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Assessment and instruction/intervention has a strong relationship, because assessment guides

instruction/intervention. Assessment can show where a childs strength and weaknesses are
which help a teacher to decide what instruction/intervention he/she needs to make for the

2. I didnt understand List eight instruments/procedures/categories in all. Does that mean 24 of

each in each category, just 8 in each category, or 8 things listed total?

Less biases

State tests
Controlled setting
Graded by trained

Easy to administer
Time consuming
Less time to grade
Stress on test takers Inexpensive

Final exams
Unit tests
Oral exam
Given in class
Same instructions, but not
controlled environment
Graded by teacher
Done on paper or computer

More biases
Not taking all to
seriously by test
Raising hands
Given anywhere
Simple instructions
Subjective grading
Short answers

3. When only taking a few snapshots of a childs behavior, the child could be emotionally
unprepared for the assessment due to incidents occurring in life, or the length of the
test, and even not feeling well. One way to minimize the effects of a few snapshots is to
talk to the child and see how they are doing, if they are doing well continue the testing.
Another way is to break up the test in a few days, or give them breaks during the testing
so it isnt too long. A third way is to do other assessments to have a better reliability in
the childs abilities.
4. Informed consent is when a teacher lets a parent know what they want to do, and the
parent signs to agree and let the school do what was stated. It is needed in administering
test, MDT meetings, for an IEP, IEP meetings, goals, and changes to IEP.
5. Validity means that the test is testing what it says it is assessing. To illustrate it to you I
have a scenario. When a person gets a temple recommend, assuming there is no lying in
the interview, they have a valid temple recommend. This means that the person at the
point of the interview was worthy to go to the temple, because of the actions, which is the
point of the temple recommend. At that point the temple recommend is valid. But as soon
as that person decides to something against the interview questions like break the word of
wisdom, the person is not worthy of the temple recommend. The temple recommend is

Before administering an assessment, people ask who, what, why, when, how, and
where questions. Assessments are formal, meaning they are standardized. They have
instructions on those questions in the manual. The give instructions on where to sit and to
assess the test, when to assess and how. Every test is different, so reading the instructions is
important. People use the assessments on children, because there is a lack of skills or there are
a lot of strengths in their abilities. The assessment says what you are assessing. They have
different subtests for different areas.
Normally someone with a college degree administers these assessments. They have had
practice on assessing the test and will make it valid. They also have instructions about grading
the assessment. The person grading it should be familiar with statistics. Graders also have to
gain inter-rater reliability. This means they have been trained to score the same way as every
grader scoring the test.
The items are tested against the theory of the test. This means they are checked for
biases, and make sure they are valid questions that match what is being tested. This is done to
make sure the items match the content being tested and so it is far to all of those taking the
Also the content needs to be related to the topic being tested. You wouldnt want to
test reading abilities on a timed math test. And the test should include the math skills that are
appropriate for the child to do.
In addition the construct of the test should be taken into consideration. You wouldnt
give a kindergartener a 100 word essay to accomplish. It needs to be in the ability of the child.
This can also be taken into consideration when an ELL student is given an assessment. It should
be in their native language.
6. Reliability is having a trustworthy test that is dependable, meaning no biases and it can work on
the student you are assessing (fits the population).
Inter-rater reliability:
Internal consistency:
Training examiners
Given multiple times at
Co-efficient alpha
different times

7. I would first look for a test that can be given in her own language. So she has a valid test
that she can understand. I would then look for someone in the district that can translate
her test and can give her the test, because they are already being paid by the school
district. If there isnt one in the district I would have to look at other schools nearby so it
would be cheaper to pay the translator. If not, I would have to look for someone who
can. After the test has been graded I would think about where to place her based on her
abilities without the bias of her not knowing English.
8. I would want to make sure the questions wear written clear and in understandable terms for the
students taking the test. The answers would be about the same length and answers that all make
sense to be answers like if there was a question about the sun, I wouldnt have an answer that
was Michael Jackson. I would make sure that the overall answers on the test had answers from

all the different letters. I would also not use all of the above and none of the above as well as
a and d for answers.
9. Norms are created by looking at the census of the population to make use everyone in the
population is represented.
Representativeness is when the individual taking the test is represented in the sample group.
The sample group who took the test, came from the population of the test.
Standardization in the assessment means that all the conditions are the same for every time the
test is administered. So the temperature, directions, setting, and what to say is the same

10. Maria is below average in reading compared to her peers. She shows a pattern of errors on
items containing vowel diphthongs, some consonant blends, and some long vowel sounds. Her
decoding ability on non-sense word items and unfamiliar words on the Letter-Word Recognition
are consistent with each other. She shows high frequency word recognition skills (memory) with
CVC words and some other words, as her latency time was significantly shorter on items where
she recognized the word immediately. Due to Marias reading skills, she is having problems
decoding words compared to her peers.
Maria Doesnt yet:

Know diphthong sounds

Decoding nonsense words
Blend consonants well
Maria will need extra help with reading, since she is just under the average for reading, I
would suggest one on one (tutor) help in the morning before school to practice the skills
she needs some help with.
Maria will get help on decoding words in the morning for 15 minutes a day to gain decoding