COGNITIVE SPOKEN ENGLISH

Rs. 150/-

ANOTHER QUALITY PRODUCT FROM NLRC SPOKEN ENGLISH

@ Comprehensive Self-study Spoken English Training in
Tamil and without Grammar.

@ 1500 Spoken English Words Meanings in Tamil with
Sentence Patterns.

@ PowerPoint Slides for Easy Understanding.
@ Understanding Newspaper English.
@ Personality Development Concepts.
To read sample pages of this book and to purchase,
please visit www.nlrc.in

About the Author
Dr. K. S. Jayakumar was born and brought up in
Selliamman Nagar, Salem, Tamil Nadu. He is a
Mechanical Engineering graduate. He completed M.Tech
and MS degrees in IIT-Delhi and Singapore-MIT Alliance
(SMA) respectively. He completed PhD degree in
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He is
currently working as a researcher in Natural Language
Research Center (NLRC). His main research areas are
Language Research, Machine Intelligence and Farm
Machineries. Previously, he worked as an assistant
professor at Department of Mechanical Engineering in
Sona College of Technology, Salem.

Rs. 150/-

Spoken English in Tamil & Without Grammar

Main Features:

Cognitive Spoken English
In Sentence Patterns
to
%
100 roach sh
li
p
Ap Eng
w
n
Ne oke
Sp

Spoken English in Tamil & Without
Grammar
݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ Þ™ô£ñ™ îIN™
v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv
By

Dr. K. S. JAYAKUMAR, B.E, M.Tech, M.S, PhD.
Natural Language Research Center(NLRC),
Salem.

Target Learners: Engineers, Teachers,
Professors, Graduates, Research Scholars,
Nurses, IAS & TNPSC Aspirants,
Tamil & English Medium Students
and All

A Product of NLRC Spoken English
www.nlrc.in

Cognitive Spoken English
In Sentence Patterns
ÜFè Fø¬ñ, ÜP¾, è®ù à¬öŠ¹, M죺òŸC
ÝAò¬õèœ Þ¼‰¶‹, å¼ CPò ݃AôˆFù£™
î¡Â¬ìò º¡«ùŸø«ñ ð£F‚èŠð´Aø¶ â¡Á
⇎ðõ˜èÀ‚° ÞŠ¹ˆî般î
êñ˜ŠH‚A«ø¡.

Ü¡¹ì¡
Dr. K. S. Jayakumar, B.E, M.Tech, M.S, PhD.
Natural Language Research Center (NLRC)
Salem-636111
Mob: +91 9894854413
Web: www.nlrc.in

A Product of NLRC Spoken English
Head Office:
Selliamman Nagar, M. Perumapalayam (PO),
Salem (DT), Tamil Nadu, India – 636 111.
Web: www.nlrc.in,
Email: spokenenglish@nlrc.in
Mob: +91 9994809099

Copyright @ NLRC Spoken English, 2010.
First Edition 2010
Cognitive Spoken English in Sentence Patterns is copyright
protected under the Copyright Act, 1957.
All rights reserved worldwide.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording otherwise,
without prior permission, in writing, of the publisher.

݃Aôˆ¬î
èŸÁ‚ªè£‡´
ï‹

Price Rs. 150

ªñ£Nò£‹
îI¬ö
ð£¶è£Š«ð£‹
ð£¶è£Š«ð£‹.

º¡Â¬ó
 蟰‹ è™M, ¹¶ 致H®Š¹èœ, àôè ªêŒFèœ, ¹Fò
«õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹èœ «ð£¡ø¬õèœ ÝƒAôˆ¬î ꣘‰¶
Þ¼Šð, ܬõè¬÷ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ  ݃Aô
ªñ£N¬ò 臮Šð£è èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡®ò â¡ø G¬ôJ™
Þ¼‚A«ø£‹. Þ‰î Å›G¬ôJ™ ݃AôˆF¡ «î¬õ Iè
º‚Aòñ£è Þ¼Šð, ªðŸ«ø£˜èœ îƒèœ °ö‰¬îèœ
臮Šð£è ݃AôˆF™ ¹ô¬ñ ªðø «õ‡´‹ â¡Á
⇎Aø£˜èœ. ÞîŸè£è ªðŸ«ø£˜èœ âšõ÷¾
«õ‡´ñ£ù£½‹ ªêô¾ ªêŒò îò£ó£è Þ¼‚Aø£˜èœ. Þî¡
è£óíñ£è G¬øò ݃Aô õN îQò£˜ è™M GÁõùƒèœ
Ýó‹H‚èŠð†®¼‚Aø¶.
.
ð£¬îò Å›G¬ôJ™ ªð¼‹ð£ô£ù ñ£íõ˜èœ
݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ I辋 îòƒ°Aø£˜èœ. Þ Iè
º‚Aò è£óíƒèœ: ñ£íõ˜èœ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶
¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ÜŠð®«ò «ðê
G¬ùŠð¶ ñŸÁ‹ ݃Aôˆ¬î Þô‚èí H¬öJ™ô£ñ™ «ðê
G¬ùŠð¶ Ý°‹.
Þ‰î ¹ˆîèñ£ù¶ àƒèÀ‚° ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹
Þ™ô£ñ™ îI› õNò£è v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú
èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚Aø¶.  àð«ò£A‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠ¹ º¬øò£ù¶ (Sentence Pattern Method) cƒèœ
݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ I辋 àÁ¶¬íò£è
Þ¼‚°‹. Þ¶ å¼ ¹¶¬ñò£ù ݃Aô ðJŸC º¬ø Ý°‹.
Þ‰î ¹¶¬ñò£ù ݃Aô ðJŸC º¬ø¬ò ºî¡
ºîô£è àƒèÀ‚° ÜPºèŠð´ˆ¶õF™  I辋
ñA›„Cò¬ìA«ø¡. ÞŠ¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ 輈¶è¬÷
¹K‰¶ªè£‡ì£™, cƒè÷£è«õ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê
Ýó‹Hˆ¶M´i˜èœ.

݃Aôˆ¬î èŸÁ‚ªè£‡´ ï‹ î£Œªñ£Nò£‹
îI¬ö ð£¶è£Š«ð£‹
ð£¶è£Š«ð£‹.
Ü¡¹ì¡
죂ì˜. «è. âv. ªüò‚°ñ£˜

ÞŠ¹ˆî般î 𮂰‹«ð£¶ àƒèÀ‚° â¿‹
ꉫîèƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ 輈¶è¬÷ W›è‡ì
ߪñJ½‚° ÜŠH ¬õ»ƒèœ.
àƒèÀ¬ìò ꉫîèƒè¬÷ èœ
Gõ˜ˆF ªêŒA«ø£‹.

ªð£¼÷ì‚è‹
(Table of Contents)
1. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú ðŸPò

å¼ è‡«í£†ì‹

(Spoken English – A Glance) ……........

1

2. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv èŸø½‚è£ù

spokenenglish@nlrc.in
(OR)

www.nlrc.in

è™M, «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹ ñŸÁ‹ ªî£N™
ê‹ð‰îñ£ù Ý«ô£ê¬ùè¬÷»‹
õöƒ°A«ø£‹.

â¡.â™.ݘ.C-J¡ MFº¬øèœ

(NLRC Rules for
Spoken English Learning) ....…...........

21

3. õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ
(Sentence Patterns) .....…....…............

33

4. ñQî˜è¬÷Š ðŸPò HóF ªðò˜ªê£Ÿèœ
(Pronouns of Humans) ....…....….........

49

5. º‚Aòñ£ù ¹ô¡ê£˜‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ
(Important Cognitive Words) .........…

63

6. 500 îI› õ£‚AòƒèO¡

݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ
(500 Tamil Situations into English
Sentence Patterns) ....…..................… 171

1

ð£ì‹ - 1
v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú ðŸPò
å¼ è‡«í£†ì‹

Chapter – 1
Spoken English – A Glance

2

Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

1.

3

Cognitive Spoken English - in Sentence Patterns

â¡ø ¹ˆîèˆFL¼‰¶ cƒèœ â¡ù èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷
«ð£Al˜èœ? ñŸÁ‹ ÞŠ¹ˆîè‹ àƒèO¡ âšõ¬èò£ù
Fø¬ñ¬ò õ÷˜‚°‹?

â¡ø
¹ˆîè‹ cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê
èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚Aø¶. Þ¶ ݃Aô Þô‚è투î
ðò¡ð´ˆî£ñ™ îIN™ v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú
àƒèÀ‚° èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚Aø¶.
Cognitive Spoken English - in Sentence Patterns

Þ‰î ¹ˆîè‹ v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚LR¡
Ü®Šð¬ì «è£†ð£´è¬÷ M÷‚A, àƒèÀ‚°
ªîK‰î ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ªè£‡«ì, àƒè¬÷
݃AôˆF™ «ðê ¬õ‚°‹.
àƒèÀ‚° ªîK‰î 輈¶è¬÷ cƒèœ
âO¬ñò£ù ݃AôˆF™ ñŸøõ¼‚° ªê£™L ¹Kò
¬õ‚èîò Fø¬ñ¬ò Þ‰î ¹ˆîè‹ õ÷˜‚°‹.
2. Spoken English â¡ø£™ â¡ù?

â¡ð¶ âO¬ñò£ù ݃Aô
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ (Simple Sentences) ªè£‡ì‹.
݃A«ôò˜èœ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶
ªð¼‹ð£½‹
âO¬ñò£ù
݃Aô
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶Aø£˜èœ.
Spoken English

3. Written English â¡ø£™ â¡ù?
Written English

â¡ð¶ èôŠ¹ ݃Aô

õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷
(Complex
Sentences)
ªè£‡ì‹. å¼ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòñ£ù¶ ÜFè
Þô‚èí MFè¬÷ àœ÷ì‚A â¿îŠð†®¼‚°‹.

4

Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

݃Aô Þô‚è투î ï¡° ªîK‰¶
ªè£‡ì£™î£¡ èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹
輈¶è¬÷ å¼õ˜ ªîOõ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷
º®»‹.
Þ‰î èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòñ£ù¶ ¹ˆîèƒèœ,
ªêŒFèœ
«ð£¡øõŸP™
ÜFèñ£è
ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.
4. Spoken English-‹ Written English-‹ å¡ø£?
Spoken English-‹ Written English-‹

å¡ø™ô.

Þ¬õèœ Þó‡´‹ ªõš«õø£ù¬õ. Spoken
English «ð²õ‹, Written English ⿶õ‹
ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.
5. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ ã¡ âO¬ñò£ù ݃Aô
õ£‚Aòƒèœ (Simple Sentences) ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶?

 «ð²‹«ð£¶ «ò£Cˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î
ܬñˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î à„êKˆî™ «ð£¡ø
ªêò™è¬÷ Iè °ÁAò è£ôˆF™ Ü™ô¶ «ïóˆF™
ªêŒA«ø£‹.
å¼õ˜
êó÷ñ£è
݃AôˆF™
«ðê
«õ‡´ñ£ù£™, Üõ˜ 臮Šð£è âO¬ñò£ù
݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ (Simple Sentences)
ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡´‹. ÜŠªð£¿¶î£¡ Üõ˜
«ò£Cˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î
à„êKˆî™ «ð£¡ø ªêò™è¬÷ Iè °ÁAò
è£ôˆF™ Ü™ô¶ «ïóˆF™ ªêŒòº®»‹.
Ýù£™ å¼õ˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ èôŠ¹
݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ (Complex Sentences)

5

ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠðF½‹
ñŸÁ‹ ܬî à„êKŠðF½‹ è£ô î£ñî‹ ãŸð´‹.
Þ‰î è£ô î£ñîˆFù£™î£¡ å¼õ˜ ݃AôˆF™
êó÷ñ£è «ð꺮õF™¬ô.

6. ݃AôˆF™ â¿îõ ã¡ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒèœ
(Complex Sentences) ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶?

èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒèœ Iè ¸Ž‚èñ£ù ݃Aô
Þô‚èí MFèÀ‚° à†ð†´ ܬñ‚èŠð´‹.
èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF™ å«ó õ£˜ˆ¬î e‡´‹ ܉î
õ£‚AòˆF™ F¼‹ð õó£îð® 𣘈¶‚ªè£œ÷Š
ð´Aø¶. Ýîô£™ °¬ø‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ªè£‡´
G¬øò 輈¶è¬÷ èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF¡ Íô‹
ªê£™ô º®»‹. Þîù£™ °¬ø‰î è£AîˆF™ ÜFè
輈¶è¬÷ Ãø º®»‹.
å¼ ªêŒFî£O™ 20 ð‚èƒèO™ Þ¼‚°‹
݃Aô èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ âO¬ñò£ù
õ£‚AòˆF™ ñ£ŸP â¿F, Þ¬î ªêŒFî£O™
Ü„C†ì£™ °¬ø‰îð†ê‹ 40 ð‚èƒèœ
«î¬õð´‹.
݃Aô Þô‚è투î ï¡° ªîK‰¶
ªè£‡ì£™î£¡ èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹
輈¶è¬÷ å¼õ˜ ªîOõ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷
º®»‹.
Ýù£™ âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ¹K‰¶‚
ªè£œ÷ ݃Aô Þô‚èí MFèœ «î¬õð죶.
W›è‡ì â´ˆ¶‚裆´è¬÷ èõQ‚辋.

6

Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance
Example:
Complex Sentence:
I buy the bag that is very big at Delhi that is capital
of India which is democratic country.

Þ¶ å¼ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aò‹ Ý°‹. Þ¬î
¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ Iè è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.
«ñ«ô ªê£¡ù 輈¬î âO¬ñò£ù
õ£‚AòˆF™ W›è‡ìõ£Á â¿îô£‹.
Simple Sentences:
I buy the bag; The bag is very big; I buy the bag at
Delhi; Delhi is capital of India; India is democratic
country.

Þ¬õèœ âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒèœ Ý°‹.
Þ¬î ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ Iè âOî£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.
 Þƒ«è º‚Aòñ£è èõQ‚è «õ‡®ò
Mêò‹ â¡ùªõ¡ø£™, âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒèœ
âOî£è ¹KAø¶. Ýù£™ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷
¹K‰¶ ªè£œõ è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.
 «ð²õ âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷
ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™î£¡, ï‹ñ£™ êó÷ñ£è¾‹
«ð꺮»‹, Ü«î êñòˆF™  «ð²õ¬î
ñŸøõ˜èÀ‹ âOî£è ¹K‰¶ªè£œõ£˜èœ.
7. èì‰î 50 õ¼ì è£ôñ£è îI›ï£†®™ ݃Aô‹
èŸÁˆîóŠð´Aø¶. Ýù£™ ޡ‹ ïñ‚° ݃AôˆF™
«ð²õ è®ùñ£è Þ¼Šð¶ ã¡?

 å¼ ªñ£N¬ò «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì
Hø°î£¡ Ü‰î ªñ£N¬ò ð®‚è ñŸÁ‹ â¿î
èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.  îI› ªñ£NJ™ Þ‰î
ñ£FK ªêŒA«ø£‹.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

7

Ýù£™ ݃AôˆF™ â¡ù ïì‚Aø¶? ݃Aô
ªñ£N¬ò â¿î ñŸÁ‹ ð®‚è èŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì
Hø°î£¡ «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.  ªêŒ»‹
Þ‰î îõ¬ø êŸÁ C‰F»ƒèœ.
8. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚LR™ ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜ ªêŒ»‹
îõÁ â¡ù?

݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹
݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ÜŠð®«ò «ðê«õ‡´‹
â¡Á ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜ G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ‰î
CPò îõÁ Üõ˜èœ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ¬î
è®ùñ£è Ý‚°Aø¶.
ãŸèù«õ °PŠH†ì ñ£FK, cƒèœ
݃AôˆF™
«ð²õ
âO¬ñò£ù
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷
(Simple
Sentences)
ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õF™¬ô. Ü ñ£ø£è, ðô˜
«ð²õ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ Üî£õ¶ ¹ˆîè‹
ñŸÁ‹ ªêŒFî£O™ Þ¼‚°‹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷
ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ
è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.
9. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹
«î¬õò£?

v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷, Üî£õ¶
݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹
«î¬õJ™¬ô.  ¬ìò Í¡ø£õ¶
õòFL¼‰«î îI¬ö êó÷ñ£è «ð²A«ø£‹.
⡬ø‚è£õ¶ îI› Þô‚è투î ðŸP «ò£Cˆî¶
à‡ì£? 臮Šð£è A¬ìò£¶.

8

Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

Ýù£™ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ ñ†´‹ ã¡
 ݃Aô Þô‚è투î I辋 A«ø£‹?
ãŸèù«õ ªê£¡ùñ£FK, Written English-™
Þ¼‚°‹ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ
݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ è‡®Šð£è «î¬õ. Ýù£™
Spoken English- ™
Þ¼‚°‹ âO¬ñò£ù
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ¹K‰¶ªè£œ÷ ñŸÁ‹ «ðê ݃Aô
Þô‚èí‹ «î¬õ Þ™¬ô.
10.  îI¬ö êó÷ñ£è «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œÀ‹«ð£¶ îI›
Þô‚è투î èŸøF™¬ô. Ü«î«ð£™ ݃Aô
Þô‚è투î èŸè£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™ âŠð® êó÷ñ£è «ðê
èŸÁ‚ªè£œõ¶?

݃Aô Þô‚è투î èŸè£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™
êó÷ñ£è «ðê¬õ‚°‹ º¬ø‚° õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
º¬ø (Sentence Pattern Method) â¡Á ªðò˜. Þ‰î
àôèˆF«ô«ò ºî¡ º¬øò£è õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
º¬ø¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF ݃AôˆF™ «ðê
èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚°‹ å«ó ¹ˆîè‹ Þ¶î£¡.
11. õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø (Sentence Pattern Method)
â¡ð¶ â¡ù?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø â¡ð¶  G¬ù‚°‹
輈¬î îINL¼‰¶ ªñ£N ªðò˜‚è£ñ™
݃AôˆF™ ÃÁõ‹.
Ýù£™ ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜  G¬ù‚°‹
輈¬î îINL¼‰¶ ªñ£N ªðò˜ˆ¶î£¡
݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚Aø£˜èœ.
݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð꺮ò£¬ñ‚° Þ¶¾‹
å¼ è£óí‹ Ý°‹.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

9

12. îIN™  G¬ù‚°‹ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
º¬øJ¡ (Sentence Pattern Method) Íô‹ âŠð®
݃AôˆF™ ÃÁõ¶?

 îIN™ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î â´ˆ¶‚ªè£œ«õ£‹.
輈¶ ޶, “ ê ˜ ‚ è ¬ ó ã î £ õ ¶ e F
Þ¼‚Aøî£?” Þ¬î ݃AôˆF™ âŠð® ªê£™õ¶?
Þ¬î ݃AôˆF™ ªê£™ô, ªð¼ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜
ðò¡ð´ˆ¶‹ º¬ø ªñ£Nªðò˜ˆî™ Ý°‹.
Üî£õ¶ îI› õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ 嚪õ£¼
îI› õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ Ü‡ì£ù ݃Aô
õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñˆî™
Ý°‹. å¼õ˜ ªñ£Nªðò˜‚°‹«ð£¶ ãî£õ¶ å¼
îI› õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î
ªîKòM™¬ô â¡ø£™ Üõó¶ ñùF™ ðìð승
ãŸð†´ Üõó£™ ÝƒAôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î
ܬñ‚è º®ò£¶.
Ü´ˆ¶ àƒèOì‹ ï£¡ «è†°‹ Iè
º‚Aòñ£ù «èœM: ªñ£N ªðò˜‚è£ñ™
݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚è º®»ñ£?
M¬ì: 臮Šð£è º®»‹.
“ꘂè¬ó ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?” â¡ø
輈F¡ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: “Is there any sth left?”.
Þî¡ îI› ܘˆî‹: sth-â¡ø ªð£¼œ ãî£õ¶
eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ sth â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°
ðFô£è ïñ‚° «î¬õò£ù ªðò˜ªê£™¬ô ̘ˆF
ªêŒ»‹«ð£¶ â‡íŸø ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷
à¼õ£‚èô£‹.

10

Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

輈¶: ꘂè¬ó ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹:

“Is there any sth left?”

݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹:

â¡Á õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠH™ ̘ˆF ªêŒî£™
A¬ì‚°‹ õ£‚Aò‹:
sth = Sugar

“Is there any Sugar left?”

ÞŠªð£¿¶ ïñ‚° ªñ£Nªðò˜‚è£ñ™
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹ A¬ìˆ¶ M†ì¶.
“ÜKC ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?” â¡ð¬î
âŠð® ݃AôˆF™ Ãøô£‹?
sth = Rice â¡Á õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ ̘ˆF
ªêŒî£™ A¬ì‚°‹ õ£‚Aò‹ “Is there any Rice
left?”.

“î‚è£O ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?” â¡ð¬î
݃AôˆF™ Ãø “Is there any Tomato left?”
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF
݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠð¶ âšõ÷¾
âO¶ â¡Á 𣼃èœ.
݃Aô Þô‚è투î ñ ÜPò£ñ«ô«ò
 õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ Íô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.
޶ à‡¬ñ.
13. îI› 輈¶èÀ‚° à‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠ¬ðè¬÷ âŠð® ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œõ¶?

 G¬ù‚°‹ 嚪õ£¼ îI› 輈¶èÀ‚°‹
݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ Þ¼‚Aø¶. ݃Aô
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ www.ldoceonline.com â¡ø
ªõŠ¬ê†®L¼‰¶ Þôõêñ£è ªðøô£‹.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

11

Ü«î«ð£™ www.nlrc.in â¡ø ªõŠ¬ê†®L¼‚°‹
Cognitive Spoken English â¡ø ¹ˆîèˆFL¼‰¶ 1500
݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° îI› Íôñ£è ݃Aô
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ªðøô£‹.
ð£ì‹ 3-™ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ðŸP
ªîOõ£è 𣘊«ð£‹.
14. Þ‰î ¹ˆîèˆF™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ Þ™ô£ñ™
v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv â¡Á â¿îŠð†®¼‚Aø¶.
ÞŠ¹ˆîè‹ Íô‹ ݃Aô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì£™ âù‚°
Written English õó£¶ â¡Á ðô˜ G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ‰î
ßÁ êKò£?

cƒèœ Þšõ£Á G¬ùŠð¶ îõÁ. Tense ñŸÁ‹
Conjunction- è¬÷
ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œõ¶,
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ H¬öJ™ô£ñ™ ⿶‹ ðJŸC
«ð£¡ø¬õèœî£¡ Written English â¡Á ðô˜
G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ¶ îõø£ù ßÁ Ý°‹.
Þ¬õèœ à‡¬ñJ™ Written English‚°‡ì£ù
輈¶è«÷ A¬ìò£¶. Þ¬îMì ޡ‹ 99
êîMî ¹¶¬ñò£ù 輈¶èœ Written English-™
Þ¼‚Aø¶.
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ Íô‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î
ܬñ‚°‹ º¬ø¬ò ªîK‰¶‚ªè£‡ì£™î£¡
cƒèœ Written English-™ ¹ô¬ñ ªðøº®»‹.
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹
ñ¬ø‰F¼‚Aø¶.
݃Aô Þô‚è투î ñ ÜPò£ñ«ô«ò
 õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ Íô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.
޶ à‡¬ñ.

12

Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

15. Ý ƒ A ô ˆ F ™ ê ó ÷ ñ £ è « ð ² õ î Ÿ ° ª ê Œ F î £ ¬ ÷
ð®‚èô£ñ£?

݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ ªêŒF÷
ð®‚è Ã죶. ãªù¡ø£™ ªêŒFî£O™ Þ¼‚°‹
õ£‚Aòƒèœ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒèœ Ý°‹.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

13

ï‹ â™«ô£¼‚°‹ îI› ï¡ø£è ªîK»‹.
Ýîô£™ ïñ‚° ªîKò£î ݃Aôˆ¬î  ïñ‚°
ªîK‰î îI› ªñ£N Íôñ£è àƒèÀ‚°
èŸÁˆî¼A«ø¡.
18. Noun ñŸÁ‹ Adjective â¡ð¶ â¡ù?

cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ
°ö‰¬îèœ
ﮈî
݃Aô
ý£L¾†
F¬óðìƒè¬÷ ݃Aô ꊬ솮½ì¡
𣼃èœ. ãªù¡ø£™ ÞˆF¬óðìƒèO™ Þ¼‚°‹
õ£ƒAòƒèœ Iè âO¬ñò£è Þ¼‚°‹.

ªðò˜ªê£™ Ý°‹. å¼ ªð£¼O¡
ªðò˜î£¡ ªðò˜ªê£™ Ý°‹. Adjective â¡ð¶
ð‡¹„ªê£™ Ý°‹. 嚪õ£¼ ªð£¼œèÀ‚°‹
ð‡¹èœ (Properties) Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þ‰î ð‡¹èO¡
ªðò˜î£¡ ð‡¹„ªê£™ Ý°‹.

16. ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œðõ˜ ⊫𣶋
݃AôˆF™î£¡ «ò£C‚è «õ‡´‹. îIN™ «ò£C‚è
Ã죶 â¡Á ÜP¾ÁˆîŠð´Aø£˜èœ. Þ‰î ßÁ êKò£?

Üöè£ù, «õèñ£ù, M¬óõ£ù «ð£¡ø
õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Adjective‚° â´ˆ¶‚裆´èœ Ý°‹.
îIN™ “ù” â¡Á º®»‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ
ªð¼‹ð£½‹ AdjectiveÝè õ¼‹.

臮Šð£è îõÁ.  îIN«ô£ Ü™ô¶
݃AôˆF«ô£ «ò£CŠð¶ A¬ìò£¶. 
«ò£Cˆî™ â¡ø ªêò¬ô ¬ìò ͬ÷J¡
Physical Memory-J¡ Íôñ£è ªêŒA«ø£‹.
¬ìò
䋹ô¡èO¡ C‚ù™èOù£™ à¼õ£‚èŠ
ð†®¼‚Aø¶. Physical Memory-J™ à¼õ£‚Aò
輈¬î  îIN«ô£ Ü™ô¶ ݃AôˆF«ô£
õ£‚Aòñ£è ܬñˆ¶ «ð²A«ø£‹.
Physical

Memory- Ýù¶

17. 㡠݃Aô ªñ£N îIN™ èŸÁˆîóŠð´Aø¶?

å¼
¹¶‚輈¬î

ñŸøõ¼‚°
ªê£™½‹«ð£¶ Ü‰î ¹¶‚輈¬î Üõ¼‚°
ªîK‰î å¼ è¼ˆ¶ Íôñ£è ªê£™½‹«ð£¶î£¡
Üõ˜ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ£˜.

Noun â¡ð¶

19. Verb ñŸÁ‹ Adverb â¡ð¶ â¡ù?
Verb â¡ð¶

M¬ùªê£™ Ý°‹. Þ‰î àôèˆF™
àœ÷ ªð£¼œèœ ⶾ‹ G¬ôò£è Þ¼ŠðF™¬ô.
Þ‰î ªð£¼œèœ å¼ ÞìˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ ñŸªø£¼
ÞìˆFŸ° ïè¼Aø¶. Þ‰î ïè¼î™ Ü™ô¶
Þ슪ðò˜„C¬ò ªêò™ â¡Á ÃøŠð´Aø¶. å¼
ªêòL¡ ªðò˜î£¡ M¬ù„ªê£™ Ý°‹. ïè¼,
«ð£,
ÜŠ¹
«ð£¡ø
õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ
M¬ù„ªê£™½‚° â´ˆ¶‚裆´èœ Ý°‹.
â¡ð¶ ªêòL¡ ð‡¹„ªê£™ Ý°‹.
嚪õ£¼ ªêò½‚°‹ ð‡¹èœ (Properties)
Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þ‰î ªêò™èO¡ ð‡¹î£¡ Adverb
Ý°‹. Üöè£è, «õèñ£è, M¬óõ£è «ð£¡ø
õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Adverb‚° â´ˆ¶‚裆´èœ Ý°‹.
Adverb

14

Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

îIN™ “è” â¡Á º®»‹
ªð¼‹ð£½‹ AdverbÝè õ¼‹.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ

20. Cognitive Words â¡ð¶ â¡ù?  ¹Fî£è å¼
輈¬î
à¼õ£‚°õ‹
ñŸÁ‹
ܬî
ªõOŠð´ˆ¶õ‹ â‰î Ü÷¾‚° Þ‰î Cognitive
Words ïñ‚° àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶?

â¡ð¬î îIN™ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î
õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ â¡Á ܬö‚A«ø£‹.
Cognitive Words

¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° à¼õƒèœ
A¬ìò£¶. Ýù£™ Noun, Verb «ð£¡ø¬õèÀ‚°
à¼õƒèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶. ªñ£ˆî‹ 260 ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î
õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ÝƒAôˆF™ Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þ‰î
õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ è£ôƒèœ, Þìƒèœ, 輈¶èÀ‚°
Þ¬ì«ò Þ¼‚°‹ ê‹ð‰îƒèœ «ð£¡ø¬õŸ¬ø
M÷‚°Aø¶. Þ‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ ªð£¼œè¬÷
ªîOõ£è ªîK‰¶‚ ªè£‡ì£™, ¹Fî£è å¼
輈¬î à¼õ£‚°õ‹ ñŸÁ‹ ܬî
ªõOŠð´ˆ¶õ‹ Þ¬õèœ ïñ‚° I辋
àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚°‹.
àƒèÀ‚° 1000 ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ
ªîK‰F¼‰¶‹, ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ
ªîKòM™¬ô â¡ø£™ àƒè÷£™ ݃AôˆF™
¹ô¬ñ ªðø º®ò£¶.
21.  ñŸøõ˜èOì‹ ÝƒAôˆF™ «ðê£ñ«ô«ò, ï‹ñ£™
݃Aô‹ «ðê‚èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ º®»ñ£?

臮Šð£è º®»‹. Þ¶ âŠð® â¡Á MKõ£è
𣘊«ð£‹. cƒèœ èì‰î ÝÁ ñ£îƒèœ
⡪ù¡ù îI› õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ «ðCm˜è«÷£

15

Ü™ô¶ «ò£Cˆb˜è«÷£ ܬõè¬÷ å¼ î£O™
â¿î¾‹. °¬ø‰î¶ 1000 îI› õ£‚Aòƒèœ â¿î
«õ‡´‹. Hø°, cƒèœ â¿Fò îI›
õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷
(݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒèœ Ü™ô) ªîK‰¶ ªè£‡ì£™
cƒèœ êó÷ñ£è ݃AôˆF™ «ðê Ýó‹Hˆ¶
M´i˜èœ.
݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœî£¡ àƒè¬÷
݃AôˆF™ «ðê ɇ´Aø¶.
22. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô ñŸÁ‹ «è†ðõK¡
ñùG¬ô âŠð® Þ¼‚°‹?
«ð²ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô:
¾

¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î
ÜŠð®«ò «ðê «õ‡´‹.

¾

Þô‚èíŠ H¬öJ¡P «ðê «õ‡´‹.

¾

«õèñ£è «ðê «õ‡´‹.

«è†ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô:
¾

«è†ðõ˜ ݃Aô õ£‚AòˆF¡ ªð£¼¬÷
ñ†´‹î£¡ èõQŠð£˜. cƒèœ Þô‚èí
H¬ö«ò£´ «ð²Al˜è÷£ Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á
èõQ‚èñ£†ì£˜.

¾

«ð²ðõ˜ M†´ M†´ ªñ¶õ£è «ðCù£™ Ãì,
«è†ðõ˜ ªð£Á¬ñ»ì¡ Þ¼Šð£˜. «ð²ðõK¡
輈¬î‚ «è†ðF™ ñ†´‹î£¡ °Pò£è
Þ¼Šð£˜.

16
¾

Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

«ð²ðõ˜ Þ‰î ñ£FK «ðCù£™ Ãì «è†ðõ˜
ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œõ£˜. “I walk road thief
hit fell”, Þ‰î ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ♫ô£¼‹
¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œõ£˜èœ. ÞFL¼‰¶  â¡ù
¹K‰¶ ªè£‡«ì£‹ â¡ø£™, «ð²‹«ð£¶
Þô‚èí H¬öJ™ô£ñ™ «ðê «õ‡´‹ â¡ø
ÜõCò‹ Þ™¬ô.

25. Communication Skill â¡ðî¡ à‡¬ñò£ù ªð£¼œ
â¡ù?

23. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ îI¬ö«ð£™ «õèñ£è
«ðêôñ£?

݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ îI¬ö«ð£™ «õèñ£è
«ðê‚Ã죶. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ªñ¶õ£è
«ðê«õ‡´‹. ªñ¶õ£è 嚪õ£¼ õ£˜ˆ¬îò£è
«ðCù£™ Ãì îõÁ 㶋 A¬ìò£¶.
24. Cognitive Spoken English â¡ð¶ â¡ù?

 ¬ìò Í¡ø£õ¶ õòF™ îI¬ö
êó÷ñ£è «ð²A«ø£‹. Þ º‚Aò è£óí‹
ñ ²ŸP Þ¼Šðõ˜èœ ܬùõ¼‹ îIN™
«ð²õ¶ Ý°‹.  îI¬ö ¬ìò 䋹ô¡èœ
Íôñ£è èŸÁªè£œA«ø£‹. Ü«î«ð£™,
݃Aôˆ¬î ¬ìò 䋹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è
èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚°‹ º¬ø‚° Cognitive Spoken English
â¡Á ܬö‚èŠð´Aø¶.
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø  ݃Aô ªñ£N¬ò
¬ìò 䋹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷
I辋 àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.

17

â¡ð¶ cƒèœ ªê£™ô
G¬ù‚°‹ 輈¬î ñŸøõ¼‚° âOî£è
¹Kò¬õŠð‹.
Communication Skill

cƒèœ å¼õKì‹ å¼ ¹¶ Mêòˆ¬î
ªê£™½‹«ð£¶, Ü‰î ¹¶ Mêòˆ¬î «è†ðõ¼‚°
ãŸèù«õ ªîK‰î Mêò‹ Íôñ£è ªê£™½‹
«ð£¶î£¡ «è†ðõ˜ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ£˜.
cƒèœ å¼ Mêòˆ¬î 𮂰‹«ð£¶,
«è†°‹«ð£¶ Ü™ô¶ 𣘂°‹«ð£¶, ܬî
ºîL™ cƒèœ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹. Hø°
cƒèœ Þ‰î ¹K‰î ªè£‡ì Mêòˆ¬î â‰î
«ïóˆF½‹ ñŸøõ˜èÀ‚° âOî£è ¹Kò¬õ‚è
«õ‡´‹ Ü™ô¶ ñŸøõ˜èÀ‚° ¹KAø ñ£FK
ªê£™ô«õ‡´‹. Þ‰î Fø¬ñ àƒèOì‹
Þ™¬ôªò¡ø£™,
cƒèœ
â¡ù
ð®ˆF¼‰î£½‹ Þ‰î àôèˆF™ â¬î»‹
ê£F‚躮ò£¶. Þ¶  Communication Skill-¡
º‚Aò «ï£‚è‹ Ý°‹.
26. ݃AôˆF™ 𮂰‹«ð£¶ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œÀ‹ Cô˜ ܬî
«ð²‹«ð£¶ Üõ˜èœ ã¡ î´ñ£ÁAø£˜èœ?

Cô˜ ݃Aô‹ 蟰‹«ð£¶ ݃Aô
õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‡ì£ù îI› ܘˆî¬î ñ†´‹
ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œAø£˜èœ. Ýù£™ Üõ˜èœ ܉î
݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îJ¡ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ èŸÁªè£œõF™¬ô. Þîù£™î£¡,
Üõ˜è÷£™ ¹K‰¶ªè£‡ì ݃Aôˆ¬î «ðê
º®òM™¬ô.

