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A study on

Media planning, Media buying and Advertising with reference to HY TV,


Hyderabad

In the partial fulfillment of


Post graduate diploma in Management

By:
N.VENKATA NAGARJUNA
(H.T.No: DM-04-024)

Under the guidance of


Mr.KISHORE.G
External Guide
Mr.KRISHNAMOHAN.K

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AURORA’S BUSINESS SCHOOL
HYDERABAD
(2008-2010)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. N.Venkata Nagarjuna, student of Aurora’s Business School,
Hyderabad, has undergone a four-week summer internship program in our
organization from 10th May 2009 to 10th of June 2009.

As a part of his summer internship Program, he has completed a study on “Media


planning, Media buying and Advertising”. We find Mr.N.Venkata Nagarjuna sincere,
diligent and Hardworking in the tasks assigned to him.
We wish him all the best for his endeavors.

K.Krishnamohan
Marketing Head

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr.N. Venkata Nagarjuna is a bonafide student of Aurora’s


Business School, Hyderabad working under my guidance for the Project work. He
has done the summer internship project in HY TV. During the internship period he
has done this piece of research work entitled “Role of Media planning, Media buying
and Advertising in Electronic media (HY TV)”. The said work is the original
contribution of the student.

DIRECTOR SIGNATURE OF THE


SUPERVISOR
Date Date

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DECLARATION

I, VENKATA NAGARJUNA bearing Roll No. DM-04-024 hereby declares that this
Project work is genuine piece of work done by me and it is original. This Project has
not been copied from any other source and has not been submitted for fulfillment of
any other degree/diploma. I have collected the data and analyzed the same.

Name and Address of the Student Signature of the Student

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my sincere thanks to Mr. KRISHNAMOHAN. K, Marketing Head, HY TV,


Banjara Hills, Hyderabad. Who guided me throughout my project with constant co-
operation, encouragement and motivation.

I thank to record my gratitude our college Director for his encouragement and
valuable support towards us.

My project guide Mr. KISHORE. G has provided his valuable inputs as and when
required. I thank him for his help and constant support.

I wish to place on record my gratitude to all the persons I have met during the data
collection phase of my Project. Their inputs are indispensable.

Last but not the least I would thanks my friend for sharing the resources required
for successful completion of this project.

N.VENKATA NAGARJUNA

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CONTENTS
TOPIC
Pg .No
1. Company Profile-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9
2. Introduction to Media sector--------------------------------------------------------------------
12
2.1. Cable TV industry
overview------------------------------------------------------------------- 13
2.2. Impact on Television
Industry----------------------------------------------------------------- 17
3. Organization structure of HY TV--------------------------------------------------------------
18
4. Advertising----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
19
4.1 Introduction to Advertising---------------------------------------------------------------------
19
4.2 Objectives of Advertising-----------------------------------------------------------------------
19
4.3 Functions of Advertising------------------------------------------------------------------------
20
4.4 Advertising versus Publicity--------------------------------------------------------------------
21
4.5 Marketing of an Advertisement----------------------------------------------------------------
21
4.6 Key participants in Marketing
process-------------------------------------------------------- 21
5. Consumer Behavior Study-----------------------------------------------------------------------
23
5.1 Factors influencing consumer behavior------------------------------------------------------
24
5.2 Flow chart of Brand Building on TV channel-----------------------------------------------
27

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6. The Advertising Business-------------------------------------------------------------------------
29
6.1Agency and Client relationship-----------------------------------------------------------------
29
6.2Role of Ad Agency in Advertising-------------------------------------------------------------
29
6.3Organizations in Advertising--------------------------------------------------------------------
30
6.4People in Advertising-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
30
6.5Kinds of Agency Organizations-----------------------------------------------------------------
31
6.6Advertising Departments-------------------------------------------------------------------------
32
6.7Selection of an Advertising
Agency------------------------------------------------------------- 36
6.8Types of Advertising Agencies------------------------------------------------------------------
36
6.9How Ad agencies get clients--------------------------------------------------------------------
40
6.10 Client-Agency relationship--------------------------------------------------------------------
40
6.11Factors affecting Client-Agency
relationship----------------------------------------------- 41
6.12Basic principles of Client-Agency
relationship--------------------------------------------- 41
6.13Departments in Ad agency---------------------------------------------------------------------
42
7. Communication Process---------------------------------------------------------------------------
42
7.1Components of Communication
Process------------------------------------------------------- 43
8. Media Planning--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
45

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8.1 Introduction about Media Planning-------------------------------------- 45
8.2Media terms------------------------------------------------------------------ 46
8.3Objectives of Media Planning--------------------------------------------- 47
8.4Media planning Strategy--------------------------------------------------- 48
8.5Steps for Effective Media planning-------------------------------------- 49
8.6Media planning process---------------------------------------------------- 52
8.7Media Cost and Media Availability-------------------------------------- 53
8.8Media Scheduling----------------------------------------------------------- 54
9. Government policies in Media sector------------------------------------- 55
10. Media Buying--------------------------------------------------------------- 58
10.1Advertising rate card in HY TV----------------------------------------- 59
11. Research Methodology---------------------------------------------------- 61
11.1Research Methods--------------------------------------------------------- 62
11.2Research Design----------------------------------------------------------- 62
11.3Types of Research design------------------------------------------------ 62
11.4Sampling Techniques----------------------------------------------------- 63
11.5Need for Sampling-------------------------------------------------------- 64
11.6Data collection Method-------------------------------------------------- 66
11.7Selection of Method for Data collection------------------------------ 68
11.8Questionaire--------------------------------------------------------------- 69
11.8.1Questionaire for Ad agency------------------------------------------- 72
11.8.2Questionaire for Clients----------------------------------------------- 74
11.8.3Questionaire for Audience-------------------------------------------- 78
11.9Analysis and Interpretation--------------------------------------------- 79
12. Suggestions---------------------------------------------------------------- 90
13. Conclusion----------------------------------------------------------------- 91
14. Bibliography--------------------------------------------------------------- 92

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DIAGRAMS

1. Cable TV Industry Structure------------------------------------------- 15


2. Market shares------------------------------------------------------------- 15
3. Flow chart on Brand building on TV channels-------------------- 27
4. Channel rating Diagram------------------------------------------------ 50
5. Flexibility of Media Channel------------------------------------------ 52
6. Sales of electronic media in last five years------------------------ 56

TABLES

1. Cable industry Financials----------------------------------------------- 16


2. FDI limit in various sectors--------------------------------------------- 56
3. Future prospects of Media sector------------------------------------- 57

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OBJECTIVE:
 To study the relationship among media planning, media buying and
Advertising a specific product in electronic media.
 To study how a company can get competitive advantage of the product
through advertising in electronic media.
 To understand contemporary media planning issues through discussion of
current events/trends
 To gain conceptual knowledge of media forms/types
 To understand how advertising is integrated with other promotional tools to
create effective marketing communication plans
 To be familiar with resources available for advertising media planning
 To apply your skills and knowledge through developing a complete media
plan

