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Study Group 1: Waves of Education

Marcia Applewhite; Michele Bodine; Shaneek Griffith; Cathy Miller

WAVE 3: Internet/Web - Based Communication


Context

Theories

Developments &
Systems

Methods of
Teaching/Learning

Technologies

Key Authors

Launching of
the World Wide
Web (publically)
in 1990
(Bates and
Sangra)

Industrialization
Theory
Teaching process
is mechanized and
automated
(Peters, 2010)

Cognitive-based
theories of learning
(Olson and Wisher)

Internet
(Anderson, 2011)

Terminology
used: flexible
navigation,
richer context,
learner
centered, and
social context
of learning
(Olson and
Wisher)

Equivalency
Theory
Distance education
that is equivalent
to face-to-face
education
(Anderson, 2003)

Learning
Management
System (LMS)
Created in 1994
by Murray
Goldberg
(Bates and
Sangra)

Terry
Anderson
Created
Community of
Inquiry Model
(with Randy
Garrison and
Walter Archer)
Created
Interaction
Equivalency
Theorem
Created
Equivalency
Theorem
Website (with
Terumi
Miyazoe)
Used Web 2.0
tools as new
pedagogy (with
Jon Dron)
(Anderson,
2011)

Increased
Speed of
communication
between
teacher and
student
First available
internet courses
(Anderson,
2011)
Need for
effective
collaboration
and meeting
diverse student
needs
(Anderson,
2003)
Need for
interactivity
(Anderson,
2003)
Opportunities
for real learning
experiences
(daily, work,
alumni)

Interaction
Equivalency
Theorem
Having good
interaction with one
element (Teaching,
Social, Network)
alleviates the need
for the other two
elements
(Anderson, 2011)
Internet-based
Learning
Education via
internet
(Holmberg, 2005)
Community of
Inquiry (CoI)
Teaching, Social,
and Network
presence
(Garrison, 2007)
Constructivism
Theory
Role of teacher is
reduced; student
gains knowledge
via training
experiences (as
with military)
(Anderson, 2011)

Web-based
learning
systems (new
form of
computer based
learning) made
an entry in the
late 90s.
(Moore &
Kearsley 2012)
In the late
1990s CDs
(compact disc)
and DVD (digital
video discs
became
dominant.
(Moore &
Kearsley 2012)
Voice over
internet protocol
via computer
conferences
introduced in
1995 by
Vocaltec
(Francis-Cobley
& Coward 2004)
Transport
Protocol: The
most
appropriate
Internet
transport
protocol for
synchronous

synchronous and
asynchronous
learning
environments
(Peters)
Asynchronous /
synchronous
communication
between students
and with instructor
(Anderson, 2011)
Web 2.0 (social
bookmarking,
blogging) for
students and
instructors (wikis,
blogs)
(Anderson, 2011)
Learner control
(Anderson, 2003)
Different forms of
participation and
communication by
students
(Anderson, 2003)
Other learner
perspectives
(Anderson, 2003)
Simulated
interaction between
students
(Anderson, 2003)
Common
interaction types
(student-student,
student-teacher,
student-content,
teacher-teacher,
teacher-content,

Interactive
technologies
(audio and video
conferencing
(Anderson, 2011)
Increased
computer power
and storage
capacity
(Anderson, 2003)
Further
development of
programming tools
and environments
(Anderson, 2003)
Multimedia
equipment for
Smart
classrooms
(Anderson, 2003)
Java applets,
automated testing,
quiz forms of
feedback,
simulations,
adaptive computer
assisted
instruction, and
applications of
learning objects
(Anderson, 2003)
Text based
computer
mediated
communications
(Anderson, 2003)
Open Digital
Markup Language
(Anderson, 2003)

Created Modes
of Interaction
Model (with
Randy
Garrison)
(Anderson,
2003)
Randy
Garrison
Created
Community of
Inquiry Model
(with Terry
Anderson and
Walter Archer)
Created
Interactionbased model of
e-learning (with
NAME Shale)
(Anderson,
2003)

