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Rs. 150/-

GrammarSpoken

Without Grammar

Tamil & & Without

in Tamil

English in

Spoken English

AANNOOTTHHEERRQQUUAALLIITTYYPPRROODDUUCCTTFFRROOMMNNLLRRCCSSPPOOKKEENNEENNGGLLIISSHH

COGNITIVECOGNITIVE SPOKENSPOKEN ENGLISHENGLISH

MainMain Features:Features:

Comprehensive Comprehensive Self-study Self-study Spoken Spoken English English Training Training in in

Tamil Tamil and and without without Grammar. Grammar.

1500 1500 Spoken Spoken English English Words Words Meanings Meanings in in Tamil Tamil with with

Sentence Sentence Patterns. Patterns.

PowerPoint PowerPoint Slides Slides for for Easy Easy Understanding. Understanding.

Understanding Understanding Newspaper Newspaper English. English.

Personality Personality Development Development Concepts. Concepts.

To To read read sample sample pages pages of of this this book book and and to to purchase, purchase,

please please visit visit www.nlrc.in www.nlrc.in

AboutAbout thethe AuthorAuthor

Dr. K. S. Jayakumar was born and brought up in Selliamman Nagar, Salem, Tamil Nadu. He is a Mechanical Engineering graduate. He completed M.Tech and MS degrees in IIT-Delhi and Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA) respectively. He completed PhD degree in Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He is currently working as a researcher in Natural Language Research Center (NLRC). His main research areas are Language Research, Machine Intelligence and Farm Machineries. Previously, he worked as an assistant professor at Department of Mechanical Engineering in Sona College of Technology, Salem.

Rs.Rs. 150/-150/-

CCooggnniittiivveeSSppookkeennEEnngglliisshh
CCooggnniittiivveeSSppookkeennEEnngglliisshh

IInn SSeenntteennccee PPaatttteerrnnss

100% New Approach Spoken English to
100%
New
Approach
Spoken
English to
Spoken Spoken English English in in Tamil Tamil & & Without Without Grammar Grammar
Spoken Spoken English English in in Tamil Tamil & & Without Without
Grammar Grammar
݃Aô ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ Þô‚èí‹ Þ™ô£ñ™ Þ™ô£ñ™ îIN™ îIN™ v«ð£‚è¡ v«ð£‚è¡
݃Aô ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ Þô‚èí‹ Þ™ô£ñ™ Þ™ô£ñ™ îIN™ îIN™
v«ð£‚è¡ v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv Þƒ‚Lv

By

Dr. Dr. K. K. S. S. JAYAKUMAR, JAYAKUMAR, B.E, B.E, M.Tech, M.Tech, M.S, M.S, PhD. PhD.

Natural Natural Language Language Research Research Center(NLRC), Center(NLRC),

Salem. Salem.

TTaarrggeett LLeeaarrnneerrss:: Engineers, Engineers, Teachers, Teachers, Professors, Professors, Graduates, Graduates,
TTaarrggeett LLeeaarrnneerrss:: Engineers, Engineers, Teachers, Teachers,
Professors, Professors, Graduates, Graduates, Research Research Scholars, Scholars,
Nurses, Nurses, IAS IAS & & TNPSC TNPSC Aspirants, Aspirants,
Tamil Tamil & & English English Medium Medium Students Students
and and All All
& & English English Medium Medium Students Students and and All All A Product of NLRC

A Product of NLRC Spoken English www.nlrc.in

Cognitive Spoken English

In Sentence Patterns

ÜFè Fø¬ñ, ÜP¾, è®ù à¬öŠ¹, M죺òŸC ÝAò¬õèœ Þ¼‰¶‹, å¼ CPò ݃AôˆFù£™ î¡Â¬ìò º¡«ùŸø«ñ ð£F‚èŠð´Aø¶ â¡Á ⇠ðõ˜èÀ‚° ÞŠ¹ˆî般î êñ˜ŠH‚A«ø¡.

Ü¡¹ì¡

Dr. K. S. Jayakumar, B.E, M.Tech, M.S, PhD.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC)

Salem-636111

Mob: +91 9894854413 Web: www.nlrc.in

(NLRC) Salem-636111 Mob: +91 9894854413 Web: www.nlrc.in A Product of NLRC Spoken English Head Office: Selliamman

A Product of NLRC Spoken English

Head Office:

Selliamman Nagar, M. Perumapalayam (PO), Salem (DT), Tamil Nadu, India – 636 111. Web: www.nlrc.in, Email: spokenenglish@nlrc.in Mob: +91 9994809099

Copyright @ NLRC Spoken English, 2010.

First Edition 2010

Cognitive Spoken English in Sentence Patterns is copyright protected under the Copyright Act, 1957.

All rights reserved worldwide.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording otherwise, without prior permission, in writing, of the publisher.

Price Rs. 150

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. ð£¬îò Å›G¬ôJ™ ªð¼‹ð£ô£ù ñ£íõ˜èœ

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ܬñŠ¹ º¬øò£ù (Sentence Pattern Method) cƒèœ

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Gõ˜ˆF ªêŒA«ø£‹.

spokenenglish@nlrc.in

(OR)

www.nlrc.in

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ªð£¼÷ì‚苪ð£¼÷ì‚苪ð£¼÷ì‚苪ð£¼÷ì‚苪ð£¼÷ì‚è‹

(Table of Contents)

1. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú ðŸPò å¼ è‡«í£†ì‹

(Spoken English – A Glance) ……

 

1

2. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv èŸø½‚è£ù â¡.â™.ݘ.C-J¡ MFº¬øèœ

 

(NLRC Rules for Spoken English Learning)

 

21

3. õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ

(Sentence Patterns)

33

4. ñQî˜è¬÷Š ðŸPò HóF ªðò˜ªê£Ÿèœ

(Pronouns of Humans)

49

5. º‚Aòñ£ù ¹ô¡ê£˜‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ

 

(Important Cognitive Words)

 

63

6. 500 îI› õ£‚AòƒèO¡ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ

 

(500 Tamil Situations into English

 

Sentence Patterns)

171

1

ð£ì‹ - 1

v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú ðŸPò å¼ è‡«í£†ì‹

Chapter – 1

Spoken English – A Glance

2 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

3

1. Cognitive Spoken English - in Sentence Patterns

â¡ø ¹ˆîèˆFL¼‰¶ cƒèœ â¡ù èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ «ð£Al˜èœ? ñŸÁ‹ ÞŠ¹ˆîè‹ àƒèO¡ âšõ¬èò£ù Fø¬ñ¬ò õ÷˜‚°‹?

Cognitive Spoken English - in Sentence Patterns â¡ø

¹ˆîè‹ cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚Aø¶. Þ¶ ݃Aô Þô‚è투î ðò¡ð´ˆî£ñ™ îIN™ v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú àƒèÀ‚° èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚Aø¶.

Þ‰î ¹ˆîè‹ v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚LR¡ Ü®Šð¬ì «è£†ð£´è¬÷ M÷‚A, àƒèÀ‚° ªîK‰î ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ªè£‡«ì, àƒè¬÷ ݃AôˆF™ «ðê ¬õ‚°‹.

àƒèÀ‚° ªîK‰î 輈¶è¬÷ cƒèœ âO¬ñò£ù ݃AôˆF™ ñŸøõ¼‚° ªê£™L ¹Kò ¬õ‚èîò Fø¬ñ¬ò Þ‰î ¹ˆîè‹ õ÷˜‚°‹.

2. Spoken English â¡ø£™ â¡ù?

Spoken English â¡ð¶ âO¬ñò£ù ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ (Simple Sentences) ªè£‡ì‹. ݃A«ôò˜èœ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ âO¬ñò£ù ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶Aø£˜èœ.

3. Written English â¡ø£™ â¡ù?

èôŠ¹ ݃Aô

õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷

ªè£‡ì‹. å¼ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòñ£ù¶ ÜFè

Þô‚èí MFè¬÷ àœ÷ì‚A â¿îŠð†®¼‚°‹.

Written English

â¡ð¶

(Complex

Sentences)

4 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

݃Aô Þô‚è투î ï¡° ªîK‰¶ ªè£‡ì£™î£¡ èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ 輈¶è¬÷ å¼õ˜ ªîOõ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ º®»‹.

Þ‰î èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòñ£ù¶ ¹ˆîèƒèœ,

ªêŒFèœ

ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.

«ð£¡øõŸP™

ÜFèñ£è

4. Spoken English-Written English-‹ å¡ø£?

Spoken English-Written English-‹ å¡ø™ô.

Þ¬õèœ Þó‡´‹ ªõš«õø£ù¬õ. Spoken

English «ð²õ‹, Written English ⿶õ‹

ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.

5. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ ã¡ âO¬ñò£ù ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒèœ (Simple Sentences) ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶?

 «ð²‹«ð£¶ «ò£Cˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î à„êKˆî™ «ð£¡ø ªêò™è¬÷ Iè °ÁAò è£ôˆF™ Ü™ô¶ «ïóˆF™ ªêŒA«ø£‹.

å¼õ˜ êó÷ñ£è ݃AôˆF™ «ðê

«õ‡´ñ£ù£™, Üõ˜ 臮Šð£è âO¬ñò£ù

݃Aô õ£Aòƒè¬÷

ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡´‹. ÜŠªð£¿¶î£¡ Üõ˜ «ò£Cˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î à„êKˆî™ «ð£¡ø ªêò™è¬÷ Iè °ÁAò è£ôˆF™ Ü™ô¶ «ïóˆF™ ªêŒòº®»‹.

Ýù£™ å¼õ˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ èôŠ¹

݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷

(Simple Sentences)

(Complex Sentences)

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

5

ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠðF½‹ ñŸÁ‹ ܬî à„êKŠðF½‹ è£ô î£ñî‹ ãŸð´‹. Þ‰î è£ô î£ñîˆFù£™î£¡ å¼õ˜ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð꺮õF™¬ô.

6. ݃AôˆF™ â¿îõ ã¡ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒèœ

(Complex Sentences) ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶?

èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒèœ Iè ¸ ‚èñ£ù ݃Aô Þô‚èí MFèÀ‚° à†ð†´ ܬñ‚èŠð´‹. èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF™ å«ó õ£˜ˆ¬î e‡´‹ ܉î õ£‚AòˆF™ F¼‹ð õó£îð® 𣘈¶‚ªè£œ÷Š ð´Aø¶. Ýîô£™ °¬ø‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ªè£‡´ G¬øò 輈¶è¬÷ èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF¡ Íô‹ ªê£™ô º®»‹. Þîù£™ °¬ø‰î è£AîˆF™ ÜFè 輈¶è¬÷ Ãø º®»‹.

å¼ ªêŒFî£O™ 20 ð‚èƒèO™ Þ¼‚°‹ ݃Aô èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚AòˆF™ ñ£ŸP â¿F, Þ¬î ªêŒFî£O™ Ü„C†ì£™ °¬ø‰îð†ê‹ 40 ð‚èƒèœ «î¬õð´‹.

݃Aô Þô‚è투î ï¡° ªîK‰¶ ªè£‡ì£™î£¡ èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ 輈¶è¬÷ å¼õ˜ ªîOõ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ º®»‹.

Ýù£™ âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œ÷ ݃Aô Þô‚èí MFèœ «î¬õð죶. W›è‡ì â´ˆ¶‚裆´è¬÷ èõQ‚辋.

6 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

Example:

Complex Sentence:

I buy the bag that is very big at Delhi that is capital of India which is democratic country.

Þ¶ å¼ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aò‹ Ý°‹. Þ¬î ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ Iè è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. «ñ«ô ªê£¡ù 輈¬î âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚AòˆF™ W›è‡ìõ£Á â¿îô£‹.

Simple Sentences:

I buy the bag; The bag is very big; I buy the bag at

Delhi; Delhi is capital of India; India is democratic

country.

Þ¬õèœ âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒèœ Ý°‹. Þ¬î ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ Iè âOî£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.

 Þƒ«è º‚Aòñ£è èõQ‚è «õ‡®ò Mêò‹ â¡ùªõ¡ø£™, âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒèœ âOî£è ¹KAø¶. Ýù£™ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ¹K‰¶ ªè£œõ è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.

 «ð²õ«ð²õ«ð²õ«ð²õ«ð²õ âO¬ñò£ùâO¬ñò£ùâO¬ñò£ùâO¬ñò£ùâO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™î£¡,ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™î£¡,ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™î£¡,ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™î£¡,ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™î£¡, ï‹ñ£™ï‹ñ£™ï‹ñ£™ï‹ñ£™ï‹ñ£™ êó÷ñ£è¾‹êó÷ñ£è¾‹êó÷ñ£è¾‹êó÷ñ£è¾‹êó÷ñ£è¾‹ «ð꺮»‹,«ð꺮»‹,«ð꺮»‹,«ð꺮»‹,«ð꺮»‹, Ü«îÜ«îÜ«îÜ«îÜ«î êñòˆF™êñòˆF™êñòˆF™êñòˆF™êñòˆF™  «ð²õ¬î«ð²õ¬î«ð²õ¬î«ð²õ¬î«ð²õ¬î ñŸøõ˜èÀ‹ñŸøõ˜èÀ‹ñŸøõ˜èÀ‹ñŸøõ˜èÀ‹ñŸøõ˜èÀ‹ âOî£èâOî£èâOî£èâOî£èâOî£è ¹K‰¶ªè£œõ£˜èœ.¹K‰¶ªè£œõ£˜èœ.¹K‰¶ªè£œõ£˜èœ.¹K‰¶ªè£œõ£˜èœ.¹K‰¶ªè£œõ£˜èœ.

7. èì‰î 50 õ¼ì è£ôñ£è îI›ï£†®™ ݃Aô‹ èŸÁˆîóŠð´Aø¶. Ýù£™ ޡ‹ ïñ‚° ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ è®ùñ£è Þ¼Šð¶ ã¡?

 å¼ ªñ£N¬ò «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì Hø°î£¡ Ü‰î ªñ£N¬ò ð®‚è ñŸÁ‹ â¿î èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.  îI› ªñ£NJ™ Þ‰î ñ£FK ªêŒA«ø£‹.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

7

Ýù£™ ݃AôˆF™ â¡ù ïì‚Aø¶? ݃Aô ªñ£N¬ò â¿î ñŸÁ‹ ð®‚è èŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì Hø°î£¡ «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.  ªêŒ»‹ Þ‰î îõ¬ø êŸÁ C‰F»ƒèœ.

8. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚LR™ ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜ ªêŒ»‹ îõÁ â¡ù?

݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ÜŠð®«ò «ðê«õ‡´‹ â¡Á ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜ G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ‰î CPò îõÁ Üõ˜èœ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ¬î è®ùñ£è Ý‚°Aø¶.