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1. ABOUT HY TV, HYDERABAD:
HY TV, launched under the corporate HY MEDIA & ENTERTAINMENT Pvt. Ltd , marks
yet another formidable foray into the powerful and growing regional television
market by India’s premier media group, POSITIV TELEVISION Media, comprising the
flagship TV and Radio enterprises, POSITIV TELEVISION Pvt. Ltd. and POSITIV Radio
Pvt. Ltd. POSITIV TV already boasts of operating several firsts in the country: India’s
first private teleport and private satellite television and radio channels in
Northeastern India to cover and connect all the eight states of the region. We are an
unparalleled brand name in the Northeast, based in Guwahati with a deep
penetration of Northeast India besides being connected to the nook and corner of
India with fiber optic, VSAT links and our own DSNG vans. We gave new meaning to
Regional Language Electronic Media with our two television channels that have
come to command the respect and love of our audience. NETV reigns supreme as
the only 24 hour news network in the world with live bulletins in 17 languages of the
region, and, NE Hi Fi has begun to enthrall families with general entertainment
programming in different languages of northeast India, and from Bollywood to
Hollywood. Radio Oolalala’s private FM network extends from Guwahati to Shillong
to Agartala and Itanagar. In 2007, the group launched NE Bangla that caters to East
and Northeast Indian audiences in Bengali language and is fast emerging as a top 5
in the region. POSITIV TV is the first private teleport in the Northeast or for that
matter any sensitive area of India. POSITIV TV Media’s presence has grown from
Guwahati with bureaus in over two dozen cities of Northeast India to now a national
presence created through its newly announced television channel, FOCUS TV for the
Indian women. & HAMAR TV, under the corporate Hamar Television Network Pvt. Ltd
, yet another foray into the growing regional television market by India’s premier
media group . Hamar TV will capture an important regional language market - the

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Bhojpuri speaking people. Bhojpuri is not just the mother tongue but enshrines a
heritage for many in Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal
and Delhi, besides immigrants in countries such as Nepal, Mauritius and many
countries spread through the 5 continents of the world that could number more
than 18 crores.

Positive Television has offices and television studios in Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta,
Hyderabad, Patna, Ranchi, Varanasi and more. POSITIV TV has affiliate offices and
studios in London and Los Angeles. NETV, NE Hi Fi and NE Bangla are also a
broadcast affiliate of Turner International. Today, POSITIV TV Media boasts of
satellite, cable and internet carriage in more than 1 crore (10 million) homes in
India alone besides tens of thousands of expatriates and others watching NETV, NE
Hi Fi and NE Bangla real-time as a broadband Internet based live stream worldwide.

NETV is today the largest and leading single platform for advertisers in the
Northeast. There is no other media, print or television, in this region which can
boast of an overwhelming statistic connecting all of northeast India television
audience, i.e. 6.8 million homes. HY-TV- Hyderabad will fill a niche media void in the
Greater Hyderabad metro area and target a lucrative 1 million potential population.
The channel will deploy a successful dual-core strategy, as in the world’s developed
markets, with programming for and marketing to a 21st century highly
cosmopolitan audience with a fast-paced lifestyle.

Hyderabad is amongst the fastest growing metros, with not just a burgeoning
1,000,000 population, but also the most modern airport and a growing number of
the biggest-name MNC’s in the world. Due to their culture and history, Hyderabadis
are an exception in South India as they are extremely conversant with and use both
English and Hindi languages. Constantly updated news and current affairs on and
about Greater Hyderabad, interspersed with national and international affairs, in
English and Hindi will give the Channel the edge over the otherwise Telugu only
regional channels. And, with a strong network of correspondents in Hyderabad, Live
DSNG vans, bureaus across the State and national connectivity, Indian and
international networks will be hard pressed to compete with the Channel for the
local audience. The channel’s infotainment shows will be world-class and modern,

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including very topical talk shows, exclusive interview-based features on lifestyle &
entertainment, game shows, contests and interactive programs that drive audience
interaction and therefore derive constant ratings. On a larger level, HY-TV-
HYDERABAD will find a national and international audience that wants to inform and
entertain themselves on and about Hyderabad. All these elements will help HY TV,
HYDERABAD leverage ratings and revenues. Thus, HY TV, HYDERABAD incorporates
all elements that satisfy the insatiable, discerning appetite of the target audience to
make it the top choice of the local audience. Simultaneously, it will appeal to the
regional, national and international advertiser.

2. INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE TV MEDIA:


The Indian Cable TV industry, which began operations just a decade ago, is going
through another phase of development. The absence of regulations governing the
industry had resulted in its disorganized growth and the government has been
making efforts to professionalize the industry. The entry of multi-system operators
(MSOs), in the mid-1990s, was expected to bring greater discipline. However, since
the last mile was controlled by a large number of individuals called the local cable
operators (LCOs) and independent cable operators (ICOs), the industry remained
fragmented and disorganized and MSO’s remained squeezed in terms of profitability
due to their lack of last mile ownership.

The government was successful in passing the Conditional Access System (CAS) Bill
in the last session of Parliament, which is expected to bring greater discipline to the
market place. The CAS Bill primarily deals with the issue of lack of addressability –
the bane of the industry. Lack of addressability meant that broadcasters did not
know the exact reach of their channels, while the LCOs earned a disproportionate
share of the cable revenues by under declaring the households reached, to MSOs,
ICOs and broadcasters. This is expected to change with the implementation of CAS
in the four major metros from 14 July 2003. Fitch believes that, in medium to long
term, the MSOs and broadcasters would be the biggest beneficiaries of the
implementation of CAS, though in the near term they would be impacted due to low
penetration of CAS and the consequent drop in advertising and subscription
revenues. CAS, essentially comprising a set-top box (STB) and subscriber
management software, helps track viewer ship accurately and makes the whole

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viewer-cable-operator-MSO/ICO-broadcaster chain completely transparent. With the
initial penetration of CAS, gross rating points (GRP’s) for most leading pay channels
like Star, Zee and Sony is estimated to fall, which may translate into a drop in
advertising revenues. In the next two years, Fitch estimates a substantial decline in
the revenues of broadcasters due to slow penetration of CAS. However, if the
broadcasters manage to price their channels competitively, such that the payout for
consumers is maintained at current levels, they will be able to ramp up the
penetration levels in the next 2-3 years, resulting in considerable gains. Thus, while
there is short-term uncertainty about CAS, in the long run, Fitch expects that the
broadcasters and MSOs would derive considerable gains from the implementation of
CAS if the payout for consumers were maintained at current levels. Initial estimates
suggest that CAS would be able to penetrate up to 30% of the metro households in
the first year and up to 50% of the metro households in the second year of
implementation. At 50% penetration, MSOs and broadcasters would earn additional
revenues of Rs2-2.5bn each. However, since customer additions will occur over the
full year, the benefit of these additional revenues would be spread over the period
of next two years. Over a period of time, increase in penetration and negotiations
with LCOs for higher share of revenues would lead to a further increase in revenues.

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2.1 CABLE TV INDUSTRY OVERVIEW:
The cable industry in India was came into being in the late 1970s with the boom in
the videocassette recorders market. Some enterprising individuals started offering a
cable TV service to tap viewers who were interested in greater variety which
Doordarshan, the national TV channel, did not offer. This cable TV service initially
included Hindi and English movies and pirated Western comedies, music and game
shows. However, at this stage, cable TV was largely restricted to the major metros
and towns and to the upper crust of society. The Gulf War, in 1990, gave further
impetus to this industry. Some cable operators, who had been running their Hindi
and English movie channels, added dish antennae and started relaying news
programmes of CNN into homes. This spurred the demand for cable TV, making it a
lucrative business and attracting more individuals to the industry. The launch of Zee
TV further fuelled the spread of cable TV. From 1992 until date, the industry has
grown exponentially – from 412,000 subscribers to close to 39 mn in 2002, as per
the National Readership Survey, representing a CAGR (compounded annual growth
rate) of 50% per annum. This represents close to 17% penetration of cable TV in
Indian households and 45% penetration in TV households.