Study Group 1: Waves of Education


Marcia Applewhite; Michele Bodine; Shaneek Griffith; Cathy Miller

(Anderson,
2011)
Training style
based on
military
(Anderson,
2011)

Using
technology to
provide a
quality
educational
experience
(Peters, 2010)
Students using
nets to create
informal
learning
opportunities
(Anderson,
2011)
Allows for
scalability
(Anderson,
2011)
Need for
different
combinations
(paced/unpaced,
synchronous /
asynchronous
(Anderson,
2003)
Need for a
variety of
modes and
modularities
(Anderson,
2003)
Increased
amount of web
courses
delivered by
institutions
(Anderson,
2003)

Communal
Constructivism
Theory
Building
knowledge in
groups, and
drawing on real
situations and
experiences
(Wenger,
McDermott and
Snyder, 2002;
Fulantelli, 2010;
Redmond and
Lock, 2009;
Redmond and
Mander, 2009 as
stated in Salmon,
2011).
Collaborative
Constructivsm
Theory
Building
knowledge in
groups, and
drawing on real
situations and
experiences
(Wenger,
McDermott and
Snyder, 2002;
Fulantelli, 2010;
Redmond and
Lock, 2009;
Redmond and
Mander, 2009 as
stated in Salmon,
2011).
Concept of Open
Learning-makes
learning available
to thousands of
student-more of a
policy but created
new theories
(Bates, 2015)
Connectivism
Theory
Knowledge is
shared through

audio normally
is the User
Datagram
Protocol (UDP),
which delivers
messages as
quickly as
possible
(Pullen, 2002).

content-content
(Anderson, 2003)
Call center
(Anderson, 2003)
Peer moderators
(Anderson, 2003)
I-Help system
(Anderson, 2003)
Search & Retrieval
Tutorials
Simulations/Games
Virtual labs
E-books
(Anderson, 2003)
Independent
learning by
students
(Anderson, 2003)
Computer-mediated
groups for students
(Salmon, 2011)
Online messaging
for students and
instructors
(Salmon, 2011)
Reflections by
students
(Salmon, 2011)
Online socialization
and networking for
students
(Salmon, 2011)
Self-interest
Common interest
(Salmon, 2011)
E-moderators to
create socialization
opportunities for elearners
(Salmon, 2011)

Smart Notebook
Software
Voice over
internet protocol
via computer
conferences
introduced in 1995
by Vocaltec
Virtual Learning
Environment
(VLE)
(Salmon, 2011)
Computermediated
conferencing
(CMC)
(Salmon, 2011)
COPE/Decision
Explorer
(Salmon, 2011)
Web-based Virtual
Learning
Environment
(Salmon, 2011)
Web 2.0
(Salmon, 2011)
Mobile
phone/tablet
(Salmon, 2011)
Conferencing
(audio, video,
web)
(Anderson & Dron,
2011)
Social networks
(Twitter,
Facebook)
(Anderson & Dron,
2011)
CMC (ComputerMediated
Communication)
(Garrison,
Anderson, Archer,

Created Modes
of Interaction
Model (with
Terry
Anderson)
(Anderson,
2003)
Walter Archer
Created
Community of
Inquiry Model
(with Randy
Garrison and
Terry
Anderson)
(Garrison,
Anderson,
Archer, 2000)
Terumi
Miyazoe
Created
Equivalency
Theorem
Website (with
Terry
Anderson)
(Anderson,
2011)
George
Siemens
Wrote 2004
article on
Connectivism
Ran massive
open online
courses
(MOOCs) (with
Stephen
Downes)
(Anderson,
2011)
Stephen
Downes
Ran massive
open online
courses
(MOOCs) (with
George
Siemens)
(Anderson,
2011)

