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COMPARISON TEST

SUMMARY ON THE
COMPARISON TEST FOR
SERIES WITH
THEORETICAL SOLVED
PROBLEMS

Let 0 ak bk for all k.

k =1

converges

k =1

a
k =1

diverges

k =1

converges.
diverges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS

P-SERIES
The series of the form

are called
kp
p-series. They are used quite often for
k =1

Let 0 ak bk for all k. Assume that

Show that the series


the series

comparison purposes.

k =1

ak and

k =1

k =1

By Integral Test, we proved that

k =1

converges if and only if p > 1.


Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

1
kp

bk converge.

ak bk converges.

Show that if ak > 0 for all k and lim kak > 0,


k

then the series

k =1

ak diverges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS
3

Show that if ak > 0 for all k and lim k 2 ak = 1,


k

then the series

k =1

ak converges.

OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS
Determine whether the series converge or
diverge.
5

lim
k

bk

k =1 ak converges and that

= L < . Show that the seris

ak

k =1

1 + 10
n=1

Let ak and bk be positive for all k. Assume


that the series

9n

4 + 2n

n=1

bk

converges.

3n

3n2 + 5n

n=1

3n n2 + 1

1
ln
1
+
2n
n=1

10

3n

k
k =1

2 + cos(n)

n=1

1
3

+k

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS

OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS

Determine whether the series converge or


diverge.

Determine whether the series converge or


diverge.

k2

11

k
k =1

12

k
k =1

+1

k 1

k =2

13

1
2

+4

14

k =1

15
16

1
3

k =3

2k + 1
1

(2k 5)

1
sin
k
k =1

17

k =1

18

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

19

1
2

sin k

k =1

k =1

()

ln k
k4

8k 2 7

ek k + 1

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

ak ,bk > 0,

Problem 1
Let ak ,bk > 0 for all k. Assume that the series

k =1

ak and

series

Claim

k =1

k =1

bk converge. Show that the

ak bk converges.

k =1

Since

Solution

a
k =1 k

bk converge

k =1

ak bk converges.

k =1

bk converges, lim bk = 0.
k

This means, > 0 m : k > m bk < .

Let = 1.
m1 : k > m1 bk < 1.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

ak ,bk > 0,

Claim

a
k =1 k

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

a b converges.
k =1 k k

Solution(contd) Since ak > 0 bk > 0 k,

Claim

k =1

Solution(contd)

k =m1

ak bk

converges.
Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

a
k =1 k

bk converge

k =1

ak bk converges.

The convergence of

k > m1 0 < ak bk < ak .


Hence, by The Comparison Test,

ak ,bk > 0,

b converge
k =1 k

k =m1

ak bk

implies the convergence of

a b
k =1

because

m1 1

ab
k

k =1
m1 1

ab
k =1

ab,

k =m1

is a finite sum.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Problem 2
Problem 2

Solution

then the series

k =1

k =1

ak diverges.

Assume that lim kak = b > 0.


k

Since b > 0, m1 such that k > m1 kak >

Show that if lim kak > 0,

lim kak > 0

b
.
2k

b
b 1
k =m1 2k = 2 k =m1 k
k > m1 ak >

ak diverges.

The series

diverges

since the Harmonic Series diverges.


Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

lim kak > 0

Problem 2

k =1

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

ak diverges.

Solution

Problem 3

Since

b
k =m1
2k

and since
also

k =1

diverges,

b
ak >
> 0,
2k

ak

Show that if lim k 2ak = 1,


then the series

k =1

ak converges.

diverges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

b
.
2

2
Problem 3 lim k ak = 1 k =1 ak converges.

lim k 2ak = 1 m1 : k > m1 0 < k 2ak < 2.


k
2
k > m1 0 < ak < 2
k

2
1
The series k =m 2 = 2 k =m 2 converges.
1 k
1 k

Hence also

k =1

Assume

k =1 ak converges, lim

Claim:

Problem 4

a converges, lim
k =1 k

Claim:

k =1

bk

bk
ak

=L<

ak

k =1

k =1

Problem 4

= L m1 : k > m1

ak converges

converges.

bk

a converges, lim
k =1 k
k

Claim:
Solution(contd)

bk
ak

< L + 1.

k > m1 bk < L + 1 ak .

=L<.

ak

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

converges.

Solution
bk

bk

ak converges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

lim

Let ak , bk > 0 k.

Problem 4

Solution

k =1

(L + 1) a

converges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

k =1

(L + 1) a

k =1

bk
ak

=L<

converges.

bk

bk < L + 1 ak .

converges k =m bk converges.

Hence also

b =
k =1 k

converges because

m1 1
k =1

m1 1
k =1

bk + k =m bk

bk is a finite sum.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Problem 5

Does

9n

1 + 10
n=1

n=1
10

Problem 6

converge?
n

9
n 1: 0<
<
=
.
1 + 10n 10n 10
9n

is a convergent geometric series.

