentDevelopmentwithEmbeddedInclusion

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finiteelementcodeforsoilandrockanalyses

A SOILMODELS
A.SOILMODELS

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

MOHR-COULOMB
1.

Firstorderapproximationofsoil

2.

Linearelasticperfectplasticity

3.

Fivematerialinputs
1. Frictionangle(phi)
g (p )
2. Cohesion(c)
3. Dilatancy angle(psi)
4. Elasticmodulus(E)
5. Poissonsration(nu)

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SOFT SOIL & SOFT SOIL CREEP MODEL


1.

InspirationfromCamClayclassofmodel

2.

PrimarycompressionforNormallyconsolidatedsoils

3.

Stressdependentstiffness

4.

Distinction between primary loading and unloadingreloading


Distinctionbetweenprimaryloadingandunloading
reloading

5.

Memoryofpreconsolidationstress

6.

Failurebehaviour=MohrCoulomb

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

SOFT SOIL & SOFT SOIL CREEP MODEL

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HARDENING SOIL MODEL


1.

Secondorderapproximationofsoil

2.

Advancedmodelforsimulatingsoftandstiffsoils(Shanz,1998)

3.

Inputparameters

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

HARDENING SOIL MODEL

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HS-SMALL
1.

HardinDrnevichcurve

2.

Parameter:Goand0.7

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

finiteelementcodeforsoilandrockanalyses

B.STRUCTURAL
B STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

SOIL MODELS, STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS


A.

StructuralElements
1. Geotextileelement(membrane)
2. Beam(Plate)element
3 Nodetonodeanchor
3.
Node to node anchor
4. Fixedendanchor

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS IN PLAXIS


1.

Platesandshells

2.

Anchors

3.

Geogrids(geotextiles)

4.

Interfaces

wall

stripfooting

tunnel

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STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS IN PLAXIS

geotextilewall

strut

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anchoredwall

cofferdam

groundanchor

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

PLATES AND SHELLS

1.
2.
3.
4.

3or5nodedlineelements
3degreesoffreedompernode
Elasticorelastoplasticbehaviour
Tomodelwalls,floors,tunnels

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INPUT PARAMETERS FOR PLATES

1.

Flexuralrigidity

2.

Normalstiffness

3.

Elementthickness

EI = E

h 3 b(b=1m)
12 ((b=1m))

EA = E h b
d = h = 12

EI
EA

h
b
b = 1 m in plane strain
b = 1 meter in axisymmetry
b

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

PLATE WEIGHTS
1. Compensateforoverlap:
2. Forsoilweightuse:
g

w = ( concrete soil ) d real

unsat abovephreatic level


sat belowphreatic level

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PLATE WEIGHTS FOR TUNNELS

d real
rinside

r outside
lining

soil

1. Overlap is only for half the lining thickness

w = ( concrete d real ) soil 1 d real


2
r= 1

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(rinside

+ routside )

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

FIXED-END ANCHORS
1.

Tomodelsupports,anchorsandstruts
1. Elastoplasticspringelement
2. Oneendfixedtopointinthegeometry,
otherendisfullyfixedfordisplacement
3. Positioningatanyangle
4. Prestressingoption

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NODE-TO-NODE ANCHORS
1.

Tomodelanchors,columnsandrods
1. Elastoplasticspringelement
2. Connectstwogeometrypointsin
thegeometry
3. Prestressingoption
i
i

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

ANCHOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Normalstiffness,EA (foroneanchor)
Spacing, Ls (distancebetweenanchors)
Spacing,L
(distance between anchors)
Maximumanchorforceforcompression
andtension,|Fmax,comp|and|Fmax,tens|

[kN]
[m]
[kN]

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PRE-STRESSING OF ANCHORS

1.

DefinedinStagedconstructionphase

2.

Bothtension(groutanchor)orcompression(strut)possible
(g
)
p
(
)p

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

GEOGRIDS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3or5nodedlineelement
Linearelasticbehaviour
Noflexuralrigidity(EI),onlynormalstiffness(EA)
Onlyallowsfortension,notforcompression
Soil/Geogridinteractionmaybemodelledusing
interfaces

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GROUND ANCHORS

1. Combinationofnodetonodeanchorandgeogrid
2 N
2.
Nodetonodeanchorrepresentsanchorrod(no
d
d
h
h
d(
interactionwithsurroundingsoil)
3. Geogridrepresentsgroutbody(fullinteraction
withgrid)
4. Nointerfacearoundgroutbody;interfacewould
createunrealisticfailuresurface
l
f l
f

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

GROUND ANCHORS

Inputgeometry

real distribution of axial forces in ground anchor

axial forces in geotextile element

Axialforcesingroundanchors

Generatedmesh
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INTERFACES
1.

Soilstructureinteraction
Wallfriction
2. Slipandgappingbetweensoilandstructure
1.

2.