Study Group 1: Waves of Education


Marcia Applewhite; Michele Bodine; Shaneek Griffith; Cathy Miller

Accommodate
large scale
number of
students at
OUUK
Salmon, 2011)
Span the
geographic
distance
between
learners,
teachers, and
institutions
(Anderson and
Dron, 2011)

technology
(Siemens, 2004)

Andragogy
Theory
When learning that
takes place
between teacher
and self-directed
adult.
(Hase, S. Kenyon,
C. 2000)

Heutatgogy
Theory
Similar to
Andragogy, but
self-directed
students guide
their own learning
rather than
instructor
(Hase & Kenyon,
2000)
Transactional
Distance Theory
Based on variable
levels of class
structure, student
autonomy, and
dialog
(Moore, 2006)

Bar/Caf area for


students
(Salmon, 2011)
Student e-tivities
(Salmon, 2011)
E-moderators to
provide guidelines
and protocols
(Salmon, 2011)
Instructor Weaving
and summarizing
discussions
(Salmon, 2011)
Participants as
online authors
rather than
transmitters of
information
(Salmon, 2011)
Learners discuss,
create, construct,
explore, connect,
create, evaluate
(Anderson & Dron,
2011)
Teachers lead
discussions, act as
guide on the side,
critical friend, cotraveler
(Anderson & Dron,
2011)
Learners will
construct meaning
through sustained
communication and
project personal
characteristics in
the community
(Garrison,
Anderson, Archer,
2000)
Teachers will
design education
experience and
facilitate
(Garrison,

2000)
Computer
conferencing
(Garrison,
Anderson, Archer,
2000)
PC
(Peters, 2010)
Multimedia
(Peters, 2010)
Internet
(Peters, 2010)
Hypertext and
hypermedia
(Peters, 2010)
Simulation
(Peters, 2010)
Virtual Reality
(Peters, 2010)
Email
(Peters, 2010)
Electronic
noticeboard
(Peters, 2010)
PowerPoint
(Peters, 2010)
Worldwide web
(Swan, 2010)
Digital multimedia
(Swan, 2010)
YouTube
(Swan, 2010)
Web 2.0
(Swan, 2010)

Wrote papers
on
Connectivism
Anderson &
Dron, 2011)
Jon Dron
Used Web 2.0
tools as new
pedagogy (with
Terry
Anderson)
(Anderson,
2011)
Ellen Wagner
Introduced the
Interactionbased model of
e-learning
(Anderson,
2003)
Roderick Sims
Named
functions of
InteractionBased Model of
e-Learning
(Anderson,
2003)
Matthew
Lipman
Created
learning
communities
(Anderson,
2003)
Etienne
Wenger
Created
learning
communities
(Anderson,
2003)
Doug Shale
Created
interactionbased model of
e-learning (with
Randy
Garrison)

Study Group 1: Waves of Education


Marcia Applewhite; Michele Bodine; Shaneek Griffith; Cathy Miller

Anderson, Archer,
2000)

(Anderson,
2003)

Text-based
communication
media (email,
texting)
(Garrison,
Anderson, Archer,
2000)

Diana
Laurillard
Created an
ideal
conversational
model of
learning
pertaining to
interaction
(Anderson,
2003)

Promote critical
thinking for
students
(Garrison,
Anderson, Archer,
2000)
Questioning,
reasoning,
connecting,
deliberating,
challenging, and
developing
problem-solving
techniques
(Lipman, 1991 as
stated by Garrison,
Anderson, Archer,
2000)
Teacher
immediacy is
present
(Garrison,
Anderson, Archer,
2000)
Students will:
-

Exchange
information
Compile folders
and collections
of text
Search for info
Solve problems
Navigate
hypertext
Develop/publish
learning
Study learning
contents
Use video
programs on