ãŸèù«õ °PŠH†ì ñ£FK, cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ âO¬ñò£ù

õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷

ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õF™¬ô. Ü ñ£ø£è, ðô˜ «ð²õ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ Üî£õ¶ ¹ˆîè‹ ñŸÁ‹ ªêŒFî£O™ Þ¼‚°‹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.

(Simple

Sentences)

9. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ «î¬õò£?

v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷, Üî£õ¶ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ «î¬õJ™¬ô.  ¬ìò Í¡ø£õ¶ õòFL¼‰«î îI¬ö êó÷ñ£è «ð²A«ø£‹. ⡬ø‚è£õ¶ îI› Þô‚è투î ðŸP «ò£Cˆî¶ à‡ì£? 臮Šð£è A¬ìò£¶.

8 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

Ýù£™ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ ñ†´‹ 㡠 ݃Aô Þô‚è투î I辋 A«ø£‹?

ãŸèù«õ ªê£¡ùñ£FK, Written English-™ Þ¼‚°‹ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ è‡®Šð£è «î¬õ. Ýù£™

Þ¼‚°‹ âO¬ñò£ù

õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ¹K‰¶ªè£œ÷ ñŸÁ‹ «ðê ݃Aô

Þô‚èí‹ «î¬õ Þ™¬ô.

Spoken

English-

10.  îI¬ö êó÷ñ£è «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œÀ‹«ð£¶ îI› Þô‚è투î èŸøF™¬ô. Ü«î«ð£™ ݃Aô Þô‚è투î èŸè£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™ âŠð® êó÷ñ£è «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œõ¶?

݃Aô Þô‚è투î èŸè£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê¬õ‚°‹ º¬ø‚° õ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹ º¬øº¬øº¬øº¬øº¬ø (Sentence Pattern Method) â¡Á ªðò˜. Þ‰î àôèˆF«ô«ò ºî¡ º¬øò£è õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF ݃AôˆF™ «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚°‹ å«ó ¹ˆîè‹ Þ¶î£¡.

11. õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø (Sentence Pattern Method)

â¡ð¶ â¡ù?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø â¡ð¶  G¬ù‚°‹ 輈¬î îINL¼‰¶ ªñ£N ªðò˜‚è£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™ ÃÁõ‹.

Ýù£™ ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜  G¬ù‚°‹ 輈¬î îINL¼‰¶ ªñ£N ªðò˜ˆ¶î£¡ ݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚Aø£˜èœ. ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð꺮ò£¬ñ‚° Þ¶¾‹ å¼ è£óí‹ Ý°‹.

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9

12. îIN™  G¬ù‚°‹ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹

º¬øJ¡

݃AôˆF™ ÃÁõ¶?

 îIN™ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î â´ˆ¶‚ªè£œ«õ£‹. 輈¶ ޶, “ꘂè¬ó“ꘂè¬ó“ꘂè¬ó“ꘂè¬ó“ꘂè¬ó ãî£õ¶ãî£õ¶ãî£õ¶ãî£õ¶ãî£õ¶ eFeFeFeFeF Þ¼‚Aøî£?”Þ¼‚Aøî£?”Þ¼‚Aøî£?”Þ¼‚Aøî£?”Þ¼‚Aøî£?” Þ¬î ݃AôˆF™ âŠð® ªê£™õ¶?

Þ¬î ݃AôˆF™ ªê£™ô, ªð¼ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶‹ º¬ø ªñ£Nªðò˜ˆî™ Ý°‹. Üî£õ¶ îI› õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ 嚪õ£¼ îI› õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ Ü‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñˆî™ Ý°‹. å¼õ˜ ªñ£Nªðò˜‚°‹«ð£¶ ãî£õ¶ å¼ îI› õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î ªîKòM™¬ô â¡ø£™ Üõó¶ ñùF™ ðìð승 ãŸð†´ Üõó£™ ÝƒAôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚è º®ò£¶.

Ü´ˆ¶ àƒèOì‹ ï£¡ «è†°‹ Iè º‚Aòñ£ù «èœM: ªñ£Nªñ£Nªñ£Nªñ£Nªñ£N ªðò˜‚è£ñ™ªðò˜‚è£ñ™ªðò˜‚è£ñ™ªðò˜‚è£ñ™ªðò˜‚è£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬îõ£‚Aòˆ¬îõ£‚Aòˆ¬îõ£‚Aòˆ¬îõ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚èܬñ‚èܬñ‚èܬñ‚èܬñ‚è º®»ñ£?º®»ñ£?º®»ñ£?º®»ñ£?º®»ñ£? M¬ì:M¬ì:M¬ì:M¬ì:M¬ì: 臮Šð£è臮Šð£è臮Šð£è臮Šð£è臮Šð£è º®»‹.º®»‹.º®»‹.º®»‹.º®»‹.

“ꘂè¬ó ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?” â¡ø

輈F¡ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: “Is there any sth left?”.

Þî¡ îI› ܘˆî‹: sth-â¡ø ªð£¼œ ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ sth â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚° ðFô£è ïñ‚° «î¬õò£ù ªðò˜ªê£™¬ô ̘ˆF ªêŒ»‹«ð£¶ â‡íŸø ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ à¼õ£‚èô£‹.

(Sentence Pattern Method) Íô‹ âŠð®

10 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

輈¶:輈¶:輈¶:輈¶:輈¶: ꘂè¬ó ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?

õ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹:ܬñŠ¹:ܬñŠ¹:ܬñŠ¹:ܬñŠ¹: “Is there any sth left?”

݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹:õ£‚Aò‹:õ£‚Aò‹:õ£‚Aò‹:õ£‚Aò‹: sth = Sugar â¡Á õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ ̘ˆF ªêŒî£™ A¬ì‚°‹ õ£‚Aò‹:

“Is there any Sugar left?”

ÞŠªð£¿¶ ïñ‚° ªñ£Nªðò˜‚è£ñ™ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹ A¬ìˆ¶ M†ì¶.

“ÜKC ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?” â¡ð¬î âŠð® ݃AôˆF™ Ãøô£‹? sth = Rice â¡Á õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ ̘ˆF ªêŒî£™ A¬ì‚°‹ õ£‚Aò‹ “Is there any Rice

left?”.

“î‚è£O ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?” â¡ð¬î

݃AôˆF™ Ãø “Is there any Tomato left?”

õ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹ º¬ø¬òº¬ø¬òº¬ø¬òº¬ø¬òº¬ø¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆFðò¡ð´ˆFðò¡ð´ˆFðò¡ð´ˆFðò¡ð´ˆF ݃AôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬îõ£‚Aòˆ¬îõ£‚Aòˆ¬îõ£‚Aòˆ¬îõ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠð¶Ü¬ñŠð¶Ü¬ñŠð¶Ü¬ñŠð¶Ü¬ñŠð¶ âšõ÷¾âšõ÷¾âšõ÷¾âšõ÷¾âšõ÷¾ âO¶âO¶âO¶âO¶âO¶ â¡Áâ¡Áâ¡Áâ¡Áâ¡Á 𣼃èœ.𣼃èœ.𣼃èœ.𣼃èœ.𣼃èœ.

݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô Þô‚è투îÞô‚è투îÞô‚è투îÞô‚è투îÞô‚è투î ñññññ ÜPò£ñ«ô«òÜPò£ñ«ô«òÜPò£ñ«ô«òÜPò£ñ«ô«òÜPò£ñ«ô«ò  õ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹ Íô‹Íô‹Íô‹Íô‹Íô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹. ޶޶޶޶޶ à‡¬ñ.à‡¬ñ.à‡¬ñ.à‡¬ñ.à‡¬ñ.

13. îI› 輈¶èÀ‚° à‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¬ðè¬÷ âŠð® ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œõ¶?

 G¬ù‚°‹ 嚪õ£¼ îI› 輈¶èÀ‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ Þ¼‚Aø¶. ݃Aô

õ£Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ www.ldoceonline.com â¡ø

ªõŠ¬ê†®L¼‰¶ Þôõêñ£è ªðøô£‹.

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Ü«î«ð£™ www.nlrc.in â¡ø ªõŠ¬ê†®L¼‚°‹

Cognitive Spoken English â¡ø ¹ˆîèˆFL¼‰¶ 1500

݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° îI› Íôñ£è ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ªðøô£‹.

ð£ì‹ 3-™ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ðŸP ªîOõ£è 𣘊«ð£‹.

14. Þ‰î ¹ˆîèˆF™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ Þ™ô£ñ™ v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv â¡Á â¿îŠð†®¼‚Aø¶. ÞŠ¹ˆîè‹ Íô‹ ݃Aô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì£™ âù‚° Written English õó£¶ â¡Á ðô˜ G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ‰î ßÁ êKò£?

cƒèœ Þšõ£Á G¬ùŠð¶ îõÁ. Tense ñŸÁ‹ Conjunction-è¬÷ ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œõ¶, õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ H¬öJ™ô£ñ™ ⿶‹ ðJŸC «ð£¡ø¬õèœî£¡ Written English â¡Á ðô˜ G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ¶ îõø£ù ßÁ Ý°‹. Þ¬õèœ à‡¬ñJ™ Written English‚°‡ì£ù 輈¶è«÷ A¬ìò£¶. Þ¬îMì ޡ‹ 99 êîMî ¹¶¬ñò£ù 輈¶èœ Written English-™ Þ¼‚Aø¶.

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ Íô‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚°‹ º¬ø¬ò ªîK‰¶‚ªè£‡ì£™î£¡ cƒèœ Written English-™ ¹ô¬ñ ªðøº®»‹. õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ ñ¬ø‰F¼‚Aø¶.

݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô Þô‚è투îÞô‚è투îÞô‚è투îÞô‚è투îÞô‚è투î ñññññ ÜPò£ñ«ô«òÜPò£ñ«ô«òÜPò£ñ«ô«òÜPò£ñ«ô«òÜPò£ñ«ô«ò  õ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹ Íô‹Íô‹Íô‹Íô‹Íô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹. ޶޶޶޶޶ à‡¬ñ.à‡¬ñ.à‡¬ñ.à‡¬ñ.à‡¬ñ.

12 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

15. ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ ªêŒF÷ ð®‚èô£ñ£?

݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ ªêŒF÷ ð®‚è Ã죶. ãªù¡ø£™ ªêŒFî£O™ Þ¼‚°‹ õ£‚Aòƒèœ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒèœ Ý°‹.

cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ °ö‰¬îèœ ï®ˆî ݃Aô ý£L¾† F¬óðìƒè¬÷ ݃Aô ꊬ솮½ì¡ 𣼃èœ. ãªù¡ø£™ ÞˆF¬óðìƒèO™ Þ¼‚°‹ õ£ƒAòƒèœ Iè âO¬ñò£è Þ¼‚°‹.

16. ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œðõ˜ ⊫𣶋 ݃AôˆF™î£¡ «ò£C‚è «õ‡´‹. îIN™ «ò£C‚è Ã죶 â¡Á ÜP¾ÁˆîŠð´Aø£˜èœ. Þ‰î ßÁ êKò£?

臮Šð£è îõÁ.  îIN«ô£ Ü™ô¶ ݃AôˆF«ô£ «ò£CŠð¶ A¬ìò£¶.  «ò£Cˆî™ â¡ø ªêò¬ô ¬ìò ͬ÷J¡ Physical Memory-J¡ Íôñ£è ªêŒA«ø£‹.

Physical

Memory-Ýù¶

¬ìò

䋹ô¡èO¡ C‚ù™èOù£™ à¼õ£‚èŠ ð†®¼‚Aø¶. Physical Memory-J™ à¼õ£‚Aò 輈¬î  îIN«ô£ Ü™ô¶ ݃AôˆF«ô£ õ£‚Aòñ£è ܬñˆ¶ «ð²A«ø£‹.

17. 㡠݃Aô ªñ£N îIN™ èŸÁˆîóŠð´Aø¶?

å¼ ¹¶‚輈¬î  ñŸøõ¼‚° ªê£™½‹«ð£¶ Ü‰î ¹¶‚輈¬î Üõ¼‚° ªîK‰î å¼ è¼ˆ¶ Íôñ£è ªê£™½‹«ð£¶î£¡ Üõ˜ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ£˜.

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ï‹ â™«ô£¼‚°‹ îI› ï¡ø£è ªîK»‹. Ýîô£™ ïñ‚° ªîKò£î ݃Aôˆ¬î  ïñ‚° ªîK‰î îI› ªñ£N Íôñ£è àƒèÀ‚° èŸÁˆî¼A«ø¡.

18. Noun ñŸÁ‹ Adjective â¡ð¶ â¡ù?

Noun â¡ð¶ ªðò˜ªê£™ Ý°‹. å¼ ªð£¼O¡ ªðò˜î£¡ ªðò˜ªê£™ Ý°‹. Adjective â¡ð¶ ð‡¹„ªê£™ Ý°‹. 嚪õ£¼ ªð£¼œèÀ‚°‹ ð‡¹èœ (Properties) Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þ‰î ð‡¹èO¡ ªðò˜î£¡ ð‡¹„ªê£™ Ý°‹.

Üöè£ù, «õèñ£ù, M¬óõ£ù «ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Adjective‚° â´ˆ¶‚裆´èœ Ý°‹. îIN™ “ù” â¡Á º®»‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ AdjectiveÝè õ¼‹.

19. Verb ñŸÁ‹ Adverb â¡ð¶ â¡ù?

Verb â¡ð¶ M¬ùªê£™ Ý°‹. Þ‰î àôèˆF™ àœ÷ ªð£¼œèœ ⶾ‹ G¬ôò£è Þ¼ŠðF™¬ô. Þ‰î ªð£¼œèœ å¼ ÞìˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ ñŸªø£¼ ÞìˆFŸ° ïè¼Aø¶. Þ‰î ïè¼î™ Ü™ô¶ Þ슪ðò˜„C¬ò ªêò™ â¡Á ÃøŠð´Aø¶. å¼ ªêòL¡ ªðò˜î£¡ M¬ù„ªê£™ Ý°‹. ïè¼, «ð£, ÜŠ¹ «ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ M¬ù„ªê£™½‚° â´ˆ¶‚裆´èœ Ý°‹.

Adverb â¡ð¶ ªêòL¡ ð‡¹„ªê£™ Ý°‹. 嚪õ£¼ ªêò½‚°‹ ð‡¹èœ (Properties) Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þ‰î ªêò™èO¡ ð‡¹î£¡ Adverb Ý°‹. Üöè£è, «õèñ£è, M¬óõ£è «ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Adverb‚° â´ˆ¶‚裆´èœ Ý°‹.