18

Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance

Þ‰î Hó„ê¬ù¬ò «ð£‚è cƒèœ õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò 臮Šð£è H¡ðŸø «õ‡´‹.
27. ªð¼‹ð£½‹ ð®ˆîõ˜èœ Cô˜ â¡ù G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ
â¡ø£™ ïñ‚° G¬øò 𮊹 î°Fèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶ (B.E,
M.Sc, M.A, PhD,...) . Ýù£™ â¡ù£™ ÜFèñ£è
ê‹ð£F‚è º®òM™¬ô. Ýù£™ ⶾ‹ ð®‚è£îõ«ó£
Iè ÜFèñ£è ê‹ð£F‚Aø£˜ â¡Á ð®ˆîõ˜èœ Cô˜
¹ô‹¹õ Ü®Šð¬ì è£óí‹ â¡ù?

ÞŠð® ð®ˆîõ˜èœ Cô˜ ¹ô‹¹õ º‚Aò
è£óí‹ Communication Skill- â¡ø Fø¬ñ
Þ™ô£ñ™ Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹. Üî£õ¶, å¼ è¼ˆ¬î
¹K‰¶‚ªè£œÀî™ ñŸÁ‹ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î ñŸøõ¼‚°
¹K»‹ð® ªê£™½î™ «ð£¡ø Fø¬ñèœ
Þ™ô£ñ™ Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹.
28. ñ£íõ˜èœ ðœO, è™ÖKèO™ âŠð® ð®‚è «õ‡´‹?
Üõ˜èœ â‰îñ£FKò£ù ÜP¬õ ªðø «õ‡´‹?

ÜFè ð£ìƒè¬÷ ñùŠð£ì‹ ªêŒ¶ ÜFè
ñFŠªð‡ â´‚°‹ ñ£íõ¬ó Mì, °¬ø‰î
ð£ìƒè¬÷ 𮈶 Ü¬î º¿¬ñò£è
¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´ Ü‰î ¹K‰î‚ªè£‡ì 輈¬î
ï¬ìº¬øJ™ ªêò™ð´ˆ¶‹ ñ£íõ˜è«÷
ÞŠ«ð£¶ ®Ÿ° «î¬õ. ãªù¡ø£™
Þõ˜è÷£™ ñ†´‹î£¡ ®™ «õ¬ô
õ£ŒŠH¬ù à¼õ£‚躮»‹. õÁ¬ñ¬ò åN‚è
º®»‹.
݃Aô ªñ£N¬ò êó÷ñ£è «ðCù£™ ñ†´‹
 â¬î»‹ ê£F‚è º®ò£¶.  𮂰‹
ð£ìƒè¬÷
ñùŠð£ì‹
ªêŒò£ñ™

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

19

¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡ì£™ ñ†´‹î£¡  â¬î»‹
ê£F‚è º®»‹.
29. «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹ «ï˜è£íL™ àƒèOìI¼‰¶ â¡ù
âF˜ð£˜‚èŠð´Aø¶?

«ï˜è£íL™ ïñ‚° ªîK‰î 輈¬î ñŸøõ¼‚°
¹K»‹ð®  ªê£™A«ø£ñ£ â¡ð¶‚°î£¡ ÜFè
º‚Aòˆ¶õ‹ ªè£´‚èŠð´Aø¶.
30. ݃AôˆF™ «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ â‰î Dictionary-¬ò
ðò¡ð´ˆîô£‹?

â¡ø ªõŠ¬ê†®™
Longman Dictionary- ¬ò Þôõêñ£è ªðøô£‹.
Ü«î«ð£™ www.nlrc.in â¡ø ªõŠ¬ê†®L¼‚°‹
Cognitive Spoken English â¡ø ¹ˆîèˆFL¼‰¶ 1500
݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° îI› Íôñ£è ݃Aô
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ªðøô£‹.
www.ldoceonline.com

******
cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è
«ð²õ àƒèÀ‚° I辋
àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚°‹ Iè
º‚Aòñ£ù è£óE õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
º¬ø (Sentence Pattern Method)
Ý°‹.

20

ð£ì‹ - 2
v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv
èŸø½‚è£ù â¡.â™.ݘ.C-J¡
MFº¬øèœ

Chapter - 2
NLRC Rules for Spoken
English Learning

22

Chapter 2: NLRC Rules for Spoken English Learning

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

23

v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ â¡.â™.ݘ.C
䉶 MFº¬øè¬÷ à¼õ£‚AJ¼‚Aø¶. cƒèœ
ܬõè¬÷ èõùñ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´ ⊪𣿶‹
ë£ðèˆF™ ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹.
â¡.â™.ݘ.C MFº¬ø: 1
îIN™ àœ÷ 輈¬î ݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòñ£è ܬñ‚è
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò (Sentence Pattern Method)
ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡´‹.

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬øèœ Íôñ£è 
G¬ù‚°‹ 輈¬î îINL¼‰¶ ªñ£Nªðò˜‚è£ñ™
݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚èô£‹. ð£ì‹ 1-™
Þ¼‚°‹ «èœM ⇠12 ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
º¬ø¬ò ðŸP ªîOõ£è M÷‚°Aø¶. ݃Aô õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠ¹ º¬øè¬÷ ÜFèñ£è ªîK‰¶ ªè£œ÷ ð£ì‹
3-¬ò 𣘂辋.
â¡.â™.ݘ.C MFº¬ø: 2
 G¬ù‚°‹ îI› 輈¶‚° ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
(Sentence Pattern) ªîKòM™¬ô â¡ø£™, Ü
݃AôˆF™ âŠð® õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠð¶?

ïñ‚° ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ ªîKò£î
ð†êˆF™ W«ö ªè£´‚èŠð†ì MFº¬øè¬÷
H¡ðŸP  ݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚èô£‹.
1. ªè£´‚èŠð†ì îI› õ£‚Aòˆ¬î è£AîˆF™
â¿î¾‹.
2. îI› õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ è¬ìC õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò
ºîL™ â¿î¾‹. Þ‰î è¬ìC õ£˜ˆ¬î M¬ù
Ü™ô¶ ªêò™ â¡Á ܬö‚èŠð´Aø¶.

32

Chapter 2: NLRC Rules for Spoken English Learning

â¡.â™.ݘ.C MFº¬ø: 5
¶Kîñ£è àƒè¬÷ ݃AôˆF™ «ðê¬õ‚°‹ º¬ø.
W«ö ªè£´‚èŠð†ì ðJŸC¬ò Þ‰î ¹ˆî般î
𮂰‹ 嚪õ£¼ ñ£íõ¼‹ 臮Šð£è ªêŒò «õ‡´‹.

݃AôˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ â™ô£ õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡
îI› ܘˆîƒè¬÷ ªîK‰¶ ªè£‡ì£™ 
݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðêô£‹ â¡Á ðô˜
G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ¶ îõø£ù 輈¶ Ý°‹.
Þƒ° õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ Mì, °¬ø‰îð†ê‹ 500
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ªîK‰¶‚ªè£‡ì£™,
Þ¬õè¬÷ ¬õˆ¶  2000 Å›G¬ôèÀ‚° ݃Aô
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ܬñ‚èô£‹.
cƒèœ Þ‰î ¹ˆî般î ð®Šð«î£´
ñ†´ñ™ô£ñ™, èì‰î 6 ñ£îƒèœ îIN™ «ðCò
ñŸÁ‹ G¬ùˆî õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ è£AîˆF™ â¿î¾‹.
cƒèœ â¿Fò îI› õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° Üî¡ ÝƒAô
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ 臮Šð£è ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷
«õ‡´‹. Þ¬î ªêŒî£™ ñ†´‹î£¡ àƒè÷£™
¶Kîñ£è ݃AôˆF™ «ðê º®»‹.
cƒèœ àƒèÀ¬ìò ÝCKò˜, ï‡ð˜èœ ñŸÁ‹
www.nlrc.in Íôñ£è
cƒèœ â¿Fò îI›
õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° Üî¡ ÝƒAô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷
ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ô£‹.
ð£ì‹ 6-™ 500 îI› õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° Üî¡
݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ ªè£´‚èŠð†®¼‚Aø¶.
******

ð£ì‹ - 3
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ
Chapter - 3
Sentence Patterns

34

Chapter 3: Sentence Patterns

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

35

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ ªñ£Nªðò˜‚è£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™
õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚è ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. Þ‰î õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠH™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ ñ¬ø‰F¼‚Aø¶.
Þ‰î ð£ìˆF™ å¼ ÝƒAô õ£˜ˆ¬îJ¡ îI›
ܘˆîˆ¬î âŠð® ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹ â¡Á‹, ñŸÁ‹
ï¬ìº¬øJ™  ðò¡ð´ˆ¶‹ Iè º‚Aòñ£ù õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠ¹è¬÷»‹ 𣘂èô£‹. å¼ ÝƒAô õ£˜ˆ¬î‚è£ù
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ www.ldoceonline.com â¡ø
ªõŠ¬ê†®™ cƒèœ Þôõêñ£è ªðøô£‹.
cƒèœ W›è‡ì ݃Aô °Pf´èO¡ ܘˆîƒè¬÷
臮Šð£è ë£ðèˆF™ ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹.
pat

-

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹

syn

-

å«ó ªð£¼¬÷ ªè£‡ì ñŸø õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ

(Pattern)

( Synonym )
/

-

Ü™ô¶

sb

-

ò£ó£õ¶ å¼ ïðK¡ ªðò˜

sth

-

ãî£õ¶ å¼ ªð£¼O¡ ªðò˜

do

-

M¬ù

doing -

(Somebody)
(Something)

( Verb )

M¬ùJ¡

ing

ܬñŠ¹

(Verb-ing ,i.e. eating,

trying... )
done -

M¬ùJ¡

past participle

ܬñŠ¹ ( Verb-pp,

i.e. eaten, gone... )

â¡ø£™ ܬìŠHÂœ ( )
Þ¼‚°‹ õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF»‹ Ü™ô¶
ðò¡ð´ˆî£ñ½‹ õ£‚Aò‹ ܬñ‚èô£‹.
pat: wrong for (doing) sth -

Ýù¶ is, am, are, was,
«ð£¡ø¬õèO™ ãî£õ¶ 塬ø °P‚°‹.
pat: be able - be

were

48

Chapter 3: Sentence Patterns
( îI›

õ£‚AòˆF™
è¬ìC
õ£˜ˆ¬î
ªîKòM™¬ô
ªîKòM™¬ô, Ýîô£™ ºî¡¬ñ M¬ù don’t
know Ý°‹.)
57. âƒ«è «ð£õ¶?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹:
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹:

Where to verb?
Where to go?

58. ꣊H´õ âƒ«è «ð£õ¶?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹:
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹:

Where to verb to do (sth)?
Where to go to eat?

59. èP ꣊H´õ âƒ«è «ð£õ¶?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹:
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹:

ð£ì‹ - 4

Where to verb to do (sth)?
Where to go to eat mutton?

ñQî˜è¬÷ ðŸPò
HóF ªðò˜ªê£Ÿèœ

60. ⊪𣿶 ꣊H´õ¶?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹:
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹:

When to verb?
When to eat?

61. â¡ù ꣊H´õ¶?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹:
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹:

What to verb?
What to eat?

Pronouns of Humans

62. âŠð® ꣊H´õ¶?

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹:
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹:

Chapter - 4

How to verb?
How to eat?

