You are on page 1of 15

DISCOVERING

USING SPSS

STATISTICS
THIRD

EDITION

(and sex and drugs and rock 'n' roll)

ANDY

FIELD

CONTENTS

Preface

xix

How to use this book

xxiv
xxviii

Acknowledgements

xxx

Dedication
Symbols

xxxi

used in this book

xxxiii

Some maths revision

Why is my eviL Lecturer forcing me to Learn statistics?

1.1.

What will this chapter tell me?

1.2.

What the hell am I doing here? I don't belong here


1.2.1.

The research process

<D

1.3.

Initial observation:

1.4.
1.5.

Generating theories and testing them <D


Data collection 1 : what to measure <D

1.6.

1.7.

finding something

1.5.1.

Variables <D

1.5.2.

Measurement error <D

1.5.3.

Validity and reliability <D

Data collection

<D

<D

2: how to measure

that needs explaining

<D

3
3
4
7
7
10
11
12

<D

1.6.1.

Correlational research methods

<D

12

1.6.2.

Experimental research methods

<D

13

1.6.3.

Randomization

Analysing

data

17

<D

18

<D

18

1.7.1.

Frequency distributions

1.7.2.

The centre of a distribution

1.7.3.

The dispersion in a distribution

1.7.4.

Using a frequency distribution to go beyond the data

1.7.5.

Fitting statistical modeis to the data

What have I discovered

<D

20

<D

23

<D

<D

about statistics?

<D

<D

24
26
28

Key terms that I've discovered

28

Smart Alex's stats quiz

29

Further reading

29

Interesting

30

real research

DISCOVERING

vi

STATISTICS

31

2.1.

What will this chapter tell me?

2.2.

Building statistical

2.3.

Populations

2.4.

Simple statistical

32

CD

34

CD

modeis

35

CD

The mean a very simple statistical model

2.4.2.

Assessing the fit of the mean: sums of squares, variance and standard
deviations CD

35

38

Expressing the mean as amodel

40
40

Confidence intervals

43

Using statistical modeis to test research questions


Test statistics CD

2.6.1.

2.6.2.

One- and two-tailed tests

2.6.3.
2.6.4.

Type I and Type II errors CD


Effect sizes

2.6.5.

Statistical power

58
about statistics?

59

CD

59

Smart Alex's stats quiz

59

Further reading

60

Interesting

60

real research

61

The SPSS environment

3.3.

3.4.

48
52
55
56

Key terms that I've discovered

3.2.

CD

54

CD

What have I discovered

3.1.

35

CD

Going beyond the data CD


2.5.1.
The standard error CD
2.5.2.

2.6.

mod eis

and samples

31

CD

2.4.1.

2.4.3.

2.5.

What will this chapter tell me?


Versions of SPSS CD
Getting started
The data editor

61

CD

62
62

CD

63

CD

3.4.1.

Entering data into the data editor

3.4.2.

The 'Variable View'

69

CD

70

CD

CD

77

3.6.

The SPSS SmartViewer

81

3.7.

The syntax window @

82

3.8.

Saving files

83
84

Missing values
The SPSS viewer CD
3.4.3.

3.5.

3.9.

78
CD

CD

Retrieving a file

CD

What have I discovered

about statistics?

85
85
85

CD

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

86

Further reading
Online tutoriais

SPSS

Everything you ever wanted to know about statistics


(well, sort of)

USING

86

87

Exploring data with graphs


4.1.

What will this chapter tell me?

4.2.

The art of presenting

data

87

CD

88
88

CD

4.2.1.

What makes a good graph?

4.2.2.

Ues, damned lies, and ... erm

CD

graphs

CD

90

vii

CONTENTS

4.3.

The SPSS Chart Builder

4.4.

Histograms

4.5.

Boxplots

4.6.

Graphing

CD

a good way to spot obvious problems

(box-whisker

diagrams)

means: bar charts and error bars

relationships

the scatterplot

Editing graphs

117
119
121

CD

123

CD

125

CD

126

CD

126

CD

What have I discovered

116

CD

4.8.5. Simple dot plot or density plot


4.9.