14 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

îIN™ “è” â¡Á º®»‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ AdverbÝè õ¼‹.

20. Cognitive Words â¡ð¶ â¡ù?  ¹Fî£è å¼ è¼ˆ¬î à¼õ£‚°õ‹ ñŸÁ‹ Ü¬î ªõOŠð´ˆ¶õ‹ â‰î Ü÷¾‚° Þ‰î Cognitive Words ïñ‚° àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶?

Cognitive Words â¡ð¬î îIN™ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ â¡Á ܬö‚A«ø£‹.

¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° à¼õƒèœ A¬ìò£¶. Ýù£™ Noun, Verb «ð£¡ø¬õèÀ‚° à¼õƒèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶. ªñ£ˆî‹ 260 ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ÝƒAôˆF™ Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þ‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ è£ôƒèœ, Þìƒèœ, 輈¶èÀ‚° Þ¬ì«ò Þ¼‚°‹ ê‹ð‰îƒèœ «ð£¡ø¬õŸ¬ø M÷‚°Aø¶. Þ‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ ªð£¼œè¬÷ ªîOõ£è ªîK‰¶‚ ªè£‡ì£™, ¹Fî£è å¼ è¼ˆ¬î à¼õ£‚°õ‹ ñŸÁ‹ Ü¬î ªõOŠð´ˆ¶õ‹ Þ¬õèœ ïñ‚° I辋 àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚°‹.

àƒèÀ‚°àƒèÀ‚°àƒèÀ‚°àƒèÀ‚°àƒèÀ‚° 10001000100010001000 ݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèœõ£˜ˆ¬îèœõ£˜ˆ¬îèœõ£˜ˆ¬îèœõ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ªîK‰F¼‰¶‹,ªîK‰F¼‰¶‹,ªîK‰F¼‰¶‹,ªîK‰F¼‰¶‹,ªîK‰F¼‰¶‹, ¹ô¡¹ô¡¹ô¡¹ô¡¹ô¡ ꣘‰î꣘‰î꣘‰î꣘‰î꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœõ£˜ˆ¬îèœõ£˜ˆ¬îèœõ£˜ˆ¬îèœõ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ªîKòM™¬ôªîKòM™¬ôªîKòM™¬ôªîKòM™¬ôªîKòM™¬ô â¡ø£™â¡ø£™â¡ø£™â¡ø£™â¡ø£™ àƒè÷£™àƒè÷£™àƒè÷£™àƒè÷£™àƒè÷£™ ݃AôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ ¹ô¬ñ¹ô¬ñ¹ô¬ñ¹ô¬ñ¹ô¬ñ ªðøªðøªðøªðøªðø º®ò£¶.º®ò£¶.º®ò£¶.º®ò£¶.º®ò£¶.

21.  ñŸøõ˜èOì‹ ÝƒAôˆF™ «ðê£ñ«ô«ò, ï‹ñ£™ ݃Aô‹ «ðê‚èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ º®»ñ£?

臮Šð£è º®»‹. Þ¶ âŠð® â¡Á MKõ£è 𣘊«ð£‹. cƒèœ èì‰î ÝÁ ñ£îƒèœ ⡪ù¡ù îI› õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ «ðCm˜è«÷£

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

15

Ü™ô¶ «ò£Cˆb˜è«÷£ ܬõè¬÷ å¼ î£O™ â¿î¾‹. °¬ø‰î¶ 1000 îI› õ£‚Aòƒèœ â¿î «õ‡´‹. Hø°, cƒèœ â¿Fò îI› õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° ݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô õ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ (݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒèœõ£‚Aòƒèœõ£‚Aòƒèœõ£‚Aòƒèœõ£‚Aòƒèœ Ü™ôÜ™ôÜ™ôÜ™ôÜ™ô) ªîK‰¶ ªè£‡ì£™ cƒèœ êó÷ñ£è ݃AôˆF™ «ðê Ýó‹Hˆ¶ M´i˜èœ.

݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô õ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœî£¡Ü¬ñŠ¹èœî£¡Ü¬ñŠ¹èœî£¡Ü¬ñŠ¹èœî£¡Ü¬ñŠ¹èœî£¡ àƒè¬÷àƒè¬÷àƒè¬÷àƒè¬÷àƒè¬÷ ݃AôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ «ðê«ðê«ðê«ðê«ðê ɇ´Aø¶.ɇ´Aø¶.ɇ´Aø¶.ɇ´Aø¶.ɇ´Aø¶.

22. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô ñŸÁ‹ «è†ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô âŠð® Þ¼‚°‹?

«ð²ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô:

¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ÜŠð®«ò «ðê «õ‡´‹.

Þô‚èíŠ H¬öJ¡P «ðê «õ‡´‹.

«õèñ£è «ðê «õ‡´‹.

«è†ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô:

«è†ðõ˜ ݃Aô õ£‚AòˆF¡ ªð£¼¬÷ ñ†´‹î£¡ èõQŠð£˜. cƒèœ Þô‚èí H¬ö«ò£´ «ð²Al˜è÷£ Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á èõQ‚èñ£†ì£˜.

«ð²ðõ˜ M†´ M†´ ªñ¶õ£è «ðCù£™ Ãì, «è†ðõ˜ ªð£Á¬ñ»ì¡ Þ¼Šð£˜. «ð²ðõK¡ 輈¬î‚ «è†ðF™ ñ†´‹î£¡ °Pò£è Þ¼Šð£˜.

16 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

«ð²ðõ˜ Þ‰î ñ£FK «ðCù£™ Ãì «è†ðõ˜ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œõ£˜. I walk road thief hit fell”, Þ‰î ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ♫ô£¼‹ ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œõ£˜èœ. ÞFL¼‰¶  â¡ù ¹K‰¶ ªè£‡«ì£‹ â¡ø£™, «ð²‹«ð£¶ Þô‚èí H¬öJ™ô£ñ™ «ðê «õ‡´‹ â¡ø ÜõCò‹ Þ™¬ô.

23. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ îI¬ö«ð£™ «õèñ£è «ðêôñ£?

݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ îI¬ö«ð£™ «õèñ£è «ðê‚Ã죶. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ªñ¶õ£è «ðê«õ‡´‹. ªñ¶õ£è 嚪õ£¼ õ£˜ˆ¬îò£è «ðCù£™ Ãì îõÁ 㶋 A¬ìò£¶.

24. Cognitive Spoken English â¡ð¶ â¡ù?

 ¬ìò Í¡ø£õ¶ õòF™ îI¬ö êó÷ñ£è «ð²A«ø£‹. Þ º‚Aò è£óí‹ ï‹¬ñ ²ŸP Þ¼Šðõ˜èœ ܬùõ¼‹ îIN™ «ð²õ¶ Ý°‹.  îI¬ö ¬ìò 䋹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è èŸÁªè£œA«ø£‹. Ü«î«ð£™, ݃Aôˆ¬î ¬ìò 䋹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è

èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚°‹ º¬ø‚° Cognitive Spoken English

â¡Á ܬö‚èŠð´Aø¶.

õ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹Ü¬ñŠ¹ º¬øº¬øº¬øº¬øº¬ø  ݃Aô ªñ£N¬ò ¬ìò 䋹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ I辋 àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

17

25. Communication Skill â¡ðî¡ à‡¬ñò£ù ªð£¼œ â¡ù?

Communication Skill â¡ð¶

cƒèœ

ªê£™ô

G¬ù‚°‹

輈¬î

ñŸøõ¼‚°

âOî£è

¹Kò¬õŠð‹.

cƒèœ å¼õKì‹ å¼ ¹¶ Mêòˆ¬î ªê£™½‹«ð£¶, Ü‰î ¹¶ Mêòˆ¬î «è†ðõ¼‚° ãŸèù«õ ªîK‰î Mêò‹ Íôñ£è ªê£™½‹ «ð£¶î£¡ «è†ðõ˜ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ£˜.

cƒèœ

å¼

Mêòˆ¬î

𮂰‹«ð£¶,

«è†°‹«ð£¶ Ü™ô¶ 𣘂°‹«ð£¶, Ü¬î ºîL™ cƒèœ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹. Hø° cƒèœ Þ‰î ¹K‰î ªè£‡ì Mêòˆ¬î â‰î «ïóˆF½‹ ñŸøõ˜èÀ‚° âOî£è ¹Kò¬õ‚è «õ‡´‹ Ü™ô¶ ñŸøõ˜èÀ‚° ¹KAø ñ£FK ªê£™ô«õ‡´‹. Þ‰î Fø¬ñ àƒèOì‹ Þ™¬ôªò¡ø£™, cƒèœ â¡ù ð®ˆF¼‰î£½‹ Þ‰î àôèˆF™ â¬î»‹

ê£F‚躮ò£¶. Þ¶  Communication Skill-¡

º‚Aò «ï£‚è‹ Ý°‹.

26. ݃AôˆF™ 𮂰‹«ð£¶ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œÀ‹ Cô˜ Ü¬î «ð²‹«ð£¶ Üõ˜èœ ã¡ î´ñ£ÁAø£˜èœ?

Cô˜ ݃Aô‹ 蟰‹«ð£¶ ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‡ì£ù îI› ܘˆî¬î ñ†´‹ ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œAø£˜èœ. Ýù£™ Üõ˜èœ ܉î ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îJ¡ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ èŸÁªè£œõF™¬ô. Þîù£™î£¡, Üõ˜è÷£™ ¹K‰¶ªè£‡ì ݃Aôˆ¬î «ðê º®òM™¬ô.

18 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

Þ‰î Hó„ê¬ù¬ò «ð£‚è cƒèœ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò 臮Šð£è H¡ðŸø «õ‡´‹.

27. ªð¼‹ð£½‹ ð®ˆîõ˜èœ Cô˜ â¡ù G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ â¡ø£™ ïñ‚° G¬øò 𮊹 î°Fèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶ (B.E,

Ýù£™ â¡ù£™ ÜFèñ£è

M.Sc, M.A, PhD,

).

ê‹ð£F‚è º®òM™¬ô. Ýù£™ ⶾ‹ ð®‚è£îõ«ó£ Iè ÜFèñ£è ê‹ð£F‚Aø£˜ â¡Á ð®ˆîõ˜èœ Cô˜

¹ô‹¹õ Ü®Šð¬ì è£óí‹ â¡ù?

ÞŠð® ð®ˆîõ˜èœ Cô˜ ¹ô‹¹õ º‚Aò

è£óí‹

Þ™ô£ñ™ Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹. Üî£õ¶, å¼ è¼ˆ¬î ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œÀî™ ñŸÁ‹ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î ñŸøõ¼‚° ¹K»‹ð® ªê£™½î™ «ð£¡ø Fø¬ñèœ Þ™ô£ñ™ Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹.

Fø¬ñ

Communication Skill-â¡ø

28. ñ£íõ˜èœ ðœO, è™ÖKèO™ âŠð® ð®‚è «õ‡´‹? Üõ˜èœ â‰îñ£FKò£ù ÜP¬õ ªðø «õ‡´‹?

ÜFè ð£ìƒè¬÷ ñùŠð£ì‹ ªêŒ¶ ÜFè ñFŠªð‡ â´‚°‹ ñ£íõ¬ó Mì, °¬ø‰î°¬ø‰î°¬ø‰î°¬ø‰î°¬ø‰î ð£ìƒè¬÷ð£ìƒè¬÷ð£ìƒè¬÷ð£ìƒè¬÷ð£ìƒè¬÷ 𮈶𮈶𮈶𮈶𮈶 ܬîܬîܬîܬîÜ¬î º¿¬ñò£èº¿¬ñò£èº¿¬ñò£èº¿¬ñò£èº¿¬ñò£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´ ܉î܉î܉î܉îÜ‰î ¹K‰î‚ªè£‡ì¹K‰î‚ªè£‡ì¹K‰î‚ªè£‡ì¹K‰î‚ªè£‡ì¹K‰î‚ªè£‡ì 輈¬î輈¬î輈¬î輈¬î輈¬î ï¬ìº¬øJ™ï¬ìº¬øJ™ï¬ìº¬øJ™ï¬ìº¬øJ™ï¬ìº¬øJ™ ªêò™ð´ˆ¶‹ªêò™ð´ˆ¶‹ªêò™ð´ˆ¶‹ªêò™ð´ˆ¶‹ªêò™ð´ˆ¶‹ ñ£íõ˜è«÷ñ£íõ˜è«÷ñ£íõ˜è«÷ñ£íõ˜è«÷ñ£íõ˜è«÷ ÞŠ«ð£¶ÞŠ«ð£¶ÞŠ«ð£¶ÞŠ«ð£¶ÞŠ«ð£¶ ®Ÿ°ï£†®Ÿ°ï£†®Ÿ°ï£†®Ÿ°ï£†®Ÿ° «î¬õ.«î¬õ.«î¬õ.«î¬õ.«î¬õ. ãªù¡ø£™ Þõ˜è÷£™ ñ†´‹î£¡ ®™ «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠH¬ù à¼õ£‚躮»‹. õÁ¬ñ¬ò åN‚è º®»‹.

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29. «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹ «ï˜è£íL™ àƒèOìI¼‰¶ â¡ù âF˜ð£˜‚èŠð´Aø¶?

«ï˜è£íL™ ïñ‚° ªîK‰î 輈¬î ñŸøõ¼‚° ¹K»‹ð®  ªê£™A«ø£ñ£ â¡ð¶‚°î£¡ ÜFè º‚Aòˆ¶õ‹ ªè£´‚èŠð´Aø¶.

30. ݃AôˆF™ «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ â‰î Dictionary-¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆîô£‹?

www.ldoceonline.com â¡ø

ªõŠ¬ê†®™

Longman Dictionary-¬ò Þôõêñ£è

ªðøô£‹.

Ü«î«ð£™ www.nlrc.in â¡ø ªõŠ¬ê†®L¼‚°‹

Cognitive Spoken English â¡ø ¹ˆîèˆFL¼‰¶ 1500

݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° îI› Íôñ£è ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ªðøô£‹.

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cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ àƒèÀ‚° I辋 àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚°‹ Iè º‚Aòñ£ù è£óE õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹

º¬ø (Sentence Pattern Method)

Ý°‹.

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v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ â¡.â™.ݘ.C 䉶 MFº¬øè¬÷ à¼õ£‚AJ¼‚Aø¶. cƒèœ ܬõè¬÷ èõùñ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´ ⊪𣿶‹ ë£ðèˆF™ ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹.

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îIN™ àœ÷ 輈¬î ݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòñ£è ܬñ‚è

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò (Sentence Pattern Method)

ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡´‹.