[ °PŠ¹:

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ «õÁ Mîñ£ù
ªðò˜ªê£Ÿèœ ñŸÁ‹ M¬ùè¬÷ ¬õˆ¶ ð™«õÁ
݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ à¼õ£‚°ƒèœ]
******

50

Chapter 4: Pronouns of Humans

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

51

1. I
Meaning 1: Þ¶ subject Ýè ñ†´‹ õ¼‹. Üî£õ¶ verb‚° º¡¹
õ¼‹. Þî¡ ªð£¼œèœ: , âù‚°, â¡Qì‹.
a. I walk -  ïì‚A«ø¡.
b. I want money - âù‚° ðí‹ «î¬õŠð´Aø¶.
c. I have car - â¡Qì‹ è£˜ Þ¼‚Aø¶ Ü™ô¶

 裘

¬õˆF¼‚A«ø¡.
2. My
Meaning 1: â¡Â¬ìò, Þ¶ ªðò˜ªê£™½‚° (noun) º¡¹ ñ†´‹

õ¼‹.

a. This is my car - Þ¶ â¡Â¬ìò
b. My car price is 6 lacs - â¡Â¬ìò

裘 Ý°‹.
è£K¡ M¬ô 6 ô†êƒèœ

Ý°‹.
3. Mine
Meaning 1: â¡Â¬ìò¶
a. The car is mine - 裘 â¡Â¬ìò¶ Ý°‹.
b. Mine is red car - â¡Â¬ìò¶ C芹Gø 裘 Ý°‹.
c. Your book is big. Mine is small - àƒèÀ¬ìò ¹ˆîè‹ ªðKò¶.

â¡Â¬ìò¶ CPò¶ Ý°‹.
4. Me
Meaning 1: ⡬ù, âù‚° (me / to me), â¡Qì‹, â¡Âì¡ (with
me)

cƒèœ ⡬ù è£òŠð´ˆî£b˜èœ Ü™ô¶
¹‡ð´ˆî£b˜èœ.
b. You give me the book - cƒèœ âù‚° Ü™ô¶ â¡Qì‹
¹ˆîè‹ ªè£´ƒèœ.
c. You come with me - cƒèœ â¡Âì¡ õ£¼ƒèœ.
a. You don’t hurt me -

52

Chapter 4: Pronouns of Humans

Phrase Meaning 1: It’s me / this is me / that’s me Þ¶  / ܶ .

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

°PŠ¹: Phrase Meaning â¡ø£™ Þ‰î õ£‚AòˆF™
Þ¼‚°‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ îQîQò£è HKˆ¶ Þ‰î õ£‚AòˆF¡
ܘˆî¬î 𣘂è Ã죶.]
Phrase Meaning 2: me too d. I am hungry. Me too -

7. Our

޶  /

[º‚Aò

âù‚°‹ Ü«î G¬ô¬ñ.

53

Meaning 1: âƒèÀ¬ìò / ¬ìò
a. India is our country - Þ‰Fò£

¬ìò  Ý°‹ Ü™ô¶

Þ‰Fò£ ï‹ ï£´ Ý°‹
b. Our student passed the exam -

¬ìò ñ£íõ˜ «î˜M™

ªõŸP ªðŸø£˜.

âù‚° ðC‚Aø¶. âù‚°‹ Ü«î

G¬ô¬ñ.

8. Ours
5. Myself

Meaning 1: âƒèÀ¬ìò¶ / ¬ìò¶

Meaning 1: ï£ù£è«õ, ù Ü™ô¶  îQò£è (l myself),

⡬ù«ò,

a. The car is ours - 裘

âƒèÀ¬ìò¶ Ý°‹.

b. Ours is big car - âƒèÀ¬ìò¶

a. I hurt myself -  ⡬ù«ò è£òŠð´ˆF ªè£œA«ø¡.
b. l myself walked long -  îQò£è ÜFè Éó‹ ï쉫î¡

Ü™ô¶ ù ÜFè Éó‹ ï쉫î¡.

ªðKò 裘 Ý°‹.

9. Us

Phrase Meaning 1: (all) by myself -

îQò£è ( syn: alone ).

Meaning 1: âƒè¬÷, âƒèÀ‚° (us / to us), âƒèOì‹, âƒèÀì¡,
ï‹ºì¡ (with us)

c.

 «õ¬ô¬ò îQò£è

a. You don’t hurt us - cƒèœ

I do the work all by myself -

âƒè¬÷ è£òŠð´ˆî£b˜èœ Ü™ô¶

¹‡ð´ˆî£b˜èœ.

ªêŒA«ø¡.

b. You give us the food -

6. We

cƒèœ âƒèÀ‚° Ü™ô¶ âƒèOì‹

àí¾ ªè£´ƒèœ.

Meaning 1:  / èœ, âƒèÀ‚°, âƒèOì‹.

c.

a. We go to temple - èœ

Phrase Meaning 1: Let us do sth / Let’s do sth -  do â¡ø
ªêò¬ô ªêŒòô£‹, all of us -  Ü™ô¶ ï£ƒèœ â™«ô£¼‹,
ï‹I™ ♫ô£¼‹, some of us - ï‹I™ Cô˜

«è£M½‚° ªê™A«ø£‹ Ü™ô¶
 «è£M½‚° «ð£A«ø£‹.

b. We need money - âƒèÀ‚°
c.

We have the car - âƒèOì‹

ðí‹ «î¬õ.
裘 Þ¼‚Aø¶.

Phrase Meaning 1: we Indians / we Tamils ...  / îIö˜è÷£Aò .

Þ‰Fò˜è÷£Aò

Þ‰Fò˜è÷£Aò
 «îCò åŸÁ¬ñ¬ò ð£¶è£‚è «õ‡´‹.

d. We Indians should save the national integrity -

You come with me -

d. Let’s go -

cƒèœ âƒèÀì¡ õ£¼ƒèœ.

 «ð£èô£‹.

e. All of us eat -

ï£ƒèœ â™«ô£¼‹ ꣊H´A«ø£‹.
10. Ourselves

Meaning 1: è÷£è«õ, è«÷ Ü™ô¶ ï£ƒèœ îQò£è
ourselves), âƒèÀ‚°œ«÷«ò,

(we

62

Chapter 4: Pronouns of Humans

40. is
Meaning 1: Ý°‹, Ýõ£¡, Ýõ£˜, Þ¼‚Aø¶.
a. It is bus - Þ¶

ðv Ý°‹.

b. He is a thief - Üõ¡
c.

å¼ F¼ì¡ Ýõ£¡.

He is a good man - Üõ˜

ï™ô ñQî˜ Ýõ£˜.

d. The ball is on the table - ð‰¶

«ñ¬êJ¡ «ñ™ Þ¼‚Aø¶.

º‚Aò õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ ܘˆîƒèœ
- â¡ù£™, â¡ Íôñ£è
Íôñ£è,
from me - â¡QìI¼‰¶,
in me - â¡QìˆF™,
to me - âù‚°,
for me - âù‚è£è,
with me - â¡Âì¡
â¡Âì¡,
through me - â¡ Íôñ£è.
by me

ð£ì‹ - 5
º‚Aòñ£ù ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î
õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ
Chapter - 5

(Þ«î
Þ«î ñ£FK us, you, him, her, it, them «ð£¡Á ñŸø
õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹ ªð£¼œ ªè£œ÷ô£‹.
ªè£œ÷ô£‹.)

Important
Cognitive Words
******

64

Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

65

1. About
ðŸP, å¼ ªêò¬ô Ü™ô¶ ªð£¼¬÷ ðŸP °PŠH´õ¶
Meaning 1: ðŸP

Ý°‹.

¹ˆîè‹ ÜóCò¬ôŠ ðŸP
Þ¼‚Aø¶ Ü™ô¶ MõK‚Aø¶.

a. The book is about politics b. He lies about his age -

Üõ¡ Üõ¬ìò õò¬îŠ ðŸP

ªð£Œ ªê£™Aø£¡.
Meaning 2: ãøˆî£ö. ( syn: approximately / roughly )
c.

I live about 10 miles away -

 ãøˆî£ö 10 ¬ñ™èÀ‚°

܊𣙠õC‚A«ø¡.
 ãøˆî£ö ñ£¬ô 10.30
ñE‚° i†¬ì M†´ A÷‹¹A«ø¡.

d. I leave the home about 10 PM -

Meaning 3: å¼ ªêò¬ô ªêŒò îò£ó£è Þ¼.

 A÷‹¹õ
Ü™ô¶ ¹øŠð´õ îò£ó£è Þ¼‚A«ø¡.

e. I am about to leave ( syn: about to + verb ) -

Phrase Meaning 1: how / what about sth / sb - cƒèœ

ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ
ñ¬ùM Þ¼õ¼‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ i†®Ÿ° õ¼õî£è ÜõKì‹
ªê£™Al˜èœ. àƒèœ ñ¬ùM‚° àì™ ïô‹ êKJ™¬ô.
Ýîô£™, cƒèœ ñ†´‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ i†®Ÿ° ªê™Al˜èœ.
ÜŠ«ð£¶, àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ «è†Aø£˜, “ã¡ àƒèœ ñ¬ùM
õóM™¬ô, Üõ¼‚° â¡ù ÝJŸÁ?”. Þ ݃AôˆF™ how
about your wife / what about your wife â¡Á ܘˆî‹.
cƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ Þ¼õ¼‹
«ðC‚ªè£‡®¼‚Al˜èœ. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèÀ‚° ðC‚Aø¶.
ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ ï‡ðKì‹ cƒèœ, “àƒèÀ‚°‹ ðC‚Aøî£?”
â¡Á «è†ð how about you / what about you Ý°‹.
Phrase Meaning 1a:

f.

I am feeling hungry, what about you -

âù‚° ðC‚Aø¶.

àƒèÀ‚°?
g. I buy the house, what about you? -

cƒèÀñ£?

 i´ õ£ƒ°A«ø¡.

66

Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

cƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ Þ¼õ¼‹
«ðC‚ªè£‡®¼‚Al˜èœ. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ Þ¼õ¼‚°‹
êLŠ¹ ãŸð´Aø¶. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ àƒèOì‹ ï£‹
«õÁ ãî£õ¶ ªêŒòô£‹ â¡Aø£˜. Ü cƒèœ, 
CQñ£õ‚° «ð£èô£«ñ â¡Á ªê£™Al˜èœ. Þ
݃AôˆF™ how about movie / what about movie â¡Á ܘˆî‹.
Phrase Meaning 1b:

â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è, Iè
º‚Aòñ£è. ïñ‚° ° ªð£¼œèœ H®ˆF¼‚Aø¶. ÜF™
Iè º‚Aòñ£ù¬î Ãø Þ¶ ðò¡ð´Aø¶. ( syn: most of all /

Phrase Meaning 1: above all -

most importantly / particularly / primarily )

âù‚° ÝŠHœ,
Ýó…² H®‚°‹, â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è ävAK‹
H®‚°‹.

g. I like apple, orange and above all ice cream -

Phrase Meaning 2: that’s about it / that’s about all / that’s it - cƒèœ

°ö‰¬îèÀ‚° è¬î ªê£™Al˜èœ. è¬î º®‰î î¼íˆF™
“è¬î Üšõ÷¾  / è¬î º®‰¶ M†ì¶” â¡d˜èœ. Þ
݃AôˆF™ that’s it â¡Á ܘˆî‹.

67

â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è,
 ÜFè 裌èPè¬÷ ꣊H´A«ø¡.

h. Above all, I eat more vegetables -

3. According to
2. Above
Meaning 1: «ñ«ô
«ñ«ô, å¼ ªð£¼œ Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼À‚° àò«ó

Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹. Ýù£™ Þ¼ ªð£¼œèÀ‹ 塬øªò£¡Á
ªî£ì‚Ã죶. å¼ ªð£¼O¡ M¬ô å¼ ñFŠ¹‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼Šð¶.
a. The fan is above the table -

I¡MCP «ñ¬ü‚° «ñ«ô

Þ¼‚Aø¶.
b. The price is above Rs 5 c.

M¬ô 5 Ï𣌂° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶.

You write the name above the address -

cƒèœ ªðò¬ó

ºèõK‚° «ñ«ô ⿶ƒèœ.
Meaning 2: «ñŸªê£¡ùð® Ü™ô¶ «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì. Þ¶ è¬î

¹ˆîèƒèO™ ÜFèñ£è õ¼‹.


«ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ñ£FK, i†®™ ªðKò ܬø Þ¼‚Aø¶.

d. As I mentioned above, there is a big room in the house -

ÜFèñ£ù
îèõ½‚° «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ºèõK‚° â¿î¾‹.