115

CD

4.8.3. Simple and grouped 3-0 scatterplots

4.8.6. orop-line graph

113

CD

CD

4.8.2. Grouped scatterplot


4.8.4. Matrix scatterplot

111

CD

4.6.5. Clustered bar charts for 'mixed' designs


Line charts CD
Graphing

107

CD

109

4.6.3. Simple bar charts for related means CD


4.6.4. Clustered bar charts for related means

4.8.1. Simple scatterplot

105

CD

4.6.2. Clustered bar charts for independent means

4.8.

103

CD

4.6.1. Simple bar charts for independent means

4.7.

CD

CD

about statistics?

129

CD

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

130

Further reading
Online tutorial

130

Interesting

130

130
130

real research

131

ExpLoring assumptions

131

5.1.

What will this chapter tell me?

5.2.

What are assumptions?

5.3.

Assumptions

5.4.

The assumption of normality CD


5.4.1. Oh no, it's that pesky frequency distribution again checking

CD

132

CD

of parametric

normality visually

data

132

CD

5.4.3. Exploring groups of data

5.6.

Testing whether a distribution

136

CD

140

CD

is normal

144

CD

5.5.1. ooing the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on SPSS CD

145

5.5.2. Output from the explore procedure


5.5.3. Reporting the K-S test CD

146

Testing for homogeneity


5.6.1. Levene's test CD

of variance

CD

148
149

CD

150

5.6.2. Reporting Levene's test


5.7.

133
134

CD

5.4.2. Quantifying normality with numbers


5.5.

91
93
99

152

CD

Correcting problems in the data


5.7.1. oealing with outliers

153

153

5.7.2. oealing with non-normality and unequal variances


5.7.3. Transforming the data using SPSS
5.7.4. When it all goes horribly wrong
What have I discovered

153
156
162

@)

about statistics?

CD

164

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

164

Online tutorial

165

Further reading

165

165

viii

DISCOVERING

STATISTICS

166

6.1.

What will this chapter tell me?

6.2.

Looking at relationships

6.3.

How do we measure relationships?

CD

167

CD

167

CD

6.3.1. A detour into the murky world of covariance CD


6.3.2. Standardization and the correlation coefficient CD

167

6.3.3. The significance of the correlation coefficient @


6.3.4. Confidence intervals for r @

171

6.3.5. A word of warning about interpretation: causality


6.5.

Data entry for correlation


Bivariate correlation CD

analysis using SPSS

169
172
173

CD

174

CD

175

6.5.1. General procedure for running correlations on SPSS CD


6.5.2. Pearson's correlation coefficient CD

175

6.5.3. Spearman's correlation coefficient

179

6.5.4. Kendall's tau (non-parametric)

177

CD

181

CD

182

6.5.5. Biserial and point-biserial correlations @


6.6.

Partial correlation

186

6.6.1. The theory behind part and partial correlation

186

6.6.2. Partial correlation using SPSS


6.6.3. Semi-partial (or part) correlations
6.7.

Comparing

188

190
191

correlations

6.7.1. Comparing independent rs @

191

6.7.2. Comparing dependent rs @

191

6.8.

Calculating

192

6.9.

How to report correlation

the effect size

CD

coefficents

What have I discovered

SPSS

166

Correlation

6.4.

USING

193

CD

about statistics?

195

CD

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

195

Further reading
Online tutorial

196

Interesting

196

195

196

real research

197

Regression
7.1.

What will this chapter tell me?

7.2.

An introduction

to regression

197

CD

198

CD

7.2.1. Some important information about straight lines eD

199

7.2.2. The method of least squares

200

CD

7.2.3. Assessing the goodness of fit: sums of squares,


7.2.4. Assessing individual predictors
7.3.

Doing simple regression

7.4.

Interpreting a simple regression


7.4.1. Overall fit of the model CD
7.4.2. Model parameters
7.4.3. Using the model

7.5.

Multiple regression:

on SPSS

R2 CD

201

206

CD

206
207
208

CD

209

7.5.1. An example of a multiple regression model

7.6.

and

205

CD

CD

the basics

204

CD

7.5.2. SulTis of squares, R and R2


7.5.3. Methods of regression

How accurate is my regression

model?