With the growth in the number of subscribers, the industry also underwent a major
change. Most of the international channels became pay-channels with digital and
coded signals, which required higher investments in integrated receiver decoders
(IRDs). At the same time, the quality of signals relayed by the local operators was
poor. In order to address these issues and to meet the customer demand for larger
number of channels, multi-system operators (MSOs) entered the industry. These
MSOs had the backing of media houses and the funds to invest in higher quality
cable infrastructure. However, since they did not have access to subscribers, they
had to tie up with existing LCOs to reach the customers. MSOs like In Cablenet
(managed by the Hinduja Group), Siticable (earlier a joint venture between the
Promoter of Zee TV, Subhash Chandra, and Star TV, now fully owned by Zee TV),
Hathway Cable (owned by the Rajan Raheja Group, with a strategic stake by Star
TV), Asianet Satellite Communications Limited (owned by the Rajan Raheja Group),
Ortel Communications, RPG Netcom (a company promoted by the RPG Group) and
Sumangali Cable Network (SCN owned by Sun TV) control close to 30% of the
industry in terms of number of subscribers. Most of the smaller towns are covered

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by ICOs, who function like MSOs. The only difference between an MSO and an ICO is
that the ICOs reach is smaller and they do not invest in sophisticated technology
like MSOs.

The existing market shares of MSOs and ICOs are given in Chart 2.

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2.2 Impact on Television Industry:
The four metros account for 15%-20% of the total television sales. A major part of
the television sales from the metros comes from replacement demand and demand
for a second set. With CAS making it necessary for every television set to pay for
the pay channels, the purchase rate of second television sets is expected to decline.
Thus, there would a marginal impact of CAS on television sales in the metros. This is
based on the assumption that the average cost to consumer per cable connection
would remain at reasonable levels. However, in the other places, television sales
would be largely determined by other factors like income levels, major sporting
event and other high viewer interest events.

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3.ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF HY TV:

CHAIRMAN

O/P HEAD I/P HEAD ADMIN.HEA BEAURO

EDITORS PRODUCTI H.R DEPT. REPORTERS

GRAPHICS FRONT

CAMERA ACCOUNTS

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION

ADVERTISEMENTS

SALES

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4. ADVERTISING
As we know that advertising plays an important role in Marketing especially in
electronic media. All the TV channels will generate revenues through
Advertisements. So getting an advertisement is a big deal in any of the TV
channels. As per our project HY TV is an INFOTAINMENT channel which has been
launched recently. At present they don’t have subscription to TAM. Most of the Ad.
Agencies go for TAM rating in selection of Communication Media. So let us see how
an advertising agency works, how an advertisement works and how to attract the
Ad. Agencies.

4.1 INTRODUCTION:
Advertising is an effective method of reaching people with product information.
“Advertising is controlled, identifiable information and persuasion by means of Mass
communication media”. It is considered controlled information because it has use
the Time, Space and content of the message effectively and economically. It is
controlled because it is directed at a particular group.

4.2 OBJECTIVES:
The basic objective of the advertising is to increase the sales volume and profits.
1) To facilitate launching a new product or service or a new brand into the
Market.
2) To create the awareness about the product or service.
3) To build up a goodwill.
4) To enter into new market segment for Market development.

4.3 FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISING:


Advertising serves every sector of the business Society -Consumer, producer and
middlemen (Agency and sales men).The various functions of the Advertising may be
grouped into two classes - (1) Primary functions, and (2) Secondary functions.

(1) PRIMARY FUNCTIONS:


a) To increase sales
b) Persuasion of dealers
c) Help to dealers.

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d) To increase in per capita use
e) Creates awareness of new product
f) To eliminate seasonal fluctuations
g) More business for all
h) Raising of standard of living

(2) SECONDARY FUNCTIONS:


a. To encourage salesmen
b. To furnish Information
c. To impress executives
d. To impress factory workers
e. Feeling of security

4.4 ADVERTISING VERSUS PUBLICITY:


Advertising and publicity are both marketing communications and both may appear
in same media; but where advertising is paid for by its sponsor, publicity is not.

4.5 MARKETING OF AN ADVERTISEMENT:


After making the advertisement Marketing of the advertisement comes into picture.
Advertisement will be designed depending on four P’s.
1. Product
2. Place
3. Promotion
4. Price

4.6 KEY PARTICIPANTS IN THE MARKETING PROCESS:


Peoples needs and wants change daily, and marketers should know about the
customers’ expectations and needs. This makes the marketing process very
dynamic. The various participants in marketing process are as follows,

(1) CUSTOMERS:
Customers are the people or organizations who consume the products and
services. They fall into three general categories:
1. Current customers

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2. Prospective customers
3. Centers of influence

(2) MARKETS:
It is a group of current and prospective customers who share a common
interest, need, or desire, who can use the specific product or service, and
who are willing to pay for it. These markets are broadly classified into four
types
a. Consumer markets
b. Business markets
c. Government markets
d. Global markets

(3) MARKETERS:
The third participation in the marketing process, marketers, includes every
person or organization that has products, services, or ideas to sell
manufactures market consumer and business products. Farmer’s market
wheat; doctors market medical services; banks market financial products;
and political organizations market philosophies and candidates. To be
successful, marketers must know their markets intimately – before they start
advertising.
Consumer Consumers
Characteristi Decisions
5. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR: cs
Product choice
Marketing Other
Cultural Problem recognition
Stimuli Stimuli
Brand choice
Product Economic Social Information search
Dealer choice
Price Technological Personal Decision Evaluation
Purchasing
Place Political Psychologica Post purchase
timing
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l Behavior
Promotion Cultural Purchasing
amount.
5.1 Model of Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior:

Cultural factors

Social factors

Personal
Reference factors
Cultural
groups
Age & Life
cycle Psychological
factors
Occupation
Family
Motivation
Sub-cultural
Economic Perception
Circumstances Learning
Beliefs and Buyer
Life style Attitudes
Roles & Status
Social class personality &
Self concept

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Cultural factors

Culture: Culture is the most fundamental determinant of a person’s wants and


behavior like set of values, perceptions, preference and behaviors through his or
her family member.

Sub culture: Sub culture includes nationalities, religious, racial groups and
geographical regions.

Social class: Social classes are relatively homogenous and enduring decisions in a
society which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values,
interests and behavior. Social classes include upper class, middle class and lower
class.

Social factors
Reference groups: A persons reference group consists of all the groups that have
a direct (face to face) or indirect influence on the person’s attitude or behavior.This
groups to which the person belongs and interacts.

Personal factors
A consumer decisions are also influenced by personal characteristics notably the
buyers age & life cycle stage, occupation, economic, circumstance, life style &
personality and self concept.

Psychological factors
Motivation: A person has many needs at any given time. Some needs are biogenic.
They arise from psychological states of tension such as hunger, tryst and
discomfort.

Perception: Perception is defined as “the process by which an individual select,


organizes intercepts information, input to create a meaningful picture of the world.

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Learning: When people act, they learn. Learning describes changes in an
individual’s behavior rising from experience, process of applying results of fast
experience to evaluate a new situation or modify feature.

Beliefs and attitudes: Doing and learning people acquire beliefs and attitudes.
These in term influence consumer behavior belief are a descriptive thought that a
person holds about something. An attitude describes persons enduring favorable or
unfavorable evaluations, emotional feelings.
5.2 FLOW CHART:
BRAND BUILDING ON TV CHANNEL/HOW IT WORKS:

ADVERTISER

Is the client /manufacturer who owns the


product or brand

Main Aspects:

Product ,Quality,Range,Praising

Distribution,Sales and Marketing Strategies.

Creativity of the Advertisement:

Either done by own production house or by an Media agency

Media agency is a bridge between Advertiser, TV channel and


media agency company

In media agency key account Manager Deals with client or Advertiser


discuss about his ad film, campaign period and Budget.

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Media Planner:

He takes care of media channels list, programs, films, period of


campaign, target audience.

Media Buyer:

He deals with rate factor, channels, TRP based programs and finalize
the deal then reports to key account manager.