Meaning 1: å¼õ¬ó ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó.
a. According to police, he is a thief ( pat: according to sb ) -

«ð£L¬ú ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó, Üõ¡ å¼ F¼ì¡.
Meaning 2: 塬ø ªð£Áˆ¶. ( pat: according to sth )
b. The students are grouped according to age - ñ£íõ˜èœ

ªð£Áˆ¶ °¿‚è÷£è HK‚èŠð´Aø£˜èœ.
c.

 MFº¬øè¬÷Š
ªð£Áˆ¶ Ü™ô¶ H¡ðŸP AK‚ªè† M¬÷ò£´A«ø¡.
I play the cricket according to rules -

å¼ ªêò™ 
G¬ùˆîŠð® Ü™ô¶ ï‹ F†ìŠð® ïì‚Aø¶.

Phrase Meaning 1: according to plan d. All went according to plan -

f.

 «ñ«ùü˜ ðîM‚° «ñ«ô
Þ¼‚A«ø¡. Üî£õ¶, â¡Â¬ìò ðîM «ñ«ùü˜ ðîM‚°
«ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶.
I am above the manager -

â™ô£‹  G¬ùˆîŠð®

ïì‚Aø¶.
4. Across

e. Write to the above address for further information -

Meaning 3: Þ¶ ðîMJ¡ õK¬ê¬ò °P‚Aø¶. Üî£õ¶ ܉î ðîM
Þ‰î ðîM‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶.

õò¬î

Meaning 1: °Á‚«è, å¼ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ°. â‰îŠ
ªð£¼œèÀ‚° ð‚è‹ Þ¼‚Aø«î£ ܬõèÀ‚° across õ¼‹.
â´ˆ¶‚裆´‚° «ó£´, , ªî¼, ÝÁ «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷ Ãøô£‹.
a. I walk across the road -

 «ó£†®¡ °Á‚«è ïì‚A«ø¡.

b. I see across the valley -

𣘂A«ø¡.

 ðœ÷A¡ °Á‚«è

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c.

Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words
There is a crack across the road -

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«ó£†®¡ °Á‚«è MKê™

Þ¼‚Aø¶.
( °PŠ¹: over â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ °Á‚«è â¡Á ªð£¼œ.
over ñŸÁ‹ across Þó‡´‚°‹ â¡ù MˆFò£ê‹ â¡ø£™
over ‚° å¼ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ° ªî£ì£ñ™
ªê™õ¶ Ý°‹. I jump over the road â¡ø£™,  «ó£†®Ÿ°

e. I go to Salem. After (that) I go to Trichy ( pat: sent1, After (that)
sent2 ) -  «êô‹ ªê™A«ø¡. Hø°  F¼„C

ªê™A«ø¡.
Meaning 2: å¼õ˜ ñŸªø£¼õ¬ó «î´õ‹, ñŸÁ‹ å¼õ˜
ñŸªø£¼õ¬ó H¡ªî£ì˜õ¬î»‹ Þ¶ °P‚Aø¶.

°Á‚«è ´A«ø¡ â¡Á ܘˆî‹. Üî£õ¶ «ó£†®¡ å¼
ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ° ªî£ì£ñ™ ªê™A«ø¡. )

f.

Meaning 2: âF˜ð‚èˆF™ ( syn: on the other side / opposite ) ,
â™ô£ð°FèO½‹ ( syn: throughout / all over / everywhere in )

g. He goes after her / He follows her -

d. My friend lives across the road -

â¡Â¬ìò ï‡ð¡ «ó£†®¡

âF˜ ð‚èˆF™ õC‚Aø£¡.
e. We conduct the election across the country - èœ

®¡

å¼ ªêò™
i†®™ Ü™ô¶ ®™ Þ¼‚°‹ ܬùõ¬ó»‹ ð£FŠð¬î
Þ¶ °P‚Aø¶.

f.

Across the board, there is 10% pay increase -

♫ô£¼‚°‹

10 êîMî ê‹ð÷ àò˜¾ Þ¼‚Aø¶.
5. After

The police is after me ( syn: look for / search for ) -

Phrase Meaning 1: one after another / one after the other / one by
one - å¡ø¡ H¡ å¡ø£è, Ü´ˆî´ˆ¶.
h. I drink five glasses of water one after another - 

Þó¾ ꣊𣆴‚° Hø° 

b. After leaving the school, he works in the restaurant ( pat: after
doing sth, sent1 ) - ðœO M†ìŠ H¡¹, Üõ¡ àí¾

M´FJ™ «õ¬ô ªêŒAø£¡.
After 10 minutes, I go to college -

䉶 ì‹÷˜

c¬ó Ü´ˆî´ˆ¶ °®‚A«ø¡.
å¼ ªêò¬ô ºîL™ cƒèœ
ªêŒ»ƒèœ. Hø°  ªêŒA«ø¡. Üî£õ¶, cƒèœ ¬ðŠH™
î‡a˜ H®‚è ªê™Al˜èœ. Ü«î êñòˆF™ Þ¡ªù£¼õ¼‹
î‡a˜ H®‚è õ¼Aø£˜. Þ¼õ¼‹ å«ó êñòˆF™ °ìˆ¬î
¬õ‚Al˜èœ. ÜŠ«ð£¶ cƒèœ, “ºîL™ cƒèœ î‡a˜
H®»ƒèœ. Hø°  H®‚A«ø¡” â¡ð¬î after you âù‚
Ãøô£‹.
Phrase Meaning 2: after you -

6. Again

Éƒè ªê™A«ø¡.

c.

Üõ¡ Üõ¬÷

H¡ªî£ì˜‰¶ ªê™Aø£¡.

Meaning 1: Hø°, H¡¹, Ü´ˆîî£è.
a. After the dinner, I go to bed -

«ð£Lv

⡬ù H¡ªî£ì˜‰¶ «î® õ¼Aø¶.

â™ô£ ð°FèO½‹ õ£‚ªè´Š¹ ï숶A«ø£‹.
Phrase Meaning 1: across the board - ♫ô£¼‚°‹,

69

10 GIìˆFŸ° Hø° 

è™ÖK ªê™A«ø¡.
cƒèœ ºèõK¬ò
ªðò¼‚° Hø° Ü™ô¶ ªðò¼‚° Ü´ˆîî£è â¿î¾‹.

d. You write the address after the name -

Meaning 1: e‡´‹, ñÁð®»‹.
a. I eat again / once again - 
b. You do it again - cƒèœ

ñÁð®»‹ ꣊H´A«ø¡.

ܬî e‡´‹ ªêŒ»ƒèœ.

Phrase Meaning 1: all over again - e‡´‹ å¼ ªêò¬ô ¹Fî£è
ªî£ì˜õ¶, start again - å¼ ªêò¬ô M†ì ÞìˆF™ Þ¼‰¶
e‡´‹ ªî£ì˜õ¶.
c.

I write the essay all over again (syn: redo / repeat ) -

膴¬ó¬ò e‡´‹ ¹Fî£è ⿶A«ø¡.



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Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

d. I start again the essay writing ( syn: resume / take up again ) -

i.

 膴¬ó ⿶õ¬î e‡´‹ M†ì ÞìˆF™ Þ¼‰¶
ªî£ì˜A«ø¡.

The apple is tasty as against the orange ( pat: as against sth) /
The apple is tastier than the orange - ÝŠHœ Ýó…¬ê Mì
²¬õò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. ( syn: in comparison with / compared to /
in contrast to )

Phrase Meaning 2: the same again - e‡´‹ Ü«î ªð£¼œ
Ü™ô¶ ªêò™, again and again / over and over again / often -

Phrase Meaning 1: go against -

e‡´‹ e‡´‹, Ü®‚è®.

ºó‡ð£ì£è Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹.

f.

j.

 e‡´‹ e‡´‹ Ü™ô¶
Ü®‚è® ÝŠH¬÷ ꣊H´A«ø¡.

Phrase Meaning 2: have something against - å¼õ˜

I eat apple again and again -

7. Against
Meaning 1: âFó£è, âFó£ù.
a. He votes against him -

Üõ¡

Üõ‚°

âFó£è

b. He fights against her -

Üõ¡ ÜõÀ‚° âFó£è ꇬì

«ð£´Aø£¡.
This is against the law -

ªê£™L âFó£è ªêò™ðì¬õŠð¶ Ý°‹.
l.

¹ø‹ð£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.
Üõ¬÷ ÜõÀ¬ìò
M¼ŠðˆFŸ° âFó£è F¼ñí‹ ªêŒAø£¡.

e. India plays against England in cricket - Þ‰Fò£

AK‚ªè†®™

å¡Á âF˜F¬êJ™ ªê™Aø¶, ªêò¬ôè¬÷ Ü™ô¶ ªð£¼¬÷è¬÷
«õÁð´ˆF 裇Hˆî™ Ý°‹.
f.

He leans against the wall / He is against the wall - Üõ¡

²õK¡

e¶ Ü™ô¶ ²õK™ ꣌‰¶ Þ¼‚Aø£¡.
g. The ladder is against the wall - ãE ²õK™ ꣌‰¶ Þ¼‚Aø¶.
h. I go against the wind ( syn: opposite direction of sth ) - 

裟P¡ âF˜ F¬êJ™ ªê™A«ø¡.

He turns my sister against me - Üõ˜ â¡Â¬ìò è¬ò
âù‚° âFó£è ªêò™ðì¬õ‚Aø£˜.

8. All
Meaning 1: â™ô£, â™ô£‹. ( syn: every / everyone )
a. I eat all the bread / I eat all of the bread -

 â™ô£

ªó£†®¬ò»‹ ꣊H´A«ø¡.

ÞƒAô£‰¶‚° âFó£è M¬÷ò£´Aø¶.
Meaning 2: å¼õ˜ å¼ ªð£¼O¡ e¶ ꣌‰¶‚ªè£‡´ Þ¼Šð¶,

He has something against me - Üõ˜ ã«î£ ñùF™
¬õˆ¶‚ªè£‡´ ⡬ù ªõÁ‚Aø£˜.

Phrase Meaning 3: sb1 turn sb2 against sb3 - sb1-Ýùõ˜ sb2-¬ò
sb3-‚° âFó£è ªêò™ðì¬õ‚Aø£˜. Þ¶ ãî£õ¶ ªð£Œè¬÷

Þ¶ ê†ìˆFŸ° âFó£è Ü™ô¶

d. He marries her against her wish - Üõ¡

«ðŠð˜
ªêŒF»‹ ®M ªêŒF»‹ å¡Á‚ªè£¡Á ºó‡ð£ì£è
Þ¼‚Aø¶.

The newspaper news goes against the TV news -

ã«î£ ñùF™
¬õˆ¶‚ªè£‡´ àƒè¬÷ ªõÁŠð¶ Ý°‹. Ýù£™ Üõ˜
ã¡ ÜŠð® ªêŒAø£˜ â¡Á àƒèÀ‚° ⶾ‹ ¹Kò£¶.

k.

õ£‚èO‚Aø£¡.

c.

Þ¼ Mêòƒèœ å¡Á‚ªè£¡Á

ÝŠHœ ï™ô
²¬õò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.  e‡´‹ Ü«î ÝŠH¬÷
M¼‹¹A«ø¡ Ü™ô¶ ꣊Hì M¼‹¹A«ø¡.

e. The apple is very tasty. I want the same again -

71

b. The boys watch the movies all day - ¬ðò¡èœ

 º¿õ¶‹

ðì‹ ð£˜‚Aø£˜èœ.
c.

All girls stand on the ground - â™ô£

ªð‡èÀ‹ î¬óJ¡ «ñ™

GŸAø£˜èœ.
Meaning 2: 񆴋 ( syn: only )
d. All I want is pencil and eraser ( pat: All I want / need / like verb sth
) / I want only pencil and eraser - âù‚° ªð¡C™ ñŸÁ‹

ÜNŠð£¡ ñ†´‹

«î¬õŠð´Aø¶.