210
211
212

214

ix

CONTENTS

7.6.1. Assessing the regression modeil: diagnostics


How to do multiple regression

using SPSS

225

7.7.1. Some things to think about before the analysis


7.7.2. Main options
7.7.3. Statistics

225
227
229

7.7.5. Saving regression diagnostics


7.7.6. Further options

230

231

Interpreting multiple regression


7.8.1. Descriptives

233

233

7.8.2. Summary of model

234

7.8.3.
7.8.4.

237

Model parameters
Excluded variables

241

7.8.5. Assessing the assumption of no multicollinearity

244

7.8.7. Checking

247

assumptions

251
252

7.10.

How to report multiple

7.11.

Categorical

and multiple regression

What

if

violate an assumption?
predictors

7.11.1. Dummy coding

253

253

7.11.2. SPSS output for dummy variables


What have I discovered

241

7.8.6. Casewise diagnostics

regression

7.9.

225

7.7.4. Regression plots

7.8.

220

7.6.2. Assessing the regression modelll: generalization


7.7.

214

256

261

about statistics? eD

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

261

Further reading
Online tutorial

263

Interesting

263

262
263

real research

264

Logistic regression
8.1.

What will this chapter tell me? eD

264

8.2.

Background

265

8.3.

What are the principles

to logistic regression eD

statistic

behind logistic regression?

8.3.1. Assessing the model the log-likelihood


8.3.2. Assessing the model

and

R2

Assumptions

268

269

270

8.3.5. Methods of logistic regression


8.4.

267

8.3.3. Assessing the contribution of predictors the Wald statistic


8.3.4. The odds ratio Exp(B)

265

271

and things that can go wrong @

8.4.1. Assumptions

273

273

8.4.2. Incomplete information from the predictors @

273

8.4.3. Complete separation @

274

8.4.4. Overdispersion @
8.5.

Categorical predictors
Obtaining residuals
Further options

277
278

8.5.2. Method of regression

279

8.5.3.

279

8.5.4.
8.5.5.
8.6.

276

Binary logistic regression an example that will make you feel eel
8.5.1. The main analysis

Interpreting

logistic regression

280
281

282

DISCOVERING

8.6.1. The initial model

STATISTICS

284

8.6.4. Interpreting residuals

291

8.6.3. Listing predicted probabilities

292

294

8.6.5. Calculating the effect size


8.7.

How to report logistic regression

8.8.

Testing assumptions

294

294

another example

8.8.1. Testing for linearity of the logit @

296

8.8.2. Testing for multicollinearity @

297

Predicting

several categories

multinomiallogistic

8.9.1. Running multinomiallogistic


8.9.2. Statistics @

regression

regression in SPSS @

300
301
304
305

8.9.3. Other options @


regression output @

8.9.4. Interpreting the multinomiallogistic

SPSS

282

8.6.2. Step l' intervention @

8.9.

USING

306

8.9.5. Reporting the results

312

What have I discovered

313

about statistics? eD

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

313

Further reading
Online tutorial

315

Interesting

315

313
315

real research

316

Comparing two means


9.1.

What will this chapter tell me? eD

316

9.2.

Looking at differences

317

eD

9.2.1. A problem with error bar graphs of repeated-measures designs eD


9.2.2. Step 1. calculate the mean for each participant
9.2.4. Step 3 calculate the adjustment factor

9.4.

9.5.

317
320
320

9.2.3. Step 2 calculate the grand mean

9.3.

322

9.2.5. Step 4. create adjusted values for each variable


The t-test eD

323
324

9.3.1. Rationale for the t-test eD

325

9.3.2. Assumptions of the t-test eD

326

The dependent

t-test

326

eD

9.4.1. Sampling distributions and the standard error eD

327

9.4.2. The dependent t-test equation explained eD

327

9.4.3. The dependent t-test and the assumption of normality eD

329

9.4.4. Dependent t-tests using SPSS eD

329

9.4.5. Output from the dependent t-test eD

330

9.4.6. Calculating the effect size

332

9.4.7. Reporting the dependent t-test eD

333

The independent

t-test

334

eD

9.5.1. The independent t-test equation explained eD

334

9.5.2. The independent t-test using SPSS eD

337

9.5.3. Output from the independent t-test eD

339

9.5.4. Calculating the effect size

341

9.5.5. Reporting the independent t-test eD

341

9.6.