5. THE ADVERTISING BUSINESS

6.1 AGENCIES AND CLIENT RELATIONSHIP:


A modern advertising agency offers specialized knowledge, skills and experience
which are required to product an effective advertising campaign. It has writers,
Artists, Media experts, Researchers, Television producers, account executives,
etc.These specialists’ work together to understand fully the advertiser’s
requirements of an advertisement campaign, and develop suitable advertising plans
and strategies. By creating advertisements and delivering them through
appropriate media, the agencies implement advertising plans and strategies.

6.2 THE ROLE OF THE ADVERTISING AGENCY:


An Advertiser firm may organize the advertising campaign through its own
advertising department or may entrust the whole part of the advertising work to a
body of experts known as advertising agency. Thus advertising agency is an
independent institution setup to render specialized services in advertising in
particular and in marketing in general. In legal sense they are not agents, but are
independent firms having their own organizations.

Thus an advertising agency is “An organization whose business consists in the


acquisition as a principal, of the right to use space or time in advertising media and
administration on behalf of the advertisers of advertising appropriations made by
them”. It is organized to render advice creative services for its clients. it does not
sell any tangible product ,sells creative talents and its past experience. Thus it is an
organization specially created for rendering services in advertising.

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6.3 THE ORGANIZATIONS IN ADVERTISING:
The advertising business is composed of four different groups. The two main ones
are the advertisers and the agencies. The Advertisers (or clients) or the companies –
like Vodafone, Honda etc. that advertise themselves and their products.

Advertisers range in size from huge multinational firms to small independent stores
and in type from service organizations to industrial concerns to political action
committees. Assisting them in the second group –The advertising agencies that
plan, create, and prepare their clients ad campaigns and promotional materials.
The third group the Media, sells time (in electronic media) and space (in print
media) to carry the advertiser’s message to the target audience.

The last group, the suppliers includes the photographs, illustrators, printers, digital
service bureaus, colourfilm separators, video production houses, and other who
assist both advertisers and agencies in preparing advertising materials. Suppliers
also include consultants, research firms, and other professional services that work
with both advertisers and agencies.

6.4 PEOPLE IN ADVERTISING:


When most people think of advertising, they imagine the copywriters and art
directors who work for ad agencies. But the majority of people in advertising are
actually employed by the advertisers. Most companies have an advertising
department, if it’s just one person.

The importance of the company’s advertising department depends on the size of


the company, the type of the industry it operates in, the size of its advertising
program, the role advertising plays in the company’s marketing mix, and most of
all, the involvement of top management.

Many people are involved in company’s advertising function:


a) Company owners and top corporate executives make key advertising
decisions.

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b) Sales and marketing personnel often assist in the creative process, help
choose the ad Agency.
c) Artists and writers produce ads, broachers and other materials.
d) Product engineers and designers give input to the creative process and
provide information about competitive products.
e) Administrators evaluate the cost of the ad Companies and help plan budgets.
f) Clerical staff coordinates various advertising activities.

6.5 KINDS OF AGENCY ORGANISATION:


1. Group system
2. Departmental system
3. Decentralized organization
4. Smaller Agency Organization

6.6 ADVERTISING DEPARTMENTS:


Organization by Sub-function:
Advertising department functions on the basis of sub-functions to discharge all the
functions of advertising effectively and smoothly.

CREATIVE MEDIA ADVERTISING RESEARCH


ADVERTISING MANAGER

LAYOUT COPY ART

Organization by media:

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The advertising manager is given the ultimate responsibility for managing
advertising in all the media.

ADVERTISING MANAGER

PRINT MEDIA BROADCASTING MEDIA OTHER MEDIA

MAGAZINES TELEVISION OUTDOOR


TEADVERTISI

NEWS PAPERS RADIO TRANSIT


RADIOADVERT

DIRECT MAIL
DIRECTMAILA

Organization by Product:

ADVERTISING MANAGER

PRODUCT PRODUCT PRODUCT PRODUCT


A B C D
BRAND BRAND BRAND BRAND BRAND BRAND

Organization by Market segmentation:

ADVERTISING MANAGER

FINAL INDUSTRIAL MARKET INSTITUTIONAL AGRICULTU


USER MARKETS RAL

STUDENTS
STUSTUDENT
EMPLOYED
Organization by Geographical Area:

ADVERTISING MANAGER

NATIONAL INTERNATIONAL

NORTH SOUTH WEST EASTERN


6.7 SELECTION OF AN ADVERTISING AGENCY:
REGION
The following points should be considered for selection of an advertising agency.
1) First and foremost, the agency must known; previously unknown agencies
are not preferred.
2) Secondly, the agency must have creativity.
3) Thirdly, the agency must have a sound track record, a good deal of
experience.
4) Fourthly, the account executives must have ability to understand client’s
problems.
5) Fifthly, the work they have produced for other clients does matter.
ASIA EUROPE AMERIC AUSTRALIA AFRICA
6) Sixthly, the personal equation of the client with the agency also matters.
A
7) Seventhly, their ability and presentation may make you opt for them.
8) Lastly, there are some unique considerations some prefer a small, some a
medium, some a large agency.

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6.8 TYPES OF ADVERTISING AGENCIES:
Ad agencies come in all sizes and include everything from one or two-person shops
(which rely mostly on freelance talent to perform most functions), small to medium
sized agencies, large independents such as SMART and TAXI, and multi-national,
multi-agency conglomerates such as Omnicom Group, WPP Group, Publicis,
Interpublic Group of Companies and Havas.

Full-service agencies:
Most full-service agencies work on a combination of fee-based and commission
based compensation. The fee is paid by the entity for which the marketing is being
done. The commission is a payment from the media to the agency and is usually
equal to 15% of the cost of the advertisement. The broadcast media, radio and
television, traditionally pay a commission.

Full-service, or media-neutral advertising agencies produce work for many types of


media, creating integrated marketing communications, or through-the-line (TTL)
advertising. The "line", in this case, is the traditional marker between the media
that pay a commission to the agency and the media that do not.

Full-service agencies are also known as traditional advertising agencies for the
client, wherein the client satisfies almost all their advertising or promotional needs
with the same organization. This type of agency provides advertising services such
as strategic planning, creative development, production, media planning, media
buying, and other related services such as sales promotional, direct selling, design,
and branding, etc.
Interactive agencies:
Interactive agencies may differentiate themselves by offering a mix of web
design/development, search engine marketing, internet advertising/marketing, or e-
business/e-commerce consulting. Interactive agencies rose to prominence before
the traditional advertising agencies fully embraced the Internet. Offering a wide
range of services, some of the interactive agencies grew very rapidly, although
some have downsized just as rapidly due to changing market conditions. Today, the
most successful interactive agencies are defined as companies that provide
specialized advertising and marketing services for the digital space. The digital

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space is defined as any multimedia-enabled electronic channel that an advertiser's
message can be seen or heard from. The 'digital space' translates to the Internet,
kiosks, CD-ROMs, DVDs, and lifestyle devices (iPod, PSP, and mobile). Interactive
agencies function similarly to advertising agencies, although they focus solely on
interactive advertising services. They deliver services such as strategy, creative,
design, video, development, programming (Flash and otherwise), deployment,
management, and fulfillment reporting. Often, interactive agencies provide: digital
lead generation, digital brand development, interactive marketing and
communications strategy, rich media campaigns, interactive video brand
experiences, Web 2.0 website design and development, e-learning Tools, email
marketing, SEO/SEM services, PPC campaign management, content management
services, web application development, and overall data mining & ROI assessment.

The recent boost in the interactive agencies can also be attributed to the rising
popularity of web-based social networking and community sites. The creation of
sites such as MySpace, Face book and YouTube have sparked market interest, as
some interactive agencies have started offering personal and corporate community
site development as one of their service offerings. It still may be too early to tell
how agencies will use this type of marketing to monetize client ROI, but all signs
point to online networking as the future of brand marketing.