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â¡.â™.ݘ.C MFº¬ø: 2

 G¬ù‚°‹ îI› 輈¶‚° ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ (Sentence Pattern) ªîKòM™¬ô â¡ø£™, Ü ݃AôˆF™ âŠð® õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠð¶?

ïñ‚° ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ ªîKò£î ð†êˆF™ W«ö ªè£´‚èŠð†ì MFº¬øè¬÷ H¡ðŸP  ݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚èô£‹.

1. ªè£´‚èŠð†ì îI› õ£‚Aòˆ¬î è£AîˆF™ â¿î¾‹.

2. îI› õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ è¬ìC õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ºîL™ â¿î¾‹. Þ‰î è¬ìC õ£˜ˆ¬î M¬ùM¬ùM¬ùM¬ùM¬ù Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶ ªêò™ªêò™ªêò™ªêò™ªêò™ â¡Á ܬö‚èŠð´Aø¶.

32

Chapter 2: NLRC Rules for Spoken English Learning

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¶Kîñ£è àƒè¬÷ ݃AôˆF™ «ðê¬õ‚°‹ º¬ø.

W«ö ªè£´‚èŠð†ì ðJŸC¬ò Þ‰î ¹ˆî般î 𮂰‹ 嚪õ£¼ ñ£íõ¼‹ 臮Šð£è ªêŒò «õ‡´‹.

݃AôˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ â™ô£ õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ îI› ܘˆîƒè¬÷ ªîK‰¶ ªè£‡ì£™  ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðêô£‹ â¡Á ðô˜ G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ¶ îõø£ù 輈¶ Ý°‹.

Þƒ° õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ Mì, °¬ø‰îð†ê‹ 500 õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ªîK‰¶‚ªè£‡ì£™, Þ¬õè¬÷ ¬õˆ¶  2000 Å›G¬ôèÀ‚° ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ܬñ‚èô£‹.

cƒèœcƒèœcƒèœcƒèœcƒèœ Þ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰î ¹ˆî般î般î般î般î般î ð®Šð«î£´ð®Šð«î£´ð®Šð«î£´ð®Šð«î£´ð®Šð«î£´ ñ†´ñ™ô£ñ™,ñ†´ñ™ô£ñ™,ñ†´ñ™ô£ñ™,ñ†´ñ™ô£ñ™,ñ†´ñ™ô£ñ™, èì‰îèì‰îèì‰îèì‰îèì‰î 66666 ñ£îƒèœñ£îƒèœñ£îƒèœñ£îƒèœñ£îƒèœ îIN™îIN™îIN™îIN™îIN™ «ðCò«ðCò«ðCò«ðCò«ðCò ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ G¬ùˆîG¬ùˆîG¬ùˆîG¬ùˆîG¬ùˆî õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ è£AîˆF™è£AîˆF™è£AîˆF™è£AîˆF™è£AîˆF™ â¿î¾‹.â¿î¾‹.â¿î¾‹.â¿î¾‹.â¿î¾‹. cƒèœcƒèœcƒèœcƒèœcƒèœ â¿Fòâ¿Fòâ¿Fòâ¿Fòâ¿Fò îI›îI›îI›îI›îI› õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚°õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚°õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚°õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚°õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° Üî¡Üî¡Üî¡Üî¡Üî¡ ÝƒAô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô݃Aô õ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aòõ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ 臮Šð£è臮Šð£è臮Šð£è臮Šð£è臮Šð£è ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹.«õ‡´‹.«õ‡´‹.«õ‡´‹.«õ‡´‹. Þ¬îÞ¬îÞ¬îÞ¬îÞ¬î ªêŒî£™ªêŒî£™ªêŒî£™ªêŒî£™ªêŒî£™ ñ†´‹î£¡ñ†´‹î£¡ñ†´‹î£¡ñ†´‹î£¡ñ†´‹î£¡ àƒè÷£™àƒè÷£™àƒè÷£™àƒè÷£™àƒè÷£™ ¶Kîñ£è¶Kîñ£è¶Kîñ£è¶Kîñ£è¶Kîñ£è ݃AôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ÝƒAôˆF™ «ðê«ðê«ðê«ðê«ðê º®»‹.º®»‹.º®»‹.º®»‹.º®»‹.

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ð£ì‹ 6-™ 500 îI› õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° Üî¡ ÝƒAô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ ªè£´‚èŠð†®¼‚Aø¶.

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35

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ ªñ£Nªðò˜‚è£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚è ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. Þ‰î õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ ñ¬ø‰F¼‚Aø¶.

Þ‰î ð£ìˆF™ å¼ ÝƒAô õ£˜ˆ¬îJ¡ îI› ܘˆîˆ¬î âŠð® ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹ â¡Á‹, ñŸÁ‹ ï¬ìº¬øJ™  ðò¡ð´ˆ¶‹ Iè º‚Aòñ£ù õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷»‹ 𣘂èô£‹. å¼ ÝƒAô õ£˜ˆ¬î‚è£ù

õ£Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ www.ldoceonline.com â¡ø

ªõŠ¬ê†®™ cƒèœ Þôõêñ£è ªðøô£‹.

cƒèœ W›è‡ì ݃Aô °Pf´èO¡ ܘˆîƒè¬÷ 臮Šð£è ë£ðèˆF™ ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹.

pat

- õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ (Pattern)

syn - å«ó ªð£¼¬÷ ªè£‡ì ñŸø õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ

( Synonym )

/

- Ü™ô¶

sb

- ò£ó£õ¶ å¼ ïðK¡ ªðò˜ (Somebody)

sth

- ãî£õ¶ å¼ ªð£¼O¡ ªðò˜ (Something)

do

- M¬ù ( Verb )

doing -

M¬ùJ¡ ing ܬñŠ¹ (Verb-ing ,i.e. eating,

trying

)

done - M¬ùJ¡ past participle ܬñŠ¹ ( Verb-pp,

i.e. eaten, gone

)

pat: wrong for (doing) sth - â¡ø£™ ܬìŠHÂœ ( )

Þ¼‚°‹ õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF»‹ Ü™ô¶ ðò¡ð´ˆî£ñ½‹ õ£‚Aò‹ ܬñ‚èô£‹.

pat: be able - be Ýù¶

is, am, are, was, were

«ð£¡ø¬õèO™ ãî£õ¶ 塬ø °P‚°‹.

48 Chapter 3: Sentence Patterns

(îI› õ£‚AòˆF™ è¬ìC õ£˜ˆ¬î ªîKòM™¬ôªîKòM™¬ôªîKòM™¬ô,ªîKòM™¬ôªîKòM™¬ô Ýîô£™ ºî¡¬ñ M¬ù don’t

know Ý°‹.)

57. âƒ«è «ð£õ¶?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: Where to verb?

݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: Where to go?

58. ꣊H´õ âƒ«è «ð£õ¶?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: Where to verb to do (sth)? ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: Where to go to eat?

59. èP ꣊H´õ âƒ«è «ð£õ¶?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: Where to verb to do (sth)? ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: Where to go to eat mutton?

60. ⊪𣿶 ꣊H´õ¶? õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: When to verb? ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: When to eat?

61. â¡ù ꣊H´õ¶? õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: What to verb? ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: What to eat?

62. âŠð® ꣊H´õ¶? õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: How to verb? ݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: How to eat?

[°PŠ¹: õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ «õÁ Mîñ£ù ªðò˜ªê£Ÿèœ ñŸÁ‹ M¬ùè¬÷ ¬õˆ¶ ð™«õÁ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ à¼õ£‚°ƒèœ]

******

ð£ì‹ - 4

ñQî˜è¬÷ ðŸPò HóF ªðò˜ªê£Ÿèœ

Chapter - 4

Pronouns of Humans

50 Chapter 4: Pronouns of Humans

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

51

1. I

Meaning 1: Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶ subject ÝèÝèÝèÝèÝè ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹. Üî£õ¶Üî£õ¶Üî£õ¶Üî£õ¶Üî£õ¶ verb‚°‚°‚°‚°‚° º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹ õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹. Þî¡Þî¡Þî¡Þî¡Þî¡ ªð£¼œèœ:ªð£¼œèœ:ªð£¼œèœ:ªð£¼œèœ:ªð£¼œèœ: ,,,,, âù‚°,âù‚°,âù‚°,âù‚°,âù‚°, â¡Qì‹.â¡Qì‹.â¡Qì‹.â¡Qì‹.â¡Qì‹.

a. I walk -  ïì‚A«ø¡.

b. I want money - âù‚° ðí‹ «î¬õŠð´Aø¶.

c. I have car - â¡Qì‹ è£˜ Þ¼‚Aø¶ Ü™ô¶  裘 ¬õˆF¼‚A«ø¡.

2. My

Meaning 1: â¡Â¬ìò,â¡Â¬ìò,â¡Â¬ìò,â¡Â¬ìò,â¡Â¬ìò, Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶ ªðò˜ªê£™½‚°ªðò˜ªê£™½‚°ªðò˜ªê£™½‚°ªðò˜ªê£™½‚°ªðò˜ªê£™½‚° (noun) º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹ ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.

a. This is my car - Þ¶ â¡Â¬ìò 裘 Ý°‹.

b. My car price is 6 lacs - â¡Â¬ìò è£K¡ M¬ô 6 ô†êƒèœ Ý°‹.

3. Mine

Meaning 1: â¡Â¬ìò¶â¡Â¬ìò¶â¡Â¬ìò¶â¡Â¬ìò¶â¡Â¬ìò¶

a. The car is mine - 裘 â¡Â¬ìò¶ Ý°‹.

b. Mine is red car - â¡Â¬ìò¶ C芹Gø 裘 Ý°‹.

c. Your book is big. Mine is small - àƒèÀ¬ìò ¹ˆîè‹ ªðKò¶.

â¡Â¬ìò¶ CPò¶ Ý°‹.

4. Me

Meaning 1: ⡬ù,⡬ù,⡬ù,⡬ù,⡬ù, âù‚°âù‚°âù‚°âù‚°âù‚° (me / to me),,,,, â¡Qì‹,â¡Qì‹,â¡Qì‹,â¡Qì‹,â¡Qì‹, â¡Âì¡â¡Âì¡â¡Âì¡â¡Âì¡â¡Âì¡ (with

me)

a.

You don’t hurt me - cƒèœ ⡬ù è£òŠð´ˆî£b˜èœ Ü™ô¶ ¹‡ð´ˆî£b˜èœ.

b.

You give me the book - cƒèœ âù‚° Ü™ô¶ â¡Qì‹ ¹ˆîè‹ ªè£´ƒèœ.

c.

You come with me - cƒèœ â¡Âì¡ õ£¼ƒèœ.

52 Chapter 4: Pronouns of Humans

Phrase Meaning 1: It’s me / this is me / that’s me - Þ¶  /

޶  / ܶ .

[º‚Aòº‚Aòº‚Aòº‚Aòº‚Aò °PŠ¹:°PŠ¹:°PŠ¹:°PŠ¹:°PŠ¹: Phrase Meaning â¡ø£™â¡ø£™â¡ø£™â¡ø£™â¡ø£™ Þ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰î õ£‚AòˆF™õ£‚AòˆF™õ£‚AòˆF™õ£‚AòˆF™õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹Þ¼‚°‹Þ¼‚°‹Þ¼‚°‹Þ¼‚°‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ îQîQò£èîQîQò£èîQîQò£èîQîQò£èîQîQò£è HKˆ¶HKˆ¶HKˆ¶HKˆ¶HKˆ¶ Þ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰î õ£‚AòˆF¡õ£‚AòˆF¡õ£‚AòˆF¡õ£‚AòˆF¡õ£‚AòˆF¡ ܘˆî¬îܘˆî¬îܘˆî¬îܘˆî¬îܘˆî¬î 𣘂è𣘂è𣘂è𣘂è𣘂è Ã죶.Ã죶.Ã죶.Ã죶.Ã죶.]

Phrase Meaning 2: me too - âù‚°‹ Ü«î G¬ô¬ñ.

d. I am hungry. Me too - âù‚° ðC‚Aø¶. âù‚°‹ Ü«î G¬ô¬ñ.

5. Myself

Meaning 1: ï£ù£è«õ,ï£ù£è«õ,ï£ù£è«õ,ï£ù£è«õ,ï£ù£è«õ, ùùùùù Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶  îQò£èîQò£èîQò£èîQò£èîQò£è (l myself),,,,, ⡬ù«ò,⡬ù«ò,⡬ù«ò,⡬ù«ò,⡬ù«ò,

a. I hurt myself -  ⡬ù«ò è£òŠð´ˆF ªè£œA«ø¡.

b. l myself walked long -  îQò£è ÜFè Éó‹ ïì‰«î¡ Ü™ô¶ ù ÜFè Éó‹ ï쉫î¡.

Phrase Meaning 1: (all) by myself - îQò£è ( syn: alone ).

c. I

do the work all by myself - 

«õ¬ô¬ò

îQò£è

ªêŒA«ø¡.

6. We

Meaning 1:  / èœ,èœ,èœ,èœ,èœ, âƒèÀ‚°,âƒèÀ‚°,âƒèÀ‚°,âƒèÀ‚°,âƒèÀ‚°, âƒèOì‹.âƒèOì‹.âƒèOì‹.âƒèOì‹.âƒèOì‹.

a. We go to temple - ï£ƒèœ «è£M½‚° ªê™A«ø£‹ Ü™ô¶  «è£M½‚° «ð£A«ø£‹.

b. We need money - âƒèÀ‚° ðí‹ «î¬õ.

c. We have the car - âƒèOì‹ è£˜ Þ¼‚Aø¶.

- Þ‰Fò˜è÷£Aò

Phrase Meaning 1: we Indians / we Tamils

 / îIö˜è÷£Aò .

d. We Indians should save the national integrity - Þ‰Fò˜è÷£Aò

 «îCò åŸÁ¬ñ¬ò ð£¶è£‚è «õ‡´‹.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

53

7. Our

Meaning 1: âƒèÀ¬ìòâƒèÀ¬ìòâƒèÀ¬ìòâƒèÀ¬ìòâƒèÀ¬ìò / ¬ìò¬ìò¬ìò¬ìò¬ìò

a. India is our country - Þ‰Fò£ ¬ìò  Ý°‹ Ü™ô¶ Þ‰Fò£ ï‹ ï£´ Ý°‹

b. Our student passed the exam - ¬ìò ñ£íõ˜ «î˜M™

ªõŸP ªðŸø£˜.