Between groups or repeated measures? eD

342

9.7.

The t-test as a generallinear

9.8.

What if my data are not normally distributed?

model

342

344

xi

CONTENTS

What have I discovered

10

about statistics?

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's task

345

Further reading
Online tutorial

346

Interesting

346

346
346

real research

347

Comparing several means: ANOVA (GLM 1)


10.1.

What will this chapter tell me?

10.2.

The theory behind ANOVA


10.2.1.
Inflated error rates

348
349

10.2.3.

ANOVA as regression

10.2.4.

Logic of the F-ratio

354

10.2.5.

Total sum of squares (SST)

356

10.2.5.

Model sum of squares (SSM)

356

10.2.7.

Residual sum of squares (SSR)


Mean squares
The F-ratio

357

359

10.2.11.

Assumptions of ANOVA @
Planned contrasts

10.2.12.

Post hoc procedures

10.2.10.

349

358
358
360
372

Running one-way ANOVA on SPSS

375

10.3.2.

Planned comparisons using SPSS


Post hoc tests in SPSS

10.3.3.

Options

10.3.1.

10.4.

348

Interpreting F

10.2.9.

10.3.

347

CD

10.2.2.

10.2.8.

376
378

379

Output from one-way ANOVA


10.4.1.
Output for the main analysis

381

10.4.2.

Output for planned comparisons

10.4.3.

Output for post hoc tests


the effect size

381
384

385
389

10.5.

Calculating

10.6.

Reporting

results from one-way independent

10.7.

Violations

of assumptions

What have I discovered

11

345

CD

ANOVA

in one-way independent
about statistics?

390

ANOVA

CD

392

Further reading
Online tutoriais

394

Interesting

394

393
394

real research

11.2.

What will this chapter tell me?


What is ANCOVA?

11.3.

Assumptions

11.4.

392

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

Analysis of covariance, ANCOVA (GLM 2)


11.1.

391

395
395
396

and issues in ANCOVA @

397

11.3.1.

Independence of the covariate and treatment effect @

397

11.3.2.

Homogeneity of regression slopes @

399

Conducting

ANCOVA on SPSS

11.4.1.

Inputting data

11.4.2.

Initial considerations: testing the independence of the independent


variable and covariate

CD

399
399
400

xii

DISCDVERING

11.5.

11.6.

The main analysis

11.4.4.

Contrasts and other options

the output from ANCOVA

404

What happens when the covariate is exciuded7

11.5.2.
11.5.3.

The main analysis


Contrasts

11.5.4.

Interpreting the covariate

404

405
407

408

11.7.

ANCOVA run as a multiple regression


Testing the assumption of homogeneity of regression

11.8.

Calculating

the effect size

408
slopes

413
415

417

11.9.

Reporting

11.10.

What to do when assumptions

What have I discovered

are violated in ANCOVA

about statistics?

418

418
419

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

419
420

Further reading
Online tutoriais

420

real research

420

FactoriaL ANOVA (GLM 3)

421

Interesting

12

SPSS

401

11.5.1.

results

USING

401

11.4.3.

Interpreting

STATISTICS

12.1.

What will this chapter tell me?

12.2.

Theory of factorial ANOVA (between-groups)


12.2.1.
Factorial designs

12.4.

422
422

423

12.2.2.

An example with two independent variables

12.2.3.

Total sums of squares (SST)

424

12.2.4.

The model sum of squares (SSM)

426

12.2.5.

The residual sum of squares (SSR)


The F-ratios

428

12.2.6.

12.3.

421

430

12.3.1.

Entering the data and accessing the main dialog box

12.3.2.
12.3.3.

Graphing interactions
Contrasts

12.3.4.

Post hoc tests

12.3.5.

Options

430

432
432

434

434

Output from factorial ANOVA

435

12.4.2.

Output for the preliminary analysis


Levene's test

12.4.3.

The main ANOVA table

12.4.4.

Contrasts

12.4.5.

Simple effects analysis

12.4.6.

Post hoc analysis

12.4.1.

429

Factorial ANOVA using SPSS

435
436

436

439
440

441

12.5.