Due to the social networking explosion, new types of companies are doing
reputation management. This type of agency is especially important if a company
needs online damage control. If a customer becomes disgruntled, it is very easy to
damage a company’s reputation over social networking sites. Because of how
rapidly the information spreads, it becomes absolutely necessary to address any
rumors, gossip or other negative online press immediately.

Examples of interactive agencies include, R/GA, AKQA, Big Spaceship, Agency net,
Firstborn Interactive, Odopod, eROI, and EVB, among others.

Tradigital agencies:
Tradigital agencies are advertising agencies who are experts in both traditional and
[1][2]
digital advertising . They offer the best of both worlds and are very useful in

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today’s digital age where all campaigns now require both online and above-the-line
advertising.

These agencies often buy out digital agencies. Now more than ever traditional
agencies are looking for a door into the digital world. They are often the only way to
extend your brand across all the numerous mediums of today’s markets.

Search engine agencies:


Lately, search engine marketing (SEM) and search engine optimization (SEO) firms
have been classified by some as 'agencies' because they create media and
implement media purchases of text based (or image based, in some instances of
search marketing) ads. This relatively young industry has been slow to adopt the
term 'agency', however with the creation of ads (either text or image) and media
purchases; they do technically qualify as 'advertising agencies'. Recent studies
suggest that both SEO and SEM are set to outpace more traditional channels of
media spending over the next 3-5 years.

Social media agencies:


Social media agencies specialize in promotion of brands in the various social media
platforms like blogs, social networking sites, Q&A sites, discussion forums, micro
blogs etc. The two key services of social media agencies are:
• social media marketing
• online reputation management

Other agencies:
While non advertising agencies, enterprise technology agencies often work in
tandem with advertising agencies to provide a specialized subset of services offered
by some interactive agencies: Web 2.0 website design and development, Content
Management Services, web application development, and other intuitive technology
solutions for the web, mobile devices and emerging digital platforms.

6.9 HOW AGENCIES GET CLIENTS:

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To succeed, ad agencies need clients. New clients come from personal contact with
top management, referrals from satisfied clients, publicity on recent successful
campaigns, trade advertising, direct mail, or by agency’s general reputations.
A. Referrals.
B. Presentations.
C. Networking and community relations.
D. Soliciting and advertising for new business.

6.10 THE CLIENT - AGENCY RELATIONSHIP:


Just as people and product have lifecycles, so do relationships. In the advertising
business, the lifecycle of the agency-client relationship has four distinct stages.
A. Pre relationship stage.
B. The development stage.
C. The maintenance stage.
D. Termination stage.

6.11 FACTORS AFFECTING THE CLIENT-AGENCY RELATIONSHIP:


The following are the factors affecting the client-agency relationship.
A. Chemistry.
B. Communication.
C. Conduct.
D. Changes.

6.12 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLIENT-AGENCY RELATIONSHIP:


These principles are:
i. The agency alone is responsible for payment to the media.
ii. The agency doesn’t allow any cut from the commission received from the
media to go to the client.
iii. The media do not discriminate amongst the agencies dealt with, and fallow a
uniform policy for all agencies.
iv. The media do not alter the advertising material without the prior consent of
the agency.

6.13 VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS IN AD-AGENCY:


i. Account planning.

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ii. Account management.
iii. Creative services.
iv. Media services.
v. Traffic.
7. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS:
Communication is the social process by which two or more persons exchange views.
The communication between two persons that is and the receiver, will be termed
individual communication, where there more than two persons that is more than
one sender or more than one receiver are involved, it is known as mass
communication.

Generally all electronic media channels comes under mass communication. As HY-tv
is an electronic media channel of infotainment, it is a mass communication.

The objective of media planning and advertising is to get the attention of more
number of people. So most of the ad-agencies and clients goes for electronic media.

The increase in viewership rate and development of technology opend the gates for
ad-agencies to enter into electronic media, simply we can say that emerging
technology has changed the face off print and other media to electronic media.

7.1 COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS:


SOURCE:
Generally the encoder, sponsor, advertiser or sales representative is known as
source. The source is the sender of message.

MESSAGE:
It refers to the content of the communication. It may include words, pictures,
symbols, order etc.,

PERCEPTION:
It is an important factor in communication process. The message can be perceived
by the receiver according to his nature and culture, its attention, interest, desire

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and action. The attitude and the desire of the sender also influence the perception
level.

CHANNEL:
The message carried through some channel-a news paper, magazine, or television
from the sender to the receiver. The channels are known as media. Television
influencing the sense of sight and sound is considered one of the most effective
channels of the communication.

RECEIVER:
The receiver is the target audience. Therefore advertisers should evaluate the
graphics of the audience. Values, attitudes, product, experience and responses are
considered to design communication process.

FEEDBACK:
Feedback is an essential factor in making communication more effective. It
indicates how the communication process is working. The receivers may provide
feedback on their needs, knowledge, cultural systems, attitudes and communication
skills.

8. MEDIA PLANNING

8.1 INTRODUCTION:
The term media is a plural for medium. In advertising terms, medium is a channel of
communication such as news channels, entertainment channels, news papers,
magazines etc. A medium is a vehicle for carrying the sales message of an
advertiser to the prospects. It is indeed a vehicle by which advertisers convey their
messages to a large group of prospects and thereby aid in closing the gap between
the producer at one end and the consumer at the other end.

Media planning is a very important task in the advertising process, which deals
about four W’s.
1. Where

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2. What
3. Who
4. When
Media planning involves selecting appropriate media for carrying the advertisers’
message to target markets, deciding what to buy and how much to spend in each
medium and scheduling when the advertising is to run. Eighty percent of the budget
paid to media. This, in it suggests how important media decisions are. Considering
the extent and diversity of the Indian market, which is matched by a vast and
diverse network of advertising media, the complexity of the media planning
becomes apparent.

8.2 MEDIA TERMS:


Media Planning is a very important component of the Marketing Strategy of an
organization. Media Planning is defined as "Process of designing a scheduling plan
that shows how advertising time and space in selected media and vehicles
contribute to the achievement of marketing objectives in an advertising campaign".
Media planning, in general terms, is a tool that allows the advertiser to select the
most appropriate media to communicate the message in sufficient frequency
towards the maximum number of potential customers at the lowest cost.

* Medium: A medium is a carrier and deliverer of Advertisements. It is a broad


general category of carries such as Newspapers, Television, Radio, Internet,
Outdoor, Direct Mail, etc.
* Vehicle: It is a specific carrier within a Media category. So a HY TV would be the
vehicle in the category of TV. Many a time a specific programs or sections within a
medium may be termed as a vehicle. For example, “DAKSHINAYAN" on HY TV would
be the vehicle in the Television category.
* Frequency: How frequently are the recipients being exposed to message. In
other words it is the average number of times an advertisement reaches each
recipient in a given period
* Continuity: The amount of advertising budget being allocated over the period.
There are basic types of ways in which the advertising budget is allocated:
Continuous Scheduling, Pulsing and Flightning.

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* Weight: The amount of total advertising is needed to accomplish advertising
objectives.
* Viewership: It refers to the number of people watching a given program. A
viewer is a person who is watching the program.
* Gross Rating points: The total audience delivery or weight of a specific media
schedule is counted by working on the total number of viewers. However in media
the information is gauged in gross rating points (GRP).for example if 75% of the
people of our target market watched a commercial on television four times in a
week, to determine the gross rating points, the following formula will be used:
Reach*frequency=GRP
75*4=300GRP
8.3 Objectives of media planning:
Grab : ATTENCTION
Excite : INTEREST
Create : DESIRE
Prompt : ACTION

8.4 MEDIA PLANNING STRATEGY:


The purpose of media planning is to conceive, analyze, and select channels of
communication that will direct advertising message to the right people, in the right
place at the right time. It involves many decisions:
i. Where should we advertise? (In what countries, states, or parts of town)
ii. Which media vehicles should we use?
iii. When during the year should we concentrate our advertising?
iv. How often should we run the advertising?
v. What opportunities are there for integrating other communications?
vi.
Media objectives translate the advertising strategy into goals that media can
accomplish. They explain who the target audience is and why. Where messages will
be delivered and when and how much advertising weight needs to be delivered.