Jim Greer and


colleagues
Developed the
I-Help system
(Anderson,
2003)
Brent Wilson
Named the
three functions
of a good
educational
theory
(Envision new
worlds)
(Helps us
make new
things)
(Keeps us
honest)
(Anderson,
2003)
Gilly Salmon
Used
conferences to
build working
models of
computermediated
conferencing
(CMC)
Created
reflections for
feedback
messages from
tutors
Utilized focus
groups to gain
understanding

Study Group 1: Waves of Education


Marcia Applewhite; Michele Bodine; Shaneek Griffith; Cathy Miller

CDs
Use virtual
reality
(Peters, 2010)
-

Expository teaching
and receptive
learning
(Peters, 2010)
Students can
express
personalities in
virtual
environments
(Swan, 2010)
Teachers maintain
open
communication
(Swan, 2010)
CMC and computer
conferencing
(Garrison,
Anderson, Archer,
2000)

of participant
experiences
Built and ran an
e-moderator
training
program
Developed the
5-Stage Model:
Access and
motivation,
online
socialization,
information
exchange,
knowledge
construction,
development)
(Salmon, 2011)
Morten Flate
Paulsen
Identified three
constellations
(one person to
another person
email)
(one person
communicates
with several
noticeboard
(several
persons
communicate
with several
persons
virtual
conference)
(Peters, 2010)

Study Group 1: Waves of Education


Marcia Applewhite; Michele Bodine; Shaneek Griffith; Cathy Miller

FUTURE WAVE : New Possibilities


Context

Theories

Developments &
Systems

Methods of
Teaching/Learning

Technologies

Key Authors

Video Media in the


form of Streaming
video became
widely used via
YouTube
(2005) & Vimeo
(2004)
Terry Anderson
(2011)

Intelligent, flexible
learning for
students
(Anderson & Dron,
2011)

Intelligent
databases
(Anderson &
Dron)

Tony Bates,
Moore &
Kearsley,
Terry
Anderson
Continue to
research DE
and explore
ways to merge
past theories
with newer
theories

ConnConn

By 2007, 90%
of colleges in
the U.S. have
Learning
Management
Systems (LMS)
(Bates and
Sangra)
Massive Open
Universities
offering
courses
worldwideMOOC
(massive open
online course)
(Bates)
Increasing
social,
economic,
cultural change
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)
Disruptive
technology
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)
Online learning
benefiting
autonomous,
self-regulated
learning
(Peters, 2010)
Technologys
influence on
DE
(Anderson and
Dron, 2011)

(Continued below)

Connectivism
Theory
Knowledge is
shared through
technology
(Siemens, 2004)
Massive Open
Online Courses
(MOOCs)
A global
expansion to
learning-selfdirected, learning
nodes
(Siemens, 2013)
Non-directed or
Autonomous
Theory
Learners take
responsibility for
own learners; no
interference from
person or
organization
(Peters, 2010)
Complexity
Theory
Seeks to create
learning activities
that allow
effective
behavior to
emerge and
evolve and
ineffective ideas
to be
extinguished
(Anderson, 2010)

(Marci Applewhite)

Web 2.0 or Social


networking and
Media applications
in the classroom
has become
prevalent in the
past 5 years.
(Moore &
Kearsley, 2012)
Universities like
UMUC shift from
textbooks to ebooks and digital
resources
(UMUC, 2015)
Future learning
movement
continues to
include real-time,
synchronous
communication
through the use of
social media, chat
rooms and texting.
Accessing
connectivity from
anywhere by using
technology has
increased learning
opportunities for
students and given
teachers various
ways of lecturing
multiple classes at
once.
(Clark, 2012)

Teacher and
student interact
via CloudWorks
(Anderson & Dron,
2011)
Self-planned
learning
(Peters, 2010)
Self-organized
learning
(Peters, 2010)
Self-assessed
learning
(Peters, 2010)
Self-directed
learning
(Peters, 2010)
Learners who can
initiate, plan,
implement,
control, evaluate,
and apply their
learning
(Peters, 2010)
Faster
communication
between student
and correctors
(Peters, 2010)