Interpreting

interaction

graphs

12.6.

Calculating

effect sizes

12.7.

Reporting the results of two-way ANOVA

12.8.

Factorial ANOVA as regression

12.9.

What to do when assumptions

are violated in factorial ANOVA

What have I discovered

about statistics?

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

443
446

448
450

454
454
455
455

xiii

CONTENTS

13

456

Further reading
Online tutoriais

456

Interesting

456

real research

Repeated-measures
13.1.

What will this chapter tell me?

13.2.

Introduction

13.3.

13.4.

13.5.

457

designs (GLM 4)

457

to repeated-measures

designs

459

13.2.1.

The assumption of sphericity

13.2.2.

How is sphericity measured?

13.2.3.

Assessing the severity of departures from sphericity

13.2.4.

What is the effect of violating the assumption of sphericity?

13.2.5.

What do you do if you violate sphericity?

Theory of one-way repeated-measures

459

460

460

461
462

ANOVA

13.3.1.

The total sum of squares (SST)

464

13.3.2.

The within-participant (SSw)

465

13.3.3.

The model sum of squares (SSM)

466

13.3.4.

The residual sum of squares (SSR)

467

13.3.5.
13.3.6.

The mean squares


The F-ratio

13.3.7.

The between-participant sum of squares

467

467

One-way repeated-measures

468

ANOVA using SPSS

468

468

13.4.1.

The main analysis

13.4.2.

Defining contrasts for repeated-measures

13.4.3.

Post hoc tests and additional options

471

471

Output fo\ one-way repeated-measures


ANOVA
13.5.1. Descriptives and other diagnostics CD

474

474

13.5.2.
13.5.3.

Assessing and correcting for sphericity: Mauchly's test


The main ANOVA

13.5.4.

Contrasts

13.5.5.

Post hoc tests

474
475

477

478

13.6.

Effect sizes for repeated-measures

13.7.

Reporting

13.8.

Repeated-measures
with several independent
13.8.1. The main analysis
13.8.2. Contrasts

13.9.

458

ANOVA

one-way repeated-measures

ANOVA

479

481

variables

482

484
488

13.8.3.

Simple effects analysis

13.8.4.

Graphing interactions

13.8.5.

Other options

488
490

491

Output for factorial repeated-measures

ANOVA

13.9.1.
13.9.2.

Descriptives and main analysis


The effect of drink

13.9.3.

The effect of imagery

13.9.4.

The interaction effect (drink x imagery)

13.9.5.

Contrasts for repeated-measures variables

492
493

495

496

13.10.

Effect sizes for factorial repeated-measures

13.11.

Reporting the results from factorial repeated-measures

13.12.

What to do when assumptions


What have I discovered

492

501
ANOVA

are violated in repeated-measures

about statistics?

Key terms that I've discovered

ANOVA

498

ANOVA

502

503
503
504

xiv

OISCOVERING

14

USING

SPSS

Smart Alex's tasks

504

Further reading
Online tutoriais

505

Interesting

505

505

real research

506

Mixed design ANOVA (GLM 5)


14.1.
14.2.

What will this chapter tell me? eD

506

507

14.3.

What do men and women look for in a partner?


Mixed ANOVA on SPSS

14.4.

14.5.

Mixed designs

14.4.1.

The main analysis

14.4.2.

Other options

508
508

508

513
514

Output for mixed factorial ANOVA: main analysis @


14.5.1.
14.5.2.

The main effect of gender


The main effect of looks

14.5.3.

The main effect of charisma

14.5.4.

The interaction between gender and looks

14.5.5.

The interaction between gender and charisma

14.5.6.

The interaction between attractiveness and charisma

524

14.5.7.
14.5.8.

The interaction between looks, charisma and gender @


Conclusions @

527

14.6.

Calculating

14.7.

Reporting

14.8.

What to do when assumptions

517
518

520

521

523

530
531

effect sizes @
the results of mixed ANOVA

What have I discovered

15

STATISTICS

533

are violated in mixed ANOVA @

about statistics?

536
536

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

537

Further reading
Online tutoriais

538

Interesting

real research

538

tests

539

Non-parametric

537
538

15.1.

What will this chapter tell me? eD

539

15.2.