8. Ours

Meaning 1: âƒèÀ¬ìò¶âƒèÀ¬ìò¶âƒèÀ¬ìò¶âƒèÀ¬ìò¶âƒèÀ¬ìò¶ / ¬ìò¶ï‹º¬ìò¶ï‹º¬ìò¶ï‹º¬ìò¶ï‹º¬ìò¶

a. The car is ours - 裘 âƒèÀ¬ìò¶ Ý°‹.

b. Ours is big car - âƒèÀ¬ìò¶ ªðKò 裘 Ý°‹.

9. Us

Meaning 1: âƒè¬÷,âƒè¬÷,âƒè¬÷,âƒè¬÷,âƒè¬÷, âƒèÀ‚°âƒèÀ‚°âƒèÀ‚°âƒèÀ‚°âƒèÀ‚° (us / to us),,,,, âƒèOì‹,âƒèOì‹,âƒèOì‹,âƒèOì‹,âƒèOì‹, âƒèÀì¡,âƒèÀì¡,âƒèÀì¡,âƒèÀì¡,âƒèÀì¡, ì¡ï‹ºì¡ï‹ºì¡ï‹ºì¡ï‹ºì¡ (with us)

a. You don’t hurt us - cƒèœ âƒè¬÷ è£òŠð´ˆî£b˜èœ Ü™ô¶ ¹‡ð´ˆî£b˜èœ.

b. You give us the food - cƒèœ âƒèÀ‚° Ü™ô¶ âƒèOì‹ àí¾ ªè£´ƒèœ.

c. You come with me - cƒèœ âƒèÀì¡ õ£¼ƒèœ.

-  do â¡ø

Phrase Meaning 1: Let us do sth / Let’s do sth

ªêò¬ô ªêŒòô£‹, all of us -  Ü™ô¶ ï£ƒèœ â™«ô£¼‹, ï‹I™ ♫ô£¼‹, some of us - ï‹I™ Cô˜

d. Let’s go -  «ð£èô£‹.

e. All of us eat - ï£ƒèœ â™«ô£¼‹ ꣊H´A«ø£‹.

10. Ourselves

Meaning 1: è÷£è«õ,è÷£è«õ,è÷£è«õ,è÷£è«õ,è÷£è«õ, è«÷è«÷è«÷è«÷è«÷ Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶ èœï£ƒèœï£ƒèœï£ƒèœï£ƒèœ îQò£èîQò£èîQò£èîQò£èîQò£è (we ourselves),,,,, âƒèÀ‚°œ«÷«ò,âƒèÀ‚°œ«÷«ò,âƒèÀ‚°œ«÷«ò,âƒèÀ‚°œ«÷«ò,âƒèÀ‚°œ«÷«ò,

62 Chapter 4: Pronouns of Humans

40. is

Meaning 1: Ý°‹,Ý°‹,Ý°‹,Ý°‹,Ý°‹, Ýõ£¡,Ýõ£¡,Ýõ£¡,Ýõ£¡,Ýõ£¡, Ýõ£˜,Ýõ£˜,Ýõ£˜,Ýõ£˜,Ýõ£˜, Þ¼‚Aø¶.Þ¼‚Aø¶.Þ¼‚Aø¶.Þ¼‚Aø¶.Þ¼‚Aø¶.

a. It is bus - Þ¶ ðv Ý°‹.

b. He is a thief - Üõ¡ å¼ F¼ì¡ Ýõ£¡.

c. He is a good man - Üõ˜ ï™ô ñQî˜ Ýõ£˜.

d. The ball is on the table - ð‰¶ «ñ¬êJ¡ «ñ™ Þ¼‚Aø¶.

º‚Aò õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ ܘˆîƒèœ

by me - â¡ù£™,â¡ù£™,â¡ù£™,â¡ù£™,â¡ù£™, â¡â¡â¡â¡â¡ Íôñ£èÍôñ£èÍôñ£èÍôñ£èÍôñ£è, from me - â¡QìI¼‰¶,â¡QìI¼‰¶,â¡QìI¼‰¶,â¡QìI¼‰¶,â¡QìI¼‰¶, in me - â¡QìˆF™,â¡QìˆF™,â¡QìˆF™,â¡QìˆF™,â¡QìˆF™, to me - âù‚°,âù‚°,âù‚°,âù‚°,âù‚°, for me - âù‚è£è,âù‚è£è,âù‚è£è,âù‚è£è,âù‚è£è, with me - â¡Âì¡â¡Âì¡â¡Âì¡â¡Âì¡â¡Âì¡, through me - â¡â¡â¡â¡â¡ Íôñ£è.Íôñ£è.Íôñ£è.Íôñ£è.Íôñ£è.

(Þ«îÞ«îÞ«îÞ«îÞ«î ñ£FKñ£FKñ£FKñ£FKñ£FK us, you, him, her, it, them «ð£¡Á«ð£¡Á«ð£¡Á«ð£¡Á«ð£¡Á ñŸøñŸøñŸøñŸøñŸø õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹ ªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œ ªè£œ÷ô£‹.ªè£œ÷ô£‹.ªè£œ÷ô£‹.ªè£œ÷ô£‹.ªè£œ÷ô£‹.)

******

ð£ì‹ - 5

º‚Aòñ£ù ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ

Chapter - 5

Important Cognitive Words

64 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

65

1. About

Meaning 1: ðŸPðŸPðŸPðŸPðŸP, å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ªêò¬ôªêò¬ôªêò¬ôªêò¬ôªêò¬ô Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶ ªð£¼¬÷ªð£¼¬÷ªð£¼¬÷ªð£¼¬÷ªð£¼¬÷ ðŸPðŸPðŸPðŸPðŸP °PŠH´õ¶°PŠH´õ¶°PŠH´õ¶°PŠH´õ¶°PŠH´õ¶ Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.

a. The book is about politics -

¹ˆîè‹ ÜóCò¬ôŠ ðŸP

Þ¼‚Aø¶ Ü™ô¶ MõK‚Aø¶.

b. He lies about his age -

ªð£Œ ªê£™Aø£¡.

Üõ¡ Üõ¬ìò õò¬îŠ ðŸP

Meaning 2: ãøˆî£ö.ãøˆî£ö.ãøˆî£ö.ãøˆî£ö.ãøˆî£ö. ( syn: approximately / roughly )

c. I live about 10 miles away -  ãøˆî£ö 10 ¬ñ™èÀ‚°

܊𣙠õC‚A«ø¡.

d. I leave the home about 10 PM -  ãøˆî£ö ñ£¬ô 10.30

ñE‚° i†¬ì M†´ A÷‹¹A«ø¡.

Meaning 3: å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ªêò¬ôªêò¬ôªêò¬ôªêò¬ôªêò¬ô ªêŒòªêŒòªêŒòªêŒòªêŒò îò£ó£èîò£ó£èîò£ó£èîò£ó£èîò£ó£è Þ¼.Þ¼.Þ¼.Þ¼.Þ¼.

e. I am about to leave ( syn: about to + verb ) -  A÷‹¹õ

Ü™ô¶ ¹øŠð´õ îò£ó£è Þ¼‚A«ø¡.

Phrase Meaning 1: how / what about sth / sb - cƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ

ñ¬ùM Þ¼õ¼‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ i†®Ÿ° õ¼õî£è ÜõKì‹ ªê£™Al˜èœ. àƒèœ ñ¬ùM‚° àì™ ïô‹ êKJ™¬ô. Ýîô£™, cƒèœ ñ†´‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ i†®Ÿ° ªê™Al˜èœ. ÜŠ«ð£¶, àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ «è†Aø£˜, ã¡ àƒèœ ñ¬ùM õóM™¬ô, Üõ¼‚° â¡ù ÝJŸÁ?. Þ ݃AôˆF™ how

about your wife / what about your wife â¡Á ܘˆî‹.

Phrase Meaning 1a: cƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ Þ¼õ¼‹ «ðC‚ªè£‡®¼‚Al˜èœ. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèÀ‚° ðC‚Aø¶. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ ï‡ðKì‹ cƒèœ, àƒèÀ‚°‹ ðC‚Aøî£?

â¡Á «è†ð how about you / what about you Ý°‹.

f. I am feeling hungry, what about you - âù‚°

ðC‚Aø¶.

àƒèÀ‚°?

g. I buy the house, what about you? -  i´ õ£ƒ°A«ø¡.

cƒèÀñ£?

66 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

Phrase Meaning 1b: cƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ Þ¼õ¼‹ «ðC‚ªè£‡®¼‚Al˜èœ. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ Þ¼õ¼‚°‹ êLŠ¹ ãŸð´Aø¶. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ àƒèOì‹ ï£‹ «õÁ ãî£õ¶ ªêŒòô£‹ â¡Aø£˜. Ü cƒèœ,  CQñ£õ‚° «ð£èô£«ñ â¡Á ªê£™Al˜èœ. Þ

݃AôˆF how about movie / what about movie â¡Á ܘˆî‹.

Phrase Meaning 2: that’s about it / that’s about all / that’s it - cƒèœ

°ö‰¬îèÀ‚° è¬î ªê£™Al˜èœ. è¬î º®‰î î¼íˆF™ è¬î Üšõ÷¾  / è¬î º®‰¶ M†ì¶â¡d˜èœ. Þ ݃AôˆF™ that’s it â¡Á ܘˆî‹.

2. Above

Meaning 1: «ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô, å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œ Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚° àò«óàò«óàò«óàò«óàò«ó Þ¼Šð¶Þ¼Šð¶Þ¼Šð¶Þ¼Šð¶Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹. Ýù£™Ýù£™Ýù£™Ýù£™Ýù£™ Þ¼Þ¼Þ¼Þ¼Þ¼ ªð£¼œèÀ‹ªð£¼œèÀ‹ªð£¼œèÀ‹ªð£¼œèÀ‹ªð£¼œèÀ‹ 塬øªò£¡Á塬øªò£¡Á塬øªò£¡Á塬øªò£¡Á塬øªò£¡Á ªî£ì‚Ã죶.ªî£ì‚Ã죶.ªî£ì‚Ã죶.ªî£ì‚Ã죶.ªî£ì‚Ã죶. å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ M¬ôM¬ôM¬ôM¬ôM¬ô å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ñFŠ¹‚°ñFŠ¹‚°ñFŠ¹‚°ñFŠ¹‚°ñFŠ¹‚° «ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô Þ¼Šð¶.Þ¼Šð¶.Þ¼Šð¶.Þ¼Šð¶.Þ¼Šð¶.

a. The fan is above the table -

Þ¼‚Aø¶.

I¡MCP «ñ¬ü‚° «ñ«ô

b. The price is above Rs 5 - M¬ô 5 Ï𣌂° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶.

c. You write the name above the address

ºèõK‚° «ñ«ô ⿶ƒèœ.

- cƒèœ ªðò¬ó

Meaning 2: «ñŸªê£¡ùð®«ñŸªê£¡ùð®«ñŸªê£¡ùð®«ñŸªê£¡ùð®«ñŸªê£¡ùð® Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶ «ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô °PŠH†ì.°PŠH†ì.°PŠH†ì.°PŠH†ì.°PŠH†ì. Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶ è¬îè¬îè¬îè¬îè¬î ¹ˆîèƒèO™¹ˆîèƒèO™¹ˆîèƒèO™¹ˆîèƒèO™¹ˆîèƒèO™ ÜFèñ£èÜFèñ£èÜFèñ£èÜFèñ£èÜFèñ£è õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.

d. As I mentioned above, there is a big room in the house - 

«ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ñ£FK, i†®™ ªðKò ܬø Þ¼‚Aø¶.

e. Write to the above address for further information - ÜFèñ£ù

îèõ½‚° «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ºèõK‚° â¿î¾‹.

Meaning 3: Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶ ðîMJ¡ðîMJ¡ðîMJ¡ðîMJ¡ðîMJ¡ õK¬ê¬òõK¬ê¬òõK¬ê¬òõK¬ê¬òõK¬ê¬ò °P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶. Üî£õ¶Üî£õ¶Üî£õ¶Üî£õ¶Üî£õ¶ ܉î܉î܉î܉î܉î ðîMðîMðîMðîMðîM Þ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰îÞ‰î ðîM‚°ðîM‚°ðîM‚°ðîM‚°ðîM‚° «ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô«ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶.Þ¼‚Aø¶.Þ¼‚Aø¶.Þ¼‚Aø¶.Þ¼‚Aø¶.

f. I am above the manager -

 «ñ«ùü˜ ðîM‚° «ñ«ô

Þ¼‚A«ø¡. Üî£õ¶, â¡Â¬ìò ðîM «ñ«ùü˜ ðîM‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶.

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67

Phrase Meaning 1: above all - â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è, Iè

º‚Aòñ£è. ïñ‚° ° ªð£¼œèœ H®ˆF¼‚Aø¶. ÜF™ Iè º‚Aòñ£ù¬î Ãø Þ¶ ðò¡ð´Aø¶. ( syn: most of all /

most importantly / particularly / primarily )

g. I like apple, orange and above all ice cream - âù° ÝŠHœ,

Ýó…² H®‚°‹, â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è ävAK‹ H®‚°‹.

h. Above all, I eat more vegetables - â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹

«ñô£è,

 ÜFè 裌èPè¬÷ ꣊H´A«ø¡.

3. According to

Meaning 1: å¼õ¬óå¼õ¬óå¼õ¬óå¼õ¬óå¼õ¬ó ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó.ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó.ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó.ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó.ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó.

a. According to police, he is a thief ( pat: according to sb )

-

«ð£L¬ú ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó, Üõ¡ å¼ F¼ì¡.

Meaning 2: 塬ø塬ø塬ø塬ø塬ø ªð£Áˆ¶.ªð£Áˆ¶.ªð£Áˆ¶.ªð£Áˆ¶.ªð£Áˆ¶. ( pat: according to sth )

b. The students are grouped according to age - ñ£íõ˜èœ õò¬î

ªð£Áˆ¶ °¿‚è÷£è HK‚èŠð´Aø£˜èœ.

c. I play the cricket according to rules - 

MFº¬øè¬÷Š

ªð£Áˆ¶ Ü™ô¶ H¡ðŸP AK‚ªè† M¬÷ò£´A«ø¡.

Phrase Meaning 1: according to plan - å¼

G¬ùˆîŠð® Ü™ô¶ ï‹ F†ìŠð® ïì‚Aø¶.

d. All went according to plan - â™ô£‹

ªêò™ 

 G¬ùˆîŠð®

ïì‚Aø¶.