Web 3.0
(Anderson &
Dron)
Multi-sensory
(Peters, 2010)
Animation
(Peters, 2010)
Virtual reality
(Peters, 2010)
Virtual
communication
(Peters, 2010)
Network-based
learning
(Peters, 2010)
Digital libraries
(Peters, 2010)
Digitally
converged
technologies
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)
Faster pace of
various
technologies
overlapping
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)

Open educational
market
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)

(Continued below)

(Continued below)

Otto Peters
A pioneer in
DE, he
continues to
influence the
field of DE
James
Hendler
Suggested that
mobility,
augmented
reality, and
location
awareness will
be part of
future wave
Anderson &
Dron, 2011)
Toby Segaran
Suggested the
use of
collectives for
DE future
Anderson &
Dron, 2011)
J. Taylor
Suggested use
of intelligent
data bases that
create
intelligent
flexible
learning
Anderson &

Study Group 1: Waves of Education


Marcia Applewhite; Michele Bodine; Shaneek Griffith; Cathy Miller

Moving
towards
shared
learning in a
digital world
(Siemens.
2013)
(Michele Bodine)

(Shaneek Griffith)

Customized
learning
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)
Instructors and
Publishers move
to electronic
books-math
courses taught
through online
MyMathLab by
Pearson
(Schaffhauser,
2015)
(Cathy Miller)

New types of
developments
within
infrastructure of
broadband,
radio,
networks(Evan
s and Pauling,
2010)
Additional
connectivity
beyond
desktops
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)
Enhanced
content
management to
ensure security
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)
Social web will
be platform and
database
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)
Continued
scientific and
technological
advances
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)
Interactive
screens
(Evans and
Pauling, 2010)
(Cathy Miller)

*Grid Edited by Marci Applewhite

*References and Final Comments follow on the next pages

Dron, 2011)
(Continued below)

Rolf Arnold
Suggested the
implementation
for a pedagogy
of enablement
Anderson &
Dron, 2011)
Hase &
Kenyon
Suggested that
heutagogy
(selfdetermined
learning) is how
all humans
learn
(Cathy Miller)

Study Group 1: Waves of Education


Marcia Applewhite; Michele Bodine; Shaneek Griffith; Cathy Miller

Final Comments
This final Evolution of Distance Education Grid was completed by the remaining members of Study Group 1: Marci
Applewhite, Michele Bodine, Shaneek Griffith and Cathy Miller. Members were asked to select a section to complete.
Unfortunately, due to the loss of several original members the remaining members worked collaboratively to fill in the grid.
The grid was created using the template from the course in Google Docs. This presented a problem since the original
owner of the document left the group and was unable to provide access to members for the final section. A
recommendation to future students would be to provide ownership of the document to several members to avoid the
problems we encountered. The group communicated through the classroom study group area, email and text. We learned
firsthand about the collaboration necessary in a virtual classroom to complete an assignment. The final grid is a visual tool
demonstrating the developments in distance education history.

Study Group 1: Waves of Education


Marcia Applewhite; Michele Bodine; Shaneek Griffith; Cathy Miller

References

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Anderson, T. (2010). Theories for learning with emerging technologies. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.),
Emerging technologies in distance education (pp. 23-40). Canada: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from
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Anderson, T. (2011, November). The third wave of distance education. [Online video]. Edmonton, AB, Canada. Available
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from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/890
Bates, T. (2013). Is there a future for distance education? Online Learning and Distance Education Resources. Retrieved
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learning, 1st edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Wiley
Clark, D. (2012). More pedagogic change in 10 years than last 1000 years - all driven by 10 technology innovation [Blog
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Study Group 1: Waves of Education


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Study Group 1: Waves of Education


Marcia Applewhite; Michele Bodine; Shaneek Griffith; Cathy Miller

Peters, O. (2010). A pedagogical model for using virtual learning spaces. In O. Peters, Distance education in transition:
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