In the initial stage of the product life cycle, the objective is to maximize awareness
of it by consumers. At the maturity stage, continuity of the purchase becomes the
main objective. During the declining stage of product use, the media remind the

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consumers that the product shall retain their appealing attributes. The media
objectives are Reach, frequency and continuity respectively for the early, maturity
and declining stages of the product lifecycle. The media objective is analyzed in the
light of constraints and components.

CONSTRAINTS:
The objectives are controlled by the budget available for Advertising. In the
beginning, a significant amount is available; but at the later stage of the product life
cycle, only a small proportion is allocated to advertising. The effect of budgeting on
advertising has been acknowledged by every organization. The positioning of the
product also influences the objectives. If the producer is willing to challenge the
leader, he will spend more money on advertising. The range, Frequency and
continuity will be effected by budget and positioning of the product.

COMPONENTS:
Media objectives have different components, viz, specification of the target market,
geographical location of the market, reach and frequency, continuity or timing,
creative requirements and potential market coverage level.

8.5 STEPS TO ACHIEVE EFFECTIVE MEDIA PLANNING:


To achieve the effective media planning we should do the following steps:
1) We should have good knowledge about the product or service.
2) We should be very clear with the budget allotted for advertising.
3) It is very important to select an appropriate ad agency which can fulfill the
needs and desires of the manufacturer or producer.
4) Some companies will have their own advertising departments but still they
will go for ad agencies to maximize the productivity.
E.g.: Vodafone.
5) The communication between the producer and the ad agency must be good.
6) The producer’s views and ideas about the product must be shared with the
ad agency.
7) We must know about the target market.
8) We must know about the tastes and preferences of the target audience.
9) According to the budget allotted for advertising select the best media vehicle.

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10) Select the prime time slots if you are going for TV advertisement.
11) Give freedom to ad agency in selecting the media vehicle.
12) After completing all the above steps go for negotiations.

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• Media Mix
– Combination of different media, and size of ads
– Which Media?
– Which Schedules?

Flexibility:

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8.6 MEDIA PLANNING PROCESS:
 When (the timing of the release)
 Which (The media selection)
 How (The coordination in media planning)
 How much (The budgetary allocation)

8.7 MEDIA COST AND MEDIA AVAILABILITY:


To get the most out of the advertising budget spent the primary concern for the
advertiser is media selection. The cost of buying space or time is weighed against
the number of audience secured by such advertising. In fact, buying advertising
space and time is nothing different from buying commodities.

The media availability is measured under the following heads:


i. Distribution measurement (in terms of number of distributors in a
geographical area)
ii. Audience measurement (Expressed in terms of TAM ratings)
iii. Exposure measurement – the advertiser looks for the ability of the media to
create advertising exposure.
Summarizing media selection factors we may say that they are:
A. Media characteristics, such as editorial environment flexibility, frequency and
durability.
B. Nature of the target market.
C. The nature and type of the product.
D. The nature of the distribution network.
E. Overall cost of the medium.

8.8 MEDIA SCHEDLING:


We can follow a steady schedule or a pulsed campaign. Normally scheduling is done
for a 4 week period. The six types of schedules available are:

1. Steady pulse:
It is the easiest. For example one ad/week for 52 weeks or one ad/month for 12
months.

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2. Seasonal pulse:
Products like Vicks balm, ponds cold cream follow this approach.
3. Period pulse:
Scheduling follows a regular pattern for example media scheduling for consumer
durables, non durables etc.
4. Erratic pulse:
The advertisements are placed irregularly. Perhaps we want to change the typical
purchase cycles.
5. Startup pulse:
It is concentrated media scheduling. It launches a new product or a new campaign.
6. Promotional pulse:
A one short affair it suits only a particular promotional team.

9. GOVERNMENT POLICIES IN MEDIA SECTOR:


The changing model of media business in India
Beginning with the macro level analysis, the changes in India can be analyzed on
the following four parameters:

 Government policies: They play a vital role in the success of any economy and
the Indian government’s reforms and growth focused strategy is an attractive
feature. FDI limits are an important aspect in this regard as it regulates the growth
of the industry.
 Economic changes: The increasing disposable income and expanding urban
class presents a huge untapped market for the media sector. With increasing
personal income of the youth over the last decade has resulted in higher spending
on media and entertainment.
 Social changes: There has been a steady increase in literacy levels which has
boosted the demand for print media. With the socio-economic changes and
electricity and technology everywhere, the people prefer to have their share of
news through television. There has been a favorable change in the consumption
pattern and this provides a great potential to broaden the customer base.
 Technical changes: With the changing pace of technology and the users are
responsible for making India an outsourcing destination. The next boom could well

6
be the Media sector. Also, an increasing convergence among the various media is
bringing about a structural change in the industry.

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FDI LIMIT IN VARIOUS SECTORS:

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FUTURE PROSPECTS OF MEDIA SECTOR:

10. MEDIA BUYING


This is the last step in the advertising process. First contract will be given to ad
agency to design advertisement. Depending on the target market and product
lifecycle the ad agency will decide the media for advertising. Generally electronic
media is preferred over other media because the reach of electronic media will be
high at the same time the budget required also will be high. Depending on the
media vehicle which we have selected there may be a probability for negotiations.
In television media advertiser will select the media vehicle depending on “television
audience measurement” ratings. Media vehicles with high TAM ratings will demand
more. Sometimes negotiation about the budget may not be possible.

According to the inputs I got from the various ad agencies and clients, I found that
most of the ad agencies prefer entertainment channels over infotainment channels.
The revenues of entertainment channels will be high compared to infotainment
channels. One more interesting thing there will be some friendly relationship among
some ad agencies and media vehicles, which may lead to personal biasing. If a
media channel have good relationship with ad agencies they can earn more from
advertising. Every media channel will have prime time slots and normal time slots.
They are going to charge high in prime time slots, sometimes Events like IPL, Film
fare awards etc may happen, that time the time slots between the programs will
become the primetime slots which increases the TRP ratings. Competition for that

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time slots will be very high that time negotiations will not at all possible. Recently
we have seen this in IPL 2009 organized in South Africa.

Let us see the Advertisement rate card in HY TV:

10.1Advertisement rate card in HY TV:

Feel the pulse……


OPTION 1:
Strip Ads with Logo : Rs 3000(20 strips in a day-minimum)
Scrolling Ads without logo: Rs 2000(20 scroll ads in a day-minimum)
Spot buy – Ad commercial: Rs 2000(@10 seconds commercial)
OPTION 2:
Sponsorship : on commitment of monthly outlay Rs.3, 00,000
FCT : 1500 seconds bankable across the channel in 30 days.
FREE VALUE ADDITIONS:
Daily prime time news sponsorship at 9PM in 30 days period.
 Associate sponsorship one weekly program of 4 episodes in 30 days period
followed by daily channel promos and fcls with brand tag of client.
OPTION 3:
Slot buying – duration -30 minutes –rate per slot : Rs15000/s.t

Terms and Conditions:


1. Payment to be made to be made in advanced in favor of Hy Media
entertainment pvt.Ltd
2. Service tax Extra Applicable
3. Ad Material in DV cassette to be given in advance for telecasting.

According the information which we got in media sector in Andhra Pradesh Sun
network is the market leader and Maa tv is the market follower. Negotiation is not

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possible in Gemini tv where as it is possible in Maa tv so most of the ad agencies
prefer Maa tv unless the client demand for specific media vehicle. These two
channels are ruling in entertainment region.

