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Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to

increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society,
and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." Research is defined
as the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation,
analysis and interpretation of facts that lines an individuals speculation with reality.
Types of Research
1. Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is
scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved
understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena. Basic research
generates new ideas, principles, and theories, which may not be immediately
utilized but nonetheless form the basis of progress and development in different
2. Applied research uses scientific theories to develop technology or techniques
to intervene and alter natural or other phenomena. Applied research is a form
of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science.
Characteristics of Research
1. Empirical - based on observations and experimentation on theories.
2. Systematic - follows orderly and sequential procedure.
3. Controlled - all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are
kept constant.
4. Employs hypothesis - guides the investigation process

5. Analytical - There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in
their interpretation
6. Objective, Unbiased, & Logical - all findings are logically based on empirical
7. Employs quantitative or statistical methods - data are transformed into numerical
measures and are treated statistically
8. Original work
9. Done by an expert - the researcher uses valid and carefully designed
procedures, valid data gathering
10. Must be patient and unhurried activity - to ensure accuracy
11. Require effort-making capacity
12. Requires courage
13. Has logical roots that help to establish facts or principles
14. Answers all type of questions


(ME 411)

Borje, Delon O.

Instructor: Engr. Mcknowelle Rolloque