When to use non-parametric

tests eD

540

15.3.

Comparing

conditions:

two independent

Mann-Whitney

15.4.

the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and


540

test eD

542

15.3.1.

Theory

15.3.2.

Inputting data and provisional analysis eD

545

15.3.3.

Running the analysis eD

546

15.3.4.

Output from the Mann-Whitney test eD

15.3.5.

Calculating an etfect size

15.3.6.

Writing the results eD

Comparing

548

two related conditions:

550
550
the Wilcoxon signed-rank

test eD

552
552

15.4.1.

Theory of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test

15.4.2.

Running the analysis eD

554

15.4.3.

Output for the ecstasy group eD

556

15.4.4.

Output for the alcohol group eD

557

15.4.5.

Calculating an effect size

558

15.4.6.

Writing the results eD

558

xv

CONTENTS

15.5.

15.6.

Differences between several independent groups


15.5.1. Theory of the Kruskal-Wallis test
Inputting data and provisional analysis

<D

562
562

15.5.4.

Output from the Kruskal-Wallis test

564

15.5.5.

Post hoc tests for the Kruskal-Wallis test

15.5.6.

Testing for trends the Jonckheere- Terpstra test

15.5.7.

Calculating an effect size

15.5.8.

Writing and interpreting the results

Differences

<D

565

568
570
571

<D

between several related groups:

Friedman's

<D

573
573

Theory of Friedman's ANOVA

15.6.2.

Inputting data and provisional analysis

15.6.3.

Doing Friedman's ANOVA on SPSS <D

575

15.6.4.

Output from Friedman's ANOVA <D

576

15.6.5.

Post hoc tests for Friedman's ANOVA

577

15.6.6.

Calculating an effect size

15.67.

Writing and interpreting the results <D

575

<D

579

about statistics?

580
581

<D

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

582

Further reading
Online tutorial

583

Interesting

583

582
583

real research

What will this chapter tell me?


When to use MANOVA

16.3.

Introduction

584

584

similarities

585

and differences

to ANOVA

Words of warning

16.3.2.

The example for this chapter

Theory of MANOVA
16.4.1. Introduction to matrices

587
588

588

16.4.2.

Some important matrices and their functions

16.4.3.

Calculating MANOVA by hand a worked example

16.4.4.

Principle of the MANOVA test statistic @

16.6.1.

The main analysis

16.6.2.

Multiple comparisons in MANOVA

16.6.3.

Additional options

Output from MANOVA

604
605
605
606
607

607
608

16.7.1.
16.7.2.

Preliminary analysis and testing assumptions


MANOVA test statistics

16.7.3.

Univariate test statistics

16.7.4.

SSCP Matrices

16.7.5.

Contrasts

591

603

603

16.5.3. Follow-up analysis


MANOVA on SPSS

590
598

Practical issues when conducting MANOVA


16.5.1. Assumptions and how to check them
Choosing a test statistic

585
587

16.3.1.

16.5.2.

16.7.

ANOVA

15.6.1.

16.2.

16.6.

559
560

Doing the Kruskal-Wallis test on SPSS <D

16.1.

16.5.

<D

15.5.3.

MuLtivariate anaLysis of variance (MANOVA)

16.4.

test

15.5.2.

What have I discovered

16

the Kruskal-Wallis

608
608
609
611
613

VA

xvi

DISCDVERING

Factor
scores
Rotation
Scores
extraction
rotation

on
SPSS
me?
Factors
Graphical
Choosing
Theory
Univariate
Mathematical
Before
Preliminary
Measures
Interpreting
analysis
extraction:
you
behind
interpretation
arepresentation
of
ANOVA
begin
analysis
Cronbach's
the
method
reliability
representation
principai
vs.
output

eigenvalues
or
principai

discriminant

acomponent
01(some
lactors
component
01discriminant
and
lactors
cautionary
the
analysis
scree

tales

plot
... )
How
to
report
factor
analysis
16.8.
What
Interpreting
The
Communality
Options
Summary
Improving
linai
will
this
interpretation:
output

chapter
from
@
factor
SPSS
<D
<D
analysis?
analysis
Reliability
analysis

Reporting
Following
fleliability
analysis
up
results
MANOVA
from
on
SPSS
MANOVA
with

analysis
Discovering
factors

When
Research
Running
to
use
the
example
analysis
factor

analysis
tell
rotation
Exploratory
factor
analysis

STATISTICS

624
637
671
633
651
660
645
678
664
669
653
654
630
639
642
673
675
631
636
656
622
676
638

625
626
650
614
655
636
645
671
628
673
624
627
615

USING

618
681
621
622
624
627

SPSS

xvii

CONTENTS

What have I discovered

18

about statistics?