4. Across

Meaning 1: °Á‚«è,°Á‚«è,°Á‚«è,°Á‚«è,°Á‚«è, å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ð‚èˆF™ð‚èˆF™ð‚èˆF™ð‚èˆF™ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶Þ¼‰¶Þ¼‰¶Þ¼‰¶Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆîÜ´ˆîÜ´ˆîÜ´ˆîÜ´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ°.ð‚èˆFŸ°.ð‚èˆFŸ°.ð‚èˆFŸ°.ð‚èˆFŸ°. â‰îŠâ‰îŠâ‰îŠâ‰îŠâ‰îŠ ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚° ð‚è‹ð‚è‹ð‚è‹ð‚è‹ð‚è‹ Þ¼‚Aø«î£Þ¼‚Aø«î£Þ¼‚Aø«î£Þ¼‚Aø«î£Þ¼‚Aø«î£ ܬõèÀ‚°Ü¬õèÀ‚°Ü¬õèÀ‚°Ü¬õèÀ‚°Ü¬õèÀ‚° across õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹. â´ˆ¶‚裆´‚°â´ˆ¶‚裆´‚°â´ˆ¶‚裆´‚°â´ˆ¶‚裆´‚°â´ˆ¶‚裆´‚° «ó£´,«ó£´,«ó£´,«ó£´,«ó£´, ,,,,, ªî¼,ªî¼,ªî¼,ªî¼,ªî¼, ÝÁÝÁÝÁÝÁÝÁ «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷«ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷«ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷«ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷«ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷ Ãøô£‹.Ãøô£‹.Ãøô£‹.Ãøô£‹.Ãøô£‹.

a. I walk across the road -  «ó£†®¡ °Á‚«è ïì‚A«ø¡.

b. I see across the valley

𣘂A«ø¡.

-  ðœ÷A¡ °Á‚«è

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Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

c.

There is a crack across the road - «ó£†®¡ °Á‚«è MKê™

Þ¼‚Aø¶.

( °PŠ¹: over â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ °Á‚«è â¡Á ªð£¼œ. over ñŸÁ‹ across Þó‡´‚°‹ â¡ù MˆFò£ê‹ â¡ø£™ over ‚° å¼ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ° ªî£ì£ñ™ ªê™õ¶ Ý°‹. I jump over the road â¡ø£™,  «ó£†®Ÿ° °Á‚«è ´A«ø¡ â¡Á ܘˆî‹. Üî£õ¶ «ó£†®¡ å¼ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ° ªî£ì£ñ™ ªê™A«ø¡. )

Meaning 2: âF˜ð‚èˆF™âF˜ð‚èˆF™âF˜ð‚èˆF™âF˜ð‚èˆF™âF˜ð‚èˆF™ ( syn: on the other side / opposite ) ,,,,, â™ô£ð°FèO½‹â™ô£ð°FèO½‹â™ô£ð°FèO½‹â™ô£ð°FèO½‹â™ô£ð°FèO½‹ ( syn: throughout / all over / everywhere in )

d. My friend lives across the road - â¡Â¬ìò ï‡ð¡ «ó£†®¡

âF˜ ð‚èˆF™ õC‚Aø£¡.

e. We conduct the election across the country - ï£ƒèœ ï£†®¡

â™ô£ ð°FèO½‹ õ£‚ªè´Š¹ ï숶A«ø£‹.

Phrase Meaning 1: across the board - ♫ô£¼‚°‹, å¼ ªêò™

i†®™ Ü™ô¶ ®™ Þ¼‚°‹ ܬùõ¬ó»‹ ð£FŠð¬î Þ¶ °P‚Aø¶.

f. Across the board, there is 10% pay increase - ♫ô£¼‚°‹

10 êîMî ê‹ð÷ àò˜¾ Þ¼‚Aø¶.

5. After

Meaning 1: Hø°,Hø°,Hø°,Hø°,Hø°, H¡¹,H¡¹,H¡¹,H¡¹,H¡¹, Ü´ˆîî£è.Ü´ˆîî£è.Ü´ˆîî£è.Ü´ˆîî£è.Ü´ˆîî£è.

a. After the dinner, I go to bed - Þó¾ ꣊𣆴‚° Hø° 

Éƒè ªê™A«ø¡.

b. After leaving the school, he works in the restaurant ( pat: after

doing sth, sent1 ) - ðœO M†ìŠ H¡¹, Üõ¡ àí¾ M´FJ™ «õ¬ô ªêŒAø£¡.

c. After 10 minutes, I go to college - 10 GIìˆFŸ° Hø° 

è™ÖK ªê™A«ø¡.

d. You write the address after the name - cƒèœ

ºèõK¬ò

ªðò¼‚° Hø° Ü™ô¶ ªðò¼‚° Ü´ˆîî£è â¿î¾‹.

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69

e. I go to Salem. After (that) I go to Trichy ( pat: sent1, After (that)

sent2 ) -  «êô‹ ªê™A«ø¡. Hø°  F¼„C ªê™A«ø¡.

Meaning 2: å¼õ˜å¼õ˜å¼õ˜å¼õ˜å¼õ˜ ñŸªø£¼õ¬óñŸªø£¼õ¬óñŸªø£¼õ¬óñŸªø£¼õ¬óñŸªø£¼õ¬ó «î´õ‹,«î´õ‹,«î´õ‹,«î´õ‹,«î´õ‹, ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ å¼õ˜å¼õ˜å¼õ˜å¼õ˜å¼õ˜ ñŸªø£¼õ¬óñŸªø£¼õ¬óñŸªø£¼õ¬óñŸªø£¼õ¬óñŸªø£¼õ¬ó H¡ªî£ì˜õ¬î»‹H¡ªî£ì˜õ¬î»‹H¡ªî£ì˜õ¬î»‹H¡ªî£ì˜õ¬î»‹H¡ªî£ì˜õ¬î»‹ Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶ °P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.

f. The police is after me ( syn: look for / search for ) -

«ð£Lv

⡬ù H¡ªî£ì˜‰¶ «î® õ¼Aø¶.

g. He

goes after

her

/

He

follows her - Üõ¡

Üõ¬÷

H¡ªî£ì˜‰¶ ªê™Aø£¡.

Phrase Meaning 1: one after another / one after the other / one by

one - å¡ø¡ H¡ å¡ø£è, Ü´ˆî´ˆ¶.

h. I drink five glasses of water one after another -  䉶 ì‹÷˜

c¬ó Ü´ˆî´ˆ¶ °®‚A«ø¡.

Phrase Meaning 2: after you - å¼ ªêò¬ô ºîL™ cƒèœ

ªêŒ»ƒèœ. Hø°  ªêŒA«ø¡. Üî£õ¶, cƒèœ ¬ðŠH™ î‡a˜ H®‚è ªê™Al˜èœ. Ü«î êñòˆF™ Þ¡ªù£¼õ¼‹ î‡a˜ H®‚è õ¼Aø£˜. Þ¼õ¼‹ å«ó êñòˆF™ °ìˆ¬î ¬õ‚Al˜èœ. ÜŠ«ð£¶ cƒèœ, “ºîL™ cƒèœ î‡a˜ H®»ƒèœ. Hø°  H®‚A«ø¡” â¡ð¬î after you âù‚ Ãøô£‹.

6. Again

Meaning 1: e‡´‹,e‡´‹,e‡´‹,e‡´‹,e‡´‹, ñÁð®»‹.ñÁð®»‹.ñÁð®»‹.ñÁð®»‹.ñÁð®»‹.

a. I eat again / once again -  ñÁð®»‹ ꣊H´A«ø¡.

b. You do it again - cƒèœ ܬî e‡´‹ ªêŒ»ƒèœ.

Phrase Meaning 1: all over again - e‡´‹ å¼ ªêò¬ô ¹Fî£è

ªî£ì˜õ¶, start again - å¼ ªêò¬ô M†ì ÞìˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ e‡´‹ ªî£ì˜õ¶.

c. I write the essay all over again (syn: redo / repeat ) - 

膴¬ó¬ò e‡´‹ ¹Fî£è ⿶A«ø¡.

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Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

d.

I start again the essay writing ( syn: resume / take up again ) -

 膴¬ó ⿶õ¬î e‡´‹ M†ì ÞìˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ ªî£ì˜A«ø¡.

Ü«î ªð£¼œ

Phrase Meaning 2: the same again - e‡´‹

Ü™ô¶ ªêò™, again and again / over and over again / often

e‡´‹ e‡´‹, Ü®‚è®.

e. The apple is very tasty. I want the same again - ÝŠHœ ï™ô

²¬õò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.  e‡´‹ Ü«î ÝŠH¬÷ M¼‹¹A«ø¡ Ü™ô¶ ꣊Hì M¼‹¹A«ø¡.

f. I eat apple again and again -  e‡´‹ e‡´‹ Ü™ô¶

-

Ü®‚è® ÝŠH¬÷ ꣊H´A«ø¡.

7. Against

Meaning 1: âFó£è,âFó£è,âFó£è,âFó£è,âFó£è, âFó£ù.âFó£ù.âFó£ù.âFó£ù.âFó£ù.

a. He

votes

against

him

õ£‚èO‚Aø£¡.

- Üõ¡

Üõ‚°

âFó£è

b. He fights against her - Üõ¡

«ð£´Aø£¡.

ÜõÀ‚° âFó£è ꇬì

c. This is against the law - Þ¶

¹ø‹ð£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.

ê†ìˆFŸ° âFó£è Ü™ô¶

d. He marries her against her wish - Üõ¡ Üõ¬÷ ÜõÀ¬ìò

M¼ŠðˆFŸ° âFó£è F¼ñí‹ ªêŒAø£¡.

e. India plays against England in cricket - Þ‰Fò£ AK‚ªè†®™

ÞƒAô£‰¶‚° âFó£è M¬÷ò£´Aø¶.

Meaning 2: å¼õ˜å¼õ˜å¼õ˜å¼õ˜å¼õ˜ å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ e¶e¶e¶e¶e¶ ꣌‰¶‚ªè£‡´ê£Œ‰¶‚ªè£‡´ê£Œ‰¶‚ªè£‡´ê£Œ‰¶‚ªè£‡´ê£Œ‰¶‚ªè£‡´ Þ¼Šð¶,Þ¼Šð¶,Þ¼Šð¶,Þ¼Šð¶,Þ¼Šð¶, å¡Áå¡Áå¡Áå¡Áå¡Á âF˜F¬êJ™âF˜F¬êJ™âF˜F¬êJ™âF˜F¬êJ™âF˜F¬êJ™ ªê™Aø¶,ªê™Aø¶,ªê™Aø¶,ªê™Aø¶,ªê™Aø¶, ªêò¬ôè¬÷ªêò¬ôè¬÷ªêò¬ôè¬÷ªêò¬ôè¬÷ªêò¬ôè¬÷ Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶ ªð£¼¬÷è¬÷ªð£¼¬÷è¬÷ªð£¼¬÷è¬÷ªð£¼¬÷è¬÷ªð£¼¬÷è¬÷ «õÁð´ˆF«õÁð´ˆF«õÁð´ˆF«õÁð´ˆF«õÁð´ˆF 裇Hˆî™è£‡Hˆî™è£‡Hˆî™è£‡Hˆî™è£‡Hˆî™ Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.

f. He leans against the wall / He is against the wall - Üõ¡ ²õK¡

e¶ Ü™ô¶ ²õK™ ꣌‰¶ Þ¼‚Aø£¡.

g. The ladder is against the wall - ãE ²õK™ ꣌‰¶ Þ¼‚Aø¶.

h. I go against the wind ( syn: opposite direction of sth ) - 

裟P¡ âF˜ F¬êJ™ ªê™A«ø¡.

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71

i. The apple is tasty as against the orange ( pat: as against sth) / The apple is tastier than the orange - ÝŠHœ Ýó¬ê Mì ²¬õò£è Þ¼Aø. ( syn: in comparison with / compared to / in contrast to )

Phrase Meaning 1: go against - Þ¼ Mêòƒèœ å¡Áªè£¡Á

ºó‡ð£ì£è Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹.

j. The newspaper news goes against the TV news - «ðŠð˜

ªêŒF»‹ ®M ªêŒF»‹ å¡Á‚ªè£¡Á ºó‡ð£ì£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.

ã«î£ ñùF™

¬õˆ¶‚ªè£‡´ àƒè¬÷ ªõÁŠð¶ Ý°‹. Ýù£™ Üõ˜ ã¡ ÜŠð® ªêŒAø£˜ â¡Á àƒèÀ‚° ⶾ‹ ¹Kò£¶.

ã«î£ ñùF™

k. He has something against me - Üõ˜

Phrase Meaning 2: have something against - å¼õ˜

¬õˆ¶‚ªè£‡´ ⡬ù ªõÁ‚Aø£˜.

Phrase Meaning 3: sb1 turn sb2 against sb3 - sb1-Ýùõ˜ sb2-¬ò

sb3 -‚° âFó£è ªêò™ðì¬õ‚Aø£˜. Þ¶ ãî£õ¶ ªð£Œè¬÷ ªê£™L âFó£è ªêò™ðì¬õŠð¶ Ý°‹.

l. He turns my sister against me - Üõ˜ â¡Â¬ìò è¬ò

âù‚° âFó£è ªêò™ðì¬õ‚Aø£˜.

8. All

Meaning 1: â™ô£,â™ô£,â™ô£,â™ô£,â™ô£, â™ô£‹.â™ô£‹.â™ô£‹.â™ô£‹.â™ô£‹. ( syn: every / everyone )

a. I

eat all the bread

/

I

eat

all

of the bread - 

ªó£†®¬ò»‹ ꣊H´A«ø¡.

â™ô£

b. The boys watch the movies all day - ¬ðò¡èœ  º¿õ¶‹

ðì‹ ð£˜‚Aø£˜èœ.

c. All girls stand on the ground - â™ô£ ªð‡èÀ‹ î¬óJ¡ «ñ™

GŸAø£˜èœ.

Meaning 2: 񆴋񆴋񆴋񆴋񆴋 ( syn: only )

d. All I want is pencil and eraser ( pat: All I want / need / like verb sth ) / I want only pencil and eraser - âù‚° ªð¡C™ ñŸÁ‹

ÜNŠð£¡ ñ†´‹

«î¬õŠð´Aø¶.

72 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

Phrase Meaning 1: is that all? - ܶ Üšõ÷¾î£ù£?. Üî£õ¶,

cƒèœ G¬ù‚°‹ ªð£¼œ cƒèœ âF˜ð£˜ˆî¬î Mì âOî£è A¬ì‚°‹«ð£¶ Þ¶ õ¼‹.

e. The pen is only Rs 20. Is that all? - «ðù£ ªõÁ‹ 20 Ïð£Œ

Ý°‹. æ, ܶ Üšõ÷¾î£ù£?

Phrase Meaning 2: All along sth - sth-¡ â™ô£ «ïóº‹. ( syn: all the time / during )

f. I work all along the day -   º¿õ¶‹ Ü™ô¶ ï£O¡

â™ô£ «ïóº‹ «õ¬ô ªêŒA«ø¡.