Soilmaterialproperties
p p
1. TakenfromsoilusingreductionfactorRinter
Cinter
=Rinter *Csoil
tan()inter
=Rinter *tan()soil
2. Individualmaterialsetforinterface

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

INTERFACES
SuggestionsforRinter:

1. Interactionsand/steel
2.
3
3.
4.
5.
6.

=Rinter 0.6 0.7


Interactionclay/steel
=Rinter 0.5
Interaction sand/concrete
Interactionsand/concrete
=R
Rinter 1.0
1 0 0.8
08
Interactionclay/concrete
=Rinter 1.0 0.7
Interactionsoil/geogrid
=Rinter1.0
(interfacemaynotberequired)
Interactionsoil/geotextile
=Rinter0.9 0.5(foil,textile)

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INTERFACES

1.

Trytoomitstressoscillationsatcornersofstiffstructures

Inflexiblecorner
points,causingbad
stressresults

Flexiblecornerpoints
withimprovedstress
results

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

finiteelementcodeforsoilandrockanalyses

EmbeddedInclusions(Piles,AnchorsandSoilNails)

C.STRUCTURALELEMENTS(RECENT)
C STRUCTURALELEMENTS(RECENT)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF EMBEDDED PILES


1.

FEmodeling

2.

Currentimplementation

3.

I
Improvements

4.

Groundanchor

5.

Concludingremarks

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

FE MODELING
SCHEMATIZATION OF PILE-SOIL SYSTEM
Paxial
Pile
head

Pilebehaviordependson:

Plateral

1
1.
soil
masses

2.
3.
4.

Qs
Qn

5.

Qs
Qn
Fs
Fn

Pile
base

Fn

Soiltype
Soil
type
Stressstate
Pilegeometry
Piletype(Steel,concrete,timberetc.)
Installation

:mantle/skinshearforces
:mantle/skinnormalforces
:pile baseshearforces
:pilebaseshearforces
:pilebasenormalforces

Fs

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FE MODELING
VOLUME PILE APPROACH

Rd

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

FE MODELING
EMBEDDED PILE APPROACH

pile

tskin

Ffoot

soil

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Skin&BaseInteraction
Skininteractionmodel

Base/Footinteractionmodel

kt
kn

ks

kt
kn
s
t

ks

Skinstiffness:
ks:axialstiffness
kn&kt :lateralstiffness
kb

kt
kn

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Basestiffness:
kb:base/footstiffness

ks

Skintractions:
ts =qs/length = ks (uspileussoil)tmax

tn =qn/length =kn (unpileunsoil)


pile
soil
tt =qt/length =kt (ut ut )

Base/Footforce:
0Fb = kb (ubpile ubsoil)Fmax

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

Skin&BaseInteraction
Linearskintractionmodel&Maximumbase/footforce
BearingCapacity:
(Ttop+Tbot)*Lpile +Fmax
Ttop

Lpile

Tbot

Fmax

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Meshdependentbehavior
P
coarsemesh

finemesh

Bearingcapacity

Duetosoilfailureinsidepileregion

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

Improvements
I.Objectivebehavior(lessmeshdependent)

Pilezoneisdefinedbasedonthevolumeofpile(=R2*L)
Anysmall(soil)elementthatfallsinsidepilezonewillbeforcedtoremain
elastic
2R

EmbeddedPileElement

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Improvements
II.Layerdependentmaximum(allowable)skintractionmodel

Maximumskintractionasfunctionofdepthwillbegeneratedautomatically
fordifferentlayersaccordingto
ts

{ havg tan
{
t i +ci }*2R
}* R

with:
i interfacefrictionangle(Rp*soil)
ci interfacecohesion(Rp*csoil)

havg averagelateralcompressionatthepile
(basedonsoilstressesaroundthepile)

extracontrolparamaters:
tsmax userdefinedmaximumvalue
h userdefinedprestresstoincludelocalconfinement

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

Improvements
III.Multilinearcurveofmaximum(allowable)skintraction
y
T
top

top

y1

Ty1

y2

Ty2

y3

Ty3

y4

Ty4

y5

Ty5

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Improvements
IV. InstallationEffects
Pilecentre
Pilezone

Disturbed/influencedsoilregion
voidratioe maydecrease/increase

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

Groundanchors
Groundanchormodelconsistsof
*anchor
*groutbody

anchor

FEmodeling:
Anchor
Groutbody

B
wall

2nodedspring
embeddedpile
(allowingsliding)

groutbody

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CONCLUDING REMARKS ON EMBEDDED ELEMENTS


1.

Embeddedpilehasbeenimplementedin3DF
*Bearingcapacity:maximumskintraction&base/footresistance

1
1.

Mesh effect is handled by including elastic region inside pile


Mesheffectishandledbyincludingelasticregioninside
pilezone
zone

2.

Currentversionappearscapableofpredictingobjectivefailurebehavior
*layerdependent(maximum)skintractionswillbeincluded

1.

Futureversion
*multilinearcurveofmaximumskintractions(availablein3DFV2)
*installationeffects(casestudies&fieldexperience)

1.

G
GroundanchormodelbasedonEmbeddedpileapproach
d
h
d lb d
E b dd d il
h

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finiteelementforsoilandrockanalyses

PILED RAFT FOUNDATION FOR A STORAGE TANK

CHARACTERISTICS
1.No. ofPiles

122

2.Pile Diameter

400mm

3.PileLengths

5m and8m(staggered)

4.Raft

1000mmTHK

5.RaftSize
6 TankDiameter
6.TankDiameter

10m

7.Tank Thickness

1000mm

8.Soil

Layered

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