682

Further reading
Online tutorial

685

Interesting real research

685

683
685

686

CategoricaL data
18.1.

What will this chapter tell me? eD

686

18.2.

Analysing

687

18.3.

Theory of analysing categorical

categorical

688

18.3.2.

Fisher's exact test eD

690

18.3.3.

The Iikelihood ratio

690

18.3.4.

Yates' correction

Assumptions

Doing chi-square

18.8.

687

data eD

Pearson's chi-square test eD

18.5.

18.7.

data eD

18.3.1.

18.4.

18.6.

691

of the chi-square

691

test eD

692

on SPSS eD

18.5.1.

Entering data raw scores eD

692

18.5.2.

Entering data weight cases eD

692

18.5.3.

Running the analysis eD

694

18.5.4.

Output for the chi-square test eD

696
699

18.5.7.

Reporting the results of chi-square eD

700

Several categorical

variables:

loglinear analysis

18.5.1.

Chi-square as regression

18.5.2.

Loglinear analysis

Assumptions

Loglinear analysis using SPSS


Initial considerations

710

711
711

712

18.11.
18.12.

Reporting the results of loglinear analysis

19.2.

720

about statistics? eD

721
722
722

Further reading
Online tutorial

724

Interesting

724

722
724

real research

725
725

What will this chapter tell me? eD


Hierarchical data
19.2.1.
19.2.2.

19.3.

719

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

MuLtiLeveLLinear modeLs
19.1.

714

Output from loglinear analysis

What have I discovered

702

708

in loglinear analysis

The loglinear analysis

702

@)

Following up loglinear analysis


Effect sizes in loglinear analysis

18.10.

698

Breaking down a significant chi-square test with standardized residuals


Calculating an effect size

18.8.2.

18.9.

18.5.5.
18.5.5.

18.8.1.

19

682

Key terms that I've discovered


Smart Alex's tasks

The iJ;1traclasscorrelation
Benefits of multilevel modeis

Theory of multilevellinear

modeis

726
728

729
730

xviii

DISCOVERING

19.4.

19.5.

19.6.

19.8.

USING

SPSS

730

19.3.1.

An example

19.3.2.

Fixed and random coefficients @

732

The multilevel model @

734

19.4.1.

Assessing the fit and comparing multilevel modeis @

737

19.4.2.

Types of covariance structures @

737

Some practical issues @

739

19.5.1.

Assumptions @

739

19.5.2.

Sampie size and power @

740

19.5.3.

Centring variables @

740
741

Multilevel modelling on SPSS @


19.6.1.

Entering the data

742

19.6.2.

Ignoring the data structure ANOVA

742

19.6.3.

Ignoring the data structure ANCOVA

746

19.6.4.

Factoring in the data structure: random intercepts @

749

19.6.5.

Factoring in the data structure: random intercepts and slopes @

752

Adding an interaction to the model @


Growth modeis @

756

19.7.1.

Growth curves (polynomials) @

761

19.7.2.

An example: the honeymoon period

19.7.3.

Restructuring the data @

19.7.4.

Running a growth model on SPSS @

767

19.7.5.

Further analysis @

774

19.6.6.
19.7.

STATISTICS

761
763

How to report a multilevel model @


What have I discovered about statistics?
Key terms that I've discovered
Smart Alex's tasks

761

775

776
777
777

Further reading
Online tutorial

778

Interesting real research

778

778

Epilogue

779

Glossary

781

797

Appendix

803

A.3.

Table of the standard normal distribution


Critical values of the t-distribution
Critical values of the F-distribution

A.4.

Critical values of the chi-square distribution

808

A.l.
A.2.

797
804

References

809

Index

816