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Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

ܶ Üšõ÷¾î£ù£?. Üî£õ¶,
cƒèœ G¬ù‚°‹ ªð£¼œ cƒèœ âF˜ð£˜ˆî¬î Mì âOî£è
A¬ì‚°‹«ð£¶ Þ¶ õ¼‹.
Phrase Meaning 1: is that all? -

e. The pen is only Rs 20. Is that all? -

«ðù£ ªõÁ‹ 20 Ïð£Œ

Ý°‹. æ, ܶ Üšõ÷¾î£ù£?
Phrase Meaning 2: All along sth - sth-¡
the time / during )
f.

â™ô£ «ïóº‹. ( syn: all

I work all along the day -   º¿õ¶‹ Ü™ô¶ ï£O¡
â™ô£ «ïóº‹ «õ¬ô ªêŒA«ø¡.

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in
f.

cƒèœ
ªð¡C¬ô «ñ¬üJ¡ «ñ™ ¬õ‚辋, ªð¡C¬ô ¬õ‚°‹
«ð£¶ Þ¬î ñŸø ªð¡C™èÀì¡ «ê˜ˆ¶ ¬õ‚辋.
You put the pencil on the table along with other pencil -

å¼ ªêò¬ô å¼õ˜
ªêŒî ñ£FK Ü™ô¶ ªê£¡ù ñ£FK ªêŒõ‹. ( syn: similarly

Phrase Meaning 3: along the same lines / likewise )

g. He handled the situation very well. We should act along the same
lines - Üõ˜ Å›G¬ô¬ò ï¡ø£è êñ£Oˆî£˜. ‹ Ü«î

ñ£FK ªêŒò «õ‡´‹.
10. Among

9. Along
Meaning 1: õNò£è, Üîõ£¶ å¼ ªð£¼O¡ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¡ªù£¼

ªð£¼œ Ü‰îŠ ð‚èˆ¬î ªî£†´‚ªè£‡´ ªê™õ¶ Ý°‹.

 «ó£´ õNò£è ïì‚A«ø¡. (
°PŠ¹: å¼ ªð£¼œ Üî£õ¶ ð‰¶ ü¡ù™ õNò£è
ªê™Aø¶ â¡Á‚Ãø the ball goes through the window Ý°‹ )

a. I walk along the road -

ñ‚èœ Ã†ì‹ «ó£´ õNò£è
Þ¼‚Aø¶. Üî£õ¶ ñ‚èœ «ó£´ õNò£è Þ¼Šð¶ õK¬ê
«ð£¡Á è£íŠð´‹.

Meaning 1: ñˆFJ™ Ü™ô¶ Þ¬ìJ™. Þ¶ Í¡Á Ü™ô¶ Ü
«ñŸð†ì ªð£¼œèÀ‚° Þ¬ìJ™ ñŸªø£¼ ªð£¼œ Þ¼Šð¬î‚
°P‚°‹. ( °PŠ¹: between â¡ð¶ Þ¼ ªð£¼œèÀ‚° Þ¬ìJ™
ñŸªø£¼ ªð£¼œ Þ¼Šð¬î‚ °P‚°‹ )
a. I walk among the trees - 

Þó£Žõ ió˜èœ ♬ôJ¡
õNò£è Þ¼‚Aø£˜èœ Ü™ô¶ ♬ôJ™ Þ¼‚Aø£˜èœ.
The army is along the border -

Phrase Meaning 1: come / go / get along «îPõ¼Aø¶, get along with sb - å¼õ˜

å¼õK¡ àì™G¬ô
ñŸøõKì‹ ï¡ø£è

ðö°Aø£˜.

i´ ñ¬ôèO¡ ñˆFJ™

Þ¼‚Aø¶.
Meaning 2: å¼ °¿M™ Þ¼‚°‹ ñ‚èœ ñˆFJ™, ãî£õ¶ å¡P™
ð£F‚èŠð†ìõ˜èO™ Þõ¼‹ å¼õ˜.
c.

The problem gives more worries among the people -

Hó„ê¬ù

ñ‚èœ ñˆFJ™ ÜFè èõ¬ôè¬÷ î¼Aø¶.
d. I am one among them - 

Üõ˜èO™ å¼õ˜ Ü™ô¶ ï£Â‹
Üõ˜èO™ å¼õó£è Þ¼‚A«ø¡.

e. The villagers are among the casualities ( syn: include ) -

âù‚° 裌„ê™ Þ¼‰î¶.
ÞŠªð£¿¶ â¡Â¬ìò àì™G¬ô ï¡ø£è «îPõ¼Aø¶.

d. I had fever. Now, I get along well e. He gets along with me very well -

ñóƒèO¡ ñˆFJ™ ïì‚A«ø¡.

b. The house is among the hills -

b. The crowd is along the road -

c.

73

Üõ˜ â¡Qì‹ Iè ï¡ø£è

ðö°Aø£˜.
å¼ ªð£¼¬÷ ñŸø
ªð£¼Àì¡ «ê˜ˆ¶ ¬õ‚辋. Þƒ° sth -Ýù¶ ñŸø
ªð£¼¬÷‚ °P‚°‹.
Phrase Meaning 2: along with sth -

Aó£ñõ£CèÀ‹ Þø‰îõ˜èO™ Ü샰õ˜.
Phrase Meaning 1: among the other things - º‚Aòñ£è,
( syn: specifically / importantly / particularly )
f.

°PŠð£è.

I discuss about lots of problems in meeting. Among the other things,
I discuss about poverty -  ÆìˆF™ G¬øò

Hó„ê¬ùè¬÷Š ðŸP Mõ£F‚A«ø¡. ÜF™ º‚Aòñ£è,
 㛬ñ¬òŠ ðŸP Mõ£F‚A«ø¡.

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Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

Phrase Meaning 2: among yourselves / ourselves / themselves àƒèÀ‚°œ / âƒèÀ‚°œ / Üõ˜èÀ‚°œ
g. They fight among themselves ( syn: with each other ) -

Üõ˜èœ

Üõ˜èÀ‚°œ ê‡¬ìŠ «ð£´Aø£˜èœ.

75

12. Ahead
Meaning 1: º¡ù£®
º¡ù£®, º¡ù£™
º¡ù£™, ( syn: in front of, before ) Þ¶ å¼
ªð£¼œ Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼À‚° º¡ù£® Þ¼Šð¬î °P‚Aø¶.
a. The car is ahead of me ( pat: ahead of sth/sb ) - 裘 âù‚°
º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø¶ ( °PŠ¹: The car is ahead â¡ø£™

11. Ago

裘 ã«î£ å¼ ªð£¼À‚° º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø¶ )
º¡¹, Þ¶ è£ôƒèœ ê‹ð‰îŠð†ì õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°
Meaning 1: º¡¹
Ü´ˆîî£è ñ†´‹ õ¼‹. Ýù£™ before, earlier, previously, back
«ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹ º¡¹ â¡Á  ªð£¼œ. ago õ£˜ˆ¬î

Meaning 2: õK¬êJ™ å¼ ªð£¼œ Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼À‚° º¡ù£®
Þ¼Šð¬î °P‚Aø¶
°P‚Aø¶.

îQò£è¾‹ õ¼‹ ñŸÁ‹ è£ôƒèœ ê‹ð‰îŠð†ì õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀì‹
õ¼‹.

b. Three people are ahead of me ( pat: ahead of sth / sb ) -

a. I ate food 2 hours ago ( syn: 2 hours before / earlier / back /
previously ) -  Þó‡´ ñE «ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹ àí¾

c.

 ªó£‹ð è£ôˆFŸ° º¡¹

Þˆî£L «ð£«ù¡.

H Ýù¶ ã ‚°

º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø¶.
å¼ ªêò™ ïì‚Aø¶.

d. There are big problems ahead/ ahead of us -

Phrase Meaning 1: a minute ago / a second ago / a moment ago / a
short time ago / not long ago / just now - êŸÁ «ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹ (

ÞŠð )
c.

B is ahead of A ( i.e. A, B, C, D ———> ) -

Meaning 3: âF˜è£ôˆF™, ïì‚è«õ‡®ò «ïóˆFŸ° º¡ùî£è«õ

꣊H†«ì¡.
b. I went to Italy a long ago -

Í¡Á

«ð˜ âù‚° º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø£˜èœ.

 êŸÁ «ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹
Ü™ô¶ ÞŠð î‡a˜ °®ˆ«î¡.

ïñ‚° G¬øò Hó„ê¬ùèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶.
e. I think about the exam 4 months ahead ( syn: I think about the
exam 4 months before ) -  ° ñ£îƒèÀ‚° º¡ð£è«õ

«î˜¬õŠ ðŸP «ò£C‚A«ø¡.

I drank the water a minute ago -

Phrase Meaning 2: a long ago/ a long time ago - ªó£‹ð

«ïóˆFŸ°

( è£ôˆFŸ° ) º¡¹.
d. There was a king a long time ago -

âF˜è£ôˆF™

f.

I cooked the rice two hours ahead -  «ê£Á Þó‡´ ñE
«ïóˆFŸ° º¡ð£è«õ ê¬ñˆ«î¡.

Phrase Meaning 1: ahead of schedule / ahead of time / early -

ïì‚è«õ‡®ò «ïóˆFŸ° º¡ùî£è«õ å¼ ªêò™ ïì‚Aø¶.
ªó£‹ð è£ôˆFŸ° º¡¹

å¼ Üóê˜ Þ¼‰î£˜.
è£ôˆFŸ° Ü™ô¶
«ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹ å¼ ªêò™ ïì‰î¶ âù °P‚Aø¶.

g.

Phrase Meaning 3: how long ago? - âšõ÷¾

e. How long ago did you buy the computer? - âšõ÷¾

«ïóˆFŸ°

( ÷‚° ) º¡¹ cƒèœ è‹HÎ†ì˜ õ£ƒAm˜èœ?

Ýù£™, when did you buy the computer? â¡ø£™ ⊪𣿶
è‹HÎ†ì˜ õ£ƒAm˜èœ? â¡Á ܘˆî‹.

I completed the work ahead of time -  «õ¬ô¬ò
º¡ùî£è«õ º®ˆ«î¡. Üî£õ¶ õö‚èñ£ù «ïóˆFŸ°
º¡«ð «õ¬ô º®‰¶ M†ì¶.

å¼õ˜ å¼ ªêò¬ô ªêŒò
àƒèOì‹ ÜÂñF «è†Aø£˜. Ü‰î ªêò¬ô î£ó£÷ñ£è
ªêŒ»ƒèœ â¡Á cƒèœ ªê£™½õ go ahead â¡Á ªð£¼œ.

Phrase Meaning 2: go ahead -

h.

Can I do this work? yes, go ahead - 

ªêŒòô£ñ£? Ý‹, î£ó£÷ñ£è ªêŒ»ƒèœ.

Þ‰î «õ¬ô¬ò

170

Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

172. Yesterday
Meaning 1: «ïŸÁ
a. I come / came to Salem yesterday - 

«ïŸÁ «êô‹ õ‰«î¡.

173. Yet
Meaning 1: Þ¶ å¼ ªêò™ ޡ‹ ïì‰îî£ Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á Ãø
ðò¡ð´Aø¶. Þ¶ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ «èœM ñŸÁ‹ âF˜ñ¬ø
õ£‚AòƒèO™ ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.

Üõ˜ õ‰¶ M†ì£ó£? Ü™ô¶ Üõ˜
ޡ‹ õóM™¬ôò£?

a. Has he come yet? -

b. Has the bus left (to) the Salem? not yet - ðv

«êôˆFŸ° A÷‹H

M†ìî£? ޡ‹ Þ™¬ô.
c.

