ISO/OSI Model

• Open Systems Interconnection • Developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) • Seven layers • A theoretical system delivered too late! • TCP/IP is the de facto standard

OSI Layers
All People Seem To Need Data Processing Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away.

• • • • • • •

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

Communications Across Layers
• Peer to peer processes • Each layer only sees it’s peer layer • Virtual communication between layers

Communication Between Layers
Envelopes – Each layer wraps the information passed to it in an appropriate header and trailer if required. Headers are added to layers 2-6 Trailers added to layer 2

Figure 3-2

OSI Layers

Organization of Model
• Network Support Layers
– Deal with the physical aspects of moving data from one device to another
• Layer 1 • Layer 2 • Layer 3 Bits Packets and Addressing/Flow control Logical Addressing/Routing

Organization of Model
• Layer 4 – Transport
• • • • • • Reliable delivery of messages Service point addressing – port address Segmentation and re-assembly Connection control Flow Control Error Control

Organization of Model
• Layer 5 – Session
• Dialog Controller • Synchronization

• Layer 6 - Presentation
• Translation • Encryption • Compression

Organization of Model
• Layer 7 – Application
• • • • User Access to Network Services X.400 Message handling – email X.500 Directory Services FTAM

Figure 3-3

An Exchange Using the OSI Model

Figure 3-4

Physical Layer

Figure 3-5

Data Link Layer

Figure 3-6

Data Link Layer Example

Figure 3-7

Network Layer

Figure 3-8

Network Layer Example

Figure 3-8-continued

Network Layer Example

Figure 3-9

Transport Layer

Figure 3-10

Transport Layer Example

Figure 3-10-continued

Transport Layer Example

Figure 3-11

Session Layer

Figure 3-12

Presentation Layer

Figure 3-13

Application Layer

Figure 3-14

Summary of Layer Functions

WCB/McGraw-Hill

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

OSI v TCP/IP

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