9. Along

Meaning 1: õNò£è,õNò£è,õNò£è,õNò£è,õNò£è, Üîõ£¶Üîõ£¶Üîõ£¶Üîõ£¶Üîõ£¶ å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ªð£¼O¡ ð‚èˆF™ð‚èˆF™ð‚èˆF™ð‚èˆF™ð‚èˆF™ Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œ ܉îŠÜ‰îŠÜ‰îŠÜ‰îŠÜ‰îŠ ð‚般îð‚般îð‚般îð‚般îð‚èˆ¬î ªî£†´‚ªè£‡´ªî£†´‚ªè£‡´ªî£†´‚ªè£‡´ªî£†´‚ªè£‡´ªî£†´‚ªè£‡´ ªê™õ¶ªê™õ¶ªê™õ¶ªê™õ¶ªê™õ¶ Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.Ý°‹.

a. I walk along the road -  «ó£´ õNò£è ïì‚A«ø¡. ( °PŠ¹: å¼ ªð£¼œ Üî£õ¶ ð‰¶ ü¡ù™ õNò£è

ªê™Aø¶ â¡Á‚Ãø the ball goes through the window Ý°‹ )

b. The crowd is along the road - ñ‚èœ Ã†ì‹ «ó£´ õNò£è

Þ¼‚Aø¶. Üî£õ¶ ñ‚èœ «ó£´ õNò£è Þ¼Šð¶ õK¬ê «ð£¡Á è£íŠð´‹.

c. The army is along the border - Þó£ õ ió˜èœ ♬ôJ¡

õNò£è Þ¼‚Aø£˜èœ Ü™ô¶ ♬ôJ™ Þ¼‚Aø£˜èœ.

Phrase Meaning 1: come / go / get along - å¼õK¡ àì™G¬ô

«îPõ¼Aø¶, get along with sb - å¼õ˜ ñŸøõKì‹ ï¡ø£è ðö°Aø£˜.

d. I had fever. Now, I get along well - âù‚° 裌„ê™ Þ¼‰î¶.

ÞŠªð£¿¶ â¡Â¬ìò àì™G¬ô ï¡ø£è «îPõ¼Aø¶.

e. He gets along with me very well - Üõ˜ â¡Qì‹ Iè ï¡ø£è

ðö°Aø£˜.

å¼ ªð£¼¬÷ ñŸø

ªð£¼Àì¡ «ê˜ˆ¶ ¬õ‚辋. Þƒ° sth -Ýù¶ ñŸø ªð£¼¬÷‚ °P‚°‹.

Phrase Meaning 2: along with sth -

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

73

f. You put the pencil on the table along with other pencil - cƒèœ

ªð¡C¬ô «ñ¬üJ¡ «ñ™ ¬õ‚辋, ªð¡C¬ô ¬õ‚°‹ «ð£¶ Þ¬î ñŸø ªð¡C™èÀì¡ «ê˜ˆ¶ ¬õ‚辋.

å¼ ªêò¬ô å¼õ˜

Phrase Meaning 3: along the same lines -

ªêŒî ñ£FK Ü™ô¶ ªê£¡ù ñ£FK ªêŒõ‹. ( syn: similarly

/ likewise )

g. He handled the situation very well. We should act along the same

lines - Üõ˜ Å›G¬ô¬ò ï¡ø£è êñ£Oˆî£˜. ‹ Ü«î ñ£FK ªêŒò «õ‡´‹.

10. Among

Meaning 1: ñˆFJ™ñˆFJ™ñˆFJ™ñˆFJ™ñˆFJ™ Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶ Þ¬ìJ™.Þ¬ìJ™.Þ¬ìJ™.Þ¬ìJ™.Þ¬ìJ™. Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶ Í¡ÁÍ¡ÁÍ¡ÁÍ¡ÁÍ¡Á Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶Ü™ô¶ ÜÜÜÜÜ «ñŸð†ì«ñŸð†ì«ñŸð†ì«ñŸð†ì«ñŸð†ì ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚° Þ¬ìJ™Þ¬ìJ™Þ¬ìJ™Þ¬ìJ™Þ¬ìJ™ ñŸªø£¼ñŸªø£¼ñŸªø£¼ñŸªø£¼ñŸªø£¼ ªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œ Þ¼Šð¬î‚Þ¼Šð¬î‚Þ¼Šð¬î‚Þ¼Šð¬î‚Þ¼Šð¬î‚ °P‚°‹.°P‚°‹.°P‚°‹.°P‚°‹.°P‚°‹. ( °PŠ¹:°PŠ¹:°PŠ¹:°PŠ¹:°PŠ¹: between â¡ð¶â¡ð¶â¡ð¶â¡ð¶â¡ð¶ Þ¼Þ¼Þ¼Þ¼Þ¼ ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚°ªð£¼œèÀ‚° Þ¬ìJ™Þ¬ìJ™Þ¬ìJ™Þ¬ìJ™Þ¬ìJ™ ñŸªø£¼ñŸªø£¼ñŸªø£¼ñŸªø£¼ñŸªø£¼ ªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œ Þ¼Šð¬î‚Þ¼Šð¬î‚Þ¼Šð¬î‚Þ¼Šð¬î‚Þ¼Šð¬î‚ °P‚°‹°P‚°‹°P‚°‹°P‚°‹°P‚°‹ )

a. I walk among the trees -  ñóƒèO¡ ñˆFJ™ ïì‚A«ø¡.

ñ¬ôèO¡ ñˆFJ™

b. The house is among the hills -

Þ¼‚Aø¶.

Meaning 2: å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ °¿M™°¿M™°¿M™°¿M™°¿M™ Þ¼‚°‹Þ¼‚°‹Þ¼‚°‹Þ¼‚°‹Þ¼‚°‹ ñ‚èœñ‚èœñ‚èœñ‚èœñ‚èœ ñˆFJ™,ñˆFJ™,ñˆFJ™,ñˆFJ™,ñˆFJ™, ãî£õ¶ãî£õ¶ãî£õ¶ãî£õ¶ãî£õ¶ å¡P™å¡P™å¡P™å¡P™å¡P™ ð£F‚èŠð†ìõ˜èO™ð£F‚èŠð†ìõ˜èO™ð£F‚èŠð†ìõ˜èO™ð£F‚èŠð†ìõ˜èO™ð£F‚èŠð†ìõ˜èO™ Þõ¼‹Þõ¼‹Þõ¼‹Þõ¼‹Þõ¼‹ å¼õ˜.å¼õ˜.å¼õ˜.å¼õ˜.å¼õ˜.

c. The problem gives more worries among the people - Hó„ê¬ù

ñ‚èœ ñˆFJ™ ÜFè èõ¬ôè¬÷ î¼Aø¶.

d. I am one among them -  Üõ˜èO™ å¼õ˜ Ü™ô¶ ï£Â‹ Üõ˜èO™ å¼õó£è Þ¼‚A«ø¡.

e. The villagers are among the casualities ( syn: include ) -

Aó£ñõ£CèÀ‹ Þø‰îõ˜èO™ Ü샰õ˜.

Phrase Meaning 1: among the other things - º‚Aòñ£è, °PŠð£è. ( syn: specifically / importantly / particularly )

f. I discuss about lots of problems in meeting. Among the other things,

 ÆìˆF™ G¬øò

Hó„ê¬ùè¬÷Š ðŸP Mõ£F‚A«ø¡. ÜF™ º‚Aòñ£è,  㛬ñ¬òŠ ðŸP Mõ£F‚A«ø¡.

I discuss about poverty -

74 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

Phrase Meaning 2: among yourselves / ourselves / themselves -

àƒèÀ‚°œ / âƒèÀ‚°œ / Üõ˜èÀ‚°œ

g. They fight among themselves ( syn: with each other ) - Üõ˜èœ

Üõ˜èÀ‚°œ ê‡¬ìŠ «ð£´Aø£˜èœ.

11. Ago

Meaning 1: º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹, Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶ è£ôƒèœè£ôƒèœè£ôƒèœè£ôƒèœè£ôƒèœ ê‹ð‰îŠð†ìê‹ð‰îŠð†ìê‹ð‰îŠð†ìê‹ð‰îŠð†ìê‹ð‰îŠð†ì õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° Ü´ˆîî£èÜ´ˆîî£èÜ´ˆîî£èÜ´ˆîî£èÜ´ˆîî£è ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ñ†´‹ õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹. Ýù£™Ýù£™Ýù£™Ýù£™Ýù£™ before, earlier, previously, back «ð£¡ø«ð£¡ø«ð£¡ø«ð£¡ø«ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹ º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹º¡¹ â¡Áâ¡Áâ¡Áâ¡Áâ¡Á  ªð£¼œ.ªð£¼œ.ªð£¼œ.ªð£¼œ.ªð£¼œ. ago õ£˜ˆ¬îõ£˜ˆ¬îõ£˜ˆ¬îõ£˜ˆ¬îõ£˜ˆ¬î îQò£è¾‹îQò£è¾‹îQò£è¾‹îQò£è¾‹îQò£è¾‹ õ¼‹õ¼‹õ¼‹õ¼‹õ¼‹ ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ è£ôƒèœè£ôƒèœè£ôƒèœè£ôƒèœè£ôƒèœ ê‹ð‰îŠð†ìê‹ð‰îŠð†ìê‹ð‰îŠð†ìê‹ð‰îŠð†ìê‹ð‰îŠð†ì õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀì‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀì‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀì‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀì‹õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀì‹ õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.õ¼‹.

a. I ate food 2 hours ago ( syn: 2 hours before / earlier / back /

previously ) -  Þó‡´ ñE «ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹ àí¾ ê£ŠH†«ì¡.

b. I went to Italy a long ago -  ªó£‹ð è£ôˆFŸ° º¡¹

Þˆî£L «ð£«ù¡.

Phrase Meaning 1: a minute ago / a second ago / a moment ago / a short time ago / not long ago / just now - êŸÁ «ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹ (

ÞŠð )

c. I drank the water a minute ago -  êŸÁ «ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹

Ü™ô¶ ÞŠð î‡a˜ °®ˆ«î¡.

Phrase Meaning 2: a long ago/ a long time ago - ªó£‹ð «ïóˆFŸ°

( è£ôˆFŸ° ) º¡¹.

d. There was a king a long time ago - ªó£‹ð è£ôˆFŸ° º¡¹

å¼ Üóê˜ Þ¼‰î£˜.

Phrase Meaning 3: how long ago? - âšõ÷¾ è£ôˆFŸ° Ü™ô¶

«ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹ å¼ ªêò™ ïì‰î¶ âù °P‚Aø¶.

e. How long ago did you buy the computer? - âšõ÷¾ «ïóˆFŸ°

( ÷‚° ) º¡¹ cƒèœ è‹HÎ†ì˜ õ£ƒAm˜èœ?

Ýù£™, when did you buy the computer? â¡ø£™ ⊪𣿶

è‹HÎ†ì˜ õ£ƒAm˜èœ? â¡Á ܘˆî‹.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

75

12. Ahead

Meaning 1: º¡ù£®º¡ù£®º¡ù£®º¡ù£®º¡ù£®, º¡ù£™º¡ù£™º¡ù£™º¡ù£™º¡ù£™, ( syn: in front of, before ) Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶ å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œ Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚° º¡ù£®º¡ù£®º¡ù£®º¡ù£®º¡ù£® Þ¼Šð¬îÞ¼Šð¬îÞ¼Šð¬îÞ¼Šð¬îÞ¼Šð¬î °P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶.

a. The car is ahead of me ( pat: ahead of sth/sb ) - 裘 âù‚°

º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø¶ ( °PŠ¹: The car is ahead â¡ø£™ 裘 ã«î£ å¼ ªð£¼À‚° º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø¶ )

Meaning 2: õK¬êJ™õK¬êJ™õK¬êJ™õK¬êJ™õK¬êJ™ å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œªð£¼œ Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚°ªð£¼À‚° º¡ù£®º¡ù£®º¡ù£®º¡ù£®º¡ù£® Þ¼Šð¬îÞ¼Šð¬îÞ¼Šð¬îÞ¼Šð¬îÞ¼Šð¬î °P‚Aø¶°P‚Aø¶°P‚Aø¶.°P‚Aø¶°P‚Aø¶

b. Three people are ahead of me ( pat: ahead of sth / sb ) - Í¡Á

«ð˜ âù‚° º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø£˜èœ.

c. B is ahead of A

( i.e. A, B, C, D ———> ) - H

º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø¶.

Ýù¶ ã ‚°

Meaning 3: âF˜è£ôˆF™âF˜è£ôˆF™âF˜è£ôˆF™âF˜è£ôˆF™âF˜è£ôˆF™, ïì‚è«õ‡®òïì‚è«õ‡®òïì‚è«õ‡®òïì‚è«õ‡®òïì‚è«õ‡®ò «ïóˆFŸ°«ïóˆFŸ°«ïóˆFŸ°«ïóˆFŸ°«ïóˆFŸ° º¡ùî£è«õº¡ùî£è«õº¡ùî£è«õº¡ùî£è«õº¡ùî£è«õ å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ªêò™ªêò™ªêò™ªêò™ªêò™ ïì‚Aø¶ïì‚Aø¶ïì‚Aø¶ïì‚Aø¶ïì‚Aø¶.

d. There are big problems ahead/ ahead of us - âF˜è£ôˆF™

ïñ‚° G¬øò Hó„ê¬ùèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶.

e. I think about the exam 4 months ahead ( syn: I think about the

exam 4 months before ) -  ° ñ£îƒèÀ‚° º¡ð£è«õ «î˜¬õŠ ðŸP «ò£C‚A«ø¡.

f. I cooked the rice two hours ahead -  «ê£Á Þó‡´ ñE

«ïóˆFŸ° º¡ð£è«õ ê¬ñˆ«î¡.

Phrase Meaning 1: ahead of schedule / ahead of time / early -

ïì‚è«õ‡®ò «ïóˆFŸ° º¡ùî£è«õ å¼ ªêò™ ïì‚Aø¶.

g. I completed the work ahead of time - 

«õ¬ô¬ò

º¡ùî£è«õ º®ˆ«î¡. Üî£õ¶ õö‚èñ£ù «ïóˆFŸ°

º¡«ð «õ¬ô º®‰¶ M†ì¶.

å¼ ªêò¬ô ªêŒò

àƒèOì‹ ÜÂñF «è†Aø£˜. Ü‰î ªêò¬ô î£ó£÷ñ£è ªêŒ»ƒèœ â¡Á cƒèœ ªê£™½õ go ahead â¡Á ªð£¼œ.

