You are on page 1of 29

Planned Cities on the Indus

The Geography of the Indian Subcontinent


Indian Subcontinent

Map

Subcontinentlandmass that includes India,


Pakistan, and Bangladesh
Worlds tallest mountain ranges separate it from rest
of Asia

Rivers, Mountains, and Plains


Mountains to north, desert to east, protect Indus
Valley from invasion
Indus and Ganges rivers from flat, fertile plainthe
Indo-Gangetic
Southern India, a dry plateau flanked by mountains
Narrow strip of tropical land along coast
Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

3
continued The

Geography of the Indian Subcontinent

Monsoons
Seasonal windsmonsoonsdominate Indias
climate
Winter winds are dry; summer winds bring rain
can cause flooding

Map

Map
Map

Environmental Challenges
Floods along the Indus unpredictable; river can
change course
Rainfall unpredictable; could have droughts or
floods

NEXT

SECTION

Civilization Emerges on the Indus


Indus Valley Civilization
Influenced an area larger than Mesopotamia or
Egypt

Earliest Arrivals
About 7000 B.C., evidence of agriculture and
domesticated animals
By about 3200 B.C., people farming in villages along
Indus River

Image

Planned Cities
Image
By 2500 B.C., people build cities of brick laid out on
grid system
Engineers create plumbing and sewage systems
Indus Valley called Harappan civilization after
Continued . . .
Harappa, a city
NEXT

SECTION

3
continued Civilization

Emerges on the Indus

Harappan Planning
City built on mud-brick platform to protect against
flood waters
Brick walls protect city and citadelcentral buildings
of the city
Streets in grid system are 30 feet wide
Lanes separate rows of house (which featured
bathrooms)

NEXT

SECTION

Harappan Culture
Language
Had writing systems of 400 symbols; but scientists
cant decipher it

Culture
Harappan cities appear uniform in culture; no great
social divisions
Animals important to the culture; toys suggest
prosperity

Image

Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

3
continued Harappan

Culture

Role of Religion
Priests closely linked to rulers
Some religious artifacts reveals links to modern Hindu
culture

Trade
Had thriving trade with other peoples, including
Mesopotamia

NEXT

SECTION

Indus Valley Culture Ends


Harappan Decline
Signs of decline begin around 1750 B.C.
Earthquakes, floods, soil depletion may have
caused decline
Around 1500 B.C., Aryans enter area and become
dominant

NEXT

SECTION

Indo-Europeans

Indo-Europeans Migrate
Characteristics of Indo-Europeans
Indo-Europeansnomadic, pastoral people;
tamed horses, rode chariots
Came from the steppesdry grasslands north
of the Caucasus mountains

The Indo-European Language Family


Language ancestral to many modern languages
of Europe and Asia
English, Spanish, Persian, Hindu trace origins to
original Indo-European
Language groups settled in different areas

An Unexplained Migration
17001200 B.C. Indo-Europeans migrated,
moved in all directions

Map

NEXT

SECTION

Aryans Transform India


The Aryan People
AryansIndo-European people, enter Indus
River Valley around 1500 B.C.
Sacred writing, the Vedas, reveal much of their
culture

A Caste System Develops


Aryans physically distinct from people of India
Four castes, or social classes, develop:
- priests (Brahmans)
- warriors
- peasants or traders
- laborers
People are born into their caste for life
Hundreds of subgroups arise later

Continued . . .
NEXT

THEUNTOUCHABLES
belowallothercastes
Onlyallowedtodojobsdeemed
dirty
Pickuptrash
Dealwithdeadbodies

Treatedliketheywerealwayssick
TheybelievedtheUntouchablescould
makeyousickifyougottoclosetoone.

SECTION

Hinduism and Buddhism Develop

Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries


Hinduism
Collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly
over time
No one founder with a single set of ideas

Origins and Beliefs


750500 B.C. Hindu teachers create
Upanishadstexts of teachings
Each person has atmansoul united with all others
in Brahman
In reincarnation, people reborn to new lives
A souls good and bad deeds, karma, determines
course of new life
Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

2
continued Hinduism

Evolves Over Centuries

Hinduism Changes and Develops


Over last 2,500 years different forms of gods
grow in importance
Today, Hindus choose own path to mokshaa
state of perfect understanding

Image

Hinduism and Society


Hinduism strengthened the caste system

NEXT

SECTION

The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment


Siddhartha Gautama
Founder of Buddhism; priests prophesized his
greatness

Siddharthas Quest

Image

Raised in isolation, Siddhartha Gautama wants


to learn about world
Seeks enlightenment (wisdom), how to escape
human suffering
Tries many methods; gains enlightenment by
meditating
Becomes the Buddha, the enlightened one

Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

2
continued The

Buddha Seeks Enlightenment

Origins and Beliefs


Buddha begins to teach followers
Preaches Four Noble Truthsbasic philosophy of
Buddhism
Fourth Noble Truth is to follow the Eightfold path
to achieve nirvana
Nirvana:
- a perfect state of understanding
- a release from selfishness and pain
- a break from the chain of reincarnations,
rebirths
Buddha rejects caste system and multiple gods of
Hinduism