While coming to infotainment channels TV9 is ruling the market. It is the first 24*7
Telugu news channel in Telugu, when it has launched there were no similar player
so it got the competitive advantage through language. For long time it is been like a
monopoly. But now the equation has been changed, so many players with new
technology and strategies are evolved into the markets.

HY TV also followed the same strategy that TV9 has followed earlier; it is the first
Hindi news channel in south operating in south itself (head quartered at Hyderabad)

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Survey done on Ad agency, Clients and Audience directly on a one to one basis via a
questionnaire by taking a sample size on the basis of demographic segmentation.

SAMPLE SIZE:
Ad agencies : 10
Clients : 10
Audience : 200

11.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define
research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific
topic. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of the study, observation, comparison
and experiment.

11.2 RESEARCH DESIGN


Research design is actually the blue print of the research project and when
implemented must bring out the information required for solving the identified
problems. The research design depends upon the depth and extent of data required
the cost and benefits of research, the urgency of work and the time available for
completing it. The research indicates the method of research (i.e. sampling etc)
only.

11.3 Research design is mainly of three types:-


i. Exploratory Research
ii. Descriptive Research
iii. Experimental Research

Exploratory Research:
Exploratory study can be used to establish priorities. The major emphasis is on the
discovery of ideas and insights. It helps in formulating hypothesis for further
research

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Descriptive Research
The Descriptive study is typically concerned with the determining Frequency with
which something occurred or how two variables vary together. It is guided by an
initial hypothesis.

Experimental Research:
Experimentation is defined as a process where event occur in a setting at the
discretion of the experimenter and controls are used to identify source of variation
in the subjects

11.4 SAMPLE SIZE AND CLUSTER SAMPLING


Sampling may be defined as the selection of an aggregate or totality on the basis of
which a judgment or inference about the aggregate or totality is made. In other
words it is the process of obtaining information about an entire population by
examining only a part of it. In most of the research work and surveys, the usual
approach happens to be to make generalization or to draw inference based on
samples about the parameters of population from which the samples are taken. The
researcher quite often selects only a few items from the universe for his study
purposes. All this is done on the assumption that the sample data will enable to
estimate the population parameters. The items so selected constitute what is a
technically called a sample, their selection process or technique is called sample
design and survey conducted on the basis of sample is described as sample survey.
Sample should be truly representative of population characteristics without any bias
so that it may result in valid and reliable conclusions.

11.5 Need for Sampling:


Sampling is used in practical for a variety of reasons such as:
1. Sampling can save time and money. A sample study is usually less
expensive than a census study and produce result at relatively faster speed.
2. Sample may enable more accurate measurements for a sample study is
generally conducted by trained and experienced investigators.
3. Sample remains the only way when population contains infinitely many
members.

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4. Sample remains the only choice when a test involved the destruction on the
item under study.
5. Sample usually enables to estimate the sampling error and thus assists in
obtaining information concerning some characteristics on the population.

Random sampling from Infinite Universe


Above paragraph deals with random Sampling, keeping in view the finite
populations. But what about random sampling in context of infinite population? It is
relatively difficult to explain the concept of random sample from an infinite
population. However, a few examples will show the basis characteristics of such a
sample.

Cluster sampling
Cluster sampling involves grouping the population and then selecting the groups or
the clusters rather than individual element6s for inclusion the sample. If the totally
area of interest happens to be a big one, a continent way in the sample can be
taken is to divide the area into a number of smaller non overlapping areas and then
to randomly select a number of these smaller areas, (usually called clusters) with
the ultimate sample consisting Of all (or a sampling of ) Units in these small areas of
clusters.

Cluster sampling, no doubt reduces cost by concentrating surveys in select clusters.


But certainly it is less precise than random sampling. There is also not as much
information ‘n’ number of observations within cluster as there happens to be inn
randomly drawn observations. Cluster sampling is used only because of the
economic advantage it drawn possesses; estimates based on cluster samples are
usually more reliable per unit cost.

11.6 Data collection Method


Data collection is an elaborate process in which the researcher makes a planned
search for relevant data. Data can be classified as primary and secondary data.

Primary Data
Primary data is a data gathered for the first time by the researcher.

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Collection of primary data task is demanding and requires a lot of technical
expertise. Primary data can be collected in marketing by three basic methods-
o Survey Method
o Observation Method
o Experimental Method

Survey is the most commonly used method of primary data collection in the
marketing research. Various kinds of survey techniques are.
a. Personal interview
b. Telephone Survey
c. Mail Survey
The instrument used in personnel interview is questionnaire.

Secondary data
Secondary data means data that are already refer to the data which have already
collected and analyses by someone else. When the researcher utilizes secondary
data that he had to look into various sources from where he can obtain them. In this
case he is certainly not confronted with the problems that are usually associated
with collection of original data.
• Various books, magazines and news papers.
• Reporters and publication of various businesses.
• Reports prepared by research scholar and in different fields.
• Records and statistics data.

The following characteristics must be possessed:


1. Reliability of data
2. Suitability of data
3. Adequacy of data

11.7 Selection of appropriate method for data collection


The following factors must be considered:

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1. Nature scope and object of enquiry.
2. Availability of funds.
3. Time factor.
4. Precision required.

INTERVIEW METHOD
In the interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral/verbal
stimuli and reply in terms of oral/verbal responses. This method can be used
through the interviews and if possible, through telephone interviews.

Personal interview
Personal interview method requires a person know as the interviewer asking
questions generally in a face to face contact to the other person or persons. (At the
time the interviewee may also ask certain questions and interviewer responds to
these, but usually the interviewer initiates the interview and collects the
information) This sort of interview may be in the form of direct personal
investigation or it may be indirect oral investigation.

In case of direct personal investigation the interviewer has collect the information
personally from the sources concerned. He has to be the spot and has to meet
people from whom data have to be collected. This method is particularly suitable for
intensive investigations.

The method of collecting information through personal interviews is usually carried


out in a structured way. As such we call the structured interviews. Such interviews
involve the predetermined questions of highly standardized or recording. Thus, the
interview in a structured interview follows a rigid procedure laid down, asking in a
form of order prescribed

11.8 TYPE OF QUESTIONNAIRE

Collection of Data through Questionnaires

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This method of data collected is quite popular, particularly in case of big enquiries is
being adopted by private individuals research workers, private and public
organizations and even by government in this method a questionnaire is sent to the
concerned with the research answer the questions and return the questionnaire, a
questionnaire consists of number of questions printed or typed in a define order an
form of a forms .The questionnaire are mailed to respondents who are expected or
read and understand the questions and write down the reply in the space meant for
the purpose in the questionnaire itself. The respondents have to answer the
questions on their own.