I haven’t told the news yet / I still haven’t told the news -



ð£ì‹ - 6
500
îI› õ£‚AòƒèO¡
݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ

ޡ‹ ªêŒF¬ò ªê£™ôM™¬ô.
Phrase Meaning 1: yet to do sth - do â¡ø ªêò¬ô ÞQ«ñ™î£¡
ªêŒò «õ‡´‹. Üîõ£¶ do â¡ø ªêò¬ô ޡ‹

Chapter - 6

ªêŒòM™¬ô.
d. I am yet to write the letter -

 ÞQ«ñ™î£¡ è®î‹ â¿î

«õ‡´‹.
Üõ¡ «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹
è®îˆ¬î ÞQ«ñ™î£¡ ªðø «õ‡´‹. Üî£õ¶ Üõ¡
ޡ‹ «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹ è®îˆ¬î ªðøM™¬ô.a.

e. He has yet to receive the offer letter -

500
Tamil Situations
into
English Sentence Patterns

******

172

Chapter 6: 500 Tamil Situations into English Patterns

Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in

173

1. õ£ƒè õ£ƒè / i†®Ÿ° õ£¼ƒèœ - Welcome home
2. «êôˆFŸ° àƒè¬÷ õó«õŸA«ø¡ Ü™ô¶ õó«õŸA«ø£‹ - Welcome
to Salem (Pat: welcome to Place Name)

3.

â¡ù ꣊H®Pƒè - What would you like to eat? (Pat: what would
you like to do sth)

4. cƒèœ ðö‹ ꣊Hì M¼‹¹Al˜è÷£?- Would you like to eat fruit?
(Pat: would you like to do sth)

5.

cƒèœ ãî£õ¶ ꣊Hì M¼‹¹Al˜è÷£?- Would you like to eat
anything? (Pat: would you like to do anything)

6.

 pv °®‚è M¼‹¹A«ø¡ - I would like to drink juice (Pat: I
would like to do sth)

7.

âŠð® Þƒè õ‰Fƒè - How did you come here / How you came
here

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

 裘ô õ‰«î¡ - I came by car
Üõ¡ 裘ô õó£¡ Ü™ô¶ õ¼Aø£¡ - He comes by car
ã¡ Þƒè õ‰Fƒè - Why did you come here / Why you came here
cƒè ÞŠð â¡ù ð‡Pƒè - What do you do now / what you do now
cƒè âˆî¬ùò£õ¶ õ°Š¹ ð®‚APƒè - How many-ith class do you
study? [NLRC Method] / What class are you in? [For Schools] /
What year are you (in)? [For Colleges]

13. cƒè â‰î õ°Š¹ ð®‚APƒè - Which / What class do you study? /
Which / What class you study?

14. â‰î è¬ìòô ¶E â´ˆFƒè - Which shop did you buy the cloth ?
/ Which shop you bought the cloth?

15. àƒè ªð£‡Ž‚° è™ò£í‹ ÝJ´„ê£ - Is your daughter married?
/ Does your daughter get married? / have your daughter got
married?

16. àƒè ªð£‡Ž‚° è™ò£í‹ ÝA âšõ÷¾ ï£÷£„²? - How long has
your daughter been married? (Pat: How long has sb been married)

17. âšõ÷¾ ï£÷£ Þƒè «õ¬ô ªêŒPƒè? - How long do you work
here?

174

Chapter 6: 500 Tamil Situations into English Patterns

18. âƒè ªð£‡Ž‚° è™ò£í‹ ÝA 䉶 õ¼ìƒèœ ÝAM†ì¶ - Our
daughter has been married for 5 years / It is 5 years since our
daughter got married.

19. Üõ¡ ñô¬ó è™ò£í‹ ªêŒ¶‚A†ì£¡ - He married (to) Malar / He
is married (to) Malar / He got married (to) Malar

20. Üõ‚° C¡ù õòC«ô è™ò£í‹ ÝJ´„² - He married young /
He got married young

21.  è™ò£í‹ ªêŒ¶‚莋 - I have to marry / I have to get married
22. Þ‰î «ðù£¬õ âšõ÷¾‚° õ£ƒAQƒè - How much is this pen?/
How much you pay for the pen?

23. àƒèA†ì âˆî¬ù «ðù£ Þ¼‚°¶ - How many pens (do) you
have?

24. âˆî¬ù º¬ø Ü™ô¶ îì¬õ ᆮ «ð£J¼‚APƒè - How many
times did you go to Ooty? / How many times have you been Ooty?

25.  «è£J½‚° «ð£øŠð™ô£‹  ܉î ñ󈶂° î‡a˜ áŸÁ«õ¡
- 1) Everytime / Whenever I go to temple, I pour water to that tree:
2) I go to temple. At that time, I pour water to that tree.

26.  «ïˆ¶î£¡ CƒèŠÌKL¼‰¶ õ‰«î¡ - I came from Singapore
yesterday only.

27.  ÞóJ™«õ v«ìê‚° «ð£Œ «ê˜‰«î¡ - I reached the railway
station.

28. ÞóJ™ v«ìê‚° Þó¾ 10 ñE‚° õ‰¶ «ê˜‰î¶ - The train arrived
at the station at 10 PM.

29. ÞóJ™ v«ìê‚° Þó¾ 10 ñE‚° õ‰î¶ - The train came to the
station at 10 PM.

30.  ï™ô «ê£Á ꣊H†´ 10 ï£œèœ ÝAø¶ - It is ten days since I
eat good food (Pat: It is Time since Sent1) / It is ten days since I
have eaten my fill.

31. àƒèÀ‚° ãî£õ¶ àîM «õ‡´ñ£? - Can I help you? / What can
I do for you?

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175

32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.

Þ‰î ͆¬ì¬ò É‚A†´ «ð£ - You carry the luggage.
͆¬ì¬ò «ñ«ô É‚° - Lift the luggage up / above.
«ñ«ô «ð£ - Go above / up
ü¡ùL¡ ð‚èˆF™ Ü™ô¶ ð‚èõ£†®™ G™ - Stand by the window
ü¡ùL™ ꣌‰¶ G™ - Stand against the window
«ð¡ «ñ¬ü‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶ - The fan is above the table ( Pat:
sth1 is above sth2; st1= àòóˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ªð£¼œ)
38. Üõ¬ù Þƒè Þ¿ˆ¶‚A†´ õ£ - You bring / pull him here
39. âšõ÷¾ ï£À‚° º¡ù£® cƒè «êô‹ «ð£mƒè - How long ago did
you go to salem?

40. Üõƒè 弈° å¼ˆî˜ ªõ†®A†ì£ƒè - They hit / kill each other
/ They hit / kill among themselves

41. ù Üšõ÷¾ Éó‹ ïì‰«î¡ Ü™ô¶ ù îQò£ Üšõ÷¾ Éó‹
ïì‰«î¡ - I myself walk that much distance.
42. Þ¬î â¡A†ì ªê£™ô£«î - Don’t tell this
43. ⶂè£è c Üõ¬ù Ü®„ê - Why (What for) did you hit him?
44. c ⡬ù Ü®‚è àù‚° âšõ÷¾ ¬îKò‹ - How dare you (to) hit
me?

45. ͆¬ìJ™ 膮J¼‚Aø èJˆ¬î ܾˆ¶M´ - You untie the robe
that ties in the luggage / You untie the tying robe in the luggage.

46. ñ£†¬ì H®„C è‹HJô 膴 - Tie the cow in the bar
47. ñóˆF™ 膮J¼‚Aø ݆¬ì H®„C†´ õ£ - You bring the goat that
ties in the tree / You bring the tying goat in the tree.

48. Üõ¬ù ÝvðˆFK‚° Æ®A†´ «ð£ƒè - You take him to hospital.
49. Üõ‚° ªó£‹ð Ü®ð†®¼‚° - He got injured (hurt) seriously / He
was seriously injured (hurt)

50. Y‚Aó‹ 𴂬èJL¼‰¶ â¿ - Get up quickly from the bed.
51. è¬ì‚° «ð£øŠð Üõ¬ù 𣘈¶†´ «ð£ - You go to shop. At that
time, you see him / When you go to shop, you see him

196

Chapter 6: 500 Tamil Situations into English Patterns

459.  ݈ɘ õNò£è ªê™A«ø¡ - I go through (via) attur / I pass
Attur on the way.

460.  Üõ¡ Íôñ£è ªêŒF¬ò «è†«ì¡ - I heard the news through
/ by him.

461. áªó™ô£‹ å«ó ðóðóŠð£ Þ¼‚Aø¶ - There is a tension all over /
through out the town.

462. è¬ì 9 ñE õ¬ó Fø‰F¼‚°‹ - The shop opens till 9 o’clock / the
shop is opened till 9 o’clock.

463. ܉î ܬøJ™ 10 «ð˜ õ¬ó Üñóô£‹ - Upto 10 people can sit in the
room.

464.  è£H °®‚è ðöA ªè£‡«ì¡ - I am used to drink coffee.(pat:
be used to do sth)

465.  º¡¹ è£H °®„CA†´¼‰«î¡, (Ýù£™ ÞŠ«ð£¶ è£H °®Šð¶
Þ™¬ô) - I used to drink coffee (pat: use to do sth)
466. Þ‰î õNJ™ «ð£ƒèœ - Go this way.
467. â‰î F¬ê õì‚° - Which way is north?
468. Üõ˜ õNJ™ õ‰¶‚ªè£‡®¼‚Aø£˜ - He is on the way.
469. â¡ù ¹ˆîè‹ àù‚° «õ‡´‹ - What book you want?
470. â¡ù ªêòø¶¡Â ªîKòô - Don’t know what to do.
471. Üõù Þƒè õóªê£™½ - Ask him to come here.
472. cƒè ªêòø¶  - What are you doing is wrong.
473. ÞŠð â¡ù ꣊Hìô£‹ - What to eat now?
474. Þ‰î 裟ø£® âîŸè£è? - What for this fan?
475. Þ¡Q‚° ñ¬ö ªðŒ…ê£ â¡ù ð‡ŽMƒè - What if it rains today.
476. ⊪𣿶 «êô‹ «ð£èô£‹ - When shall we go to salem?
477. âŠð™ô£‹ àù‚° «î£Â«î£ ÜŠð Þƒè õ£ - Whenever possible /
felt, you come here.

478. âƒè «ð£õ¶ â¡Á ªê£™½ƒèœ - Please tell me where to go.
479. âƒè Þ¼‚Al˜è«÷£ ܃è Þ¼ƒèœ - Stay where you are / Don’t
move.

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197

480. ò£¼‚° 憴 «ð£ìø¶? - Who to vote?
481. «èœM¬ò ò£˜A†ì «è†ð¶ - Who to ask the question?
482. Þ¶ ò£¼¬ìò¶? - Whose is this?
483. Þ¶ ò£¼¬ìò ¹ˆîè‹? - Whose book is this?
484. Þ‰î ¹ˆîè‹ ò£¼¬ìò¶? - Whose is this book?
485. ã¡ Üõ¡ «è£ðñ£è Þ¼‚Aø£¡ - Why he is angry?
486. ã¡ Üõ¡ ޡ‹ A÷‹¹ô - Why doesn’t he leave yet? / Why he
doesn’t leave yet?

487. ã¡ Üõ¡ A÷‹¹ø£¡? - Why he leaves?
488.  à¡Âì¡ õ«ó¡ - I come with you.
489.  Üõ¬ó ñ£íõ˜ î¬ôõó£è ܃AèK‚A«ø¡- I acknowledge
him as the student leader.

490. â¡e¶ °Ÿø‹ ²ñˆî£«î - Don’t accuse me.
491. ð£ˆFóˆF™ î‡a¬ó áŸÁ - Pour the water in the utensil.
492. ð£ˆFóˆF™ ñ£¬õ ªè£†´ - Put / pour the flour in the utensil.
493. ªïŒ áŸP M÷‚° «ð£´ - Light up the Vilakku using ghee.
494. î¬ó¬ò «îŒ‚裫î - Don’t rub the floor.
495. î‡E¬ò áŸP î¬ó¬ò 迾 - Clean the floor with water / Pour
the water on the floor and clean it.

496. ⡬ù cƒèœ ñô˜ â¡Á ÊH´ƒèœ - Call me Malar.
497. Üõ¬ó Üõ¼¬ìò ñ£ñ£ õ÷˜ˆî£˜ - His uncle brought up him.
498. ꣊Hìø¶‚° ªõOJô «ð£ô£ñ£? - Can we go out to eat?
499. âù‚° ¹ˆF ⶾ‹ ªê£™ô£«î - Don’t advise me on anything.
500. îI› õ£›è - TAMIL VALGA.
******

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