Phrase Meaning 2: go ahead - å¼õ˜

h. Can I do this work? yes, go ahead -  Þ‰î «õ¬ô¬ò

ªêŒòô£ñ£? Ý‹, î£ó£÷ñ£è ªêŒ»ƒèœ.

170 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

172. Yesterday

Meaning 1: «ïŸÁ«ïŸÁ«ïŸÁ«ïŸÁ«ïŸÁ

a. I come / came to Salem yesterday -  «ïŸÁ «êô‹ õ‰«î¡.

173. Yet

Meaning 1: Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶ å¼å¼å¼å¼å¼ ªêò™ªêò™ªêò™ªêò™ªêò™ ޡ‹ޡ‹ޡ‹ޡ‹ޡ‹ ïì‰îî£ïì‰îî£ïì‰îî£ïì‰îî£ïì‰îî£ Þ™¬ôò£Þ™¬ôò£Þ™¬ôò£Þ™¬ôò£Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Áâ¡Áâ¡Áâ¡Áâ¡Á ÃøÃøÃøÃøÃø ðò¡ð´Aø¶.ðò¡ð´Aø¶.ðò¡ð´Aø¶.ðò¡ð´Aø¶.ðò¡ð´Aø¶. Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶Þ¶ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ªð¼‹ð£½‹ªð¼‹ð£½‹ªð¼‹ð£½‹ªð¼‹ð£½‹ «èœM«èœM«èœM«èœM«èœM ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ñŸÁ‹ âF˜ñ¬øâF˜ñ¬øâF˜ñ¬øâF˜ñ¬øâF˜ñ¬ø õ£‚AòƒèO™õ£‚AòƒèO™õ£‚AòƒèO™õ£‚AòƒèO™õ£‚AòƒèO™ ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.

a. Has he come yet? - Üõ˜ õ‰¶ M†ì£ó£? Ü™ô¶ Üõ˜ ޡ‹ õóM™¬ôò£?

b. Has the bus left (to) the Salem? not yet - ðv «êôˆFŸ° A÷‹H

M†ìî£? ޡ‹ Þ™¬ô.

c. I haven’t told the news yet / I still haven’t told the news - 

ޡ‹ ªêŒF¬ò ªê£™ôM™¬ô.

Phrase Meaning 1: yet to do sth - do â¡ø ªêò¬ô ÞQ«ñ™î£¡

ªêŒò «õ‡´‹. Üîõ£¶ do â¡ø ªêò¬ô ޡ‹ ªêŒòM™¬ô.

d. I am yet to write the letter -  ÞQ«ñ™î£¡ è®î‹ â¿î

«õ‡´‹.

e. He has yet to receive the offer letter - Üõ¡ «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹

è®îˆ¬î ÞQ«ñ™î£¡ ªðø «õ‡´‹. Üî£õ¶ Üõ¡ ޡ‹ «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹ è®îˆ¬î ªðøM™¬ô.a.

******

ð£ì‹ - 6

500

îI› õ£‚AòƒèO¡ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ

Chapter - 6

500

Tamil Situations into English Sentence Patterns

172 Chapter 6: 500 Tamil Situations into English Patterns

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

173

1. õ£ƒè õ£ƒè / i†®Ÿ° õ£¼ƒèœ - Welcome home

2. «êôˆFŸ° àƒè¬÷ õó«õŸA«ø¡ Ü™ô¶ õó«õŸA«ø£‹ - Welcome

to Salem (Pat: welcome to Place Name)

3. â¡ù ꣊H®Pƒè - What would you like to eat? (Pat: what would you like to do sth)

4. cƒèœ ðö‹ ꣊Hì M¼‹¹Al˜è÷£?- Would you like to eat fruit? (Pat: would you like to do sth)

5. cƒèœ ãî£õ¶ ꣊Hì M¼‹¹Al˜è÷£?- Would you like to eat

anything? (Pat: would you like to do anything)

6.  pv °®‚è M¼‹¹A«ø¡ - I would like to drink juice (Pat: I would like to do sth)

7. âŠð® Þƒè õ‰Fƒè -

How did you come here / How you came

here

8.  裘ô õ‰«î¡ - I came by car

9. Üõ¡ 裘ô õó£¡ Ü™ô¶ õ¼Aø£¡ - He comes by car

10. ã¡ Þƒè õ‰Fƒè - Why did you come here / Why you came here

11. cƒè ÞŠð â¡ù ð‡Pƒè - What do you do now / what you do now

12. cƒè âˆî¬ùò£õ¶ õ°Š¹ ð®‚APƒè - How many-ith class do you

study? [NLRC Method] / What class are you in? [For Schools] / What year are you (in)? [For Colleges]

13. cƒè â‰î õ°Š¹ ð®‚APƒè - Which / What class do you study? / Which / What class you study?

14. â‰î è¬ìòô ¶E â´ˆFƒè - Which shop did you buy the cloth ? / Which shop you bought the cloth?

15. àƒè ªð£‡ ‚° è™ò£í‹ ÝJ´„ê£ - Is your daughter married? / Does your daughter get married? / have your daughter got married?

16. àƒè ªð£‡ ‚° è™ò£í‹ ÝA âšõ÷¾ ï£÷£„²? - How long has

your daughter been married? (Pat: How long has sb been married)

17. âšõ÷¾ ï£÷£ Þƒè «õ¬ô ªêŒPƒè? - How long do you work

here?

174 Chapter 6: 500 Tamil Situations into English Patterns

18. âƒè ªð£‡ ‚° è™ò£í‹ ÝA 䉶 õ¼ìƒèœ ÝAM†ì¶ - Our

daughter has been married for 5 years / It is 5 years since our daughter got married.

19. Üõ¡ ñô¬ó è™ò£í‹ ªêŒ¶‚A†ì£¡ - He married (to) Malar / He

is married (to) Malar / He got married (to) Malar

20. Üõ‚° C¡ù õòC«ô è™ò£í‹ ÝJ´„² - He married young /

He got married young

21.  è™ò£í‹ ªêŒ¶‚è - I have to marry / I have to get married

22. Þ‰î «ðù£¬õ âšõ÷¾‚° õ£ƒAQƒè - How much is this pen?/

How much you pay for the pen?

23. àƒèA†ì âˆî¬ù «ðù£ Þ¼‚°¶ - How many pens (do) you

have?

24. âˆî¬ù º¬ø Ü™ô¶ îì¬õ ᆮ «ð£J¼‚APƒè - How many

times did you go to Ooty? / How many times have you been Ooty?

25.  «è£J½‚° «ð£øŠð™ô£‹  ܉î ñ󈶂° î‡a˜ áŸÁ«õ¡

- 1) Everytime / Whenever I go to temple, I pour water to that tree:

2) I go to temple. At that time, I pour water to that tree.

26.  «ïˆ¶î£¡ CƒèŠÌKL¼‰¶ õ‰«î¡ - I came from Singapore

yesterday only.

27.  ÞóJ™«õ v«ìê‚° «ð£Œ «ê˜‰«î¡ - I reached the railway

station.

28. ÞóJ™ v«ìê‚° Þó¾ 10 ñE‚° õ‰¶ «ê˜‰î¶ - The train arrived

at the station at 10 PM.

29. ÞóJ™ v«ìê‚° Þó¾ 10 ñE‚° õ‰î¶ - The train came to the

station at 10 PM.

30.  ï™ô «ê£Á ꣊H†´ 10 ï£œèœ ÝAø¶ - It is ten days since I

eat good food (Pat: It is Time since Sent1) / It is ten days since I have eaten my fill.

31. àƒèÀ‚° ãî£õ¶ àîM «õ‡´ñ£? - Can I help you? / What can

I do for you?

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32. Þ‰î ͆¬ì¬ò É‚A†´ «ð£ - You carry the luggage.

33. ͆¬ì¬ò «ñ«ô É‚° - Lift the luggage up / above.

34. «ñ«ô «ð£ - Go above / up

35. ü¡ùL¡ ð‚èˆF™ Ü™ô¶ ð‚èõ£†®™ G™ - Stand by the window

36. ü¡ùL™ ꣌‰¶ G™ - Stand against the window

37. «ð¡ «ñ¬ü‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶ - The fan is above the table ( Pat:

sth1 is above sth2; st1= àòóˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ªð£¼œ)

38. Üõ¬ù Þƒè Þ¿ˆ¶‚A†´ õ£ - You bring / pull him here

39. âšõ÷¾ ï£À‚° º¡ù£® cƒè «êô‹ «ð£mƒè - How long ago did

you go to salem?

40. Üõƒè 弈° å¼ˆî˜ ªõ†®A†ì£ƒè - They hit / kill each other

/ They hit / kill among themselves

41. ù Üšõ÷¾ Éó‹ ïì‰«î¡ Ü™ô¶ ù îQò£ Üšõ÷¾ Éó‹

ïì«î¡ - I myself walk that much distance.

42. Þ¬î â¡A†ì ªê£™ô£«î - Don’t tell this

43. ⶂè£è c Üõ¬ù Ü®„ê - Why (What for) did you hit him?

44. c ⡬ù Ü®‚è àù‚° âšõ÷¾ ¬îKò‹ - How dare you (to) hit

me?

45. ͆¬ìJ™ 膮J¼‚Aø èJˆ¬î ܾˆ¶M´ - You untie the robe

that ties in the luggage / You untie the tying robe in the luggage.

46. ñ£†¬ì H®„C è‹HJô 膴 - Tie the cow in the bar

47. ñóˆF™ 膮J¼‚Aø ݆¬ì H®„C†´ õ£ - You bring the goat that

ties in the tree / You bring the tying goat in the tree.

48. Üõ¬ù ÝvðˆFK‚° Æ®A†´ «ð£ƒè - You take him to hospital.

49. Üõ‚° ªó£‹ð Ü®ð†®¼‚° - He got injured (hurt) seriously / He was seriously injured (hurt)

50. Y‚Aó‹ 𴂬èJL¼‰¶ â¿ - Get up quickly from the bed.

51. è¬ì‚° «ð£øŠð Üõ¬ù 𣘈¶†´ «ð£ - You go to shop. At that

time, you see him / When you go to shop, you see him

196 Chapter 6: 500 Tamil Situations into English Patterns

459.  ݈ɘ õNò£è ªê™A«ø¡ - I go through (via) attur / I pass Attur on the way.

460.  Üõ¡ Íôñ£è ªêŒF¬ò «è†«ì¡ - I heard the news through

/ by him.

461. áªó™ô£‹ å«ó ðóðóŠð£ Þ¼‚Aø¶ - There is a tension all over / through out the town.

462. è¬ì 9 ñE õ¬ó Fø‰F¼‚°‹ - The shop opens till 9 o’clock / the shop is opened till 9 o’clock.

463. ܉î ܬøJ™ 10 «ð˜ õ¬ó Üñóô£‹ - Upto 10 people can sit in the room.

464.  è£H °®‚è ðöA ªè£‡«ì¡ - I am used to drink coffee.(pat:

be used to do sth)

465.  º¡¹ è£H °®„CA†´¼‰«î¡, (Ýù£™ ÞŠ«ð£¶ è£H °®Šð¶

Þ™¬ô) - I used to drink coffee (pat: use to do sth)

466. Þ‰î õNJ™ «ð£ƒèœ - Go this way.

467. â‰î F¬ê õì‚° - Which way is north?

468. Üõ˜ õNJ™ õ‰¶‚ªè£‡®¼‚Aø£˜ - He is on the way.

469. â¡ù ¹ˆîè‹ àù‚° «õ‡´‹ - What book you want?

470. â¡ù ªêòø¶¡Â ªîKòô - Don’t know what to do.

471. Üõù Þƒè õóªê£™½ - Ask him to come here.

472. cƒè ªêòø¶  - What are you doing is wrong.

473. ÞŠð â¡ù ꣊Hìô£‹ - What to eat now?

474. Þ‰î 裟ø£® âîŸè£è? - What for this fan?

475. Þ¡Q‚° ñ¬ö ªðŒ…ê£ â¡ù ð‡ Mƒè - What if it rains today.

476. ⊪𣿶 «êô‹ «ð£èô£‹ - When shall we go to salem?

477. âŠð™ô£‹ àù‚° «î£Â«î£ ÜŠð Þƒè õ£ - Whenever possible /

felt, you come here.

478. âƒè «ð£õ¶ â¡Á ªê£™½ƒèœ - Please tell me where to go.

479. âƒè Þ¼‚Al˜è«÷£ ܃è Þ¼ƒèœ - Stay where you are / Don’t move.

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480. ò£¼‚° 憴 «ð£ìø¶? - Who to vote?

481. «èœM¬ò ò£˜A†ì «è†ð¶ - Who to ask the question?

482. Þ¶ ò£¼¬ìò¶? - Whose is this?

483. Þ¶ ò£¼¬ìò ¹ˆîè‹? - Whose book is this?

484. Þ‰î ¹ˆîè‹ ò£¼¬ìò¶? - Whose is this book?

485. ã¡ Üõ¡ «è£ðñ£è Þ¼‚Aø£¡ - Why he is angry?

486. ã¡ Üõ¡ ޡ‹ A÷‹¹ô - Why doesn’t he leave yet? / Why he doesn’t leave yet?

487. ã¡ Üõ¡ A÷‹¹ø£¡? - Why he leaves?

488.  à¡Âì¡ õ«ó¡ - I come with you.

489.  Üõ¬ó ñ£íõ˜ î¬ôõó£è ܃AèK‚A«ø¡- I acknowledge

him as the student leader.

490. â¡e¶ °Ÿø‹ ²ñˆî£«î - Don’t accuse me.

491. ð£ˆFóˆF™ î‡a¬ó áŸÁ - Pour the water in the utensil.

492. ð£ˆFóˆF™ ñ£¬õ ªè£†´ - Put / pour the flour in the utensil.

493. ªïŒ áŸP M÷‚° «ð£´ - Light up the Vilakku using ghee.

494. î¬ó¬ò «îŒ‚裫î - Don’t rub the floor.

495. î‡E¬ò áŸP î¬ó¬ò 迾 - Clean the floor with water / Pour the water on the floor and clean it.

496. ⡬ù cƒèœ ñô˜ â¡Á ÊH´ƒèœ - Call me Malar.

497. Üõ¬ó Üõ¼¬ìò ñ£ñ£ õ÷˜ˆî£˜ - His uncle brought up him.

498. ꣊Hìø¶‚° ªõOJô «ð£ô£ñ£? - Can we go out to eat?

499. âù‚° ¹ˆF ⶾ‹ ªê£™ô£«î - Don’t advise me on anything.

500. îI› õ£›è - TAMIL VALGA.

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