The method of collecting data by mailing the questionnaires to respondents is most


extensively employed in various economic and business surveys. The merits
claimed on behalf of this method are as follows:

1. There is low cost even when the universe is large and widely spread
geographically.
2. It is free from the bias of the interviewer, answers are in respondents own
words.
3. Respondents have a adequate time to give well thought out answers.
4. Respondents, who are not easily approachable, can also be reached
conveniently.
5. Large sample can be made use of and thus the result can be made more
dependable and reliable.

vi. Selection process

1. Type of Objective : Descriptive


2. Type of data collected : Primary
3. Research Approach : Survey Method
4. Contact Method : Individual
5. Sample Size : 200 Audiences
6. Sample Area : Around Hyderabad

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And Secunderabad.
7. Research Instrument : Questionnaire
8. Type of Questionnaire : Structured and Undisguised

11.8.1 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR AD AGENCY:


A. How will you get more clients?
1. Reputation
2. Reference
3. Personal contacts
4. Past Record
B. How will you design an advertisement?
1. By Product
2. By Brand name
3. Client’s demands
4. Target audience
C. How will you select media vehicle?
1. By Product
2. By Brand name
3. Client’s demand
4. Target audience
5. Depending on Budget
D. Which type of media vehicle would you prefer most of the times?
1. Electronic media
2. Print media
3. Radio
4. Other media
E. Which type of electronic media vehicles you prefer?
1. Entertainment
2. Infotainment
F. How will you select particular media vehicle in electronic media?
1. TAM rating
2. Personal relationship
3. Clients demand
4. Negotiations
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G. Do you have media planner and media buyer separately?
1. Yes
2. No

11.8.2 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CLINTS:


A. How will you select the Ad agency?
1. Reputation
2. Reference
3. Personal contacts
4. Past Record
B. How you would like to design an advertisement?
1. By Product
2. By Brand name
3. Ad agency suggestions
4. Target audience
C. How will you select media vehicle?
1. By Product
2. By Brand name
3. Target audience
4. Depending on Budget
D. Which type of media vehicle would you prefer most of the times?
1. Electronic media
2. Print media
3. Radio
4. Other media

E. Which type of electronic media vehicles you prefer?


1. Entertainment
2. Infotainment
F. How will you estimate the standards in electronic media?
1. TAM rating
2. Personal relationship
3. Audience Survey
4. Research institutions
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G. How will you decide the Frequency?
1. By Product
2. By Brand name
3. Target audience
4. Depending on Budget
5. Depending on Competitors

11.8.3 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR AUDIENCE:


1. Do you have TV in your home?
1. Yes
2. No
2. Which kind of channels would you like to watch?
1. Infotainment channels
2. Entertainment channels
3. Which kind of programs would you prefer to watch?
1. News
2. Movies
3. Serials
4. Sports
4. Would you watch TV regularly?
1. Yes
2. No
5. How much time you will spend in watching TV?
1. 2 hours/day
2. 3 hours/day
3. 4 hours/day
4. More than 4 hours
6. At what time you feel comfortable in watching TV?
1. Morning time
2. Afternoon time
3. Evening time
4. Night time
7. Which language channels generally you prefer?
1. Telugu
2. Hindi

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3. English
4. Others
8. How you feel about the advertisements in TV channels?
1. Good
2. Bad
3. Disgusting
4. Nothing
9. Would you switch over the channel when advertisement comes?
1. Yes
2. No
10. Do you think creative ads can attract the audience?
1. Yes
2. No
11. How many ads you watch every day?
1. Four
2. Five
3. Six
4. More than six
12. How many of them can you remember while buying the product?
1. Very few
2. Few
3. All
4. No one

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11.9 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
* Out of 200 Audiences only 160 are responded to the questionnaire.
1. Which news channel do you like to watch?

TV9 42
TIME Respondents in
(%) ETV 2 35
Night 50%
TV5 27
Morning 25%
Mid day 12% NTV 23
Evening 13%
I News 18

Others 15

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
TV9 ETV2 TV5 NTV I NEWS OTHERS

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2. Which part of the day you watch more time?

13%
12% Night
Morning
50% Midday
Evening
25%

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3. What is your preference in watching news channel?

* one point is given for each person opinion

Attributes Total ranking Ranking


points preference
Content 65 1st
Brand name 45 2nd
Quality 37 3rd
Others 13 4th

70
65
60
50
45
40 37
30

20
13
10

0
Content Brand Quality Others
name

Interpretation:
When asked the respondents about the purchasing preference in ice-creams
1st preference they given for content with 65 points.

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2nd preference they given for brand name with 45 points.
3rd preference they given for Quality with 37 points.
4rt preference they given for others with 13 points.

4. How do you feel about the Programs of HY TV?

Satisfaction level Respondents in (%)


Very high 4%
High 20% Interpretation:
Reasonable 48%
When asked the respondents about the satisfact
Low 28%
Feel Reasonable, 20% of the customers fee
customer
Feel Low, 4% of the customer feel Very Highly satisfied.

5. What is your opinion on the HY TV?

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Programs
Opinion on HY Respondents
Respondentsin
in
TV (%)
(%) Opinion on the Respondents
Very good
Serials 10% 29% availability in(%)
GoodSports 24% 17% Very Frequent 12%
Average
Current 66% 37% Frequent 20%
affairs Rare 41%
Not Available 27%
(News)
Movies 17%

6. Which Type of Programs you like more?

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7. What is your opinion on the availability of HY TV in DTH setup box?

Interpretation:
When asked the Customers about the Availability of HY TV-
20% of the people responded for frequently available,
41% for rarely Available in the market,
12% for Very frequently available,
27% of the people responded for not available.

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8. Will you suggest your friends, Relatives, Neighbors to watch HY TV?

Suggest No of
Respondents (%)
Yes 55%
No 45%

Interpretation:
From the respondents opinion –
55% of the customers are like to suggest this Channel to their friends, relatives,
neighbors, But 45% of the respondents are not like to suggest this channel to their
friends, relatives, neighbors.

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9. Are you looking for new Creative programs?

New No of
Programs Respondents (%)
Yes 72

No 28

Interpretation:
28 % of the respondents are satisfied with the Available Programs,
72% of the respondents are asking for new Creative programs

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10. Can you recall punch line of “HY TV”? (Feel the pulse)
Recall punch line No of Respondents in
(%)
No 79%

Yes 21%

Interpretation:
The study shows that 21% of the respondents were able to recall the Punch Line of
HY TV, But 79% of respondents are responded for No for Recall the Punch line of HY
TV.

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12. SUGGESTIONS

1. It has been observed from the study is that more importance is given to Place
the channel at cable operators, MSO and ISO. But failed to create awareness
among the people about the channel, when survey is done most of the
people responded that they don’t know about the channel.
2. Next to the Distribution, brand name is plying important role in even though
HY TV belongs to a big group, it is failed to put its brand name in Audience
mind.
3. It has been observed that most number of respondents don’t aware of the
available programs of HY TV. So advertisement should be based on the
programs.
4. In most of the rural areas HY TV is not available. So improve the distribution
channels in the rural areas.
5. It is more important to attract MSOs to improve the distribution levels, as a
newly launched channel first of all increasing distribution is a big task,
because operators will demand more money to place the channel.
6. Introduce more number of varieties in the Programs and increase the
duration of existing successful programs to attract the Audience.
7. The competitors are providing special programs on hot topics like IPL,
Elections, Top educational institutions etc. HY TV is not too good in these
types of programs.
8. As the level is main competitors in media industry, there is a need to focus on
competitor analysis and to take decision to get competitive advantage.

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13. CONCLUSION

1. On the basis of analysis, respondents given first preference to Content, so to


attract the audience good content should be there.
2. On the basis of analysis, it is found that its competitors are using new
strategies to attract audience but HY TV is lagging behind in creative
programming.
3. Most of the people are not aware of the HY TV.
4. Ad agencies look for TAM ratings to give Ads but HY TV have not subscribed
to TAM yet.
5. Nearly 50% of the respondents are showing interest to watch Telugu
channels, second preference is English, and very few respondents are
watching Hindi channels.
6. Very few number of respondents responded that they are satisfied with
existing programs; more number of respondents are looking for creative
programs.
7. The Audience wants to improve the distribution channels in the rural areas
also.
8. Nearly 80% of the Audience are unable to recall the punch line (“feel the
pulse”) of HY TV.

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14. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books referred
1) Principles of marketing ---------- Philip kotler & Gray Armstrong
2) Consumer behavior ------------ Leon.G.Schiffman
Leslie Lazar Kanuk
3) Marketing research ----------- G.C.Beri
4) Modern advertising management---- J.N.JAIN, P.P.SINGH

Journals ‘n’ Magazines


Business World
Business Today
Advertisement ‘n’ Marketing
Websites:
www.thesmartmanager.com
www.network18.com
www.indiainfoline.com
www.trends-in-newsrooms.org