Chart

Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

2
continued The

Buddha Seeks Enlightenment

The Religious Community


Some followers devote lives to religion, become
monks and nuns
Three bases of Buddhism: Buddha, religious
community, teachings

Image

Buddhism and Society


Many followers at first among poor and lower caste
Monks and nuns spread Buddhas teachings
Teachings written to become sacred literature

Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

2
continued The

Buddha Seeks Enlightenment

Buddhism in India
Spreads to other parts of Asia
Never gains firm hold in India; Hinduism remains
strong
Buddhist pilgrims often visit India

Trade and the Spread of Buddhism

Map

Interactive

Buddhism spreads by traders to:


- Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra
- China, Korea, Japan

NEXT

SECTION

Indias First Empires

The Mauryan Empire Is Established

Map

Chandragupta Maurya Seizes Power


In 321 B.C., Chandragupta Maurya seizes power,
starts Mauryan Empire

Chandragupta Maurya Unifies North India


Chandragupta defeats Seleucus I; north India
united for first time
Chandragupta uses taxes to support his large army

Running the Empire


Chandraguptas chief adviser is Kautilya, a priest
Chandragupta creates bureaucratic government
He divides the government to make it easier to rule
Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

1
continued The

Mauryan Empire Is Established

Life in the City and the Country


A Greek ambassador writes glowing praise of the
empire
Chandraguptas son rules from 301 to 269 B.C., 32
years
AsokaChandraguptas grandson, brings the
empire to its height

Image

Asoka Promotes Buddhism


After a bloody war with Kalinga, Asoka promotes
Buddhism and peace
Preaches religious tolerationaccepting people of
different religions
Builds roads, with wells along them
NEXT

SECTION

A Period of Turmoil
The Breakup of the Mauryan Empire
Asoka dies in 232 B.C.; kingdoms in central India
soon break away
The Andhra Dynasty dominates central India for
centuries
Northern India receives immigrants from Greece,
other parts of Asia
Tamilsa people living in southern India
remain separate and frequently war with rival
peoples

NEXT

SECTION

The Gupta Empire Is Established


Chandra Gupta Builds an Empire

Map

Chandra Gupta marries into kingship in north


India in A.D. 320
Starts Gupta EmpireIndias second empire;
flowering of Indian civilization, especially Hindu
culture
His son Samudra Gupta expands empire with
conquest

Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

1
continued The

Gupta Empire Is Established

Daily Life in India


Majority of Indians are farmers; entire family
raises crops together
Families are patriarchalheaded by the eldest
male
Farmers have to contribute work to government
and pay heavy taxes
Some Tamil families are matriarchalled by
mother rather than father

Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

1
continued The

Gupta Empire Is Established

Height of the Gupta Empire


Chandra Gupta II rules from A.D. 375415
He defeats the Shakas and adds western coast
to empire
Gupta Empire sees flourishing of arts, religion,
and science
After Chandra Gupta II dies, the empire declines

NEXT

SECTION

Trade Spreads Indian Religions


and Culture

Buddhism and Hinduism Change


Traditional Hindu and Buddhist Beliefs
Hinduism blends Aryan and other beliefs; belief in
many gods
To Buddhists, desire causes suffering but suffering
can be overcome

Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

2
continued Buddhism

and Hinduism Change

A More Popular Form of Buddhism


Belief in bodhisattvas developspotential
Buddhas who save humanity
Mahayana sectBuddhists accepting new
doctrines of worship, salvation
Theravada sectBuddhists who follow original
teachings of Buddha
Wealthy Buddhist merchants build stupas
stone structures over relics

Image

Image

Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

2
continued Buddhism

and Hinduism Change

A Hindu Rebirth
Hinduism is remote from people by time of Mauryan
Empire
Hinduism moves toward monotheism; gods part of
one divine force
Chief gods:
Brahmacreator of the world
Vishnupreserver of the world
Shivadestroyer of the world

Image

NEXT

SECTION

Achievements of Indian Culture


Literature and the Performing Arts
Kalidasapoet and dramatist, one of Indias
greatest writers
His skillful and emotionally stirring plays still
popular
Madurai writing academies create literature;
2,000 Tamil poems survive
Drama and dance troupes gain popularity and
travel widely

Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

2
continued Achievements

of Indian Culture

Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine


Ocean trade leads to advances in astronomy
Indian astronomers in Gupta Empire prove that world
is round
Mathematicians develop idea of zero and decimal
system
Doctors write medical guides and make advances in
surgery

NEXT

SECTION

The Spread of Indian Trade


Indias Valuable Resources
India has spices, diamonds, precious stones, and

Image

good quality wood

Overland Trade, East and West


Trade routes called Silk Roads connect Asia and
Europe
Indians build trading posts to take advantage of
the Silk Roads

Sea Trade, East and West

Indian merchants carry goods to Rome by sea


Merchants trade by sea with Africa, Arabia,
China, Southeast Asia
Continued . . .
NEXT

SECTION

2
continued The

Spread of Indian Trade

Effects of Indian Trade


Increased trade leads to rise of banking
Bankers lend money to merchants, careful of degree
of risk
Increased trade spreads Indian culture to other
places
Trade brings Hinduism, Buddhism to other lands

Interactive

NEXT