9n

n=1

1 + 10n

()

1
Does ln 1 + n converge?
2

n=1

( )

f x = x ln 1 + x ,

2
n=1 3 both converge.

n=1

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

4 + 2n
3n

converges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Problem 7

Does

Solution

1
ln
1
+
2n converge?
n=1

( )

1
1
Conclude: 0 < ln 1 + <
n.
2n 2n

1
n=1 3 ,

1
f 1 = 1 ln2 > 0, f x = 1
> 0, x > 0.
1+ x

Hence f is increasing, and f(x) > 0 for x 1.

converge?

2n

3n

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Solution

3n

n=1

converges.

1
ln
1
+
2n also converges.
n=1

Hence

1
2
= n + n = 4 + .
3
3
3
3

4 + 2n

Solution

converges by the Comparison Theorem.

Problem 7

Does

4 + 2n

n=1

9n

Solution

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Problem 8

Does

n=1

Solution

lim
n

an =

n=1

bn
an

3n2 + 5n

converge?

3 n +1

, bn =

3n

3 n +1

= lim

3n2 + 5n

= 3.

n +1

n=1

3n2 + 5n
n

3 n +1

converges.
Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Problem 10 Does

k
k =1

1
3

converge?

+k

n=1

3n1

k3

0<

is a convergent p-series.
1
k3 + k

<

1
k3

k =1

1
k3 + k

converges by the Comparison Test.


Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

converge?

3n

3n

2 + cos n

3n

3n

converges
2 + cos n
n=1
3n

1
3n1

converges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Problem 11 Does

k2
3

Solution
1

k =1

k =1

Solution

2 + cos n

n : 1 cos n 1

Solution

converges as a geometric series.

n=1

3n2 + 5n
n

Problem 9 Does

k 1 2k k + 1.
3

+1
k2

k3 + 1

converge?

k2
2k 3

1
.
2k

1
diverges.
k =1
k

k2

1
and 3
diverge.
Hence also k =1
k
+
1
2k
k =1

The Harmonic Series

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

k 1

Problem 12 Does

k =2

converge?

k 1

k =2

Solution
1
2

k + k +1

k > 0 :

converges k =2

k2

k + k +1

<

1
k2

Problem 14 Does

n=1

k =1

converge?

n=1

Problem 14 Does

n1 3

Hence also

2n + 1

1
3

3n

n=1

(3n)

13

1
3

n=1

1
n1 3

(3n)

diverges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Since

.
13

is a divergent p -series.

n=1

k2 + 4

<

1
k2

1
k +4

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Solution
1

converges by the Comparison Test.

Solution
n 1 2n + 1 3n.

converge?

2n + 1

+4

is a convergent p -series.

k2

converges.

k3 1

1
3

k =1

k 1, k 2 < k 2 + 4
1

k 1

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

k
k =1

Solution
k 1

Problem 13 Does

and since

n=1

1
3

2n + 1

1
3

2n + 1

n=1

( )
3n

1
3

2n + 1
1

13

3n

converge?

(3n)

13

diverges, also

diverges by the Comparison Test.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Problem 15 Does

k =3

Solution

k =1

(2k 5)

k 5 k 2k 5.

converges

k =5

Hence also

k =3

k 2k 5

2k 5

(2k 5)

1
k

.
2

converges.

Here we used the fact that

k
k =3

(2k 5)

k
k =3

Solution

k =5

k 2k 5

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

converge?

By Calculus I, we know

0 x 1

(2k 5)

Finite sum

Problem 16 Does

converges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

1
sin k
k =1

Solution(contd)

converge?

x
sin(x) x.
2

1
1
sin k 1.
2k
k
Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Problem 16 Does

sin k

converge?

k =1

Solution(contd)

1
1 1
=

k =1
2k
2 k =1 k

diverges because the Harmonic


Series diverges.

1
sin
k
k =1

diverges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

1
sin k 2 converge?
k =1

Problem 17 Does
Solution

By the definition of Sine:


1
1
k 1: 0 < sin 2 < 2 .
k k

1
1

sin
converges

k2
k 2 converges.

k =1
k =1

Problem 18 Does
Solution

lnk

k =2

Since

converge?

k4

ln k
k

()

1
> 0 for x > 1.
x
Hence f is strictly increasing for x 1.
I.e. ln x < x for x 1.
ln k
k4

k
k

1
k

k =2

ln k
k4

k =2

Problem 19 Does
Solution

converges, also

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

for k > 1.

k3

Hence

8k 2 7

( k + 1)

converge?

Start by observing that


k

converges.

k4

k =1

<

<

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

lim

( )

f 1 = 1 ln1 = 1 > 0. f x = 1

for k 1,
and since

k =2

( )

converge?

k4

f x = x ln x.

Solution

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

lnk

Problem 18 Does

Conclude

8k 2 7

( k + 1)

k1 : k > k1

= 8.
8k 2 7

( k + 1)

< 10.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

Problem 19 Does

8k 2 7

k =1

( k + 1)

converge?

Solution

10

e
k =1

8k 7

ek k + 1

<

Since

10
ek

and since

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test

k =k1

8k 2 7
e

( k + 1)

( k + 1)

k > k1

10

e
k =1

converges as a geometric series.

k =1

Solution
k > k1

Problem 19 Does

8k 2 7

converge?

8k 2 7
e

( k + 1)

<

10
ek

converges, also

converges. Hence the whole


series converges.

Mika Seppl: Solved Problems on Comparison Test